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Sample records for relative potency compared

  1. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of coniine enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2008-10-01

    Coniine, one of the major toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum), occurs in two optically active forms. A comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers has not been previously reported. In this study, we separated the enantiomers of coniine and determined the biological activity of each enantiomer in vitro and in vivo. The relative potencies of these enantiomers on TE-671 cells expressing human fetal nicotinic neuromuscular receptors had the rank order of (-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine > (+)-coniine. A mouse bioassay was used to determine the relative lethalities of (-)-, (+/-)-, and (+)-coniine in vivo. The LD 50 values of the coniine enantiomers were 7.0, 7.7, and 12.1 mg/kg for the (-)-, (+/-)-, and (+)- forms of coniine, respectively. The results from this study demonstrate that there is a stereoselective difference in the in vitro potencies of the enantiomers of coniine that directly correlates with the relative toxicities of the enantiomers in vivo.

  2. Kinetic microplate bioassays for relative potency of antibiotics improved by partial Least Square (PLS) regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Saviano, Alessandro Morais; Almeida, Túlia de Souza Botelho; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello

    2016-05-01

    Microbiological assays are widely used to estimate the relative potencies of antibiotics in order to guarantee the efficacy, safety, and quality of drug products. Despite of the advantages of turbidimetric bioassays when compared to other methods, it has limitations concerning the linearity and range of the dose-response curve determination. Here, we proposed to use partial least squares (PLS) regression to solve these limitations and to improve the prediction of relative potencies of antibiotics. Kinetic-reading microplate turbidimetric bioassays for apramacyin and vancomycin were performed using Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), respectively. Microbial growths were measured as absorbance up to 180 and 300min for apramycin and vancomycin turbidimetric bioassays, respectively. Conventional dose-response curves (absorbances or area under the microbial growth curve vs. log of antibiotic concentration) showed significant regression, however there were significant deviation of linearity. Thus, they could not be used for relative potency estimations. PLS regression allowed us to construct a predictive model for estimating the relative potencies of apramycin and vancomycin without over-fitting and it improved the linear range of turbidimetric bioassay. In addition, PLS regression provided predictions of relative potencies equivalent to those obtained from agar diffusion official methods. Therefore, we conclude that PLS regression may be used to estimate the relative potencies of antibiotics with significant advantages when compared to conventional dose-response curve determination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Steroselective Potencies and Relative Toxicities of Coniine Enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniine, one of the major toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), occurs in two optically active forms. A comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers has not been previously reported. In this study, we separated the enantiomers of coniine and dete...

  4. The local lymph node assay and the assessment of relative potency: status of validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Gerberick, Frank; Kimber, Ian

    2007-08-01

    For the prediction of skin sensitization potential, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a fully validated alternative to guinea-pig tests. More recently, information from LLNA dose-response analyses has been used to assess the relative potency of skin sensitizing chemicals. These data are then deployed for risk assessment and risk management. In this commentary, the utility and validity of these relative potency measurements are reviewed. It is concluded that the LLNA does provide a valuable assessment of relative sensitizing potency in the form of the estimated concentration of a chemical required to produce a threefold stimulation of draining lymph node cell proliferation compared with concurrent controls (EC3 value) and that all reasonable validation requirements have been addressed successfully. EC3 measurements are reproducible in both intra- and interlaboratory evaluations and are stable over time. It has been shown also, by several independent groups, that EC3 values correlate closely with data on relative human skin sensitization potency. Consequently, the recommendation made here is that LLNA EC3 measurements should now be regarded as a validated method for the determination of the relative potency of skin sensitizing chemicals, a conclusion that has already been reached by a number of independent expert groups.

  5. Comparative sensitizing potencies of fragrances, preservatives, and hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidén, Carola; Yazar, Kerem; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the sensitizing potencies of fragrance substances, preservatives, and hair dye substances, which are skin sensitizers that frequently come into contact with the skin of consumers and workers, LLNA results and EC3 values for 72 fragrance substances, 25 preservatives and 107 hair dye substances were obtained from...... two published compilations of LLNA data and opinions by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and its predecessors. The median EC3 values of fragrances (n = 61), preservatives (n = 19) and hair dyes (n = 59) were 5.9%, 0.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The majority of sensitizing preservatives...... and hair dyes are thus strong or extreme sensitizers (EC3 value of ≤2%), and fragrances are mostly moderate sensitizers. Although fragrances are typically moderate sensitizers, they are among the most frequent causes of contact allergy. This indicates that factors other than potency need to be addressed...

  6. Relative potency estimation for synthetic petroleum skin carcinogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, J M; Wolf, D A; Clark, B R

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for quantitative analysis of skin carcinogenesis data, for the purpose of establishing carcinogenic potency, has been applied to observations obtained from C3H mice exposed continuously to synthetic and natural petroleums. The importance of total polynuclear aromatic (PNA) content to the skin carcinogenic activity of the crude materials was also examined. Of three synthetic petroleums evaluated, all were shown capable of inducing skin neoplasms within a two-year exposure period. U...

  7. Building-related symptoms and inflammatory potency of dust from office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allermann, Leila; Pejtersen, Jan; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate the association between building-related symptoms (BRS) in office buildings and the inflammatory potency of dust (PD). Furthermore, the association between dust potency and various building characteristics was investigated. Occupants of 22 office buildings...... received a retrospective questionnaire about BRS (2301 respondents). Dust was collected from groups of offices and building characteristics were recorded. The potency of a dust sample to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from the lung epithelial cell line A549 was measured as the slope of the initial...... linear part of the concentration- response curve. Symptoms of the central nervous system (CNS) were associated with the potency of surface dust (OR ¼ 1.4). This association may be due to an association between an index of CNS symptoms and dust potency in offices of 1-6 occupants (OR ¼ 1.5). No single...

  8. Building-related symptoms and inflammatory potency of dust from office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allermann, L; Pejtersen, J; Gunnarsen, L

    2007-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The aim was to investigate the association between building-related symptoms (BRS) in office buildings and the inflammatory potency of dust (PD). Furthermore, the association between dust potency and various building characteristics was investigated. Occupants of 22 office buildings...... received a retrospective questionnaire about BRS (2301 respondents). Dust was collected from groups of offices and building characteristics were recorded. The potency of a dust sample to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from the lung epithelial cell line A549 was measured as the slope of the initial...... linear part of the concentration-response curve. Symptoms of the central nervous system (CNS) were associated with the potency of surface dust (OR = 1.4). This association may be due to an association between an index of CNS symptoms and dust potency in offices of 1-6 occupants (OR = 1.5). No single...

  9. Correlation of liquid chromatographic and biological assay for potency assessment of filgrastim and related impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrlin, Ana; Kosor Krnic, Ela; Gosak, Darko; Prester, Berislav; Mrsa, Vladimir; Vuletic, Marko; Runac, Domagoj

    2010-11-02

    In vivo and in vitro potency assays have always been a critical tool for confirmation of protein activity. However, due to their complexity and time consuming procedures, it remains a challenge to find an alternative analytical approach that would enable their replacement with no impact on the quality of provided information. The goal of this research was to determine if a correlation between liquid chromatography assays and in vitro biological assay could be established for filgrastim (recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, rhG-CSF) samples containing various amounts of related impurities. For that purpose, relevant filgrastim related impurities were purified to homogeneity and characterized by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A significant correlation (R(2)>0.90) between the two types of assays was revealed. Potency of oxidized filgrastim was determined to be approximately 25% of filgrastim stated potency (1 x 10(8)IU/mg of protein). Formyl-methionine filgrastim had potency of 89% of the filgrastim stated potency, while filgrastim dimer had 67% of filgrastim stated potency. A mathematical model for the estimation of biological activity of filgrastim samples from chromatography data was established and a significant correlation between experimental potency values and potency values estimated by the mathematical model was obtained (R(2)=0.92). Based on these results a conclusion was made that reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography could be used as an alternative for the in vitro biological assay for potency assessment of filgrastim samples. Such an alternative model would enable substitution of a complex and time consuming biological assay with a robust and precise instrumental method in many practical cases. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative analysis of the intracerebral mouse protection test and serological method for potency assays of pertussis component in DTP vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Souza Matos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the PSPT standardized in-house as an alternative to MPT for potency assays of pertussis component. Statistical analyses have showed similar pertussis potency values when PSPT was compared to MPT. Significant correlation between the potency results obtained by in vivo and in vitro assays was also been observed. Results by PSPT have demonstrated reproducibility and accuracy for potency pertussis control and this approach has been considered promising for use at least during the steps of production.

  11. Prenatal developmental toxicity testing of petroleum substances: Application of the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) to compare in vitro potencies with potencies observed in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelia, Lenny; Louisse, Jochem; de Haan, Laura; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Boogaard, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) as observed with some petroleum substances (PS) has been associated with the presence of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, the applicability of ES-D3 cell differentiation assay of the EST to evaluate in vitro embryotoxicity potencies of PS and gas-to-liquid (GTL) products as compared to their in vivo potencies was investigated. DMSO-extracts of a range of PS, containing different amounts of PAHs, and GTL-products, which are devoid of PAHs, were tested in the ES-D3 cell proliferation and differentiation assays of the EST. The results show that PS inhibited the differentiation of ES-D3 cells into cardiomyocytes in a concentration-dependent manner at non-cytotoxic concentrations, and that their potency was proportional to their PAH content. In contrast, as expected, GTL-products did not inhibit ES-D3 cell viability or differentiation at all. The in vitro PDT potencies were compared to published in vivo PDT studies, and a good correlation was found between in vitro and in vivo results (R 2 =0.97). To conclude, our results support the hypothesis that PAHs are the primary inducers of the PDT in PS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures AGENCY... Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was prepared by the National... 27, 2010. The listening session on the draft document for PAH mixtures will be held on April 7, 2010...

  13. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    '-Coniceine, coniine, and N-methylconiine are toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). We previously reported the comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers. In this study, we synthesized '-coniceine and the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and dete...

  14. Comparing BMD-derived genotoxic potency estimations across variants of the transgenic rodent gene mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, John W; Johnson, George E; Battaion, Hannah L; Slob, Wout; White, Paul A

    2017-12-01

    There is growing interest in quantitative analysis of in vivo genetic toxicity dose-response data, and use of point-of-departure (PoD) metrics such as the benchmark dose (BMD) for human health risk assessment (HHRA). Currently, multiple transgenic rodent (TGR) assay variants, employing different rodent strains and reporter transgenes, are used for the assessment of chemically-induced genotoxic effects in vivo. However, regulatory issues arise when different PoD values (e.g., lower BMD confidence intervals or BMDLs) are obtained for the same compound across different TGR assay variants. This study therefore employed the BMD approach to examine the ability of different TGR variants to yield comparable genotoxic potency estimates. Review of over 2000 dose-response datasets identified suitably-matched dose-response data for three compounds (ethyl methanesulfonate or EMS, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or ENU, and dimethylnitrosamine or DMN) across four commonly-used murine TGR variants (Muta™Mouse lacZ, Muta™Mouse cII, gpt delta and BigBlue® lacI). Dose-response analyses provided no conclusive evidence that TGR variant choice significantly influences the derived genotoxic potency estimate. This conclusion was reliant upon taking into account the importance of comparing BMD confidence intervals as opposed to directly comparing PoD values (e.g., comparing BMDLs). Comparisons with earlier works suggested that with respect to potency determination, tissue choice is potentially more important than choice of TGR assay variant. Scoring multiple tissues selected on the basis of supporting toxicokinetic information is therefore recommended. Finally, we used typical within-group variances to estimate preliminary endpoint-specific benchmark response (BMR) values across several TGR variants/tissues. We discuss why such values are required for routine use of genetic toxicity PoDs for HHRA. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:632-643, 2017. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  15. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of γ-coniceine and N-methylconiine enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Jordan, Glenn T; Zhang, Qian; Panter, Kip E; Hughes, David; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-04-15

    γ-Coniceine, coniine, and N-methylconiine are toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). We previously reported the comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers. In this study, we synthesized γ-coniceine and the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and determined the biological activity of γ-coniceine and each of the N-methylconiine enantiomers in vitro and in vivo. The relative potencies of these piperidine alkaloids on cells expressing human fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had the rank order of γ-coniceine > (-)-N-methylconiine > (±)-N-methylconiine > (+)-N-methylconiine. The relative lethalities of γ-coniceine and (-)-, (±)-, and (+)-N-methylconiine in vivo using a mouse bioassay were 4.4, 16.1, 17.8, and 19.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results from this study suggest γ-coniceine is a more potent agonist than the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and that there is a stereoselective difference in the in vitro potencies of the enantiomers of N-methylconiine that correlates with the relative toxicities of the enantiomers in vivo.

  16. A comparison of the relative antioxidant potency of L-ergothioneine and idebenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kelly K; Damaghi, Niusha; Kibitel, Jeannie; Canning, Matthew T; Smiles, Kenneth A; Yarosh, Daniel B

    2007-09-01

    L-ergothioneine (EGT) is a stable antioxidant found in food plants as well as in animal tissue undergoing relatively high levels of oxidative stress. Idebenone is a stable analog of the antioxidant coenzyme Q(10). All are potent antioxidants found in skincare products, but their relative potencies are not well described. To establish the physiological relevance of EGT by examining transcription of the EGT transporter gene OCTN-1 and production of the receptor protein in skin fibroblasts. In addition, to compare the inhibition of lipid peroxide formation by coenzyme Q(10) and EGT. Furthermore, to compare the peroxide-scavenging abilities of EGT and idebenone in both simple solution and in cell cultures exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA). OCTN-1 expression and production in cultured fibroblasts were measured through real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Alloxan-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes was used to evaluate the inhibition of lipid peroxide formation. The abilities of EGT and idebenone to directly scavenge hydroxyl radicals produced by H(2)O(2 )were determined. Finally, we irradiated fibroblasts with UVA340 radiation and compared antioxidant capabilities to scavenge free radicals. We found that OCTN-1 is expressed and readily detectable in cultured human fibroblasts. EGT was more efficient in inhibiting lipid peroxide formation than coenzyme Q(10) or idebenone. Samples treated with EGT had significantly less peroxide than those treated with idebenone 120 min after adding the antioxidants to H(2)O(2). EGT acted significantly quicker and more efficiently in capturing reactive oxygen species (ROS) after UVA340 irradiation. EGT is a natural skin antioxidant, as evidenced by the presence of the EGT transporter in fibroblasts. EGT is a more powerful antioxidant than either coenzyme Q(10) or idebenone due to its relatively greater efficiency in directly scavenging free radicals and in protecting cells from UV-induced ROS.

  17. The comparative performance of the single intradermal test and the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPD combinations of differing potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Clegg, T A; Costello, E; More, S J

    2011-11-01

    In national bovine tuberculosis (BTB) control programmes, testing is generally conducted using a single source of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin. Alternative tuberculin sources should be identified as part of a broad risk management strategy as problems of supply or quality cannot be discounted. This study was conducted to compare the impact of different potencies of a single bovine PPD tuberculin on the field performance of the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) and single intradermal test (SIT). Three trial potencies of bovine PPD tuberculin, as assayed in naturally infected bovines, namely, low (1192IU/dose), normal (6184IU/dose) and high (12,554IU/dose) were used. Three SICTTs (using) were conducted on 2102 animals. Test results were compared based on reactor-status and changes in skin-thickness at the bovine tuberculin injection site. There was a significant difference in the number of reactors detected using the high and low potency tuberculins. In the SICTT, high and low potency tuberculin detected 40% more and 50% fewer reactors, respectively, than normal potency tuberculin. Furthermore, use of the low potency tuberculin in the SICTT failed to detect 20% of 35 animals with visible lesions, and in the SIT 11% of the visible lesion animals would have been classified as negative. Tuberculin potency is critical to the performance of both the SICTT and SIT. Tuberculin of different potencies will affect reactor disclosure rates, confounding between-year or between-country comparisons. Independent checks of tuberculin potency are an important aspect of quality control in national BTB control programmes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relative potency of inverse opioid agonists and a neutral opioid antagonist in precipitated withdrawal and antagonism of analgesia and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Dighe, Shveta V; Madia, Priyanka A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2009-08-01

    Opioid antagonists can be classified as inverse agonists and neutral antagonists. In the opioid-dependent state, neutral antagonists are significantly less potent in precipitating withdrawal than inverse agonists. Consequently, neutral opioid antagonists may offer advantages over inverse agonists in the management of opioid overdose. In this study, the relative potency of three opioid antagonists to block opioid analgesia and toxicity and precipitate withdrawal was examined. First, the potency of two opioid inverse agonists (naltrexone and naloxone) and a neutral antagonist (6beta-naltrexol) to antagonize fentanyl-induced analgesia and lethality was determined. The order of potency to block analgesia was naltrexone > naloxone > 6beta-naltrexol (17, 4, 1), which was similar to that to block lethality (13, 2, 1). Next, the antagonists were compared using withdrawal jumping in fentanyl-dependent mice. The order of potency to precipitate withdrawal jumping was naltrexone > naloxone 6beta-naltrexol (1107, 415, 1). The relative potencies to precipitate withdrawal for the inverse agonists compared with the neutral antagonist were dramatically different from that for antagonism of analgesia and lethality. Finally, the effect of 6beta-naltrexol pretreatment on naloxone-precipitated jumping was determined in morphine and fentanyl-dependent mice. 6beta-Naltrexol pretreatment decreased naloxone precipitated withdrawal, indicating that 6beta-naltrexol is a neutral antagonist. These data demonstrate that inverse agonists and neutral antagonists have generally comparable potencies to block opioid analgesia and lethality, whereas the neutral opioid antagonist is substantially less potent in precipitating opioid withdrawal. These results support suggestions that neutral antagonists may have advantages over inverse agonists in the management of opioid overdose.

  19. Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, T.; Brink, P.J. van den; Mos, L.; Linden, S.C. van der; Legler, J.; Koeman, J.H.; Murk, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Estrogenic potency of rainwater correlated well with organochlorine concentrations, but could not be attributed to specific pesticides. - In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricultural activity. Rainwater was collected in 26 consecutive periods of 14 days in a background location (BACK) and in two locations representative for different agricultural practices, i.e. intensive greenhouse horticulture (HORT) and flower bulb culture (BULB). Samples were chemically analyzed for carbamate (CARB), organophosphate (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metabolites. Esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater extracts was measured in a specially developed bio-assay with honeybee esterases and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of the model inhibitor dichlorvos. Estrogenic potency of the extracts was measured in the ER-CALUX reporter gene assay and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of estradiol. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) techniques proved to be valuable tools to analyze the numerous pesticide concentrations in relation to toxic potency, sampling location, and sampling season. Pesticide composition in rainwater depended much more on sampling season than on sampling location, but differences between SPRING and SUMMER were mainly attributed to local differences in agricultural practice. On average, the esterase inhibiting potency exceeded the maximum permissible concentration set for dichlorvos in The Netherlands, and was significantly higher in HORT than in BACK and BULB. Esterase inhibition correlated significantly with OP and CARB concentrations, as expected given the working mechanism of these insecticides. The estrogenic potency incidentally exceeded NOEC levels reported for

  20. Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Brink, P.J. van den; Mos, L.; Linden, S.C. van der; Legler, J.; Koeman, J.H.; Murk, A.J

    2003-05-01

    Estrogenic potency of rainwater correlated well with organochlorine concentrations, but could not be attributed to specific pesticides. - In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricultural activity. Rainwater was collected in 26 consecutive periods of 14 days in a background location (BACK) and in two locations representative for different agricultural practices, i.e. intensive greenhouse horticulture (HORT) and flower bulb culture (BULB). Samples were chemically analyzed for carbamate (CARB), organophosphate (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metabolites. Esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater extracts was measured in a specially developed bio-assay with honeybee esterases and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of the model inhibitor dichlorvos. Estrogenic potency of the extracts was measured in the ER-CALUX reporter gene assay and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of estradiol. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) techniques proved to be valuable tools to analyze the numerous pesticide concentrations in relation to toxic potency, sampling location, and sampling season. Pesticide composition in rainwater depended much more on sampling season than on sampling location, but differences between SPRING and SUMMER were mainly attributed to local differences in agricultural practice. On average, the esterase inhibiting potency exceeded the maximum permissible concentration set for dichlorvos in The Netherlands, and was significantly higher in HORT than in BACK and BULB. Esterase inhibition correlated significantly with OP and CARB concentrations, as expected given the working mechanism of these insecticides. The estrogenic potency incidentally exceeded NOEC levels reported for

  1. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  2. Potency backprojection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuwaki, R.; Kasahara, A.; Yagi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The backprojection (BP) method has been one of the powerful tools of tracking seismic-wave sources of the large/mega earthquakes. The BP method projects waveforms onto a possible source point by stacking them with the theoretical-travel-time shifts between the source point and the stations. Following the BP method, the hybrid backprojection (HBP) method was developed to enhance depth-resolution of projected images and mitigate the dummy imaging of the depth phases, which are shortcomings of the BP method, by stacking cross-correlation functions of the observed waveforms and theoretically calculated Green's functions (GFs). The signal-intensity of the BP/HBP image at a source point is related to how much of observed waveforms was radiated from that point. Since the amplitude of the GF associated with the slip-rate increases with depth as the rigidity increases with depth, the intensity of the BP/HBP image inherently has depth dependence. To make a direct comparison of the BP/HBP image with the corresponding slip distribution inferred from a waveform inversion, and discuss the rupture properties along the fault drawn from the waveforms in high- and low-frequencies with the BP/HBP methods and the waveform inversion, respectively, it is desirable to have the variants of BP/HBP methods that directly image the potency-rate-density distribution. Here we propose new formulations of the BP/HBP methods, which image the distribution of the potency-rate density by introducing alternative normalizing factors in the conventional formulations. For the BP method, the observed waveform is normalized with the maximum amplitude of P-phase of the corresponding GF. For the HBP method, we normalize the cross-correlation function with the squared-sum of the GF. The normalized waveforms or the cross-correlation functions are then stacked for all the stations to enhance the signal to noise ratio. We will present performance-tests of the new formulations by using synthetic waveforms and the

  3. Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Betts, Catherine J; Farr, Craig; McLaughlin, James; Berdasco, Nancy; Wiench, Karin; Kimber, Ian

    2007-10-01

    There are currently available no systematic experimental data on the skin sensitizing properties of acrylates that are of relevance in occupational settings. Limited information from previous guinea-pig tests or from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is available; however, these data are incomplete and somewhat contradictory. For those reasons, we have examined in the LLNA 4 acrylates: butyl acrylate (BA), ethyl acrylate (EA), methyl acrylate (MA), and ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). The LLNA data indicated that all 4 compounds have some potential to cause skin sensitization. In addition, the relative potencies of these acrylates were measured by derivation from LLNA dose-response analyses of EC3 values (the effective concentration of chemical required to induce a threefold increase in proliferation of draining lymph node cells compared with control values). On the basis of 1 scheme for the categorization of skin sensitization potency, BA, EA, and MA were each classified as weak sensitizers. Using the same scheme, EHA was considered a moderate sensitizer. However, it must be emphasized that the EC3 value for this chemical of 9.7% is on the borderline between moderate (10%) categories. Thus, the judicious view is that all 4 chemicals possess relatively weak skin sensitizing potential.

  4. The local lymph node assay compared with the human maximization test as an indicator of allergic potency in humans using patch test clinic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, Danny; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    The human maximization test (HMT) is a method to evaluate potency in humans, while the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a test method that allows for the measuring of the allergic potency of a substance in a rodent. It has been proposed that an EC3 value (the value obtained by the LLNA test, ie, the concentration of an allergen leading to a 3-fold increase of baseline proliferation rate) would be a reliable indicator for a compound's allergic potency in humans. This paper compares the correlation between the EC3 value of a compound and its allergic occurrence in the general population with the correlation between the HMT of the compound and its allergic occurrence in the general population, to determine the relationship to potency. The correlation values when outliers were removed from the sample were -0.56 and -0.71 for LLNA and HMT, respectively, suggesting that there is a possible 20% error margin in LLNA's ability to predict potency. The data also suggest that other factors (such as exposure) could play up to a 30% role in the determination of allergic occurrence in the general population. The potency assays might be made more clinically relevant for predicting allergic frequencies by including a frequency factor and other factors in its dermatotoxicological interpretation.

  5. Comparative potency of formulations of mometasone furoate in terms of inhibition of ′PIRHR′ in the forearm skin of normal human subjects measured with laser doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhalli Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Topical glucocorticoid formulations are widely used for effective treatment and control of a variety of dermatoses. Mometasone furoate is a newer corticoid that has high potency but low systemic toxicity. Pharmaceutical factors are known to significantly influence potency and systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids. We studied the potency of "Elocon", a topical formulation of mometasone furoate, compared with two other branded formulations of the same corticoid. METHODS: Corticoid potency was measured by employing a pharmacodynamic parameter of an inhibitory effect of the corticoid on post-ischemic-reactive-hyperemic-response (PIRHR in human forearm skin under occlusive dressing. The PIRHR was expressed in terms of % increase in the skin blood flow (SBF as measured with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV. RESULTS : All three active branded formulations of mometasone furoate produced significant inhibition of PIRHR. The AUC(0-2min of PIRHR was ( Mean ± SEM , Control = 213.52 ± 11.80, Placebo = 209.77 ± 19.31, Formulation A = 119.83 ± 13.71, Formulation C = 53.67 ± 4.85 and Formulation D = 111.46 ± 22.87. Formulation "C" exhibited significantly higher topical anti-inflammatory potency than formulations "A" or "D". CONCLUSIONS: Thus, branded formulations of the same glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate significantly differed in their topical anti-inflammatory potency. "Elocon" was significantly more potent than the two other branded formulations studied.

  6. Interim relative potency factors for the toxicological risk assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Karl-Heinz; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-11-30

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent natural toxins occurring in a broad spectrum of plant species from various families. Recently, findings of considerable contamination of teas/herbal infusions prepared from non-PA plants have been reported. These are obviously due to cross-contamination with minor amounts of PA plants and can affect both food and herbal medicines. Another source of human exposure is honey collected from PA plants. These findings illustrate the requirement for a comprehensive risk assessment of PAs, hampered by the enormous number of different PA congeners occurring in nature. Up to now, risk assessment is based on the carcinogenicity of certain PAs after chronic application to rats using the sum of detected PAs as dose metric. Because of the well-documented large structure-dependent differences between sub-groups of PA congeners with respect to their genotoxicity and (cyto)toxicity, however, this procedure is inadequate. Here we provide an overview of recent attempts to assess the risk of PA exposure and the available literature on the toxic effects and potencies of different congeners. Based on these considerations, we have derived interim Relative Potency (REP) factors for a number of abundant PAs suggesting a factor of 1.0 for cyclic di-esters and open-chain di-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.3 for mono-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.1 for open-chain di-esters with 7R configuration and of 0.01 for mono-esters with 7R configuration. For N-oxides we suggest to apply the REP factor of the corresponding PA. We are confident that the use of these values can provide a more scientific basis for PA risk assessment until a more detailed experimental analysis of the potencies of all relevant congeners can be carried out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative potency approach based on H2AX assay for estimating the genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, M; Zeman, F; Beaudoin, R; Péry, A; Cravedi, J-P

    2012-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a family of over one hundred compounds and can generally be found in complex mixtures. PAHs metabolites cause DNA damage which can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. Toxicity assessment of PAH complex mixtures is currently expressed in terms of toxic equivalents, based on Toxicity Equivalent Factors (TEFs). However, the definition of new TEFs for a large number of PAH could overcome some limitations of the current method and improve cancer risk assessment. The current investigation aimed at deriving the relative potency factors of PAHs, based on their genotoxic effect measured in vitro and analyzed with mathematical models. For this purpose, we used a new genotoxic assay (γH2AX) with two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) to analyze the genotoxic properties of 13 selected PAHs at low doses after 24h treatment. The dose-response for genotoxic effects was modeled with a Hill model; equivalency between PAHs at low dose was assessed by applying constraints to the model parameters. In the two cell lines tested, we observed a clear dose-response for genotoxic effects for 11 tested compounds. LS-174T was on average ten times more sensitive than HepG2 towards PAHs regarding genotoxicity. We developed new TEFs, which we named Genotoxic Equivalent Factor (GEF). Calculated GEF for the tested PAHs were generally higher than the TEF usually used. Our study proposed a new in vitro based method for the establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RELATIVE POTENCIES OF MOTOR BLOCKADE AFTER INTRATHECAL ROPIVACAINE, LEVOBUPIVACAINE AND BUPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayagiri Ravisankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM Ever since the times spinal anaesthesia has been introduced by August Bier, multiple drugs at different dosages, concentrations and differing baricities have been studied. This study was conducted to compare the anaesthetic efficacy of intrathecal isobaric 0.5% ropivacaine, isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine and isobaric levobupivacaine in lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries, in 150 ASA grade I and II patients of both sexes in the age group of 19-65 years undergoing elective surgery under spinal anaesthesia. MATERIALS & METHODS After getting ethical committee approval and informed written consent from the patients, 150 patients were allocated into three groups of 50 patients each. The baseline pulse rate and mean arterial pressure were recorded. The first group A received 3ml of isobaric 0.5% ropivacaine (5mg/ml, the second group received 3ml of isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine and the third group C received 3ml of isobaric levobupivacaine intrathecally. The onset of sensory and motor blocks, duration of sensory and motor blocks was recorded in three groups. RESULTS The results were analyzed statistically using epidemiologically information package. On comparison of data we have found that the intrathecal isobaric 0.5% ropivacaine produces delayed onset of both sensory and motor block but of shorter duration which is statistically significant when compared with that of isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine and levobupivacaine. There is no significant inter-group difference between bupivacaine and levobupivacaine except for the mean duration of sensory block, which is more in levobupivacaine group. The quality of motor block which was assessed by Bromage scale, shows relatively lesser degree of motor block for ropivacaine group, when compared with that of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine groups. The haemodynamics were also recorded. The incidence of hypotension and Bradycardia is more in bupivacaine group. The height of block (peak sensory level is higher for

  9. Establishment of the relative antiinflammatory potency of deflazacort and prednisone in polymyalgia rheumatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, B; Egsmose, C; Jørgensen, S

    1987-01-01

    following prednisone treatment. Subsequently, in a similar regimen, prednisone was compared with deflazacort at a weight ratio of 1:1.2 in 10 patients, 1:1.5 in another 10 patients, and 1:1.8 in still another 10 patients for purposes of dose titration. Again, significant rises were seen in ESR, plasma...

  10. Development, Optimization, and Validation of a Microplate Bioassay for Relative Potency Determination of Linezolid Using a Design Space Concept, and its Measurement Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviano, Alessandro Morais; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Ostronoff, Celina Silva; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, optimize, and validate a microplate bioassay for relative potency determination of linezolid in pharmaceutical samples using quality-by-design and design space approaches. In addition, a procedure is described for estimating relative potency uncertainty based on microbiological response variability. The influence of culture media composition was studied using a factorial design and a central composite design was adopted to study the influence of inoculum proportion and triphenyltetrazolium chloride in microbial growth. The microplate bioassay was optimized regarding the responses of low, medium, and high doses of linezolid, negative and positive controls, and the slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient of dose-response curves. According to optimization results, design space ranges were established using: (a) low (1.0 μg/mL), medium (2.0 μg/mL), and high (4.0 μg/mL) doses of pharmaceutical samples and linezolid chemical reference substance; (b) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 653 in an inoculum proportion of 10%; (c) antibiotic No. 3 culture medium pH 7.0±0.1; (d) 6 h incubation at 37.0±0.1ºC; and (e) addition of 50 μL of 0.5% (w/v) triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution. The microplate bioassay was linear (r2=0.992), specific, precise (repeatability RSD=2.3% and intermediate precision RSD=4.3%), accurate (mean recovery=101.4%), and robust. The overall measurement uncertainty was reasonable considering the increased variability inherent in microbiological response. Final uncertainty was comparable with those obtained with other microbiological assays, as well as chemical methods.

  11. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  12. Comparative reactivity of human IgE to cynomolgus monkey and human effector cells and effects on IgE effector cell potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Louise; Saul, Louise; Josephs, Debra H; Josephs, Debra H; Cutler, Keith; Cutler, Keith; Bradwell, Andrew; Bradwell, Andrew; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Selkirk, Chris; Selkirk, Chris; Gould, Hannah J; Gould, Hannah J; Jones, Paul; Jones, Paul; Spicer, James F; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to genetic similarities with humans, primates of the macaque genus such as the cynomolgus monkey are often chosen as models for toxicology studies of antibody therapies. IgE therapeutics in development depend upon engagement with the FcεRI and FcεRII receptors on immune effector cells for their function. Only limited knowledge of the primate IgE immune system is available to inform the choice of models for mechanistic and safety evaluations.   Methods: The recognition of human IgE by peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkey and man was compared. We used effector cells from each species in ex vivo affinity, dose-response, antibody-receptor dissociation and potency assays. Results: We report cross-reactivity of human IgE Fc with cynomolgus monkey cells, and comparable binding kinetics to peripheral blood lymphocytes from both species. In competition and dissociation assays, however, human IgE dissociated faster from cynomolgus monkey compared with human effector cells. Differences in association and dissociation kinetics were reflected in effector cell potency assays of IgE-mediated target cell killing, with higher concentrations of human IgE needed to elicit effector response in the cynomolgus monkey system. Additionally, human IgE binding on immune effector cells yielded significantly different cytokine release profiles in each species. Conclusion: These data suggest that human IgE binds with different characteristics to human and cynomolgus monkey IgE effector cells. This is likely to affect the potency of IgE effector functions in these two species, and so has relevance for the selection of biologically-relevant model systems when designing pre-clinical toxicology and functional studies. PMID:24492303

  13. The Relative Potency of Inverse Opioid Agonists and a Neutral Opioid Antagonist in Precipitated Withdrawal and Antagonism of Analgesia and Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sirohi, Sunil; Dighe, Shveta V.; Madia, Priyanka A.; Yoburn, Byron C.

    2009-01-01

    Opioid antagonists can be classified as inverse agonists and neutral antagonists. In the opioid-dependent state, neutral antagonists are significantly less potent in precipitating withdrawal than inverse agonists. Consequently, neutral opioid antagonists may offer advantages over inverse agonists in the management of opioid overdose. In this study, the relative potency of three opioid antagonists to block opioid analgesia and toxicity and precipitate withdrawal was exa...

  14. Potency of a human monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin relative to equine diphtheria anti-toxin in a guinea pig intoxication model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi L; Cheslock, Peter; Leney, Mark; Barton, Bruce; Molrine, Deborah C

    2016-08-17

    Prompt administration of anti-toxin reduces mortality following Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. Current treatment relies upon equine diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT), with a 10% risk of serum sickness and rarely anaphylaxis. The global DAT supply is extremely limited; most manufacturers have ceased production. S315 is a neutralizing human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin that may provide a safe and effective alternative to equine DAT and address critical supply issues. To guide dose selection for IND-enabling pharmacology and toxicology studies, we dose-ranged S315 and DAT in a guinea pig model of diphtheria intoxication based on the NIH Minimum Requirements potency assay. Animals received a single injection of antibody premixed with toxin, were monitored for 30 days, and assigned a numeric score for clinical signs of disease. Animals receiving ≥ 27.5 µg of S315 or ≥ 1.75 IU of DAT survived whereas animals receiving ≤ 22.5 µg of S315 or ≤ 1.25 IU of DAT died, yielding a potency estimate of 17 µg S315/IU DAT (95% CI 16-21) for an endpoint of survival. Because some surviving animals exhibited transient limb weakness, likely a systemic sign of toxicity, DAT and S315 doses required to prevent hind limb paralysis were also determined, yielding a relative potency of 48 µg/IU (95% CI 38-59) for this alternate endpoint. To support advancement of S315 into clinical trials, potency estimates will be used to evaluate the efficacy of S315 versus DAT in an animal model with antibody administration after toxin exposure, more closely modeling anti-toxin therapy in humans.

  15. Relative effect potency estimates of dioxin-like activity for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in adults based on two thyroid outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Jusko, Todd A; Šovčíková, Eva; Lancz, Kinga; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Palkovičová, L'ubica; Drobná, Beata; Langer, Pavel; Van den Berg, Martin; Dedik, Ladislav; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2013-08-01

    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are an important component in the risk assessment of dioxin-like human exposures. At present, this concept is based mainly on in vivo animal experiments using oral dosage. Consequently, the current human TEFs derived from mammalian experiments are applicable only for exposure situations in which oral ingestion occurs. Nevertheless, these "intake" TEFs are commonly-but incorrectly-used by regulatory authorities to calculate "systemic" toxic equivalents (TEQs) based on human blood and tissue concentrations, which are used as biomarkers for either exposure or effect. We sought to determine relative effect potencies (REPs) for systemic human concentrations of dioxin-like mixture components using thyroid volume or serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration as the outcomes of interest. We used a benchmark concentration and a regression-based approach to compare the strength of association between each dioxin-like compound and the thyroid end points in 320 adults residing in an organochlorine-polluted area of eastern Slovakia. REPs calculated from thyroid volume and FT4 were similar. The regression coefficient (β)-derived REP data from thyroid volume and FT4 level were correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) TEF values (Spearman r = 0.69, p = 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.03, respectively). The calculated REPs were mostly within the minimum and maximum values for in vivo REPs derived by other investigators. Our REPs calculated from thyroid end points realistically reflect human exposure scenarios because they are based on chronic, low-dose human exposures and on biomarkers reflecting body burden. Compared with previous results, our REPs suggest higher sensitivity to the effects of dioxin-like compounds.

  16. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Jill B.; Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P.; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2–8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines. PMID:28192438

  17. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B Brelsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus, so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2-8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines.

  18. Use of In Vivo and In Vitro Data to Derive a Chronic Reference Value for Crotonaldehyde Based on Relative Potency to Acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Roberta L; Jenkins, Allison F

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) conducted a chronic inhalation noncancer toxicity assessment for crotonaldehyde (CRO). Since there were limited toxicity data for CRO, a reference value (ReV) was derived using a relative potency factor (RPF) approach with acrolein as the index chemical. Both CRO and acrolein are α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and share common steps in their mode of action (MOA). Only studies that investigated the effects of CRO and acrolein in the same study were used to calculate a CRO:acrolein RPF. In vivo findings measuring both 50% respiratory depression in rats and two species of mice and subcutaneous 50% lethality in rats and mice were used to calculate an RPF of 3 (rounded to one significant figure). In vitro data were useful to compare the MOA of CRO and acrolein and to support the RPF determined using in vivo data. In vitro cell culture studies investigating cytotoxicity in normal human lung fibroblast cultures using the propidium iodide cytotoxicity assay and in mouse lymphocyte cultures using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay were used to calculate an in vitro RPF of 3, which supports the in vivo RPF. The chronic ReV for acrolein of 1.2 ppb derived by TCEQ was multiplied by the RPF of 3 to calculate the ReV for CRO of 3.6 ppb (10 μg/m(3)). The ReV for CRO was developed to protect the general public from adverse health effects from chronic exposure to CRO in ambient air.

  19. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden.

    1990-01-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author)

  20. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    1990-10-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author).

  1. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population.

  2. Relative embryotoxic potency of p-substituted phenols in the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and comparison to their toxic potency in vivo and in the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwold, M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Spenkelink, B.; Punt, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of the embryonic stem cell test (EST) as an alternative for in vivo embryotoxicity testing was evaluated for a series of five p-substituted phenols. To this purpose, the potency ranking for this class of compounds derived from the inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation in the

  3. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Predicting the Antioxidant Potency of 17β-Estradiol-Related Polycyclic Phenols to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Prokai-Tatrai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potency of 17β-estradiol and related polycyclic phenols has been well established. This property is an important component of the complex events by which these types of agents are capable to protect neurons against the detrimental consequences of oxidative stress. In order to relate their molecular structure and properties with their capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR studies were conducted. The inhibition of Fe3+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate, measured through an assay detecting thiobarbituric acid reactive substances for about seventy compounds were correlated with various molecular descriptors. We found that lipophilicity (modeled by the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient, logP was the property that influenced most profoundly the potency of these compounds to inhibit lipid peroxidation in the biological medium studied. Additionally, the important contribution of the bond dissociation enthalpy of the phenolic O-H group, a shape index, the solvent-accessible surface area and the energy required to remove an electron from the highest occupied molecular orbital were also confirmed. Several QSAR equations were validated as potentially useful exploratory tools for identifying or designing novel phenolic antioxidants incorporating the structural backbone of 17β-estradiol to assist therapy development against oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration.

  4. Comparing records with related chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Albert, Paul; Kearney, Rebecca; Staff, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to integrate ice, terrestrial and marine records, it is necessary to deal with records on different timescales. These timescales can be grouped into those that use a common fundamental chronometer (such as Uranium-Thorium dating or Radiocarbon) and can also be related to one another where we have chronological tie points such as tephra horizons. More generally we can, through a number of different methodologies, derive relationships between different timescales. A good example of this is the use of cosmogenic isotope production, specifically 10Be and 14C to relate the calibrated radiocarbon timescale to that of the Greenland ice cores. The relationships between different timescales can be mathematically expressed in terms of time-transfer functions. This formalism allows any related record to be considered against any linked timescale with an appropriate associated uncertainty. The prototype INTIMATE chronological database allows records to be viewed and compared in this way and this is now being further developed, both to include a wider range of records and also to provide better connectivity to other databases and chronological tools. These developments will also include new ways to use tephra tie-points to constrain the relationship between timescales directly, without needing to remodel each associated timescale. The database as it stands allows data for particular timeframes to be recalled and plotted against any timescale, or exported in spreadsheet format. New functionality will be added to allow users to work with their own data in a private space and then to publish it when it has been through the peer-review publication process. In order to make the data easier to use for other further analysis and plotting, and with data from other sources, the database will also act as a server to deliver data in a JSON format. The aim of this work is to make the comparison of integrated data much easier for researchers and to ensure that good practice in

  5. Glycemic potency of muffins made with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours: a comparative study between in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yean Yean; Quek, Rina Yu Chin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-12-01

    Muffins made with wheat flour are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. This study aimed to examine the content of amylose, glycemic response (GR) and glycemic index (GI) of muffins baked with refined wheat and rice flours, as well as wholegrain corn, oat and barley flours. This study adopted a randomized, controlled, crossover, non-blind design. Twelve healthy participants consumed wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley muffins once and the reference glucose solution three times in a random order on non-consecutive day. Capillary blood samples were taken every 15 min in the first 60 min and every 30 min for the remaining 60 min for blood glucose analysis. The Megazyme amylose/amylopectin assay procedure was employed to measure amylose content. The GR elicited from the consumption of wheat, rice and corn muffins was comparable between these samples but significantly greater when compared with oat and barley muffins. Consumption of wholegrain muffins, apart from corn muffin, blunted postprandial GR when compared with muffins baked with refined cereal flours. Muffins baked with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours gave rise to GI values of 74, 79, 74, 53 and 55, respectively. The content of amylose was significantly higher in corn, oat and barley muffins than wheat and rice muffins. The greater content of amylose and fibre may play a part in the reduced glycemic potency of oat and barley muffins. Wheat flour can be substituted with oat and barley flours for healthier muffins and other bakery products.

  6. The impact of vehicle on the relative potency of skin-sensitizing chemicals in the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowsey, Ian R; Clapp, Catherine J; Safford, Bob; Gibbons, Ben T; Basketter, David A

    2008-01-01

    The identification and characterization of chemicals that possess skin-sensitizing potential are typically performed using predictive tests. However, human exposure to skin-sensitizing chemicals often occurs via a matrix (vehicle) that differs from that used in these tests. It is thus important to account for the potential impact of vehicle differences when undertaking quantitative risk assessment for skin sensitization. This is achieved through the application of a specific sensitization assessment factor (SAF), scaled between 1 and 10, when identifying an acceptable exposure level. The objective of the analysis described herein is to determine the impact of vehicle differences on local lymph node assay (LLNA) EC3 values (concentrations of test chemical required to provoke a 3-fold increase in lymph node cell proliferation). Initially, the inherent variability of the LLNA was investigated by examining the reproducibility of EC3 values for 14 chemicals that have been tested more than once in the same vehicle (4:1 acetone:olive oil, AOO). This analysis reveals that the variability in EC3 value for these chemicals following multiple assessments is LLNA using at least 2 of 15 different vehicles. These data demonstrate that often the variability in EC3 values observed for a given chemical in different vehicles is no greater than the 5-fold inherent variability observed when assessing a chemical in the same vehicle on multiple occasions. However, there are examples where EC3 values for a chemical differ by a factor of more than 10 between different vehicles. These observations were often associated with an apparent underestimation of potency (higher EC3 values) with predominantly aqueous vehicles or propylene glycol. These data underscore the need to consider vehicle effects in the context of skin-sensitization risk assessments.

  7. The Risk of Opioid Intoxications or Related Events and the Effect of Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Retrospective Cohort Study in German Patients Treated with High-Potency Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobski, K; Kollhorst, B; Schink, T; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2015-09-01

    Intoxications involving prescription opioids are a major public health problem in many countries. When taken with opioids, alcohol can enhance the effects of opioids, particularly in the central nervous system. However, data quantifying the impact of alcohol involvement in opioid-related intoxications are limited. Using claims data from the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD), we conducted a retrospective cohort study based on users of high-potency opioid (HPO) analgesics during the years 2005-2009. HPO use was classified as extended-release, immediate-release or both. We calculated incidence rates (IRs) for opioid intoxications or related events as well as adjusted IR ratios (aIRR) comparing HPO-treated patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) to those without ARDs overall and within each HPO category. During the study period, 308,268 HPO users were identified with an overall IR of 340.4 per 100,000 person-years [95 % confidence interval (CI) 325.5-355.7]. The risk was highest when patients received concomitant treatment with extended- and immediate-release HPOs (IR 1093.8; 95 % CI 904.6-1310.9). ARDs increased the risk during HPO use by a factor of 1.7 and the highest aIRR was seen when comparing patients simultaneously exposed to extended- and immediate-release HPOs with ARDs to those without ARD also after excluding patients with potential improper/non-medical HPO use. Physicians should be aware of these elevated risks in HPO patients with ARDs. Active patient education by healthcare providers regarding the risk of opioid intoxications or related events due to alcohol in conjunction with HPOs is warranted.

  8. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  9. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  10. A study on relation between nitroxyl radical reduction potency and X-ray irradiation on mouse lung using L-band electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneike, Makoto; Sho, Keizen; Morita, Rikushi

    1999-01-01

    Changes in nitroxy radical reduction potency (''reduction potency''), caused by different doses and different number of fractions of X-ray irradiation were studied using a L-band electron spin resonance system on mouse lungs into which 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (hydroxy-TEMPO) was introduced through the trachea. The ''reduction potency'' lineally decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1.0 to 5.0 Gy, but no further decrease was observed at higher doses of 7.5 and 10 Gy. The reduction potency'' dropped at 20 min after each irradiation, but it recovered to the control levels after 1 week in all 3 groups of single dose of 10 Gy, 3 fractions and 5 fractions in a similar manner. Although the levels of the ''reduction potency'' were kept high in the groups of fractionated irradiation through 1-4 weeks after irradiation, the levels dropped again in the single dose group at 1 week and the levels were kept significantly low until 4 weeks after irradiation. suggesting that the fractionation of X-ray irradiation would also be effective to prevent the deterioration of the ''reduction potency''. Pre-treatment with sufficient ascorbic acid inhibited the lowering effects of radiation on the ''reduction potency'' in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore the levels of the reduction potency'' ever elevated higher than those of controls with the large amount of ascorbic acid of 750 mg/kg or more, suggesting that the large amounts of ascorbic acid could prevent the adverse effects associated with radiation therapy for the lung malignancy. (author)

  11. Assessing the relative potency of (S)- and (R)-warfarin with a new PK-PD model, in relation to VKORC1 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Myriam; Pengo, Vittorio; Barolo, Massimiliano; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Padrini, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to characterise the contribution of (S)- and (R)-warfarin to the anticoagulant effect on patients in treatment with rac-warfarin. Fifty-seven patients starting warfarin (W) therapy were studied, from the first dose and during chronic treatment at INR stabilization. Plasma concentrations of (S)- and (R)-W and INRs were measured 12, 36 and 60 h after the first dose and at steady state 12-14 h after dosing. Patients were also genotyped for the G>A VKORC1 polymorphism. The PK-PD model assumed a linear relationship between W enantiomer concentration and INR and included a scaling factor k to account for a different potency of (R)-W. Two parallel compartment chains with different transit times (MTT 1 and MTT 2 ) were used to model the delay in the W effect. PD parameters were estimated with the maximum likelihood approach. The model satisfactorily described the mean time-course of INR, both after the initial dose and during long-term treatment. (R)-W contributed to the rac-W anticoagulant effect with a potency of about 27% that of (S)-W. This effect was independent of VKORC1 genotype. As expected, the slope of the PK/PD linear correlation increased stepwise from GG to GA and from GA to AA VKORC1 genotype (0.71, 0.90 and 1.49, respectively). Our PK-PD linear model can quantify the partial pharmacodynamic activity of (R)-W in patients contemporaneously exposed to therapeutic (S)-W plasma levels. This concept may be useful in improving the performance of future algorithms aiming at identifying the most appropriate W maintenance dose.

  12. Relative effect potency estimates of dioxin-like activity for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in adults based on cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 gene expression in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmerová, Soňa; van den Berg, Martin; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Jusko, Todd A; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Canton, Rocio F; van Ede, Karin I; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the risk assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, regulatory authorities support the use of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-scheme derived from a heterogeneous data set of the relative effect potency (REPs) estimates. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine REPs for

  13. A novel variable antibody fragment dimerized by leucine zippers with enhanced neutralizing potency against rabies virus G protein compared to its corresponding single-chain variable antibody fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Xi, Hualong; Gu, Tiejun; Yuan, Ruosen; Chen, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2015-12-01

    Fatal rabies can be prevented effectively by post-exposure prophylactic (PEP) with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Single-chain variable fragments (scFv), which are composed of a variable heavy chain (VH) and a variable light chain (VL) connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. However, in our previous study, a scFv (scFV57S) specific for the rabies virus (RV) G protein showed a lower neutralizing potency than that of its parent IgG due to lower stability and altered peptide assembly pattern. In monoclonal antibodies, the VH and VL interact non-covalently, while in scFvs the VH is connected covalently with the VL by the artificial linker. In this study, we constructed and expressed two peptides 57VL-JUN-HIS and 57VH-FOS-HA in Escherichia coli. The well-known Fos and Jun leucine zippers were utilized to dimerize VH and VL similarly to the IgG counterpart. The two peptides assembled to form zipFv57S in vitro. Due to the greater similarity in structure with IgG, the zipFv57S protein showed a higher binding ability and affinity resulting in notable improvement of in vitro neutralizing activity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv57S protein was also found to be more stable and showed similar protective rate as RIG in mice challenged with a lethal dose of RV. Our results not only indicated zipFv57S as an ideal alternative for RIG in PEP but also offered a novel and efficient hetero-dimerization pattern of VH and VL leading to enhanced neutralizing potency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma potency model ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and comprehensive rat intra-pleural (IP) dose characterization data set with a wide variety of EP size, shape, crystallographic, chemical, and bio-durability properties facilitated extensive statistical analyses of 50 rat IP exposure test results for evaluation of alternative dose pleural mesothelioma response models. Utilizing logistic regression, maximum likelihood evaluations of thousands of alternative dose metrics based on hundreds of individual EP dimensional variations within each test sample, four major findings emerged: (1) data for simulations of short-term EP dose changes in vivo (mild acid leaching) provide superior predictions of tumor incidence compared to non-acid leached data; (2) sum of the EP surface areas (ÓSA) from these mildly acid-leached samples provides the optimum holistic dose response model; (3) progressive removal of dose associated with very short and/or thin EPs significantly degrades resultant ÓEP or ÓSA dose-based predictive model fits, as judged by Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC); and (4) alternative, biologically plausible model adjustments provide evidence for reduced potency of EPs with length/width (aspect) ratios 80 µm. Regar

  15. Mediating Potency and Fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    2018-01-01

    Action movies participate in the administration of fear [Virilio, P., 2012. The administration of fear. Translated by Ames Hodges. Los Angeles, CA: Semiotext(e)], and the networked affects of contemporary warfare [Anderson, B., 2013. Targeting affective life from above: morale and airpower. In: P......’ [Shaviro, S., 2010. Post-cinematic affect. Winchester: Zero Books]. These intensity effects mediate between the age of terror's ecology of fear [Massumi, Brian, 2002. Parables for the virtual: movement, affect, sensation. Durham: Duke University Press] and our bodies. Rather than producing fear, action...... movies work to dispel fear by producing potency and bolstering resolve. We can thus understand action movies as participating in the biopolitical effects of contemporary warfare. Affect is globalized and intensified through action movies’ aesthetics, with the aim of producing a kind of drone subject...

  16. Chemical applicability domain of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 4. Quantitative correlation of LLNA potency with human potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie

    2018-07-01

    Prediction of skin sensitisation potential and potency by non-animal methods is the target of many active research programmes. Although the aim is to predict sensitisation potential and potency in humans, data from the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) constitute much the largest source of quantitative data on in vivo skin sensitisation. The LLNA has been the preferred in vivo method for identification of skin sensitising chemicals and as such is potentially valuable as a benchmark for assessment of non-animal approaches. However, in common with all predictive test methods, the LLNA is subject to false positives and false negatives with an overall level of accuracy said variously to be approximately 80% or 90%. It is also necessary to consider the extent to which, for true positives, LLNA potency correlates with human potency. In this paper LLNA potency and human potency are compared so as to express quantitatively the correlation between them, and reasons for non-agreement between LLNA and human potency are analysed. This leads to a better definition of the applicability domain of the LLNA, within which LLNA data can be used confidently to predict human potency and as a benchmark to assess the performance of non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The spermicidal potency of Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C Y; Shieh, C C; Wu, P; Chiang, B N

    1987-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of Old Coke, caffeine-free New Coke, New Coke, Diet Coke and Pepsi-Cola on human sperm motility was studied with a trans-membrane migration method. None of them could decrease sperm motility to less than 70% of control within one hour. A previous study which claimed a marked variation of spermicidal potencies among different formulations of Coca-Cola could not be confirmed. Even if cola has a spermicidal effect, its potency is relatively weak as compared with other well-known spermicidal agents.

  18. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  20. In vivo potency revisited - Keep the target in sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Peletier, Lambertus A; Hjorth, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    Potency is a central parameter in pharmacological and biochemical sciences, as well as in drug discovery and development endeavors. It is however typically defined in terms only of ligand to target binding affinity also in in vivo experimentation, thus in a manner analogous to in in vitro studies. As in vivo potency is in fact a conglomerate of events involving ligand, target, and target-ligand complex processes, overlooking some of the fundamental differences between in vivo and in vitro may result in serious mispredictions of in vivo efficacious dose and exposure. The analysis presented in this paper compares potency measures derived from three model situations. Model A represents the closed in vitro system, defining target binding of a ligand when total target and ligand concentrations remain static and constant. Model B describes an open in vivo system with ligand input and clearance (Cl (L) ), adding in parallel to the turnover (k syn , k deg ) of the target. Model C further adds to the open in vivo system in Model B also the elimination of the target-ligand complex (k e(RL) ) via a first-order process. We formulate corresponding equations of the equilibrium (steady-state) relationships between target and ligand, and complex and ligand for each of the three model systems and graphically illustrate the resulting simulations. These equilibrium relationships demonstrate the relative impact of target and target-ligand complex turnover, and are easier to interpret than the more commonly used ligand-, target- and complex concentration-time courses. A new potency expression, labeled L 50 , is then derived. L 50 is the ligand concentration at half-maximal target and complex concentrations and is an amalgamation of target turnover, target-ligand binding and complex elimination parameters estimated from concentration-time data. L 50 is then compared to the dissociation constant K d (target-ligand binding affinity), the conventional Black & Leff potency estimate EC 50

  1. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  2. Comparative studies on the photosensitizing potency of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen as measured by cytolysis in Paramecium caudatam and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and growth inhibition and survival in Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.R.; Barth, J.

    1982-01-01

    The photosensitizing potencies of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were investigated using the following biological end-points for lethality: (i) cytolysis in the protozoans Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis, (ii) inhibition of growth in the yeast Candida albicans and (iii) survival as measured by colony counts in Candida albicans. In all cases, 5-methoxypsoralen proved to be the more potent photosensitizing agent. The preliminary action spectra of the 2 compounds for growth inhibition in C. albicans were similar and showed maximal spectral efficiency in the 320-340 nm waveband. The molecular basis for the described end-points is unknown. Although it is well known that 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen readily photoreact with DNA, it is considered that photoreaction with protein should also be given serious consideration as the possible lethal event. The superior effect of 5-methoxypsoralen is in accordance with some of the physical and photochemical properties of this molecule, but this result is at variance with other studies in different test systems that have been used to compare the photobiological efficacy of these 2 compounds. (author)

  3. Comparative studies on the photosensitizing potency of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen as measured by cytolysis in Paramecium caudatam and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and growth inhibition and survival in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.R. (Institute of Dermatology, London (UK)); Barth, J. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic))

    1982-01-01

    The photosensitizing potencies of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were investigated using the following biological end-points for lethality: (i) cytolysis in the protozoans Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis, (ii) inhibition of growth in the yeast Candida albicans and (iii) survival as measured by colony counts in Candida albicans. In all cases, 5-methoxypsoralen proved to be the more potent photosensitizing agent. The preliminary action spectra of the 2 compounds for growth inhibition in C. albicans were similar and showed maximal spectral efficiency in the 320-340 nm waveband. The molecular basis for the described end-points is unknown. Although it is well known that 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen readily photoreact with DNA, it is considered that photoreaction with protein should also be given serious consideration as the possible lethal event. The superior effect of 5-methoxypsoralen is in accordance with some of the physical and photochemical properties of this molecule, but this result is at variance with other studies in different test systems that have been used to compare the photobiological efficacy of these 2 compounds.

  4. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  5. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  6. Development of a refined database of relative potency estimates to facilitate better characterization of variability and uncertainty in the current mammalian TEFs for PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haws, L. [Exponent, Austin, TX (United States); Harris, M.; Santamaria, A. [Exponent, Houston, TX (United States); Su, S. [Exponent, New York, NY (United States); Birnbaum, L.; DeVito, M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farland, W. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Walker, N. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Connor, K. [Exponent, Natick, MA (United States); Finley, B. [Exponent, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach has been widely accepted as the most feasible and plausible method presently available for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In accordance with this approach, the relative potency of each congener is expressed as some fraction of the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The current TEFs for PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs were established by the World Health Organization (WHO) following the meeting of an international expert panel in June of 1997. In the course of their review, the WHO expert panel examined data from an extensive body of in vivo and in vitro studies that had been compiled into a database of relative potency (REP) values by scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden (hereafter referred to as the Karolinska database). The WHO TEFs are currently used by numerous governmental agencies and others to regulate or otherwise assess health risks associated with exposure to PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in foods, consumer products, and environmental media. As has been noted by others, for any given congener, the underlying REP values typically represent a heterogeneous data set, and the range of REPs often spans several orders of magnitude. It would therefore be helpful to better understand the degree to which the TEF values contribute to variability and uncertainty in the risk assessment process. As such, the goal of this project was to develop a database that will better characterize the range of REPs, allow for the development and application of quantitative weighting schemes, and facilitate quantitative analyses. This in turn will allow for better characterization of variability and uncertainty inherent in the mammalian TEFs. The development of this database was necessary since the Karolinska database was

  7. In vitro and in silico derived relative effect potencies of ah-receptor-mediated effects by PCDD/Fs and PCBs in rat, mouse, and guinea pig CALUX cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, Mehdi; van Ede, Karin I; Larsson, Malin; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Poellinger, Lorenz; Lücke-Johansson, Sandra; Machala, Miroslav; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Vondráček, Jan; van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Ringsted, Tine; Andersson, Patrik L

    2014-07-21

    For a better understanding of species-specific relative effect potencies (REPs), responses of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) were assessed. REPs were calculated using chemical-activated luciferase gene expression assays (CALUX) derived from guinea pig, rat, and mouse cell lines. Almost all 20 congeners tested in the rodent cell lines were partial agonists and less efficacious than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For this reason, REPs were calculated for each congener using concentrations at which 20% of the maximal TCDD response was reached (REP20TCDD). REP20TCDD values obtained for PCDD/Fs were comparable with their toxic equivalency factors assigned by the World Health Organization (WHO-TEF), while those for PCBs were in general lower than the WHO-TEF values. Moreover, the guinea pig cell line was the most sensitive as indicated by the 20% effect concentrations of TCDD of 1.5, 5.6, and 11.0 pM for guinea pig, rat, and mouse cells, respectively. A similar response pattern was observed using multivariate statistical analysis between the three CALUX assays and the WHO-TEFs. The mouse assay showed minor deviation due to higher relative induction potential for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran and lower for 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was more than two times more potent in the mouse assay as compared with that of rat and guinea pig cells, while measured REP20TCDD for PCB126 was lower in mouse cells (0.05) as compared with that of the guinea pig (0.2) and rat (0.07). In order to provide REP20TCDD values for all WHO-TEF assigned compounds, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed. The QSAR models showed that specific electronic properties and molecular surface characteristics play important roles in the AhR-mediated response. In silico derived REP20TCDD values were generally consistent with the WHO

  8. The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of this substance in fish physiological research was assessed and it compared very favourably with MS 222 in inducing anaesthesia in freshwater fishes (Ferreira et al. 1979a). We have now compared the anaesthetic potency of four different concentrations of BH on three freshwater fish species at three ...

  9. ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY OF WATER KEFIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Alsayadi M.S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have strong relationship with several diseases. Many fermented foods were reported to be important sources for antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity of water kefir never reported in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to detect and investigate the antioxidant potency of water kefir. Water kefir was prepared by fermentation of sugar solution with kefir grains for 24h. Antioxidant activity of fresh water kefir drink and its extract with (0.125–5 mg/ml was evaluated using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH scavenging method, and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation and the reducing power of water kefir were determined, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and ascorbic acid were used for comparison. Water kefir demonstrated great ability to DPPH scavenging ranged (9.88-63.17%. And inhibit ascorbate oxidation by (6.08-25.57% increased in consequent with concentration raising. These results prime to conclude that water kefir could be promisor source of natural antioxidants with good potency in health developing.

  10. Correlation of initiating potency of skin carcinogens with potency to induce resistance to terminal differentiation in cultured mouse keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, A.E.; Morgan, D.; Spangler, E.F.; Yuspa, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The induction by chemical carcinogens of resistance to terminal differentiation in cultured mouse keratinocytes has been proposed to represent a cellular change associated with the initiation phase of skin carcinogenesis. Previous results with this culture model indicated that the number of differentiation-resistant foci was correlated with the dose and known potency for several chemical carcinogens. Assay conditions were optimized to provide quantitative results for screening a variety of carcinogens for their potency as inducers of foci resistant to terminal differentiation. Eight skin initiators of varying potency and from different chemical classes and ultraviolet light were studied for their activity to induce this alteration in cultured epidermal cells from newborn BALB/c mice. There was an excellent positive correlation for the potency of these agents as initiators in vivo and as inducers of altered differentiation in vitro. The induction of resistant foci was independent of the relative cytotoxic effects of each agent except where cytotoxicity was extensive and reduced the number of foci. The results support the hypothesis that initiation of carcinogenesis in skin results in an alteration in the program of epidermal cell differentiation. The results also suggest that the assay is useful for identifying relative potency classes (strong, moderate, weak) of initiating agents

  11. Roles of participation and feedback in group potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, Nuria; Peiró, José M; Zornoza, Ana; Picazo, Carmen

    2009-08-01

    The roles of group participation and group performance feedback were examined as antecedents of group potency, i.e., beliefs shared among a work group's members about the general effectiveness of the work group. Also examined were how group participation and the congruence of the feedback received from different sources about performance predicted convergence in members' beliefs about group effectiveness. The sample comprised 61 work groups of professionals involved in Master in Business Administration (MBA) programs (284 participants). Mean group size was 4.6 members (SD = .58). 65% of participants were male, and 51% were between 30 and 40 years of age. Data were gathered at two measurement times. Increases in group participation were positively related to increases in group potency and the convergence in beliefs about group effectiveness among group members over time. Results supported the premise that group performance feedback is an antecedent of changes in group potency over time.

  12. Sexual Function and the Use of Medical Devices or Drugs to Optimize Potency After Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, J. Taylor; Levy, Lawrence B.; Swanson, David A.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of sexual outcomes after prostate brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds as monotherapy at a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 129 men with prostate cancer with I-125 seed implants (prescribed dose, 145 Gy) without supplemental hormonal or external beam radiation therapy. Sexual function, potency, and bother were prospectively assessed at baseline and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months using validated quality-of-life self-assessment surveys. Postimplant dosimetry values, including dose to 10% of the penile bulb (D10), D20, D33, D50, D75, D90, and penile volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) were calculated. Results: At baseline, 56% of patients recorded having optimal erections; at 1 year, 62% of patients with baseline erectile function maintained optimal potency, 58% of whom with medically prescribed sexual aids or drugs. Variables associated with pretreatment-to-posttreatment decline in potency were time after implant (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.01). Decline in urinary function may have been related to decline in potency. At 1 year, 69% of potent patients younger than 70 years maintained optimal potency, whereas 31% of patients older than 70 maintained optimal potency (p = 0.02). Diabetes was related to a decline in potency (p = 0.05), but neither smoking nor hypertension were. For patients with optimal potency at baseline, mean sexual bother scores had declined significantly at 1 year (p < 0.01). Sexual potency, sexual function, and sexual bother scores failed to correlate with any dosimetric variable tested. Conclusions: Erections firm enough for intercourse can be achieved at 1 year after treatment, but most men will require medical aids to optimize potency. Although younger men were better able to maintain erections firm enough for intercourse than older men, there was no correlation between potency, sexual function, or sexual bother and penile bulb dosimetry.

  13. Sexual Function and the Use of Medical Devices or Drugs to Optimize Potency After Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whaley, J. Taylor; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swanson, David A. [Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Bruno, Teresa L. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdnaderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of sexual outcomes after prostate brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds as monotherapy at a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 129 men with prostate cancer with I-125 seed implants (prescribed dose, 145 Gy) without supplemental hormonal or external beam radiation therapy. Sexual function, potency, and bother were prospectively assessed at baseline and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months using validated quality-of-life self-assessment surveys. Postimplant dosimetry values, including dose to 10% of the penile bulb (D10), D20, D33, D50, D75, D90, and penile volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) were calculated. Results: At baseline, 56% of patients recorded having optimal erections; at 1 year, 62% of patients with baseline erectile function maintained optimal potency, 58% of whom with medically prescribed sexual aids or drugs. Variables associated with pretreatment-to-posttreatment decline in potency were time after implant (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.01). Decline in urinary function may have been related to decline in potency. At 1 year, 69% of potent patients younger than 70 years maintained optimal potency, whereas 31% of patients older than 70 maintained optimal potency (p = 0.02). Diabetes was related to a decline in potency (p = 0.05), but neither smoking nor hypertension were. For patients with optimal potency at baseline, mean sexual bother scores had declined significantly at 1 year (p < 0.01). Sexual potency, sexual function, and sexual bother scores failed to correlate with any dosimetric variable tested. Conclusions: Erections firm enough for intercourse can be achieved at 1 year after treatment, but most men will require medical aids to optimize potency. Although younger men were better able to maintain erections firm enough for intercourse than older men, there was no correlation between potency, sexual function, or sexual bother and penile bulb dosimetry.

  14. Potency Evaluation of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Brazil: Assessment of Reproducibility Using a Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cardoso do Nascimento

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the results of potency determination of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO obtained between 2010 and 2012 by the National Institute of Quality Control in Health (INCQS/Fiocruz, i.e., the National Control Laboratory (NCL, and by a manufacturer of rhEPO. In total, 47 different batches of commercially prepared rhEPO (alpha isoform were analyzed. All results, including those of the control and warning limits, remained within the limits recommended by European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.. All relative error (RE values were less than ± 30%, wh ereas most were approximately ± 20%. Applying the Bland-Altman plot, only two of 47 values remained outside the limits of agreement (LA. In addition, agreement of potency determination between INCQS and the manufacturer coefficient of variation of reproducibility (% CVR was considered satisfactory. Taken together, our results demonstrate (i. the potency assay of rhEPO performed at INCQS, is standardized and controlled, (ii. the comparison of our results with those of the manufacturer, revealed an adequate inter-laboratory variation, and (iii. the critical appraisal proposed here appears to be a feasible tool to assess the reproducibility of biological activity, providing additional information regarding monitoring and production consistency to manufacturers and NCLs.

  15. Relative fault and efficient negligence: Comparative negligence explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Hendriks, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that the rule of comparative negligence with relative fault - a sharing of the loss proportional to the parties’ relative departures from due care - induces the parties to an accident to be efficiently negligent. Comparative negligence is more efficient than simple or contributory

  16. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50 of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50 of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (r2=0.9563; P<0.001. The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa.

  17. Potency assay development for cellular therapy products: an ISCT review of the requirements and experiences in the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravery, Christopher A; Carmen, Jessica; Fong, Timothy; Oprea, Wanda; Hoogendoorn, Karin H; Woda, Juliana; Burger, Scott R; Rowley, Jon A; Bonyhadi, Mark L; Van't Hof, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of potency plays a key role in defining the quality of cellular therapy products (CTPs). Potency can be defined as a quantitative measure of relevant biologic function based on the attributes that are linked to relevant biologic properties. To achieve an adequate assessment of CTP potency, appropriate in vitro or in vivo laboratory assays and properly controlled clinical data need to be created. The primary objective of a potency assay is to provide a mechanism by which the manufacturing process and the final product for batch release are scrutinized for quality, consistency and stability. A potency assay also provides the basis for comparability assessment after process changes, such as scale-up, site transfer and new starting materials (e.g., a new donor). Potency assays should be in place for early clinical development, and validated assays are required for pivotal clinical trials. Potency is based on the individual characteristics of each individual CTP, and the adequacy of potency assays will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis by regulatory agencies. We provide an overview of the expectations and challenges in development of potency assays specific for CTPs; several real-life experiences from the cellular therapy industry are presented as illustrations. The key observation and message is that aggressive early investment in a solid potency evaluation strategy can greatly enhance eventual CTP deployment because it can mitigate the risk of costly product failure in late-stage development. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Comparing EU hospital efficiency using diagnosis-related groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, G.; Wiley, M.; Tomas, R.; Casas, M.; Leidl, R.

    1997-01-01

    This article considers the feasibility of comparing the differences in efficiency and price in the provision of hospital products defined on the basis of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). Two measures of resource use are compared, the length of stay and the administrative price, both independently

  19. Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T P; Winstock, A R

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis. Adults residing in the UK were questioned about their drug use, including three types of cannabis (high potency: skunk; low potency: other grass, resin). Cannabis types were profiled and examined for possible associations between frequency of use and (i) cannabis dependence, (ii) cannabis-related concerns. Frequent use of high-potency cannabis predicted a greater severity of dependence [days of skunk use per month: b = 0.254, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.161-0.357, p effect became stronger as age decreased (b = -0.006, 95% CI -0.010 to -0.002, p = 0.004). By contrast, use of low-potency cannabis was not associated with dependence (days of other grass use per month: b = 0.020, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.070, p = 0.436; days of resin use per month: b = 0.025, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.067, p = 0.245). Frequency of cannabis use (all types) did not predict severity of cannabis-related concerns. High-potency cannabis was clearly distinct from low-potency varieties by its marked effects on memory and paranoia. It also produced the best high, was preferred, and most available. High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

  20. Indanones as high-potency reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Samantha; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2015-05-01

    Recent reports document that α-tetralone (3,4-dihydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one) is an appropriate scaffold for the design of high-potency monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Based on the structural similarity between α-tetralone and 1-indanone, the present study involved synthesis of 34 1-indanone and related indane derivatives as potential inhibitors of recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B. The results show that C6-substituted indanones are particularly potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, with IC50 values ranging from 0.001 to 0.030 μM. C5-Substituted indanone and indane derivatives are comparatively weaker MAO-B inhibitors. Although the 1-indanone and indane derivatives are selective inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform, a number of homologues are also potent MAO-A inhibitors, with three homologues possessing IC50 values 1-indanone as a reversible MAO inhibitor with a competitive mode of inhibition. It may be concluded that 1-indanones are promising leads for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and depression. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Potency probability following conformal megavoltage radiotherapy using conventional doses for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantz, C.A.; Song, P.; Farhangi, E.; Nautiyal, J.; Awan, A.; Ignacio, L.; Weichselbaum, R.; Vijayakumar, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Impotence is a familiar sequela of definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer; however, nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP) has offered potency rates as high as 70% for selected for patients in several large series. To the authors' knowledge, age and stage-matched comparisons between the effects of EBRT and NSRP upon the normal age trend of impotence have not been performed. Herein, we report the change in potency over time in an EBRT-treated population, determine the significantly predisposing health factors affecting potency in this population, and compare age and stage-matched potency rates with those of normal males and prostatectomy patients. Methods and Materials: Our results are obtained from a retrospective study of 114 patients ranging in age from 52 to 85 (mean, 68) who were diagnosed with clinical stages A-C C (T1-T4N0M0) prostate cancer and then treated conformally with megavoltage x-rays to 6500-7000 cGy (180-200 cGy per fraction) using the four-field box technique. Information concerning pre-RT potency, medical and surgical history, and medications was documented for each patient as was time of post-RT change in potency during regular follow-up. The median follow-up time was 18.5 months. Results: The actuarial probability of potency for all patients gradually decreased throughout post-RT follow-up. At months 1, 12, 24, and 36, potency rates were 98, 92, 75, and 66%, respectively. For those patients who became impotent, the median time to impotence was 14 months. Factors identified from logistic regression analysis as significant predictors of post-EBRT impotence include pre-EBRT partial potency (p < 0.001), vascular disease (p < 0.001), and diabetes (p = 0.003). Next, an actuarial plot of potency probability to patient age for the EBRT-treated population was compared to that obtained from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study of normal males. The two curves were not significantly different (logrank

  2. Potency preservation following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayomi-Davies, Olusola; Pahira, John; McGeagh, Kevin G; Collins, Brian T; Kowalczyk, Keith; Bandi, Gaurav; Kumar, Deepak; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P; Chen, Leonard N; Bhagat, Aditi; Wright, Henry C; Uhm, Sunghae; Kim, Joy S; Yung, Thomas M; Lei, Siyuan; Batipps, Gerald P

    2013-01-01

    treatment: 100% (baseline); 68% (6 months); 62% (12 months); 57% (18 months) and 54.4% (24 months), 78% of previously potent patients had erections sufficient for sexual activity at 24 months post-treatment. Overall sexual aid utilization increased from 36% at baseline to 49% at 24 months. Average EPIC sexual scores showed a slow decline over the first two years following treatment: 77.6 (baseline); 68.7 (6 months); 63.2 (12 months); 61.9 (18 months); 59.3 (24 months). All sexual functions including orgasm declined with time. Prior to treatment, 13.4% of men felt their sexual function was a moderate to big problem which increased to 26.7% two years post treatment. Post-treatment testosterone levels gradually decreased with a median value at two year follow-up of 10.7 nmol/L. However, the average EPIC hormonal scores did not illustrate a statistically significant difference two years post-treatment. Review of the radiation doses to the penile bulb in this study, a potential marker of post-treatment sexual function, revealed that the dose was relatively low and at these low doses the percentage of the penile bulb receiving 29.5 Gy did not correlate with the development of ED. Men undergoing SBRT monotherapy for prostate cancer report sexual outcomes comparable to those reported for conventional radiation modalities within the first 24 months after treatment. Longer follow-up is required to confirm the durability of these findings

  3. A novel antilithiatic protein from Tribulus terrestris having cytoprotective potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anshu; Tandon, Simran; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2012-08-01

    Adhesion of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals to kidney cells is a key event in kidney stones associated with marked hyperoxaluria. As the propensity of stone recurrence and persistent side effects are not altered by surgical techniques available, phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as an adjuvant therapy. The present study is aimed at examining the antilithiatic potency of the protein biomolecules of Tribulus terrestris, a plant which is a common constituent of herbal marketed preparations to treat urolithiasis. Various biochemical methods with mass spectrometry were used to purify and characterize the purified protein. The protective potency of the protein was tested on the oxalate induced injury on renal epithelial cell lines (NRK 52E). An antilithiatic protein having molecular weight of ~ 60kDa was purified. This purified protein showed similarities with Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7 (CCD7) of Arabidopsis thaliana after matching peptide mass fingerprints in MASCOT search engine. An EF hand domain was identified in CCD7 by SCAN PROSITE. Presence of an EF hand domain, a characteristic feature of calcium binding proteins and a role in the synthesis of retinol which is transported by retinol binding protein, a protein found in kidney stone matrix; of CCD7 support the role of TTP as an antilithiatic protein. The protective potency of TTP on NRK 52E was quite comparable to the aqueous extract of cystone. Our findings suggest that this purified protein biomolecule from Tribulus terrestris could open new vista in medical management of urolithiasis.

  4. Comparing Structural Brain Connectivity by the Infinite Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Herlau, Tue; Dyrby, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The growing focus in neuroimaging on analyzing brain connectivity calls for powerful and reliable statistical modeling tools. We examine the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) as a tool to identify and compare structure in brain connectivity graphs by contrasting its performance on graphs from...

  5. Assessment of the skin sensitising potency of the lower alkyl methacrylate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Pemberton, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    There is continued interest in, and imperatives for, the classification of contact allergens according to their relative skin sensitising potency. However, achieving that end can prove problematic, not least when there is an apparent lack of concordance between experimental assessments of potency and the prevalence allergic contact dermatitis as judged by clinical experience. For the purpose of exploring this issue, and illustrating the important considerations that are required to reach sound judgements about potency categorisation, the lower alkyl methacrylate esters (LAM) have been employed here as a case study. Although the sensitising potential of methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been reviewed previously, there is available new information that is relevant for assessment of skin sensitising potency. Moreover, for the purposes of this article, analyses have been extended to include also other LAM for which relevant data are available: ethyl methacrylate (EMA), n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA), isobutyl methacrylate (iBMA), and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA). In addressing the skin sensitising activity of these chemicals and in drawing conclusions regarding relative potency, a number of sources of information has been considered, including estimates of potency derived from local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, the results of guinea pig assays, and data derived from in silico methods and from recently developed in vitro approaches. Moreover, clinical experience of skin sensitisation of humans by LAM has also been evaluated. The conclusion drawn is that MMA and other LAM are contact allergens, but that none of these chemicals has any more than weak skin sensitising potency. We have also explored here the possible bases for this modest sensitising activity. Finally, the nature of exposure to LAM has been reviewed briefly and on the basis of that information, together with an understanding of skin sensitising potency, a risk assessment has been prepared. Copyright © 2014

  6. [Differential diagnosis in potency disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockott, G; Dittmar, F

    1976-12-02

    Disorders of sexual libido are seldom organic, in general they are of psychological origin. It is, however, difficult to obtain a differential diagnosis. One of the first diagnostic considerations must be the establishment of primary or secondary libidinal dificit, or indeed, whether there is no libido at all. In cases of libido disorders with primary libido dificit, depression, organic disease, or side effects of pharmaca may be the cause. Libido disorders in the presence of functional libido, however, must be regarded as primarily psychologically caused. An exception are libido problems in the presence of diabetes mellitus and peripheral vasculatory defeciencies. In these cases libido is either totally absent or appears only secondarily. The symptomatology of libido disorders in the presence of depression, diabetes melitus, and peripheral vasculatory disturbancies, as well as psychologically caused erectile and ejaculatory difficulties are discussed in detail. These groups are compared with respect to libido and behavior involving erection, ejaculation, anxiety and avoidance.

  7. Skin sensitization potency of methyl methacrylate in the local lymph node assay: comparisons with guinea-pig data and human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Catherine J; Dearman, Rebecca J; Heylings, Jon R; Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A

    2006-09-01

    There is compelling evidence that contact allergens differ substantially (by 4 or 5 orders of magnitude) with respect to their inherent skin-sensitizing potency. Relative potency can now be measured effectively using the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) and such data form the basis of risk assessment and risk management strategies. Such determinations also facilitate distinctions being drawn between the prevalence of skin sensitization to a particular contact allergen and inherent potency. The distinction is important because chemicals that are implicated as common causes of contact allergy are not necessarily potent sensitizers. One example is provided by nickel that is undoubtedly a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis, but is a comparatively weak sensitizer in predictive tests. In an attempt to explore other examples of contact allergens where there may exist a discrepancy between prevalence and potency, we describe here analyses conducted with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Results of LLNA studies have been interpreted in the context of historical clinical data on occupational allergic contact dermatitis associated with exposure to MMA.

  8. Conformational Flexibility Determines Selectivity and Antibacterial, Antiplasmodial, and Anticancer Potency of Cationic α-Helical Peptides*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Louic S.; Lan, Yun; Abbate, Vincenzo; Ruh, Emrah; Bui, Tam T.; Wilkinson, Louise J.; Kanno, Tokuwa; Jumagulova, Elmira; Kozlowska, Justyna; Patel, Jayneil; McIntyre, Caitlin A.; Yam, W. C.; Siu, Gilman; Atkinson, R. Andrew; Lam, Jenny K. W.; Bansal, Sukhvinder S.; Drake, Alex F.; Mitchell, Graham H.; Mason, A. James

    2012-01-01

    We used a combination of fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and NMR spectroscopies in conjunction with size exclusion chromatography to help rationalize the relative antibacterial, antiplasmodial, and cytotoxic activities of a series of proline-free and proline-containing model antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in terms of their structural properties. When compared with proline-free analogs, proline-containing peptides had greater activity against Gram-negative bacteria, two mammalian cancer cell lines, and intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum, which they were capable of killing without causing hemolysis. In contrast, incorporation of proline did not have a consistent effect on peptide activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In membrane-mimicking environments, structures with high α-helix content were adopted by both proline-free and proline-containing peptides. In solution, AMPs generally adopted disordered structures unless their sequences comprised more hydrophobic amino acids or until coordinating phosphate ions were added. Proline-containing peptides resisted ordering induced by either method. The roles of the angle subtended by positively charged amino acids and the positioning of the proline residues were also investigated. Careful positioning of proline residues in AMP sequences is required to enable the peptide to resist ordering and maintain optimal antibacterial activity, whereas varying the angle subtended by positively charged amino acids can attenuate hemolytic potential albeit with a modest reduction in potency. Maintaining conformational flexibility improves AMP potency and selectivity toward bacterial, plasmodial, and cancerous cells while enabling the targeting of intracellular pathogens. PMID:22869378

  9. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. eShadow: A tool for comparing closely related sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, Ivan; Boffelli, Dario; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2004-01-15

    Primate sequence comparisons are difficult to interpret due to the high degree of sequence similarity shared between such closely related species. Recently, a novel method, phylogenetic shadowing, has been pioneered for predicting functional elements in the human genome through the analysis of multiple primate sequence alignments. We have expanded this theoretical approach to create a computational tool, eShadow, for the identification of elements under selective pressure in multiple sequence alignments of closely related genomes, such as in comparisons of human to primate or mouse to rat DNA. This tool integrates two different statistical methods and allows for the dynamic visualization of the resulting conservation profile. eShadow also includes a versatile optimization module capable of training the underlying Hidden Markov Model to differentially predict functional sequences. This module grants the tool high flexibility in the analysis of multiple sequence alignments and in comparing sequences with different divergence rates. Here, we describe the eShadow comparative tool and its potential uses for analyzing both multiple nucleotide and protein alignments to predict putative functional elements. The eShadow tool is publicly available at http://eshadow.dcode.org/

  11. Establishing criteria for human mesenchymal stem cell potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Rai, Bina; Sathiyanathan, Padmapriya; Puan, Kia Joo; Rötzschke, Olaf; Hui, James H; Raghunath, Michael; Stanton, Lawrence W; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to identify critical determinants of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) potency using in vitro and in vivo attributes of cells isolated from the bone marrow of age- and sex-matched donors. Adherence to plastic was not indicative of potency, yet capacity for long-term expansion in vitro varied considerably between donors, allowing the grouping of MSCs from the donors into either those with high-growth capacity or low-growth capacity. Using this grouping strategy, high-growth capacity MSCs were smaller in size, had greater colony-forming efficiency, and had longer telomeres. Cell-surface biomarker analysis revealed that the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) criteria did not distinguish between high-growth capacity and low-growth capacity MSCs, whereas STRO-1 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha were preferentially expressed on high-growth capacity MSCs. These cells also had the highest mean expression of the mRNA transcripts TWIST-1 and DERMO-1. Irrespective of these differences, both groups of donor MSCs produced similar levels of key growth factors and cytokines involved in tissue regeneration and were capable of multilineage differentiation. However, high-growth capacity MSCs produced approximately double the volume of mineralized tissue compared to low-growth capacity MSCs when assessed for ectopic bone-forming ability. The additional phenotypic criteria presented in this study when combined with the existing ISCT minimum criteria and working proposal will permit an improved assessment of MSC potency and provide a basis for establishing the quality of MSCs prior to their therapeutic application. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR BENZYLPENICILIN POTASSIUM AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE POTENCY DETERMINATION OF ASCOMICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ciuca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascomicin is an antibacterial unguent for treatment of local infections of skin, eyes, outer ear, in cattle, sheep, pig, dog and cat. The product contains two active substances: benzylpenicillin potassium (Penicillin G potassium and streptomycin sulphate. The main characteristic of commercial product is benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate potency. The potency is estimated by comparing the inhibition of growth of sensitive micro-organisms produced by known concentrations of the antibiotic to be examined and a reference substance. The validation study aims to demonstrate the determination of the potency of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate, it is an appropriate analytical method, reproducible and meets the quality requirements of Ascomicin product. The paper establishes the performance characteristics of the method considered and identify the factors that influence these characteristics. The diameters of inhibition zones, directly proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of the antibiotic used for the assay, measured and calculated using statistical methods (Combistats Soft. The assay is designed in such a way that the mathematical model on which the potency equation is based can be proved to be valid. A parallel-line model is chosen. The two log dose response lines of the preparation under examination and the standard preparation are parallel; they are rectilinear over the range of doses used in the calculation. These conditions are verified by validity tests for a given probability (P = 0.05. The test is not valid unless the confidence limits (P = 0.95 are not less than 50 per cent and not more than 200 per cent of the estimated potency. The estimated potency is not less than 95 per cent and not more than 105 per cent of the stated potency. The stated potency is not less than 19400 international units/g benzylpenicillin potassium and 13960 international units/g streptomycin sulphate. The validation

  13. The incidence of kidney injury for patients treated with a high-potency versus moderate-potency statin regimen after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Amy; Cannon, Christopher P; de Lemos, James; Rouleau, Jean L; Lewis, Eldrin F; Guo, Jianping; Mega, Jessica L; Sabatine, Marc S; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2014-05-01

    Observational studies have raised concerns that high-potency statins increase the risk of acute kidney injury. We therefore examined the incidence of kidney injury across 2 randomized trials of statin therapy. PROVE IT-TIMI 22 enrolled 4162 subjects after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and randomized them to atorvastatin 80 mg/day versus pravastatin 40 mg/day. A-to-Z enrolled 4497 subjects after ACS and randomized them to a high-potency (simvastatin 40 mg/day × 1 months, then simvastatin 80 mg/day) versus a delayed moderate-potency statin strategy (placebo × 4 months, then simvastatin 20 mg/day). Serum creatinine was assessed centrally at serial time points. Adverse events (AEs) relating to kidney injury were identified through database review. Across both trials, mean serum creatinine was similar between treatment arms at baseline and throughout follow-up. In A-to-Z, the incidence of a 1.5-fold or ≥ 0.3 mg/dL rise in serum creatinine was 11.4% for subjects randomized to a high-potency statin regimen versus 12.4% for those on a delayed moderate-potency regimen (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.10; P=0.33). In PROVE IT-TIMI 22, the incidence was 9.4% for subjects randomized to atorvastatin 80 mg/day and 10.6% for subjects randomized to pravastatin 40 mg/day (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.09; P=0.25). Consistent results were observed for different kidney injury thresholds and in individuals with diabetes mellitus or with moderate renal dysfunction. The incidence of kidney injury-related adverse events (AEs) was not statistically different for patients on a high-potency versus moderate-potency statin regimen (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.67; P=0.78). For patients enrolled in 2 large randomized trials of statin therapy after ACS, the use of a high-potency statin regimen did not increase the risk of kidney injury.

  14. Benzimidazole-based derivatives as privileged scaffold developed for the treatment of the RSV infection: a computational study exploring the potency and cytotoxicity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Elena; Tonelli, Michele; Novelli, Federica; Tasso, Bruno; Delogu, Ilenia; Loddo, Roberta; Bruno, Olga; Fossa, Paola

    2017-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been identified as a main cause of hospitalisation in infants and children. To date, the current therapeutic arsenal is limited to ribavirin and palivizumab with variable efficacy. In this work, starting from a number of in-house series of previously described anti-RSV agents based on the benzimidazole scaffold, with the aim at gaining a better understanding of the related chemical features involved in potency and safety profiles, we applied a computational study including two focussed comparative molecular fields analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The results allowed us to derive useful suggestions for the design of derivatives and also to set up statistical models predicting the potency and selectivity index (SI = CC 50 /EC 50 ) of any new analogue prior to synthesis. Accordingly, here, we discuss preliminary results obtained through the applied exhaustive QSAR analyses, leading to design and synthesise more effective anti-RSV agents.

  15. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  16. In vitro and in vivo potency of insulin analogues designed for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vølund, A; Brange, J; Drejer, K; Jensen, I; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R; Schlichtkrull, J

    1991-11-01

    Analogues of human insulin designed to have improved absorption properties after subcutaneous injection have been prepared by recombinant DNA technology. Five rapidly absorbed analogues, being predominantly in mono- or di-meric states in the pharmaceutical preparation, and a hexameric analogue with very low solubility at neutral pH and slow absorption, were studied. Receptor binding assays with HEP-G2 cells showed overall agreement with mouse free adipocyte assays. Two analogues, B28Asp and A21Gly + B27Arg + B30Thr-NH2, had nearly the same molar in vitro potency as human insulin. Another two showed increased adipocyte potency and receptor binding, B10Asp 194% and 333% and A8His + B4His + B10Glu + B27His 575% and 511%, while B9Asp + B27Glu showed 29% and 18% and the B25Asp analogue only 0.12% and 0.05% potency. Bioassays in mice or rabbits of the analogues except B25Asp showed that they had the same in vivo potency as human insulin 1.00 IU = 6.00 nmol. Thus the variation had the same in vivo potency as human insulin 1.00 IU = 6.00 nmol. Thus the variation in in vivo potency reflects the differences in receptor binding affinity. Relative to human insulin a low concentration is sufficient for a high affinity analogue to produce a given receptor complex formation and metabolic response. In conclusion, human insulin and analogues with markedly different in vitro potencies were equipotent in terms of hypoglycaemic effect. This is in agreement with the concept that elimination of insulin from blood and its subsequent degradation is mediated by insulin receptors.

  17. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  18. Comparing Relational and Ontological Triple Stores in Healthcare Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgu Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s technological improvements have made ubiquitous healthcare systems that converge into smart healthcare applications in order to solve patients’ problems, to communicate effectively with patients, and to improve healthcare service quality. The first step of building a smart healthcare information system is representing the healthcare data as connected, reachable, and sharable. In order to achieve this representation, ontologies are used to describe the healthcare data. Combining ontological healthcare data with the used and obtained data can be maintained by storing the entire health domain data inside big data stores that support both relational and graph-based ontological data. There are several big data stores and different types of big data sets in the healthcare domain. The goal of this paper is to determine the most applicable ontology data store for storing the big healthcare data. For this purpose, AllegroGraph and Oracle 12c data stores are compared based on their infrastructural capacity, loading time, and query response times. Hence, healthcare ontologies (GENE Ontology, Gene Expression Ontology (GEXO, Regulation of Transcription Ontology (RETO, Regulation of Gene Expression Ontology (REXO are used to measure the ontology loading time. Thereafter, various queries are constructed and executed for GENE ontology in order to measure the capacity and query response times for the performance comparison between AllegroGraph and Oracle 12c triple stores.

  19. Comparative Study on The Potency of Antibiotic Discs With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were screened for UTI and forty-three (43) were ... UTI may be asymptomatic in many cases, while it ... treatment. Resistant bacteria can also pass on their resistance genes to other .... Tract Infection among Pregnant Women.

  20. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidial drugs and their main abiotic degradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A.; Brandt, Asbjorn; Christensen, Jan H.; Halling-Sorensen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    The antibacterial potency of eight anticoccidial drugs was tested in a soil bacteria bioassay (pour plate method), EC 50 -values between 2.4 and 19.6 μM were obtained; however, one compound, nicarbazin exhibited an EC 50 -value above the maximum tested concentration (21 μM, 9.1 mg L -1 ). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC 50 -values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light on the transformation of robenidine and salinomycin was investigated. Robenidine was transformed by photolysis (DT 50 of 4.1 days) and was unstable at low pH (DT 50 of approximately 4 days); salinomycin was merely transformed at low pH, the latter into an unknown number of products. The antibacterial potency of the mixtures of transformation products of robenidine after photolysis and at low pH was comparable with that of the parent compound. Finally five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated by accurate mass measurements, i-FIT values (isotopic pattern fit) and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. - Five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated. This mixture was found to have similar antibacterial potency as the parent compound

  1. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidial drugs and their main abiotic degradation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Martin [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: mah@farma.ku.dk; Krogh, Kristine A. [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Brandt, Asbjorn [Section of Veterinary Medicines, Danish Medicines Agency, Axel Heides Gade 1, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H. [Section of Soil and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Halling-Sorensen, Bent [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    The antibacterial potency of eight anticoccidial drugs was tested in a soil bacteria bioassay (pour plate method), EC{sub 50}-values between 2.4 and 19.6 {mu}M were obtained; however, one compound, nicarbazin exhibited an EC{sub 50}-value above the maximum tested concentration (21 {mu}M, 9.1 mg L{sup -1}). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC{sub 50}-values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light on the transformation of robenidine and salinomycin was investigated. Robenidine was transformed by photolysis (DT{sub 50} of 4.1 days) and was unstable at low pH (DT{sub 50} of approximately 4 days); salinomycin was merely transformed at low pH, the latter into an unknown number of products. The antibacterial potency of the mixtures of transformation products of robenidine after photolysis and at low pH was comparable with that of the parent compound. Finally five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated by accurate mass measurements, i-FIT values (isotopic pattern fit) and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. - Five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated. This mixture was found to have similar antibacterial potency as the parent compound.

  2. Relative fault and efficient negligence: comparative negligence explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Hendriks, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative negligence poses a persisting puzzle in law & economics. Under standard assumptions, its performance is identical to other negligence rules, while its implementation is slightly more complex. If so, why is it the most common rule? In this paper, we advance a novel argument: comparative

  3. Comparative genomics of bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and related probiotic genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David; Wassenaar, Trudy M.

    2012-01-01

    Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4...... Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic......- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature...

  4. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Design Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Setting Ecological study with assessments at

  5. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in

  6. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. 21 CFR 640.56 - Quality control test for potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quality control test for potency may be performed by a clinical laboratory which meets the standards of... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control test for potency. 640.56 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.56 Quality control...

  8. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recommended for slide tests or microplate techniques. Blood Grouping Reagent recommended for slide test... Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference Blood Grouping Reagents are not available shall be tested for potency by a method approved by the Director...

  9. Comparing Post-Newtonian and Numerical-Relativity Precession Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Lawrence; Ossokine, Sergei; Boyle, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-04-01

    Binary black-hole systems are expected to be important sources of gravitational waves for upcoming gravitational-wave detectors. If the spins are not colinear with each other or with the orbital angular momentum, these systems exhibit complicated precession dynamics that are imprinted on the gravitational waveform. We develop a new procedure to match the precession dynamics computed by post-Newtonian (PN) theory to those of numerical binary black-hole simulations in full general relativity. For numerical relativity (NR) simulations lasting approximately two precession cycles, we find that the PN and NR predictions for the directions of the orbital angular momentum and the spins agree to better than ~1° with NR during the inspiral, increasing to 5° near merger. Nutation of the orbital plane on the orbital time-scale agrees well between NR and PN, whereas nutation of the spin direction shows qualitatively different behavior in PN and NR. We also examine how the PN equations for precession and orbital-phase evolution converge with PN order, and we quantify the impact of various choices for handling partially known PN terms.

  10. Evaluation of the use of various rat strains for immunogenic potency tests of Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Yuichi; Ami, Yasushi; Takai-Todaka, Reiko; Fujimoto, Akira; Haga, Kei; Murakami, Kosuke; Fujii, Yoshiki; Shirato, Haruko; Oka, Tomoichiro; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Takaji

    2018-03-01

    Slc:Wistar rats have been the only strain used in Japan for purpose of evaluating a national reference vaccine for the Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV) and the immunogenicity of sIPV-containing products. However, following the discovery that the Slc:Wistar strain was genetically related to the Fischer 344 strain, other "real" Wistar strains, such as Crlj:WI, that are available worldwide were tested in terms of their usefulness in evaluating the immunogenicity of the past and current lots of a national reference vaccine. The response of the Crlj:WI rats against the serotype 1 of sIPV was comparable to that of the Slc:Wistar rats, while the Crlj:WI rats exhibited a higher level of response against the serotypes 2 and 3. The immunogenic potency units of a national reference vaccine determined using the Slc:Wistar rats were reproduced on tests using the Crlj:WI rats. These results indicate that a titer of the neutralizing antibody obtained in response to a given dose of sIPV cannot be directly compared between these two rat strains, but that, more importantly, the potency units are almost equivalent for the two rat strains. Copyright © 2018 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HOLLYWOOD: a comparative relational database of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Dirk; Huo, George; Tung, Vivian; Burge, Christopher B

    2006-01-01

    RNA splicing is an essential step in gene expression, and is often variable, giving rise to multiple alternatively spliced mRNA and protein isoforms from a single gene locus. The design of effective databases to support experimental and computational investigations of alternative splicing (AS) is a significant challenge. In an effort to integrate accurate exon and splice site annotation with current knowledge about splicing regulatory elements and predicted AS events, and to link information about the splicing of orthologous genes in different species, we have developed the Hollywood system. This database was built upon genomic annotation of splicing patterns of known genes derived from spliced alignment of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and expressed sequence tags, and links features such as splice site sequence and strength, exonic splicing enhancers and silencers, conserved and non-conserved patterns of splicing, and cDNA library information for inferred alternative exons. Hollywood was implemented as a relational database and currently contains comprehensive information for human and mouse. It is accompanied by a web query tool that allows searches for sets of exons with specific splicing characteristics or splicing regulatory element composition, or gives a graphical or sequence-level summary of splicing patterns for a specific gene. A streamlined graphical representation of gene splicing patterns is provided, and these patterns can alternatively be layered onto existing information in the UCSC Genome Browser. The database is accessible at http://hollywood.mit.edu.

  12. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  13. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-10-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in a coffee shop. Young adult frequent cannabis users (n = 106) from the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study. The objectively measured amount of cannabis per joint (dose in grams) was compared with self-reported estimates using a prompt card and average number of joints made from 1 g of cannabis. In addition, objectively assessed THC concentration in the participant's cannabis was compared with self-reported level of intoxication, subjective estimate of cannabis potency and price per gram of cannabis. Objective estimates of doses per joint (0.07-0.88 g/joint) and cannabis potency (1.1-24.7%) varied widely. Self-reported measures of dose were imprecise, but at group level, average dose per joint was estimated accurately with the number of joints made from 1 g [limit of agreement (LOA) = -0.02 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29; 0.26], whereas the prompt card resulted in serious underestimation (LOA = 0.14 g, 95% CI = -0.10; 0.37). THC concentration in cannabis was associated with subjective potency ['average' 3.77% (P = 0.002) and '(very) strong' 5.13% more THC (P cannabis] and with cannabis price (about 1% increase in THC concentration per euro spent on 1 g of cannabis, P cannabis use appear at best to be associated weakly with objective measures. Of the self-report measures, number of joints per gram, cannabis price and subjective potency have at least some validity. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Potency after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, Louis; Torre, Taryn; Fearn, Paul A.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of potency preservation after treatment of localized prostate cancer with transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and the efficacy of sildenafil were studied. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 482 patients who were able to maintain an erection suitable for intercourse before treatment from a cohort of 1166 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with PPB. All patients have been followed prospectively, and actuarial analysis was performed to assess potency preservation over time. Patients treated with sildenafil were evaluated as to its efficacy. Results: The median follow-up of this cohort was 34 months (6-92), with a median age of 68 years (47-80). Potency was preserved in 311 of the 482 patients, with a 5-year actuarial potency rate of 52.7%. The 5-year actuarial potency rate for patients treated with PPB as monotherapy was 76%, and, for those treated with combination external beam radiotherapy (EBT) + PPB, 56% (p=0.08). Patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) + PPB had a 5-year potency rate of 52%, whereas those with combination EBT + PPB + NAAD had a potency rate of 29% (p=0.13). Cox regression analysis identified that pretreatment use of NAAD and patient age predicted for impotence (p=0.0001 and 0.04, respectively). Of 84 patients treated with sildenafil, 52 had a successful outcome (62%). The response to sildenafil was significantly better in those patients not treated with NAAD (p=0.04). Conclusions: The actuarial potency rates at 5 years for patients treated with PPB are lower than generally acknowledged, except for those patients treated with PPB as monotherapy. Patients who received sildenafil exhibited improved potency in a majority of cases

  15. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H. [Inst. for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonneveld, E. [BioDetection Systems (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Murk, A.J. [Wageningen Univ., Toxicology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P. [Royal Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands); Brouwer, A. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Substantial evidence is recently becoming available that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are potential endocrine disruptors. The toxicological profile of BFRs, however, is too incomplete and insufficient to perform human and ecological risk assessment. To fill these gaps, the EU funded research program FIRE was started in December 2002. This program aims at the identification and toxicological characterization of the most potent and environmentally relevant BFRs and their possible risk for human and wildlife health. As part of a hazard identification approach, twenty seven BFRs have been selected within the framework of FIRE for pre-screening their endocrinedisrupting potencies. Selection of test compounds was based on a maximal variation in physicochemical characteristics of BFRs within the test set, allowing the establishment of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). In addition, environmental relevance (e.g. high production volumes and persistence) and availability for testing were used as selection criteria. BFRs were tested in seven different in vitro bioassays for their potency to interfere via estrogenic, thyroidal, androgenic, progestagenic, and Ah-receptor mediated pathways. Metabolisation rates of BFRs were determined using phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Finally, the endocrine disrupting potency of the metabolites was determined in the same in vitro bio-assays and compared to the potency of the parent compounds.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis: A commentary on the relationship between T lymphocytes and skin sensitising potency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, Ian; Maxwell, Gavin; Gilmour, Nicky; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Friedmann, Peter S.; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    T lymphocytes mediate skin sensitisation and allergic contact dermatitis. Not unexpectedly, therefore, there is considerable interest in the use of T lymphocyte-based assays as alternative strategies for the identification of skin sensitising chemicals. However, in addition to accurate identification of hazards the development of effective risk assessments requires that information is available about the relative skin sensitising potency of contact allergens. The purpose of this article is to consider the relationships that exist between the characteristics of T lymphocyte responses to contact allergens and the effectiveness/potency of sensitisation. We propose that there are 3 aspects of T lymphocyte responses that have the potential to impact on the potency of sensitisation. These are: (a) the magnitude of response, and in particular the vigour and duration of proliferation and the clonal expansion of allergen-reactive T lymphocytes, (b) the quality of response, including the balance achieved between effector and regulatory cells, and (c) the breadth of response and the clonal diversity of T lymphocyte responses. A case is made that there may be opportunities to exploit an understanding of T lymphocyte responses to contact allergens to develop novel paradigms for predicting skin sensitising potency and new approaches to risk assessment.

  17. The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana potency has risen dramatically over the past two decades. In the United States, it is unclear whether state medical marijuana policies have contributed to this increase. Methods Employing a differences-in-differences model within a mediation framework, we analyzed data on n = 39,157 marijuana samples seized by law enforcement in 51 U.S. jurisdictions between 1990-2010, producing estimates of the direct and indirect effects of state medical marijuana laws on potency, as measured by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Results We found evidence that potency increased by a half percentage point on average after legalization of medical marijuana, although this result was not significant. When we examined specific medical marijuana supply provisions, results suggest that legal allowances for retail dispensaries had the strongest influence, significantly increasing potency by about one percentage point on average. Our mediation analyses examining the mechanisms through which medical marijuana laws influence potency found no evidence of direct regulatory impact. Rather, the results suggest that the impact of these laws occurs predominantly through a compositional shift in the share of the market captured by high-potency sinsemilla. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for policymakers and those in the scientific community trying to understand the extent to which greater availability of higher potency marijuana increases the risk of negative public health outcomes, such as drugged driving and drug-induced psychoses. Future work should reconsider the impact of medical marijuana laws on health outcomes in light of dramatic and ongoing shifts in both marijuana potency and the medical marijuana policy environment. PMID:24502887

  18. Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.

  19. Relative Potency of Teacher Attitudes Toward Black and Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Miriam

    The attitudes of nine teachers in three graded, open classrooms toward their home-base pupils were measured using Schaefer's Classroom Behavior Inventory (CBI). CBI explores teacher perception of the child's behavior in the area of extraversion-introversion, task orientation-distractability, and hostility-considerateness. The total group of 87…

  20. Environmental levels and toxicological potencies of a novel mixed halogenated carbazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Pena-Abaurrea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves an extensive analytical and toxicological description of a recently identified mixed halogenated carbazole found in sediment samples, 1,8-dibromo-3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazole (BCCZ. Concentrations and the relative effect potency (REP were calculated for the target BCCZ in a set of stream sediments collected in 2008 in Ontario, Canada. The levels calculated for BCCZ as compared to those previously assessed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs in the same samples revealed a significant contribution of BCCZ to the total organic chemical contamination (<1%–95%; average 37%. The corresponding dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs of BCCZ in the sediment extracts were estimated from experimental REP data. The experimental data presented supports the classification of this emerging halogenated chemical as a contaminant of emerging environmental concern. Although potential emission sources could not be identified, this study highlights the importance of on-going research for complete characterization of halogenated carbazoles and related compounds.

  1. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  2. A new ELISA for determination of potency in snake antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, A; Morais, V; Rossi, S; Massaldi, H

    2006-09-15

    A competitive ELISA for potency determination of bothropic equine antivenom was developed and compared to the conventional in vivo ED(50) assay, with the aim of partially substituting the in vivo assay in the monitoring of antivenom immunoglobulin levels. On this purpose, blood samples were taken at different times during and after the immunization protocol of the lot of horses used for production of snake antivenom at the Instituto de Higiene, Uruguay. Both the competitive ELISA and the ED(50) assay were performed on those samples. In addition, a group of five commercial pepsin-digested antivenoms were tested by both methods. A significant (P<0.001) correlation (Pearson's r=0.957) was found between the ELISA titres and the corresponding ED(50) values, indicating that the in vitro test can estimate the neutralizing antibody capacity of the sera as well as the in vivo assay. By means of this new ELISA, it was found that the immunized animals maintained good venom antibody titres, in the order of 20-50% of the maximum achieved, even 10 month after the end of the immunization schedule. The main advantage of our ELISA design is its ability to correctly estimate the neutralization capacity of crude hyperimmune plasma and antivenom sera independently of their antibody composition in terms of whole IgG or F(ab')(2) fragment.

  3. Relationship between potency and boiling point of general anesthetics: a thermodynamic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, S; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2000-07-20

    The most important group of nonspecific drugs is that of the general anesthetics. These nonspecific compounds vary greatly in structure, from noble gases such as Ar or Xe to complex steroids. Since the development of clinical anesthesia over a century ago, there has been a vast amount of research and speculation concerning the mechanism of action of general anesthetics. Despite these efforts, the exact mechanism remains unknown. Many theories of narcosis do not explain how unconsciousness is produced at a molecular level, but instead relate some physicochemical property of anesthetic agents to their anesthetic potencies. In this paper, we address some of those physicochemical properties, with more emphasis on correlating the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics to their boiling points based on thermodynamic principles.

  4. Comparative Rates of Mortality and Serious Adverse Effects Among Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David L; Lebin, Jacob A; Severtson, Stevan G; Olsen, Heather A; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Dart, Richard C

    2018-03-26

    The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS ® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016. Rates of SAEs were adjusted for availability through outpatient dispensing data and regressed on morphine milligram equivalents (MME). There were 19,480 cases of SAE during the 7-year study period. Hydrocodone and oxycodone contributed to 77% of SAE cases. Comparing rates of outcome by relative potency, a hierarchy was observed with hydromorphone (8.02 SAEs/100 kg) and tapentadol (0.27 SAE/100 kg) as the highest and lowest rates, reflecting a 30-fold difference among individual opioid products. SAE rate and potency were related linearly-SAEs increased 2.04 per 100 kg drug dispensed for each 1-unit rise in MME (p = 0.004). Linear regression of SAE/100 kg drug dispensed and drug potency identified that MME comprised 96% of the variation observed. In contrast, potency did not explain variation seen using other study denominators (prescriptions dispensed, dosage units dispensed, and the number of individuals filling a prescription). Potency of a prescription opioid analgesic demonstrates a significant, highly positive linear relationship with exposures resulting in SAEs per 100 kg drug dispensed reported to poison centers

  5. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated chemical and biological analysis to explain estrogenic potency in bile extracts of red mullet (Mullus barbatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción, E-mail: concepcion.martinez@mu.ieo.es [Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Oceanografic Centre of Murcia, Varadero 1, San Pedro del Pinatar, 30740 Murcia (Spain); Lamoree, M.; Hamers, T.; Velzen, M. van; Kamstra, J.H. [VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fernández, B.; Benedicto, J.; León, V.M. [Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Oceanografic Centre of Murcia, Varadero 1, San Pedro del Pinatar, 30740 Murcia (Spain); Vethaak, A.D. [VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deltares, Marine and Coastal Systems, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •In vitro estrogenic activity was quantified in male bile extracts of feral red mullet. •Major PAH metabolites and alkylphenols were quantified in the same fish bile extracts. •Contribution of these compounds to the estrogenicity measured was found negligible. •PAH and alkylphenol fish exposure was low in most of the studied Mediterranean sites. •High estrogenicity in male fish from Mar Menor lagoon warrants further studies. -- Abstract: A biological screening was performed to establish the total exposure to estrogenic compounds of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) collected at several sites along the Spanish Mediterranean coast by testing male fish bile extracts using the in vitro ER-LUC reporter gene assay. In addition, major metabolites were identified and measurements of OH-PAHs (1-naphthol, 9-phenantrol, 9-fluorenol, 1-pyrenol, 1OH-BaP and 3OH-BaP) and alkylphenols (4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and 4-tertoctylphenol (4-tert-OP)) in the same fish bile extracts were taken by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode (GC–EI-MS). Relative in vitro estrogenic potencies of the chemically quantified compounds were also tested. The highest biliary concentrations of 1-pyrenol, 9-fluorenol and 4-n-NP were found in fish from Barcelona and from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. However, these concentrations can be considered relatively low compared to values reported in red mullet from other polluted waters in the Mediterranean Sea. The contribution of 1-pyrenol, 4-n-NP and 4-tert-OP to the total estrogenic potency measured in male fish bile was found to be negligible, indicating the presence of other estrogenic compounds in red mullet bile. Estrogenic potency in bile from male fish was markedly elevated in Mar Menor lagoon (234.8 ± 5.7 pg E2EQ/μl), and further research will be necessary to explain whether the presence of natural and synthetic-hormones in the lagoon contributed to this finding. Values of approximately 15–16 E2EQ pg

  7. Integrated chemical and biological analysis to explain estrogenic potency in bile extracts of red mullet (Mullus barbatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lamoree, M.; Hamers, T.; Velzen, M. van; Kamstra, J.H.; Fernández, B.; Benedicto, J.; León, V.M.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •In vitro estrogenic activity was quantified in male bile extracts of feral red mullet. •Major PAH metabolites and alkylphenols were quantified in the same fish bile extracts. •Contribution of these compounds to the estrogenicity measured was found negligible. •PAH and alkylphenol fish exposure was low in most of the studied Mediterranean sites. •High estrogenicity in male fish from Mar Menor lagoon warrants further studies. -- Abstract: A biological screening was performed to establish the total exposure to estrogenic compounds of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) collected at several sites along the Spanish Mediterranean coast by testing male fish bile extracts using the in vitro ER-LUC reporter gene assay. In addition, major metabolites were identified and measurements of OH-PAHs (1-naphthol, 9-phenantrol, 9-fluorenol, 1-pyrenol, 1OH-BaP and 3OH-BaP) and alkylphenols (4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and 4-tertoctylphenol (4-tert-OP)) in the same fish bile extracts were taken by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode (GC–EI-MS). Relative in vitro estrogenic potencies of the chemically quantified compounds were also tested. The highest biliary concentrations of 1-pyrenol, 9-fluorenol and 4-n-NP were found in fish from Barcelona and from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. However, these concentrations can be considered relatively low compared to values reported in red mullet from other polluted waters in the Mediterranean Sea. The contribution of 1-pyrenol, 4-n-NP and 4-tert-OP to the total estrogenic potency measured in male fish bile was found to be negligible, indicating the presence of other estrogenic compounds in red mullet bile. Estrogenic potency in bile from male fish was markedly elevated in Mar Menor lagoon (234.8 ± 5.7 pg E2EQ/μl), and further research will be necessary to explain whether the presence of natural and synthetic-hormones in the lagoon contributed to this finding. Values of approximately 15–16 E2EQ pg

  8. Potency assay design for adjuvanted recombinant proteins as malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersing, Birgitte K; Dubovsky, Filip; Saul, Allan; Denamur, Francoise; Minor, Philip; Meade, Bruce

    2006-05-15

    Many licensed vaccines are composed of live, attenuated or inactivated whole-cell microorganisms, or they comprise purified components from whole-cell extracts or culture supernatants. For some diseases, pathology is fairly well understood, and there may be known correlates of protection that provide obvious parameters for assessment of vaccine potency. However, this is not always the case, and some effective vaccines are routinely used even though the mechanisms or correlates of protection are unknown. Some more modern vaccine approaches employ purified recombinant proteins, based on molecules that appear on the surface of the pathogen. This is one of the strategies that has been adopted in the quest to develop a malaria vaccine. Use of these parasite antigens as vaccine candidates is supported by substantial epidemiological data, and some have demonstrated the ability to elicit protective responses in animal models of malaria infection. However, there is as yet no immunological correlate of protection and no functional assays or animal models that have demonstrated the ability to predict efficacy in humans. There is little precedence for the most appropriate and practical method for assessing potency of vaccines based on these recombinant molecules for malaria vaccines. This is likely because the majority of malaria vaccine candidates have only recently entered clinical evaluation. The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) convened a panel with expertise in potency assay design from industry, governmental institutions, and regulatory bodies to discuss and review the rationale, available methods, and best approaches for assessing the potency of recombinant proteins, specifically for their use as malarial vaccines. The aim of this meeting was to produce a discussion document on the practical potency assessment of recombinant protein malaria vaccines, focusing on early phase potency assay development.

  9. Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potency of chemicals by using the existing methods and considerations of relevance for elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basketter, David A; Andersen, Klaus E; Liden, Carola

    2005-01-01

    be translated into practical thresholds and whether these could be set for both induction and elicitation. Examples are given for substances falling into various potency groups for skin sensitization relating to results from the local lymph node assay, the guinea pig maximization test, the Buehler method...... products, cosmetics, food and feeding stuffs, which are subject to specific community legislation. The main questions that are answered in this report are whether it would be possible to give detailed guidance on how to grade allergen potency based on the existing methods, whether such grading could...

  10. ''Spare'' alpha 1-adrenergic receptors and the potency of agonists in rat vas deferens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minneman, K.P.; Abel, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of ''spare'' alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in rat vas deferens was examined directly using radioligand binding assays and contractility measurements. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in homogenates of rat vas deferens were labeled with [ 125 I]BE 2254 ( 125 IBE). Norepinephrine and other full alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonists were much less potent in inhibiting 125 IBE binding than in contracting the vas deferens in vitro. Treatment with 300 nM phenoxybenzamine for 10 min to irreversibly inactivate alpha 1-adrenergic receptors caused a large decrease in the potency of full agonists in causing contraction of this tissue and a 23-48% decrease in the maximal contraction observed. Using those data, equilibrium constants for activation (Kact values) of the receptors by agonists were calculated. These Kact values agreed well with the equilibrium binding constants (KD values) determined from displacement of 125 IBE binding. The reduction in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor density following phenoxybenzamine treatment was determined by Scatchard analysis of specific 125 IBE binding sites and compared with the expected reduction (q values) calculated from the agonist dose-response curves before and after phenoxybenzamine treatment. This suggests that phenoxybenzamine functionally inactivates alpha 1-adrenergic receptors at or near the receptor binding site. These experiments suggest that the potencies of agonists in activating alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in rat vas deferens agree well with their potencies in binding to the receptors. The greater potency of agonists in causing contraction may be due to spare receptors in this tissue. The data also demonstrate that phenoxybenzamine irreversibly inactivates alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in rat vas deferens, but that the decrease in receptor density is much smaller than that predicted from receptor theory

  11. Critical elements in the development of cell therapy potency assays for ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Yael; Abraham, Eytan; Karnieli, Ohad; Nahum, Sagi; Woda, Juliana; Zylberberg, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    A successful potency assay for a cell therapy product (CTP) used in the treatment of ischemic conditions should quantitatively measure relevant biological properties that predict therapeutic activity. This is especially challenging because of numerous degrees of complexity stemming from factors that include a multifactorial complex mechanism of action, cell source, inherent cell characteristics, culture method, administration mode and the in vivo conditions to which the cells are exposed. The expected biological function of a CTP encompasses complex interactions that range from a biochemical, metabolic or immunological activity to structural replacement of damaged tissue or organ. Therefore, the requirements for full characterization of the active substance with respect to biological function could be taxing. Moreover, the specific mechanism of action is often difficult to pinpoint to a specific molecular entity; rather, it is more dependent on the functionality of the cellular components acting in a in a multifactorial fashion. In the case of ischemic conditions, the cell therapy mechanism of action can vary from angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and arteriogenesis that may activate different pathways and clinical outcomes. The CTP cellular attributes with relation to the suggested mechanism of action can be used for the development of quantitative and reproducible analytical potency assays. CTPs selected and released on the basis of such potency assays should have the highest probability of providing meaningful clinical benefit for patients. This White Paper will discuss and give examples for key elements in the development of a potency assay for treatment of ischemic disorders treated by the use of CTPs. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High Throughput Combinatorial Formatting of PcrV Nanobodies for Efficient Potency Improvement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tavernier, Evelyn; Detalle, Laurent; Morizzo, Erika; Roobrouck, Annelies; De Taeye, Severine; Rieger, Melanie; Verhaeghe, Tom; Correia, Andreia; Van Hegelsom, Rob; Figueirido, Rita; Noens, Jeroen; Steffensen, Søren; Stöhr, Thomas; Van de Velde, Willem; Depla, Erik; Dombrecht, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Improving potencies through concomitant blockage of multiple epitopes and avid binding by fusing multiple (different) monovalent Nanobody building blocks via linker sequences into one multivalent polypeptide chain is an elegant alternative to affinity maturation. We explored a large and random formatting library of bivalent (combinations of two identical) and biparatopic (combinations of two different) Nanobodies for functional blockade of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PcrV. PcrV is an essential part of the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS), and its oligomeric nature allows for multiple complex binding and blocking options. The library screening yielded a large number of promising biparatopic lead candidates, revealing significant (and non-trivial) preferences in terms of Nanobody building block and epitope bin combinations and orientations. Excellent potencies were confirmed upon further characterization in two different P. aeruginosa T3SS-mediated cytotoxicity assays. Three biparatopic Nanobodies were evaluated in a lethal mouse P. aeruginosa challenge pneumonia model, conferring 100% survival upon prophylactic administration and reducing lung P. aeruginosa burden by up to 2 logs. At very low doses, they protected the mice from P. aeruginosa infection-related changes in lung histology, myeloperoxidase production, and lung weight. Importantly, the most potent Nanobody still conferred protection after therapeutic administration up to 24 h post-infection. The concept of screening such formatting libraries for potency improvement is applicable to other targets and biological therapeutic platforms. PMID:27226529

  13. Developmental control of transcriptional and proliferative potency during the evolutionary emergence of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Coffman, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary It is proposed that the evolution of complex animals required repressive genetic mechanisms for controlling the transcriptional and proliferative potency of cells. Unicellular organisms are transcriptionally potent, able to express their full genetic complement as the need arises through their life cycle, whereas differentiated cells of multicellular organisms can only express a fraction of their genomic potential. Likewise, whereas cell proliferation in unicellular organisms is primarily limited by nutrient availability, cell proliferation in multicellular organisms is developmentally regulated. Repressive genetic controls limiting the potency of cells at the end of ontogeny would have stabilized the gene expression states of differentiated cells and prevented disruptive proliferation, allowing the emergence of diverse cell types and functional shapes. We propose that distal cis-regulatory elements represent the primary innovations that set the stage for the evolution of developmental gene regulatory networks and the repressive control of key multipotency and cell-cycle control genes. The testable prediction of this model is that the genomes of extant animals, unlike those of our unicellular relatives, encode gene regulatory circuits dedicated to the developmental control of transcriptional and proliferative potency. PMID:26173445

  14. Considerations for potency equivalent calculations in the Ah receptor-based CALUX bioassay: normalization of superinduction results for improved sample potency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, David S; Denison, Michael S

    2011-02-15

    The chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) system is a mechanistically based recombinant luciferase reporter gene cell bioassay used in combination with chemical extraction and clean-up methods for the detection and relative quantitation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related dioxin-like halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in a wide variety of sample matrices. While sample extracts containing complex mixtures of chemicals can produce a variety of distinct concentration-dependent luciferase induction responses in CALUX cells, these effects are produced through a common mechanism of action (i.e. the Ah receptor (AhR)) allowing normalization of results and sample potency determination. Here we describe the diversity in CALUX response to PCDD/Fs from sediment and soil extracts and not only report the occurrence of superinduction of the CALUX bioassay, but we describe a mechanistically based approach for normalization of superinduction data that results in a more accurate estimation of the relative potency of such sample extracts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the efficacies, potencies and bacteriological qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacies, potencies and qualities of these antibiotics were tested against some clinical isolates which include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro. The overall mean zones of inhibition for the test organisms ranged from 33.0 ...

  16. Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem ( Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potency of aqueous and methanolic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel, in inhibiting and disrupting development of Anopheles mosquito was assessed in the laboratory. Different concentrations of aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested on eggs, larvae and pupae. Both extracts were found ...

  17. Potency Studies of live- Attenuated Viral Vaccines Administered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We critically carried out a potency study in 1992 and 1997 on measles and poliovirus vaccines administered at five different vaccination centers in the metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. using WHO guidelines on titration of live- viral vaccines, our results revealed that only 6 (16.7%) of 36 measles vaccine (MV) vials and 11 ...

  18. Protective effects of high-potency FMDV O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Perez, Claudia Beascoechea; Maradei, Eduardo; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Gonzales, Jose L.; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B.; Bonastre, Paula; Vosloo, Wilna

    2017-01-01

    Serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus belonging to the SEA topotype continues to be a significant problem in the Eastern Asia region, with outbreaks in Japan and South Korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. High-potency O1 Manisa vaccine was

  19. Prediction of skin sensitization potency using machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qingda; Paris, Michael; Lehmann, David M; Bell, Shannon; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Allen, David; Matheson, Joanna; Jacobs, Abigail; Casey, Warren; Strickland, Judy

    2017-07-01

    The replacement of animal use in testing for regulatory classification of skin sensitizers is a priority for US federal agencies that use data from such testing. Machine learning models that classify substances as sensitizers or non-sensitizers without using animal data have been developed and evaluated. Because some regulatory agencies require that sensitizers be further classified into potency categories, we developed statistical models to predict skin sensitization potency for murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human outcomes. Input variables for our models included six physicochemical properties and data from three non-animal test methods: direct peptide reactivity assay; human cell line activation test; and KeratinoSens™ assay. Models were built to predict three potency categories using four machine learning approaches and were validated using external test sets and leave-one-out cross-validation. A one-tiered strategy modeled all three categories of response together while a two-tiered strategy modeled sensitizer/non-sensitizer responses and then classified the sensitizers as strong or weak sensitizers. The two-tiered model using the support vector machine with all assay and physicochemical data inputs provided the best performance, yielding accuracy of 88% for prediction of LLNA outcomes (120 substances) and 81% for prediction of human test outcomes (87 substances). The best one-tiered model predicted LLNA outcomes with 78% accuracy and human outcomes with 75% accuracy. By comparison, the LLNA predicts human potency categories with 69% accuracy (60 of 87 substances correctly categorized). These results suggest that computational models using non-animal methods may provide valuable information for assessing skin sensitization potency. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Embryotoxic and pharmacologic potency ranking of six azoles in the rat whole embryo culture by morphological and transcriptomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulou, Myrto; Verhoef, Aart; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Ravenzwaay, Bennard van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2017-01-01

    Differential gene expression analysis in the rat whole embryo culture (WEC) assay provides mechanistic insight into the embryotoxicity of test compounds. In our study, we hypothesized that comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of rat embryos exposed to six azoles (flusilazole, triadimefon, ketoconazole, miconazole, difenoconazole and prothioconazole) could lead to a better mechanism-based understanding of their embryotoxicity and pharmacological action. For evaluating embryotoxicity, we applied the total morphological scoring system (TMS) in embryos exposed for 48 h. The compounds tested showed embryotoxicity in a dose-response fashion. Functional analysis of differential gene expression after 4 h exposure at the ID 10 (effective dose for 10% decreased TMS), revealed the sterol biosynthesis pathway and embryonic development genes, dominated by genes in the retinoic acid (RA) pathway, albeit in a differential way. Flusilazole, ketoconazole and triadimefon were the most potent compounds affecting the RA pathway, while in terms of regulation of sterol function, difenoconazole and ketoconazole showed the most pronounced effects. Dose-dependent analysis of the effects of flusilazole revealed that the RA pathway related genes were already differentially expressed at low dose levels while the sterol pathway showed strong regulation at higher embryotoxic doses, suggesting that this pathway is less predictive for the observed embryotoxicity. A similar analysis at the 24-hour time point indicated an additional time-dependent difference in the aforementioned pathways regulated by flusilazole. In summary, the rat WEC assay in combination with transcriptomics could add a mechanistic insight into the embryotoxic potency ranking and pharmacological mode of action of the tested compounds. - Highlights: • Embryonic exposure to azoles revealed concentration-dependent malformations. • Transcriptomics could enhance the mechanistic knowledge of embryotoxicants. • Retinoic

  1. Embryotoxic and pharmacologic potency ranking of six azoles in the rat whole embryo culture by morphological and transcriptomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulou, Myrto, E-mail: myrto.dimopoulou@wur.nl [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University (Netherlands); National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Pennings, Jeroen L.A. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Ravenzwaay, Bennard van [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University (Netherlands); BASF SE, Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-01

    Differential gene expression analysis in the rat whole embryo culture (WEC) assay provides mechanistic insight into the embryotoxicity of test compounds. In our study, we hypothesized that comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of rat embryos exposed to six azoles (flusilazole, triadimefon, ketoconazole, miconazole, difenoconazole and prothioconazole) could lead to a better mechanism-based understanding of their embryotoxicity and pharmacological action. For evaluating embryotoxicity, we applied the total morphological scoring system (TMS) in embryos exposed for 48 h. The compounds tested showed embryotoxicity in a dose-response fashion. Functional analysis of differential gene expression after 4 h exposure at the ID{sub 10} (effective dose for 10% decreased TMS), revealed the sterol biosynthesis pathway and embryonic development genes, dominated by genes in the retinoic acid (RA) pathway, albeit in a differential way. Flusilazole, ketoconazole and triadimefon were the most potent compounds affecting the RA pathway, while in terms of regulation of sterol function, difenoconazole and ketoconazole showed the most pronounced effects. Dose-dependent analysis of the effects of flusilazole revealed that the RA pathway related genes were already differentially expressed at low dose levels while the sterol pathway showed strong regulation at higher embryotoxic doses, suggesting that this pathway is less predictive for the observed embryotoxicity. A similar analysis at the 24-hour time point indicated an additional time-dependent difference in the aforementioned pathways regulated by flusilazole. In summary, the rat WEC assay in combination with transcriptomics could add a mechanistic insight into the embryotoxic potency ranking and pharmacological mode of action of the tested compounds. - Highlights: • Embryonic exposure to azoles revealed concentration-dependent malformations. • Transcriptomics could enhance the mechanistic knowledge of embryotoxicants.

  2. Sanctioning Large-Scale Domestic Cannabis Production - Potency, Yield and Professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim; Lindholst, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose...... that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum......-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin....

  3. Sexual potency following interactive ultrasound-guided brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Stone, Nelson N.; Iannuzzi, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of a therapeutic modality on sexual potency is often an important consideration for patients choosing a treatment for prostate cancer. We prospectively assessed patients' penile erectile function before and following interactive ultrasound-guided transperineal permanent radioactive seed implantation to determine its effect on sexual function. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine patients underwent permanent radioactive seed implantation from June 1990 to April 1994 for localized prostate cancer (T1-T2) and were followed for a median of 15 months (1.5-52 months). 125 I seeds were implanted in 73 patients with a combined Gleason grade of 2-6, and 103 Pd seeds were implanted in 16 patients with higher grade lesions. The sexual potency of these patients was assessed prior to, at 3 and 6 months, and every 6 months after implantation. Erectile function was graded using a numerical score of 0 to 3 (0 = impotent (no erections), 1 = ability to have erections but insufficient for vaginal penetration, 2 = erectile function sufficient for vaginal penetration but suboptimal, 3 = normal erectile function). The pretreatment potency scores were as follows: 0 in 24 patients, 1 in 6 patients, 2 in 22 patients, and 3 in 37 patients. Results: The actuarial impotency rates (score = 0) following implantation for those patients possessing some degree of erectile function prior to implantation (65 patients) were 2.5% at 1 year and 6% at 2 years. The actuarial decrease in sexual function rates (a drop in score of at least one point) were 29% at 1 year and 39% at 2 years. Only two patients became impotent following treatment and this occurred at 1 year and 16 months. The time period for a decrease in erectile function to occur ranged from 1.8 months to 32.7 months, with a median of 6.8 months. Patients with higher grade tumors showed a greater decrease in potency score compared to patients with lower grade tumors. Conclusion: Interactive ultrasound-guided transperineal

  4. Regulatory T cell suppressive potency dictates the balance between bacterial proliferation and clearance during persistent Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner M Johanns

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of persistent infection is dictated by the balance between opposing immune activation and suppression signals. Herein, virulent Salmonella was used to explore the role and potential importance of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells in dictating the natural progression of persistent bacterial infection. Two distinct phases of persistent Salmonella infection are identified. In the first 3-4 weeks after infection, progressively increasing bacterial burden was associated with delayed effector T cell activation. Reciprocally, at later time points after infection, reductions in bacterial burden were associated with robust effector T cell activation. Using Foxp3(GFP reporter mice for ex vivo isolation of regulatory T cells, we demonstrate that the dichotomy in infection tempo between early and late time points is directly paralleled by drastic changes in Foxp3(+ Treg suppressive potency. In complementary experiments using Foxp3(DTR mice, the significance of these shifts in Treg suppressive potency on infection outcome was verified by enumerating the relative impacts of regulatory T cell ablation on bacterial burden and effector T cell activation at early and late time points during persistent Salmonella infection. Moreover, Treg expression of CTLA-4 directly paralleled changes in suppressive potency, and the relative effects of Treg ablation could be largely recapitulated by CTLA-4 in vivo blockade. Together, these results demonstrate that dynamic regulation of Treg suppressive potency dictates the course of persistent bacterial infection.

  5. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  6. National labour relations in internationalized markets : a comparative study of institutions, change, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traxler, F.; Blaschke, S.; Kittel, B.E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents and examines evidence and theories about changing patterns of industrial relations and their links to convergence on the one hand, and economic competitiveness on the other. Includes a comprehensive set of comparable date on industrial relations in twenty OECD countries including Australia,

  7. A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Potency of lipid-lowering therapy and Race-gender Differences in LDL cholesterol control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Mark

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for race and gender differences in controlling elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol may be related to variations in prescribed lipid-lowering therapy. We examined the effect of lipid-lowering drug treatment and potency on time until LDL control for black and white women and men with a baseline elevated LDL. Methods We studied 3,484 older hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in 6 primary care practices over a 4-year timeframe. Potency of lipid-lowering drugs calculated for each treated day and summed to assess total potency for at least 6 and up to 24 months. Cox models of time to LDL control within two years and logistic regression models of control within 6 months by race-gender adjust for: demographics, clinical, health care delivery, primary/specialty care, LDL measurement, and drug potency. Results Time to LDL control decreased as lipid-lowering drug potency increased (P Conclusions Black women and, to a lesser extent, black men and white women were less likely to achieve LDL control than white men after accounting for lipid-lowering drug potency as well as diverse patient and provider factors. Future work should focus on the contributions of medication adherence and response to treatment to these clinically important differences.

  8. Can biochemistry drive drug discovery beyond simple potency measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Among the fields of expertise required to develop drugs successfully, biochemistry holds a key position in drug discovery at the interface between chemistry, structural biology and cell biology. However, taking the example of protein kinases, it appears that biochemical assays are mostly used in the pharmaceutical industry to measure compound potency and/or selectivity. This limited use of biochemistry is surprising, given that detailed biochemical analyses are commonly used in academia to unravel molecular recognition processes. In this article, I show that biochemistry can provide invaluable information on the dynamics and energetics of compound-target interactions that cannot be obtained on the basis of potency measurements and structural data. Therefore, an extensive use of biochemistry in drug discovery could facilitate the identification and/or development of new drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acceleromyography and mechanomyography for establishing potency of neuromuscular blocking agents: a randomized-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Viby-Mogensen, J; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2009-01-01

    ) for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare AMG and MMG for establishing dose-response relationship and potency, using rocuronium as an example. METHODS: We included 40 adult patients in this randomized-controlled single-dose response study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol...... and opioid. Neuromuscular blockade was induced with rocuronium 100, 150, 200 or 250 microg/kg. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed with AMG (TOF-Watch SX) with pre-load (Hand Adapter) at one arm and MMG (modified TOF-Watch SX) on the other, using 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation. Dose...

  10. A retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of intravenous bumetanide and comparison of potency with furosemide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappi JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potency of intravenous bumetanide to furosemide using a ratio of 1:40 has been suggested; however, there are little data supporting this ratio. Recent drug shortages required the use of bumetanide in a large patient population, enabling further characterization of the efficacy of IV bumetanide.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to estimate a dose-response effect of IV bumetanide on urine output (UOP in all patients that received 48 hours of therapy as well as in a subgroup of patients with heart failure (HF. This subgroup was used to compare the potency of bumetanide with furosemide. A secondary safety objective described electrolyte replacement required during therapy. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study examining the dose-response effect of IV bumetanide in patients receiving at least 48 hours of intermittent (iIV or continuous (cIV dosing, measured by UOP per mg of drug received (mL/mg. The potency of IV bumetanide was compared with furosemide in a subset of patients with HF using pre-existing data. The safety of IV bumetanide was analyzed by quantifying electrolyte replacement received during the study period.Results: The primary outcome was higher in the iIV group (n=93 at 1273 ± 844 mL/mg compared with the cIV group (n=16 at 749 ± 370 mL/mg (P=0.002. Among patients with HF who received furosemide (iIV n=30, cIV n=26 or bumetanide (iIV n=30, cIV n=3, a potency ratio of 41:1 was found for the iIV group and 34:1 for all patients with HF. There was no significant difference in electrolyte replacement between groups.Conclusion: A greater response was seen with intermittent bumetanide compared with continuous infusion bumetanide. This study supports the 40:1 dose equivalence ratio (furosemide:bumetanide in patients with HF receiving at least 48 hours of intravenous intermittent bumetanide.

  11. Progestin potency – Assessment and relevance to choice of oral contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Goldstuck

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: Newer progestins are more receptor selective and potency is less relevant than it was with older progestins. Epidemiological studies of progestin potency and its role in disease generally use out of date information. There is still confusion about the relationship of dose and potency in some studies. The use of the EPA can help eliminate this.

  12. Tablet potency of Tianeptine in coated tablets by near infrared spectroscopy: model optimisation, calibration transfer and confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiret, Mathieu; Meunier, Loïc; Ginot, Yves-Michel

    2011-02-20

    A near infrared (NIR) method was developed for determination of tablet potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a complex coated tablet matrix. The calibration set contained samples from laboratory and production scale batches. The reference values were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to establish a model. The model was challenged by calculating tablet potency of two external test sets. Root mean square errors of prediction were respectively equal to 2.0% and 2.7%. To use this model with a second spectrometer from the production field, a calibration transfer method called piecewise direct standardisation (PDS) was used. After the transfer, the root mean square error of prediction of the first test set was 2.4% compared to 4.0% without transferring the spectra. A statistical technique using bootstrap of PLS residuals was used to estimate confidence intervals of tablet potency calculations. This method requires an optimised PLS model, selection of the bootstrap number and determination of the risk. In the case of a chemical analysis, the tablet potency value will be included within the confidence interval calculated by the bootstrap method. An easy to use graphical interface was developed to easily determine if the predictions, surrounded by minimum and maximum values, are within the specifications defined by the regulatory organisation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anticonvulsant Potencies of the Enantiomers of the Neurosteroids Androsterone and Etiocholanolone Exceed those of the Natural Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkowska, Dorota; Dhir, Ashish; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Covey, Douglas F.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Androsterone [(3α,5α)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one; 5α,3α-A] and its 5β-epimer etiocholanolone [(3α,5β)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one; 5β,3α-A)], the major excreted metabolites of testosterone, are neurosteroid positive modulators of GABAA receptors. Such neurosteroids typically show enantioselectivity in which the natural form is more potent than the corresponding unnatural enantiomer. For 5α,3α-A and 5β,3α-A, the unnatural enantiomers are more potent at GABAA receptors than the natural forms. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsant potencies and time courses of 5α,3α-A and 5β,3α-A with their enantiomers in mouse seizure models. Methods Steroids were administered intraperitoneally to male NIH Swiss mice 15 min (or up to 6 h in time course experiments) prior to administration of an electrical stimulus in the 6-Hz or maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests or the convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Results In the 6-Hz test, the ED50 values of ent-5α,3α-A was 5.0 mg/kg whereas the value for 5α,3α-A was 12.1 mg/kg; the corresponding values in the PTZ seizure test were 22.8 and 51.8 mg/kg. Neurosteroid GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators are generally weak in the MES test and this was confirmed in the present study. However, the atypical relative potency relationship was maintained with ED50 values of 140 and 223 mg/kg for ent-5α,3α- A and 5α,3α-A, respectively. Similar relationships were obtained for the 5β-isomers, except that the enantioselectivity was accentuated. In the 6-Hz and PTZ tests, the ED50 values of ent-5β,3α-A were 11.8 and 20.4 mg/kg whereas the values for 5β,3α-A were 57.6 and 109.1 mg/kg. Protective activity in the 6-Hz test of ent-5α,3α-A persisted for somewhat longer (~5 h) than for 5α,3α-A (~4 h); protection by ent-5β,3α-A also persisted longer (~3 h) than for 5β,3α-A (~2 h). Conclusions The unnatural enantiomers of 17-keto androgen class neurosteroids have greater in

  14. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Helja; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antii

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. \\ud \\ud METHODS. Contrast energy thresho...

  15. MAPPING OF SOIL DEGRADATION POTENCY IN PADDY FIELD WONOGIRI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of paddy field becomes the main concern as the media of biomass production, thus it is needed a datum and information about land characteristics to find out its degradation. Mapping of soil degradation potency in paddy field is an identification of initial soil condition to discover the land degradation potency. Mapping was done by overlaying map of soil, slope, rainfall and land use with standard procedures to obtain its value and status of soil degradation potency. Area mapping is an effective land for biomass production (natural forest, mixed farm, savanna, paddy field, shrub and dry field with approximately 43,291.00 hectares (ha in Sidoharjo, Girimarto, Jatipurno, Jatisrono, Jatiroto, Tirtomoyo, Nguntoronadi and Ngadirojo District. The result shows that soil degradation potency (SDP in Districts of Sidoharjo, Girimarto, Jatipurno, Jatisrono, Jatiroto, Tirtomoyo, Nguntoronadi and Ngadirojo are very low, low (DP II 20,702.47 ha (47.82%, moderate (DP III 15,823.80 ha (36,55% and high (DP IV 6,764.73 ha (15.63%. Paddy field covered 22,036.26 ha or about 50.90% of all area as effective biomass production, its SDP considers as low (DP II 16,021.04 ha (37.01% and moderate (DP III 6,015.22 ha (13,89%. Paddy field has a low SDP because it is commonly lies on flat area and conservation method by the farmer is maintaining the paddy bund and terrace. This study needs an advanced study to identify actual SDP through detail verification in the field, and also support by soil sample analysis in the laboratory.

  16. Potential application of the consistency approach for vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, J; Sirota, L A

    2012-01-01

    The Consistency Approach offers the possibility of reducing the number of animals used for a potency test. However, it is critical to assess the effect that such reduction may have on assay performance. Consistency of production, sometimes referred to as consistency of manufacture or manufacturing, is an old concept implicit in regulation, which aims to ensure the uninterrupted release of safe and effective products. Consistency of manufacture can be described in terms of process capability, or the ability of a process to produce output within specification limits. For example, the standard method for potency testing of inactivated rabies vaccines is a multiple-dilution vaccination challenge test in mice that gives a quantitative, although highly variable estimate. On the other hand, a single-dilution test that does not give a quantitative estimate, but rather shows if the vaccine meets the specification has been proposed. This simplified test can lead to a considerable reduction in the number of animals used. However, traditional indices of process capability assume that the output population (potency values) is normally distributed, which clearly is not the case for the simplified approach. Appropriate computation of capability indices for the latter case will require special statistical considerations.

  17. Trypsin diminishes the rat potency of polio serotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, R; Westdijk, J; Levels, L M A R; Koedam, P; de Haan, A; Hamzink, M R J; Metz, B; Kersten, G F A

    2015-11-01

    This study addresses observations made in view of testing in practice the guideline in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) on omitting the rat potency test for release of polio containing vaccines. In general, use of the guideline is valid and the D-antigen ELISA can indeed be used as an in vitro alternative for the in vivo test. However, the set-up of the ELISA is crucial and should include detection of antigenic site 1 in polio serotype 3 as destruction of that site by trypsin results in a reduced rat potency. Antigenic site 1 in polio serotype 2 may also be modified by trypsin, but the cleavage of viral protein 1 (VP1) did not affect the rat potency. Therefore, any antigenic site, except site 1, can be used for detection of polio serotype 2. It is advised to include testing of the effect of trypsin treatment in the EP-guideline. This allows polio vaccine manufacturers to check whether their in-house ELISA needs improvement. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Two-Step Model for Assessing Relative Interest in E-Books Compared to Print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Librarians often wish to know whether readers in a particular discipline favor e-books or print books. Because print circulation and e-book usage statistics are not directly comparable, it can be hard to determine the relative interest of readers in the two types of books. This study demonstrates a two-step method by which librarians can assess…

  19. Addressing the Challenges Related to Transforming Qualitative Into Quantitative Data in Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, de Debora; Vis, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The use of qualitative data has so far received relatively little attention in methodological discussions on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This article addresses this lacuna by discussing the challenges researchers face when transforming qualitative data into quantitative data in QCA. By

  20. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Susan, E-mail: S.Gibbs@VUMC.nl [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, Dept of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Corsini, Emanuela [Laboratory of Toxicology, DiSFeB, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Spiekstra, Sander W. [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, Dept of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Galbiati, Valentina [Laboratory of Toxicology, DiSFeB, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Fuchs, Horst W. [CellSystems GmbH, Troisdorf (Germany); DeGeorge, George; Troese, Matthew [MB Research Labs, Spinnerstown, PA (United States); Hayden, Patrick; Deng, Wei [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Roggen, Erwin [3Rs Management and Consultancy (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low water solubility or stability. A protocol was developed using different 3D-epidermal models including in house VUMC model, epiCS® (previously EST1000™), MatTek EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic™ RHE and also the impact of different vehicles (acetone:olive oil 4:1, 1% DMSO, ethanol, water) was investigated. Following topical exposure for 24 h to 17 contact allergens and 13 non-sensitizers a robust increase in IL-18 release was observed only after exposure to contact allergens. A putative prediction model is proposed from data obtained from two laboratories yielding 95% accuracy. Correlating the in vitro EE sensitizer potency data, which assesses the chemical concentration which results in 50% cytotoxicity (EE-EC{sub 50}) with human and animal data showed a superior correlation with human DSA{sub 05} (μg/cm{sup 2}) data (Spearman r = 0.8500; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0061) compared to LLNA data (Spearman r = 0.5968; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0542). DSA{sub 05} = induction dose per skin area that produces a positive response in 5% of the tested population Also a good correlation was observed for release of IL-18 (SI-2) into culture supernatants with human DSA{sub 05} data (Spearman r = 0.8333; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0154). This easily transferable human in vitro assay appears to be very promising, but additional testing of a larger chemical set with the different EE models is required to fully evaluate the utility of this assay and to establish a definitive prediction model. - Highlights: • A potential epidermal equivalent assay to label and classify sensitizers • Il-18 release distinguishes sensitizers from non sensitizers • IL-18 release can rank sensitizer potency

  1. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Susan; Corsini, Emanuela; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Galbiati, Valentina; Fuchs, Horst W.; DeGeorge, George; Troese, Matthew; Hayden, Patrick; Deng, Wei; Roggen, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low water solubility or stability. A protocol was developed using different 3D-epidermal models including in house VUMC model, epiCS® (previously EST1000™), MatTek EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic™ RHE and also the impact of different vehicles (acetone:olive oil 4:1, 1% DMSO, ethanol, water) was investigated. Following topical exposure for 24 h to 17 contact allergens and 13 non-sensitizers a robust increase in IL-18 release was observed only after exposure to contact allergens. A putative prediction model is proposed from data obtained from two laboratories yielding 95% accuracy. Correlating the in vitro EE sensitizer potency data, which assesses the chemical concentration which results in 50% cytotoxicity (EE-EC 50 ) with human and animal data showed a superior correlation with human DSA 05 (μg/cm 2 ) data (Spearman r = 0.8500; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0061) compared to LLNA data (Spearman r = 0.5968; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0542). DSA 05 = induction dose per skin area that produces a positive response in 5% of the tested population Also a good correlation was observed for release of IL-18 (SI-2) into culture supernatants with human DSA 05 data (Spearman r = 0.8333; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0154). This easily transferable human in vitro assay appears to be very promising, but additional testing of a larger chemical set with the different EE models is required to fully evaluate the utility of this assay and to establish a definitive prediction model. - Highlights: • A potential epidermal equivalent assay to label and classify sensitizers • Il-18 release distinguishes sensitizers from non sensitizers • IL-18 release can rank sensitizer potency • EC50 (chemical

  2. Titer on chip: new analytical tool for influenza vaccine potency determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Kuck

    Full Text Available Titer on Chip (Flu-ToC is a new technique for quantification of influenza hemagglutinin (HA concentration. In order to evaluate the potential of this new technique, a comparison of Flu-ToC to more conventional methods was conducted using recombinant HA produced in a baculovirus expression system as a test case. Samples from current vaccine strains were collected from four different steps in the manufacturing process. A total of 19 samples were analysed by Flu-ToC (blinded, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the purity adjusted bicinchoninic acid assay (paBCA. The results indicated reasonable linear correlation between Flu-ToC and SRID, ELISA, and paBCA, with regression slopes of log-log plots being 0.91, 1.03, and 0.91, respectively. The average ratio for HA content measured by Flu-ToC relative to SRID, ELISA, and paBCA was 83%, 147%, and 81%, respectively; indicating nearly equivalent potency determination for Flu-ToC relative to SRID and paBCA. These results, combined with demonstrated multiplexed analysis of all components within a quadrivalent formulation and robust response to HA strains over a wide time period, support the conclusion that Flu-ToC can be used as a reliable and time-saving alternative potency assay for influenza vaccines.

  3. Interferon-α Subtypes in an Ex Vivo Model of Acute HIV-1 Infection: Expression, Potency and Effector Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Harper

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces and rapidly spreads within the intestinal mucosa during acute infection. The type I interferons (IFNs likely serve as a first line of defense, but the relative expression and antiviral properties of the 12 IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression of all IFNα subtypes in HIV-1-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells by next-generation sequencing. We then determined the relative antiviral potency of each IFNα subtype ex vivo using the human intestinal Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture model. IFNα subtype transcripts from the centromeric half of the IFNA gene complex were highly expressed in pDCs following HIV-1 exposure. There was an inverse relationship between IFNA subtype expression and potency. IFNα8, IFNα6 and IFNα14 were the most potent in restricting HIV-1 infection. IFNα2, the clinically-approved subtype, and IFNα1 were both highly expressed but exhibited relatively weak antiviral activity. The relative potencies correlated with binding affinity to the type I IFN receptor and the induction levels of HIV-1 restriction factors Mx2 and Tetherin/BST-2 but not APOBEC3G, F and D. However, despite the lack of APOBEC3 transcriptional induction, the higher relative potency of IFNα8 and IFNα14 correlated with stronger inhibition of virion infectivity, which is linked to deaminase-independent APOBEC3 restriction activity. By contrast, both potent (IFNα8 and weak (IFNα1 subtypes significantly induced HIV-1 GG-to-AG hypermutation. The results unravel non-redundant functions of the IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection, with strong implications for HIV-1 mucosal immunity, viral evolution and IFNα-based functional cure strategies.

  4. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitutecurrent fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17%of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, howeverthe utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from currentsources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oilcannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed asthe new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  5. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitute current fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17% of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, however the utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from current sources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oil cannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed as the new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  6. Parent's Relative Perceived Work Flexibility Compared to Their Partner Is Associated With Emotional Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Falkenberg, Helena; Albrecht, Sophie C

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies have found that control over work conditions and hours is positively related to mental health. Still, potential positive and negative effects of work flexibility remain to be fully explored. On the one hand, higher work flexibility might provide better opportunities for recovery. On the other hand, especially mothers may use flexibility to meet household and family demands. Here, we investigated the association between parent's work flexibility, rated relative to their partner, and emotional exhaustion in interaction with gender. Additionally, gender differences in time use were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses based on responses of employed parents to the 2012 wave of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) were conducted ( N = 2,911). Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and a log-link function were used to investigate associations between relative work-flexibility (lower, equal, or higher as compared to partner), gender, and emotional exhaustion. After control for potential confounders, we found that having lower work flexibility than the partner was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion as compared to those with higher relative work flexibility. Also, being a mother was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion, independent of possible confounders. An interaction effect between low relative work flexibility and gender was found in relation to emotional exhaustion. Regarding time use, clear differences between mothers' and fathers' were found. However, few indications were found that relative work flexibility influenced time use. Mothers spent more time on household chores as compared to fathers, while fathers reported longer working hours. Fathers spent more time on relaxation compared with mothers. To conclude, our results indicate that lower relative work flexibility is detrimental for mental health both for mothers and fathers. However, while gender seems to have a

  7. Parent's Relative Perceived Work Flexibility Compared to Their Partner Is Associated With Emotional Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Leineweber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have found that control over work conditions and hours is positively related to mental health. Still, potential positive and negative effects of work flexibility remain to be fully explored. On the one hand, higher work flexibility might provide better opportunities for recovery. On the other hand, especially mothers may use flexibility to meet household and family demands. Here, we investigated the association between parent's work flexibility, rated relative to their partner, and emotional exhaustion in interaction with gender. Additionally, gender differences in time use were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses based on responses of employed parents to the 2012 wave of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH were conducted (N = 2,911. Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and a log-link function were used to investigate associations between relative work-flexibility (lower, equal, or higher as compared to partner, gender, and emotional exhaustion. After control for potential confounders, we found that having lower work flexibility than the partner was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion as compared to those with higher relative work flexibility. Also, being a mother was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion, independent of possible confounders. An interaction effect between low relative work flexibility and gender was found in relation to emotional exhaustion. Regarding time use, clear differences between mothers' and fathers' were found. However, few indications were found that relative work flexibility influenced time use. Mothers spent more time on household chores as compared to fathers, while fathers reported longer working hours. Fathers spent more time on relaxation compared with mothers. To conclude, our results indicate that lower relative work flexibility is detrimental for mental health both for mothers and fathers. However, while gender

  8. PROBIOTIC POTENCY OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sujaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was deigned to elucidate the potency of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from sumbawa mare milk to be developed as a probiotic. Sixteen lacobacilli were screened based on their resitancy to a model of gastric juice at pH 2, 3, and 4, then followed by their resistncy to small intestional fluid model containing deoxycholic. Three lactobacilli i.e. Lactobacillus sp. SKA13, Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were found to be resistentent to gastric juice at pH 3 and 4. However, there were no lactobacilli resisted to pH 2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were able to reach the colon even after being expossed to a model of intestinal fluid containing 0,4 mM deoxycholate and pancreatine. Therefore, these isolates have a potency to be developed as probiotic lactobacilli. Nevertherless, these lactobcailli could probably transform cholic acid into secondary bile acids, which were not expected to be found in the probiotic, and this capability is not appropriate for probiotic. This character is worthly to be studied since it has never been reported in lactobacilli.

  9. Potency of Mangrove Apple (Sonneratia alba as Mercury Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Reza Cordova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic provide a negative impact on the surrounding environment. Mangrove species, such as Sonneratia alba would get the impact of anthropogenic activities, to accumulate the pollution of heavy metals. The aim of this study were to evaluate mercury accumulation in Mangrove Apple (S. alba and to analyze mangrove apple potency as mercury bioindicator. Samples were taken in April 2016 at Pari Island, Seribu Islands by purposive sampling. The results showed that the highest concentration of Hg in the Northern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and the lowest was in the fruit. The highest concentration of Hg in the Eastern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and lowest was in the fruit. The concentrations of Hg in the Eastern area higher the Northern area (significantly different. The accumulation of Hg mainly collected on the leaves with TF> 1, but the ability of S. alba trees absorb Hg in the environment showed a small value, namely BCF <1. The ability of S. alba in sediments, contaminated with mercury showed a high value of the leaves in the East Pari Island, but the fruit of S. alba both in the North and East of the Pari Island showed a small value.  Mangrove Apple leaves has a potency as mercury bioindicator organ.

  10. Estimating skin sensitization potency from a single dose LLNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W

    2015-04-01

    Skin sensitization is an important aspect of safety assessment. The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) developed in the 1990 s is an in vivo test used for skin sensitization hazard identification and characterization. More recently a reduced version of the LLNA (rLLNA) has been developed as a means of identifying, but not quantifying, sensitization hazard. The work presented here is aimed at enabling rLLNA data to be used to give quantitative potency information that can be used, inter alia, in modeling and read-across approaches to non-animal based potency estimation. A probit function has been derived enabling estimation of EC3 from a single dose. This has led to development of a modified version of the rLLNA, whereby as a general principle the SI value at 10%, or at a lower concentration if 10% is not testable, is used to calculate the EC3. This version of the rLLNA has been evaluated against a selection of chemicals for which full LLNA data are available, and has been shown to give EC3 values in good agreement with those derived from the full LLNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relations and effects of transformational leadership: a comparative analysis with traditional leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Cuadrado, Isabel; Navas, Marisol; Morales, J Francisco

    2007-11-01

    This study has two main goals: (a) to compare the relationship between transformational leadership and other important leadership styles (i.e., democratic versus autocratic or relations- and task-oriented leadership) and (b) to compare the effects of transformational leadership and the other styles on some important organizational outcomes such as employees' satisfaction and performance. For this purpose, a sample of 147 participants, working in 35 various work-teams, was used. Results show high correlations between transformational leadership, relations-oriented, democratic, and task-oriented leadership. On the other hand, according to the literature, transformational leadership, especially high levels, significantly increases the percentage of variance accounted for by other leadership styles in relevant organizational outcome variables (subordinates' performance, satisfaction and extra effort).

  12. Potency and selectivity of carprofen enantiomers for inhibition of bovine cyclooxygenase in whole blood assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, Claire; Cheng, Zhangrui; McKellar, Quintin A; Lees, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Whole blood in vitro assays were used to determine the potency and selectivity of carprofen enantiomers for inhibition of the isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX), COX-1 and COX-2, in the calf. S(+)-carprofen possessed preferential activity for COX-2 inhibition but, because the slopes of inhibition curves differed, the COX-1:COX-2 inhibition ratio decreased from 9.04:1 for inhibitory concentration (IC)10 to 1.84:1 for IC95. R(-) carprofen inhibited COX-2 preferentially only for low inhibition of the COX isoforms (IC10 COX-1:COX-2=6.63:1), whereas inhibition was preferential for COX-1 for a high level of inhibition (IC95 COX-1:COX-2=0.20:1). S(+) carprofen was the more potent inhibitor of COX isoforms; potency ratios S(+):R(-) carprofen were 11.6:1 for IC10 and 218:1 for IC90. Based on serum concentrations of carprofen enantiomers obtained after administration of a therapeutic dose of 1.4 mg/kg to calves subcutaneously, S(+)-carprofen concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC80 COX-2 value for 32 h and the IC20 for COX-1 for 33 h. The findings are discussed in relation to efficacy and safety of carprofen in calves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enterocin A mutants identified by saturation mutagenesis enhance potency towards vancomycin-resistant Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Maria K; Kaznessis, Yiannis N; Hackel, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections are a significant clinical problem. One proposed solution is to use probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria, to produce antimicrobial peptides at the site of infection. Enterocin A, a class 2a bacteriocin, exhibits inhibitory activity against E. faecium and E. faecalis, which account for 86% of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections. In this study, we aimed to engineer enterocin A mutants with enhanced potency within a lactic acid bacterial production system. Peptide mutants resulting from saturation mutagenesis at sites A24 and T27 were efficiently screened in a 96-well plate assay for inhibition of pathogen growth. Several mutants exhibit increased potency relative to wild-type enterocin A in both liquid- and solid-medium growth assays. In particular, A24P and T27G exhibit enhanced inhibition of multiple strains of E. faecium and E. faecalis, including clinically isolated vancomycin-resistant strains. A24P and T27G enhance killing of E. faecium 8 by 13 ± 3- and 18 ± 4-fold, respectively. The engineered enterocin A/lactic acid bacteria systems offer significant potential to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Nucleation Potency of In Situ-Formed Oxides in Liquid Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingqin; Wang, Lu; Lu, Wenquan; Zeng, Long; Nadendla, Hari-Babu; Wang, Yun; Li, Jun; Hu, Qiaodan; Xia, Mingxu; Li, Jianguo

    2018-03-01

    The nucleation potency of iron oxides was verified experimentally through nucleation undercooling of liquid iron using aerodynamic levitation technology for minimized container contaminations. Steady undercooling values were subsequently obtained from multiple melting and freezing thermal cycles, with the average undercooling values of 223 K ± 3 K and 75 K ± 6 K (223 °C ± 3 °C and 75 °C ± 6 °C) for FeO-contained liquid and Fe3O4-contained liquid, respectively. The statistical results showed a negligible difference in the sizes and numbers of particles between FeO and Fe3O4 particles, indicating that the nucleation potency difference is attributed to the nature of nucleants rather than particle size or numbers. Furthermore, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the potential nucleation interfaces can be assumed as { 1 1 0}_{{δ {{-Fe}}}} //( 0 0\\bar{2})_{FeO} and { 1 1 2}_{{δ {{-Fe}}}} //(\\bar{2} 0 2 )_{{{Fe}3 {O}4 }} , based on the detected exposed crystal planes of the oxide particles. Both the interfaces have relatively large values of lattice misfit, consistent with the experimentally measured undercooling based on Turnbull's lattice matching theory.

  15. Multisensory stimuli improve relative localisation judgments compared to unisensory auditory or visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer; Wood, Katherine; Freeman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Observers performed a relative localisation task in which they reported whether the second of two sequentially presented signals occurred to the left or right of the first. Stimuli were detectability-matched auditory, visual, or auditory-visual signals and the goal was to compare changes in performance with eccentricity across modalities. Visual performance was superior to auditory at the midline, but inferior in the periphery, while auditory-visual performance exceeded both at all locations....

  16. Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Kshetri

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy ...

  17. Methodological and theoretical issues in the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    S Walby

    1994-01-01

    The aim in this paper is to contribute to the development of a research agenda for the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe. Its focus is the clarification of the methodological and theoretical issues involved. Several different indices of gender inequality are assessed. It is argued that it is important to distinguish between the form and degree of patriarchy, rather than assuming that these are closely associated. Data from the EC and Scandinavia are used to illustrate...

  18. Comparative bacterial community analysis in relatively pristine and anthropogenically influenced mangrove ecosystems on the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Riaz; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Al-Ansari, Ahmed; Al-Abbasi, Fahad; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin A; Daur, Ihsanullah; Lee, Seon-Woo; Azhar, Esam I

    2017-08-01

    Mangrove habitats are ecologically important ecosystems that are under severe pressure worldwide because of environmental changes and human activities. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon deep-sequencing was used to compare bacterial communities in Red Sea mangrove ecosystems at anthropogenically influenced coastal sites with those at a relatively pristine island site. In total, 32 phyla were identified from the mangrove rhizospheres, with Proteobacteria predominating at each of the studied sites; however, the relative abundance was significantly decreased at the coastal sites (Mastorah, MG-MS; Ar-Rayis, MG-AR) compared with the pristine island site near Dhahban (MG-DBI). The phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Spirochetes, and Planctomycetes were present at a relative abundance of >1% at the MG-MS and MG-AR sites, but their concentration was <1% at the MG-DBI site. A total of 1659 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at the species level, and approximately 945 OTUs were shared across the different sampling sites. Multivariate principal coordinate data analysis separated the MG-DBI site from the MG-AR and MG-MS cluster. Specific bacterial taxa were enriched at each location, and in particular, the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Cobetia were predominantly identified in the MG-DBI site compared with the anthropogenically influenced coastal sites.

  19. A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Orsini, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. 2010 The Author.

  20. Psychometric comparability of English- and Spanish-language measures of anxiety and related affective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, D M; Stanley, M A; Averill, P; Daza, P

    2001-09-01

    An array of measures of anxiety and related disorders (viz., Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Beck Anxiety Inventory; Beck Depression Inventory-II; Body Sensation Questionnaire; Fear Questionnaire; Padua Inventory; Penn State Worry Questionnaire; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnostic Scale; Social Interaction Anxiety Inventory; and Worry Scale) was edited or translated from English into Spanish. Following an extensive edit and translation process, bilingual participants (n = 98) were assessed with the English and Spanish versions of these measures. Coefficient alphas were excellent and comparable across language versions. Means and standard deviations were also comparable across language versions. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found for both language versions. The two language versions of each measure correlated highly with each other. This psychometric comparability adds confidence in using the newly edited or translated Spanish language measures in clinical practice and research.

  1. Health-related quality of life after maxillectomy: obturator rehabilitation compared with flap reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Rennie, A; Morrison, A; Dawson, D; Tipper, J; Rehman, K; Grew, N; Snee, D; Pigadas, N

    2016-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (QoL) reported by patients has the potential to improve care after ablative surgery of the midface, as existing treatment algorithms still generally revolve around outcomes assessed traditionally only by clinicians. Decisions in particular relate to reconstruction with a flap compared with rehabilitation with an obturator, the need for adjuvant treatment, and morbidity related to the size of the defect. We prospectively collected health-related QoL assessments for 39 consecutive patients treated by maxillectomy between 01 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 using the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire, and who had a mean (SD) duration of follow-up of 14 (4). We made sub-group analyses using paired t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare reconstruction with a flap with rehabilitation with obturators, size of the vertical defect, and whether adjuvant treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy adversely affected it. Overall there was a significant decrease in health-related QoL after treatment compared with before (p<0.001), but there was no significant difference in the effects of any of the paired reconstructive and rehabilitation treatments on it. Obturators remain an important option for rehabilitation in selected patients in addition to reconstruction with a flap. We found that neither increasing the size of the vertical defect (in an attempt to ensure clear margins) nor the use of postoperative radiotherapy seemed to have any adverse effect on QoL. More patients are required before we can conclude that the potential survival benefits of such measures may outweigh any adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lympho-vascular invasion in BRCA related breast cancer compared to sporadic controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Marise R Heerma van; Groep, Petra van der; Bart, Jos; Wall, Elsken van der; Diest, Paul J van

    2010-01-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways. Since BRCA1-associated breast cancers have pushing borders that prevent them from easily reaching vessels and are often of the medullary (like) type that is known to have a low rate of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI), we hypothesized that absence of LVI could characterize BRCA1 related breast cancer. A population of 68 BRCA1 related invasive breast cancers was evaluated for LVI by an experienced breast pathologist blinded to mutation status, and compared to a control group matched for age, grade and tumor type. LVI was present in 25.0% of BRCA1 related cases, compared to 20.6% of controls (P = 0.54, OR = 1.29, CI 0.58-2.78). LVI is frequent in BRCA1 germline mutation related breast cancers, but seems to occur as often in sporadic controls matched for age, grade and tumor type. Apparently, these hereditary cancers find their way to the blood and lymph vessels despite their well demarcation and often medullary differentiation

  3. Culture-related service expectations: a comparative study using the Kano model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejaili, Fayez F; Assad, Lina; Shaheen, Faissal A; Moussa, Dujana H; Karkar, Ayman; AlRukhaimi, Mona; Barhamein, Majdah; Al Suwida, Abdulkareem; Al Alhejaili, Faris F; Al Harbi, Ali S; Al Homrany, Mohamed; Attar, Bisher; Al-Sayyari, Abdulla A

    2009-01-01

    To compare service expectations between Arab and Austrian patients. We used a Kano model-based questionnaire with 20 service attributes of relevance to the dialysis patient. We analyzed 530, 172, 60, and 68 responses from Saudi, Austrian, Syrian, and UAE patients, respectively. We compared the customer satisfaction coefficient and the frequencies of response categories ("must be," "attractive," "one-dimensional," and "indifferent") for each of the 20 service attributes and in each of the 3 national groups of patients. We also investigated whether any differences seen were related to sex, age, literacy rate, or duration on dialysis. We observed higher satisfaction coefficients and "one-directional" responses among Arab patients and higher dissatisfaction coefficients and "must be" and "attractive" responses among Austrian patients. These were not related to age or duration on dialysis but were related to literacy rate. We speculate that these discrepancies between Austrian and Arab patients might be related to underdeveloped sophistication in market competitive forces and to cultural influences.

  4. Lympho-vascular invasion in BRCA related breast cancer compared to sporadic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wall Elsken

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways. Since BRCA1-associated breast cancers have pushing borders that prevent them from easily reaching vessels and are often of the medullary (like type that is known to have a low rate of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI, we hypothesized that absence of LVI could characterize BRCA1 related breast cancer. Methods A population of 68 BRCA1 related invasive breast cancers was evaluated for LVI by an experienced breast pathologist blinded to mutation status, and compared to a control group matched for age, grade and tumor type. Results LVI was present in 25.0% of BRCA1 related cases, compared to 20.6% of controls (P = 0.54, OR = 1.29, CI 0.58-2.78. Conclusion LVI is frequent in BRCA1 germline mutation related breast cancers, but seems to occur as often in sporadic controls matched for age, grade and tumor type. Apparently, these hereditary cancers find their way to the blood and lymph vessels despite their well demarcation and often medullary differentiation.

  5. Potency test of a rape accused in India – Rationale, problems and suggestions in light of the Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shadab Raheel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian legal system makes it mandatory to medically examine any accused of rape as well as other forms of sexual assault. Accused is brought in the police custody for conducting medical examination which includes general physical examination, potency test and evidence collection. The medical examination report of the accused is labeled as the “POTENCY TEST REPORT”. As per the changed definition of rape after Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013, potency test stands irrelevant in rape cases because the changed law does not require peno-vaginal intercourse to call it as rape. However, even after the change in definition of rape and laws related to it, potency test is still a mandatory part of medical examination of accused. Displeasure about the same has also been raised by a fast track court of Delhi. In this paper, we have discussed the rationale of potency test of sexual assault in light of Criminal Law Amendment Act (2013, court judgment and other available literature.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptide Potency is Facilitated by Greater Conformational Flexibility when Binding to Gram-negative Bacterial Inner Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Sarah-Beth T. A.; Vermeer, Louic S.; Ferguson, Philip M.; Kozlowska, Justyna; Davy, Matthew; Bui, Tam T.; Drake, Alex F.; Lorenz, Christian D.; Mason, A. James

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a key determinant of their abilities to exert diverse bactericidal effects. Here we present a molecular level understanding of the initial target membrane interaction for two cationic α-helical AMPs that share structural similarities but have a ten-fold difference in antibacterial potency towards Gram-negative bacteria. The binding and insertion from solution of pleurocidin or magainin 2 to membranes representing the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, comprising a mixture of 128 anionic and 384 zwitterionic lipids, is monitored over 100 ns in all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the membrane interaction on both the peptide and lipid constituents are considered and compared with new and published experimental data obtained in the steady state. While both magainin 2 and pleurocidin are capable of disrupting bacterial membranes, the greater potency of pleurocidin is linked to its ability to penetrate within the bacterial cell. We show that pleurocidin displays much greater conformational flexibility when compared with magainin 2, resists self-association at the membrane surface and penetrates further into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Conformational flexibility is therefore revealed as a key feature required of apparently α-helical cationic AMPs for enhanced antibacterial potency.

  7. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality

  8. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately

  9. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  10. Progestin and estrogen potency of combination oral contraceptives and endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G L; Schildkraut, J M; Calingaert, B; Risinger, J I; Dainty, L; Marchbanks, P A; Berchuck, A; Barrett, J C; Rodriguez, G C

    2006-11-01

    Using data from a case-control study of endometrial cancer, we investigated the relationship between the progestin and estrogen potency in combination oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Subjects included 434 endometrial cancer cases and 2,557 controls identified from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone (CASH) study. OCs were classified into four categories according to the individual potencies of each hormonal constituent (high versus low estrogen or progestin potency). Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between endometrial cancer risk and combination OC formulations. With non-users as the referent group, use of OCs with either high potency progestin [odds ratio for endometrial cancer (OR)=0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.10 to 0.43] or with low potency progestin (OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.25 to 0.60) were both associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Overall high progestin potency OCs did not confer significantly more protection than low progestin potency OCs (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.24 to 1.14). However, among women with a body mass index of 22.1 kg/m2 or higher, those who used high progestin potency oral contraceptives had a lower risk of endometrial cancer than those who used low progestin potency oral contraceptives (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.11 to 0.92) while those with a BMI below 22.1 kg/m2 did not (OR=1.36, 95% CI=0.39 to 4.70). The potency of the progestin in most OCs appears adequate to provide a protective effect against endometrial cancer. Higher progestin-potency OCs may be more protective than lower progestin potency OCs among women with a larger body habitus.

  11. Adaptation to Climate Change: A Comparative Analysis of Modeling Methods for Heat-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Simon N; Hondula, David M; Bunker, Aditi; Ibarreta, Dolores; Liu, Junguo; Zhang, Xinxin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-16

    Multiple methods are employed for modeling adaptation when projecting the impact of climate change on heat-related mortality. The sensitivity of impacts to each is unknown because they have never been systematically compared. In addition, little is known about the relative sensitivity of impacts to "adaptation uncertainty" (i.e., the inclusion/exclusion of adaptation modeling) relative to using multiple climate models and emissions scenarios. This study had three aims: a ) Compare the range in projected impacts that arises from using different adaptation modeling methods; b ) compare the range in impacts that arises from adaptation uncertainty with ranges from using multiple climate models and emissions scenarios; c ) recommend modeling method(s) to use in future impact assessments. We estimated impacts for 2070-2099 for 14 European cities, applying six different methods for modeling adaptation; we also estimated impacts with five climate models run under two emissions scenarios to explore the relative effects of climate modeling and emissions uncertainty. The range of the difference (percent) in impacts between including and excluding adaptation, irrespective of climate modeling and emissions uncertainty, can be as low as 28% with one method and up to 103% with another (mean across 14 cities). In 13 of 14 cities, the ranges in projected impacts due to adaptation uncertainty are larger than those associated with climate modeling and emissions uncertainty. Researchers should carefully consider how to model adaptation because it is a source of uncertainty that can be greater than the uncertainty in emissions and climate modeling. We recommend absolute threshold shifts and reductions in slope. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP634.

  12. Determine and compare the viewpoints of nurses, patients and their relatives to workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Nasib; Rahmani, Azad; Avazeh, Marziyeh; Mohajjelaghdam, Ali-Reza; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Dadashzadeh, Abbass

    2018-03-23

    The present study aims to assess the perception of nurses, patients and their relatives regarding the nature of workplace violence against nurses. Workplace violence adversely affects the health, well-being and safety of nurses and the quality of nursing care. In the present descriptive comparative study, the nature of violence was assessed using a modified and validated International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International Questionnaire. Nurses, patients and relatives reported verbal abuse as the most common and sexual violence as the least common type of violence against nurses. Nurses mostly blamed factors associated with patients and their relatives as the cause of violence, whereas patients and their relatives blamed social factors. This study shows that violence is significantly prevalent in clinical settings, but its nature is differently perceived by nurses, patients and their relatives. This phenomenon requires further studies because knowledge of the causes of this difference could help to reduce and control violence. It is necessary that nursing managers inform nurses about protocols for reporting all such cases in order to collect information, and based on a clear procedure, actively pursue reported cases and take the necessary measures to prevent violence against nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Potency of veterinary rabies vaccines in The Netherlands: A case for continued vigilance.

    OpenAIRE

    Rooijakkers, E.J.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, J.H.M.; Vermeulen, A.A.; Osterhaus, Albert; Steenis, Bert

    1996-01-01

    textabstractCommercial rabies vaccines, used by veterinarians in the Netherlands, were collected for testing in the mouse potency test. Of the six vaccines tested, two were clearly below the minimal requirements for potency of 1.0 IU. Of these six vaccines the rabies virus glycoprotein (GP) and nucleoprotein (NP) contents were determined in an antigen competition ELISA. The GP content proved to correlate well with the potency found in the mouse potency test (r = 0.95, p < 0.01), whereas no su...

  14. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  15. Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Kshetri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy also has various unique aspects. For one thing, this industry also suffers from a problem partly rooted in the incredibly broad definition of the term “cybercrime”. This article seeks to provide insights and analysis into this phenomenon, which is expected to advance our understanding into cybercrime-related information.

  16. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Savic

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  17. Comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic processing using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Olivera; Savic, Andrej M; Kovic, Vanja

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of a study comparing the temporal dynamics of thematic and taxonomic knowledge activation in a picture-word priming paradigm using event-related potentials. Although we found no behavioral differences between thematic and taxonomic processing, ERP data revealed distinct patterns of N400 and P600 amplitude modulation for thematic and taxonomic priming. Thematically related target stimuli elicited less negativity than taxonomic targets between 280-460 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting easier semantic processing of thematic than taxonomic relationships. Moreover, P600 mean amplitude was significantly increased for taxonomic targets between 520-600 ms, consistent with a greater need for stimulus reevaluation in that condition. These results offer novel evidence in favor of a dissociation between thematic and taxonomic thinking in the early phases of conceptual evaluation.

  18. A comparative analysis of vehicle-related greenhouse gas emissions between organic and conventional dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggestam, Vivianne; Buick, Jon

    2017-08-01

    Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods. The findings show organic and conventional production methods have different vehicle-related emission outputs that vary according to a reliance on either road transportation or increased farmyard machinery use. Mechanical weeding is more fuel demanding than conventional agrichemical sprayers. However, artificial fertilising is one of the highest farmyard vehicle-related emitters. The general findings show organic milk production emits higher levels of farm vehicle-related emissions that fail to be offset by reduced emissions occurring from international transport emissions. This paper does not propose to cover a comprehensive supply chain carbon footprint for milk production or attempt to determine which method of production has the largest climatic impact. However, it does demonstrate that Sweden's legal requirements for organic producers to produce more feed on-farm to reduce transport emissions have brought emissions back within Sweden's greenhouse gas inventory and raises questions around the effectiveness of policies to reduce vehicle-related emissions. Further research is needed into the effectiveness of climate change mitigation on food production policies, in particular looking at various trade-offs that affects the entire food supply chain.

  19. IgG4-related disease and lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome: A comparative case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Mollie N; Park, Sujin; Slack, Graham W; Dalal, Bakul I; Skinnider, Brian F; Schaeffer, David F; Dutz, Jan P; Law, Joanna K; Donnellan, Fergal; Marquez, Vladimir; Seidman, Michael; Wong, Patrick C; Mattman, Andre; Chen, Luke Y C

    2017-04-01

    To compare the clinical and laboratory features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome (L-HES), two rare diseases that often present with lymphadenopathy, gastrointestinal symptoms, eosinophilia, and elevated immunoglobulins/IgE. Comparative case series of 31 patients with IgG4-RD and 13 patients with L-HES. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was present in eight of 31 patients with IgG4-RD compared to 13 of 13 patients with L-HES (median eosinophils 0.4 vs 7.0 giga/L, P=.001) and 12 of 20 patients with IgG4-RD had increased serum IgE compared to eight of 13 patients with L-HES, P=.930. Twenty-seven of 30 patients with IgG4-RD had elevated serum IgG4 compared to five of 12 patients with L-HES (median IgG4 9.6 g/L vs 0.80 g/L, P=.002). Flow cytometry demonstrated an aberrant T-cell phenotype in 7 of 23 patients with IgG4-RD and 13 of 13 patients with L-HES (PIgG4-RD vs 10 of 13 patients with L-HES (P=.143). Patients in both groups received corticosteroids as first-line therapy. For refractory disease in IgG4-RD, rituximab was the most common steroid-sparing agent, whereas in L-HES, it was pegylated interferon-α-2a. The overlapping features of these two diseases with divergent treatment options demonstrate the importance of familiarity with both entities to optimize diagnosis and treatment. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The leader peptide of mutacin 1140 has distinct structural components compared to related class I lantibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escano, Jerome; Stauffer, Byron; Brennan, Jacob; Bullock, Monica; Smith, Leif

    2014-12-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics composed of an N-terminal leader peptide that promotes the core peptide's interaction with the post translational modification (PTM) enzymes. Following PTMs, mutacin 1140 is transported out of the cell and the leader peptide is cleaved to yield the antibacterial peptide. Mutacin 1140 leader peptide is structurally unique compared to other class I lantibiotic leader peptides. Herein, we further our understanding of the structural differences of mutacin 1140 leader peptide with regard to other class I leader peptides. We have determined that the length of the leader peptide is important for the biosynthesis of mutacin 1140. We have also determined that mutacin 1140 leader peptide contains a novel four amino acid motif compared to related lantibiotics. PTM enzyme recognition of the leader peptide appears to be evolutionarily distinct from related class I lantibiotics. Our study on mutacin 1140 leader peptide provides a basis for future studies aimed at understanding its interaction with the PTM enzymes. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Health challenges of young travelers visiting friends and relatives compared with those traveling for other purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pauline; Yanni, Emad; Jentes, Emily S; Hamer, Davidson H; Chen, Lin H; Wilson, Mary E; Macleod, William B; Ooi, Winnie W; Kogelman, Laura; Karchmer, Adolf W; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2012-09-01

    The study objective was to assess differences in demographics and travel health challenges between youths ≤18 years old traveling internationally to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) compared with those traveling for other purposes (non-VFR). The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network consists of 5 clinics collecting anonymous data from international pretravel consultations. Data on all travelers ≤18 years of age seen between January 2008 and July 2010 were used. VFRs were compared with non-VFRs on demographics, primary language, trip characteristics, travel vaccinations administered, malaria prophylaxis and antidiarrheal medications prescribed. Thirty-five percent (610/1731) listed VFR as their purpose of travel. Almost half of VFRs were travel to countries that were yellow fever holoendemic, had malaria risk and were high-risk for typhoid (44% versus 20%, 39% versus 12%, 25% versus 15%, P travel-related morbidity, healthcare providers should be prepared to give travel advice to parents of VFR infants and children, particularly those US-born VFRs with foreign-born parents, regarding antimalarial and antidiarrheal medications and preventing yellow fever, malaria and typhoid.

  2. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  3. Parameter estimation method that directly compares gravitational wave observations to numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Boyle, M.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, J. A.; Demos, N.; Fong, H.; Healy, J.; Hemberger, D. A.; Hinder, I.; Jani, K.; Khamesra, B.; Kidder, L. E.; Kumar, P.; Laguna, P.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Pfeiffer, H.; Scheel, M. A.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.

    2017-11-01

    We present and assess a Bayesian method to interpret gravitational wave signals from binary black holes. Our method directly compares gravitational wave data to numerical relativity (NR) simulations. In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the systematic and statistical parameter estimation errors of this method. This procedure bypasses approximations used in semianalytical models for compact binary coalescence. In this work, we use the full posterior parameter distribution for only generic nonprecessing binaries, drawing inferences away from the set of NR simulations used, via interpolation of a single scalar quantity (the marginalized log likelihood, ln L ) evaluated by comparing data to nonprecessing binary black hole simulations. We also compare the data to generic simulations, and discuss the effectiveness of this procedure for generic sources. We specifically assess the impact of higher order modes, repeating our interpretation with both l ≤2 as well as l ≤3 harmonic modes. Using the l ≤3 higher modes, we gain more information from the signal and can better constrain the parameters of the gravitational wave signal. We assess and quantify several sources of systematic error that our procedure could introduce, including simulation resolution and duration; most are negligible. We show through examples that our method can recover the parameters for equal mass, zero spin, GW150914-like, and unequal mass, precessing spin sources. Our study of this new parameter estimation method demonstrates that we can quantify and understand the systematic and statistical error. This method allows us to use higher order modes from numerical relativity simulations to better constrain the black hole binary parameters.

  4. A small-volume bioassay for quantification of the esterase inhibiting potency of mixtures of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in rainwater : development and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Molin, K.R.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Murk, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive in vitro bioassay for quantification of the total esterase inhibiting potency of low concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in relatively small rainwater samples. Purified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from electric eel

  5. Introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into p-phenylenediamine attenuates its sensitizing potency and reduces the risk of allergy induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Carsten, E-mail: goebel.c.1@pg.com [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety and Communications, Darmstadt (Germany); Troutman, John [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hennen, Jenny [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Trier University, Trier (Germany); Rothe, Helga; Schlatter, Harald [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety and Communications, Darmstadt (Germany); Gerberick, G. Frank [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blömeke, Brunhilde [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Trier University, Trier (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter their sensitizing properties, it may also impair their color performance. With introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain we found the primary intermediate 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) with excellent hair coloring performance but significantly reduced sensitizing properties compared to PPD and PTD: In vitro, ME-PPD showed an attenuated innate immune response when analyzed for its protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation potential. In vivo, the effective concentration of ME-PPD necessary to induce an immune response 3-fold above vehicle control (EC3 value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 4.3%, indicating a moderate skin sensitizing potency compared to values of 0.1 and 0.17% for PPD and PTD, respectively. Finally, assessing the skin sensitizing potency of ME-PPD under consumer hair dye usage conditions through a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) indicated an allergy induction risk negligible compared to PPD or PTD. - Highlights: • Methoxymethyl side chain in p-phenylenediamine reduces its strong skin sensitizing properties. • Reduced protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation. • Reduced skin sensitizing potency in local lymph node assay (LLNA). • Negligible allergy induction risk under hair dye usage conditions.

  6. Introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into p-phenylenediamine attenuates its sensitizing potency and reduces the risk of allergy induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Carsten; Troutman, John; Hennen, Jenny; Rothe, Helga; Schlatter, Harald; Gerberick, G. Frank; Blömeke, Brunhilde

    2014-01-01

    The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter their sensitizing properties, it may also impair their color performance. With introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain we found the primary intermediate 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) with excellent hair coloring performance but significantly reduced sensitizing properties compared to PPD and PTD: In vitro, ME-PPD showed an attenuated innate immune response when analyzed for its protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation potential. In vivo, the effective concentration of ME-PPD necessary to induce an immune response 3-fold above vehicle control (EC3 value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 4.3%, indicating a moderate skin sensitizing potency compared to values of 0.1 and 0.17% for PPD and PTD, respectively. Finally, assessing the skin sensitizing potency of ME-PPD under consumer hair dye usage conditions through a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) indicated an allergy induction risk negligible compared to PPD or PTD. - Highlights: • Methoxymethyl side chain in p-phenylenediamine reduces its strong skin sensitizing properties. • Reduced protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation. • Reduced skin sensitizing potency in local lymph node assay (LLNA). • Negligible allergy induction risk under hair dye usage conditions

  7. An ex vivo human cartilage repair model to evaluate the potency of a cartilage cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Christoph; Meixner, Miriam; Giesemann, Petra; Roël, Giulietta; Bulwin, Grit-Carsta; Smink, Jeske J

    2016-11-15

    Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation are promising therapeutic approaches to treat cartilage defects to prevent further cartilage degeneration. To assure consistent quality of cell-based therapeutics, it is important to be able to predict the biological activity of such products. This requires the development of a potency assay, which assesses a characteristic of the cell transplant before implantation that can predict its cartilage regeneration capacity after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed as quality assessment tool for potency and applied to co.don's chondrosphere product, a matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implant (chondrocyte spheroids) that is in clinical use in Germany. Chondrocyte spheroids were generated from 14 donors, and implanted into a subchondral cartilage defect that was manually generated in human articular cartilage tissue. Implanted spheroids and cartilage tissue were co-cultured ex vivo for 12 weeks to allow regeneration processes to form new tissue within the cartilage defect. Before implantation, spheroid characteristics like glycosaminoglycan production and gene and protein expression of chondrogenic markers were assessed for each donor sample and compared to determine donor-dependent variation. After the co-cultivation, histological analyses showed the formation of repair tissue within the cartilage defect, which varied in amount for the different donors. In the repair tissue, aggrecan protein was expressed and extra-cellular matrix cartilage fibers were present, both indicative for a cartilage hyaline-like character of the repair tissue. The amount of formed repair tissue was used as a read-out for regeneration capacity and was correlated with the spheroid characteristics determined before implantation. A positive correlation was found between high level of aggrecan protein expression in spheroids before implantation and a higher regeneration potential

  8. Development of an in vitro potency assay for human skeletal muscle derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Marco; Asim, Faheem; Garczarczyk-Asim, Dorota; Janke, Katrin; Deutsch, Martin; Margreiter, Eva; Troppmair, Jakob; Marksteiner, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Potency is a quantitative measure of the desired biological function of an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) and is a prerequisite for market approval application (MAA). To assess the potency of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (SMDCs), which are currently investigated in clinical trials for the regeneration of skeletal muscle defects, we evaluated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is expressed in skeletal muscle and nervous tissue of all mammals. CD56+ SMDCs were separated from CD56- SMDCs by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and both differentiated in skeletal muscle differentiation medium. AChE activity of in vitro differentiated SMDCs was correlated with CD56 expression, fusion index, cell number, cell doubling numbers, differentiation markers and compared to the clinical efficacy in patients treated with SMDCs against fecal incontinence. CD56- SMDCs did not form multinucleated myotubes and remained low in AChE activity during differentiation. CD56+ SMDCs generated myotubes and increased in AChE activity during differentiation. AChE activity was found to accurately reflect the number of CD56+ SMDCs in culture, their fusion competence, and cell doubling number. In patients with fecal incontinence responding to SMDCs treatment, the improvement of clinical symptoms was positively linked with the AChE activity of the SMDCs injected. AChE activity was found to truly reflect the in vitro differentiation status of SMDCs and to be superior to the mere use of surface markers as it reflects not only the number of myogenic SMDCs in culture but also their fusion competence and population doubling number, thus combining cell quality and quantification of the expected mode of action (MoA) of SMDCs. Moreover, the successful in vitro validation of the assay proves its suitability for routine use. Most convincingly, our results demonstrate a link between clinical efficacy and the AChE activity of the SMDCs preparations used for the treatment of fecal

  9. An ex vivo human cartilage repair model to evaluate the potency of a cartilage cell transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation are promising therapeutic approaches to treat cartilage defects to prevent further cartilage degeneration. To assure consistent quality of cell-based therapeutics, it is important to be able to predict the biological activity of such products. This requires the development of a potency assay, which assesses a characteristic of the cell transplant before implantation that can predict its cartilage regeneration capacity after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed as quality assessment tool for potency and applied to co.don’s chondrosphere product, a matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implant (chondrocyte spheroids that is in clinical use in Germany. Methods Chondrocyte spheroids were generated from 14 donors, and implanted into a subchondral cartilage defect that was manually generated in human articular cartilage tissue. Implanted spheroids and cartilage tissue were co-cultured ex vivo for 12 weeks to allow regeneration processes to form new tissue within the cartilage defect. Before implantation, spheroid characteristics like glycosaminoglycan production and gene and protein expression of chondrogenic markers were assessed for each donor sample and compared to determine donor-dependent variation. Results After the co-cultivation, histological analyses showed the formation of repair tissue within the cartilage defect, which varied in amount for the different donors. In the repair tissue, aggrecan protein was expressed and extra-cellular matrix cartilage fibers were present, both indicative for a cartilage hyaline-like character of the repair tissue. The amount of formed repair tissue was used as a read-out for regeneration capacity and was correlated with the spheroid characteristics determined before implantation. A positive correlation was found between high level of aggrecan protein expression in spheroids

  10. Potency of veterinary rabies vaccines in The Netherlands: A case for continued vigilance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Rooijakkers; J.H.M. Nieuwenhuijs; A.A. Vermeulen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractCommercial rabies vaccines, used by veterinarians in the Netherlands, were collected for testing in the mouse potency test. Of the six vaccines tested, two were clearly below the minimal requirements for potency of 1.0 IU. Of these six vaccines the rabies virus glycoprotein (GP) and

  11. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene... for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance...

  12. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidal drugs and their main abiotic degradation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine Andersen; Brandt, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    )). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC(50)-values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light...

  13. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations.

  14. Comparative Assessment of Cutting Inserts and Optimization during Hard Turning: Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Raju, Ch.; Suresh, Ch.

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to compare the conventional cutting inserts with wiper cutting inserts during the hard turning of AISI 4340 steel at different workpiece hardness. Type of insert, hardness, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut are taken as process parameters. Taguchi’s L18 orthogonal array was used to conduct the experimental tests. Parametric analysis carried in order to know the influence of each process parameter on the three important Surface Roughness Characteristics (Ra, Rz, and Rt) and Material Removal Rate. Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) used to optimize the process parameters for individual response and multi-response outputs. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also applied to identify the most significant factor.

  15. Self-Reported Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment Compared with Cognitive Complaints following Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jennifer N; Dumas, Julie; Newhouse, Paul

    2018-06-15

    Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of cancer treatment. Current longitudinal studies, primarily in women with breast cancer, suggest that up to 35%-60% of patients exhibit persistent CRCI (pCRCI) following completion of chemotherapy. Complaints of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are also commonly reported by women during and following the menopause transition in non-cancer patients. Although the majority of evidence for cognitive difficulties in cancer patients and survivors is attributed to chemotherapy, there is growing evidence to suggest that menopausal status can also influence cognitive function in cancer patients. Given that menopausal status may be contributing to pCRCI, we compared a group of primarily post-menopausal women with pCRCI to two groups of post-menopausal women: women who endorse menopause-associated SCD (maSCD+) and women who do not (maSCD-) to explore the similarities/differences between maSCD and pCRCI and the potential role of menopause in pCRCI. pCRCI participants report more severe SCD symptoms than women after natural menopause, despite being on average 2.5-years post-chemotherapy, supporting previous findings that CRCI can persist for months to years after completing treatment. pCRCI participants not only endorsed greater SCD, but also exhibited objective performance differences. In addition, pCRCI participants endorsed significantly greater menopausal symptoms compared to either maSCD group. Results were not related to menopausal status prior to chemotherapy or current endocrine therapy use. These results suggest that while menopausal symptoms may contribute to SCD experienced by cancer patients after chemotherapy, they do not fully account for pCRCI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of anorectic potencies of the trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and satratoxin G to the ipecac alkaloid emetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichothecene mycotoxins, potent translational inhibitors that are associated with human food poisonings and damp-building illnesses, are of considerable concern to animal and human health. Food refusal is a hallmark of exposure of experimental animals to deoxynivalenol (DON and other Type B trichothecenes but less is known about the anorectic effects of foodborne Type A trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, airborne Type D trichothecenes (e.g., satratoxin G [SG] or functionally analogous metabolites that impair protein synthesis. Here, we utilized a well-described mouse model of food intake to compare the anorectic potencies of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and SG to that of emetine, a medicinal alkaloid derived from ipecac that inhibits translation. Intraperitoneal (IP administration with T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, emetine and SG evoked anorectic responses that occurred within 0.5 h that lasted up to 96, 96, 3 and 96 h, respectively, with lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs being 0.1, 0.1, 2.5 and 0.25 mg/kg BW, respectively. When delivered via natural routes of exposure, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, emetine (oral and SG (intranasal induced anorectic responses that lasted up to 48, 48, 3 and 6 h, respectively with LOAELs being 0.1, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. All four compounds were generally much more potent than DON which was previously observed to have LOAELs of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg BW after IP and oral dosing, respectively. Taken together, these anorectic potency data will be valuable in discerning the relative risks from trichothecenes and other translational inhibitors of natural origin.

  17. Protective effects of high-potency FMDV O1 Manisa monovalent vaccine in cattle challenged with FMDV O/SKR/2010 at 7 or 4 days post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Perez, Claudia Beascoechea; Maradei, Eduardo; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Gonzales, Jose L; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Bonastre, Paula; Vosloo, Wilna

    2017-09-12

    Serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus belonging to the SEA topotype continues to be a significant problem in the Eastern Asia region, with outbreaks in Japan and South Korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. High-potency O1 Manisa vaccine was previously shown to provide protection in cattle 21days post vaccination (dpv) following challenge with a representative virus, O/SKR/2010. This study tested the ability of the O1 Manisa vaccine to protect cattle from infection and disease with the O/SKR/2010 virus within just 4 or 7days post vaccination. The vaccine protected 50% of cattle from clinical disease when administered 7days prior to challenge, but was not protective with just 4days between vaccination and challenge. Viraemia was significantly reduced in animals challenged 7 dpv but not 4 dpv, compared to unvaccinated controls, however, there were no effects on the level of virus detected in nasal and oral secretions regardless of vaccination time. The level of neutralising antibodies detected in cattle challenged 7 dpv correlated with protection from clinical disease. All animals seroconverted to FMDV non-structural proteins, suggesting no sterile protection. An equal number of animals became persistently infected in both vaccine groups. The results indicated that high-potency O1 Manisa vaccine administered just 7days prior to challenge should provide partial protection of cattle if an outbreak of O/SKR/2010, or related viruses, occurs, and would be useful to limit spread of FMDV when used in conjunction with other control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing passive leg raising and suprasystolic ankle occlusion responses to quantify age-related microcirculatory status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The skin provides an easy accessible vascular network to assess microcirculation by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF, and transcutaneous (tc gasometry, widely known techniques used for this purpose. the objective of this study was to assess and compare the microcirculation status of different age subjects, knowing that the ageing process progressively affects macro and microcirculatory vessels. We’ve chosen to compare dynamical responses to two provocation tests – passive leg raising (PLR and ankle occlusion - in 59 healthy subjects, 35 young (22.1 ± 3.7 years old. in Group 1, and 24 older (50.8 ± 7.6 years old. in Group 2, selected after informed consent. Local blood flow, tcpO2 and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were measured in distal locations of the lower limb. PLR and ankle occlusion significantly reduced blood flow and tcpO2 in both groups, while no changes were found for TEWL. While the magnitude of the hyperemic response was found to be significantly reduced in group 2, no differences were found during ankle occlusion. tcpO2-dependent parameters were also significantly different between groups. These results seem to confirm the usefulness of these experimental models to distinguish the microcirculatory function of subjects with different ages, with PLR being more sensible in detecting age-related changes.

  19. Evaluation of relative comparator and k0-NAA for characterization of Aboriginal Australian ochre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popelka-Filcoff, R.S.; Lenehan, C.E.; Quinton, J.S.; Bennett, J.W.; Stopic, A.; Allan Pring; Keryn Walshe

    2012-01-01

    Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical 'fingerprint'. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity (sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k 0 -NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in 'fingerprinting' the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed. (author)

  20. Oral health-related quality of life in Brazilian child abuse victims: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Júnior, Ivam Freire; Hartwig, Andréia Drawanz; Stüermer, Vanessa Müller; Demarco, Giulia Tarquínio; Goettems, Marília Leão; Azevedo, Marina Sousa

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to assess and compare Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in child abuse victims and non-abused children in a Southern Brazilian city. The study compared two independent samples of children aged 8-10 years: 48 child abuse victims recruited from a centre for Child and Adolescent Psychological Support (NACA) for abused children, and 144 public and private school students. Data collection consisted of administration of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 (CPQ 8-10 ) to measure OHRQoL (dependent variable), clinical examination (dental caries), and collection of socioeconomic and demographic information (age, sex, skin colour, family income, and type of school). Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between presence of abuse and OHRQoL and subscales. After adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic variables, child abuse victims were found to exhibit higher CPQ scores on the overall scale and on the oral symptoms and functional limitations subscales. In conclusion, child abuse victims have a higher impact on OHRQoL. Based on the results, it is possible to suggest that greater care should be taken of these children, not only in providing treatment for oral disorders, but also in providing interdisciplinary care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Abigail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  2. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium and related Actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Abigail Manson; Weiner, Brian; Park, Sang Tae; Wapinski, Ilan; Raman, Sahadevan; Dolganov, Gregory; Peterson, Matthew; Riley, Robert; Zucker, Jeremy; Abeel, Thomas; White, Jared; Sisk, Peter; Stolte, Christian; Koehrsen, Mike; Yamamoto, Robert T; Iacobelli-Martinez, Milena; Kidd, Matthew J; Maer, Andreia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Regev, Aviv; Galagan, James

    2012-03-28

    The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org), including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  3. Comparative analysis of functional food producers' profitability in Serbia: A leader-follower relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganac Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional food market in Serbia is relatively young and insufficiently explored both from the aspects of producers and consumers, the qualitative aspect and especially from the quantitative aspect. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the results of the comprehensive quantitative financial analysis of profitability which focuses on the example of two companies. The main criterion applied in the selection of companies for the analysis represents the fact that one company is recognizable as a producer of foods with nutritive and health claims and is a leader within that market segment, whereas the other analyzed company mostly produces traditional products and has entered the aforementioned market segment at a later stage. The key idea is to do a comparative analysis of the profitability of these two companies for a four-year period. The profitability ratio analysis and the Du Pont analysis system are used in the paper as well as the analysis of solvency and financial leverage effect. The vertical analysis of income statement is also done in order to reveal the relation between some cost categories and operating revenues. The research results lead to a conclusion that the company that mostly produces functional foods has higher profit margins and rates of return and is therefore in a more favourable position since it can benefit from positive effects of financial leverage to a higher extent. The profitability of the second relevant company is mostly based on the better asset turnover.

  4. A STUDY TO COMPARE FUNDUS FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sujatha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To compare the diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography with Fundus Fluorescein Angiography in diagnosing Age related macular degeneration. METHODS A total 25 patients newly diagnosed as Age related macular degeneration were included in the study. The study was done during the time period between August 2013 to November 2015 this is a prospective randomized hospital based study. RESULTS Maximum no of patients affected belonged to the age group of 50-70 years and 60% were females. The most common symptom was defective vision accounting for 92%. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia were the most common risk factors. 12% of the cases had unilateral disease and 88% had bilateral disease. 6% of eyes were normal in both FFA and OCT. 62% of the eyes by FFA and 61% of the eyes by OCT had dry ARMD and 32 % of the eye by FFA and 33 % by OCT had wet ARMD. CONCLUSION Fundus Fluorescein Angiography is the gold standard tool for screening ARMD and OCT is more specific in detecting early subretinal neovascular membrane and also to assess the activity of the neovascular membranes. Hence OCT is superior to FFA in diagnosing early wet ARMD and thus helps in early management of patients with ARMD.

  5. Comparable Rest-related Promotion of Spatial Memory Consolidation in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Wolbers, Thomas; Harris, Mathew A.; Hauff, Patrick; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Flexible spatial navigation depends on cognitive mapping, a function that declines with increasing age. In young adults, a brief period of post-navigation rest promotes the consolidation/integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps. We examined (1) whether rest promotes spatial memory consolidation/integration in older adults and (2) whether the magnitude of the rest benefit changes with increasing age. Young and older adults learned a route through a virtual environment, followed by a 10min delay comprising either wakeful rest or a perceptual task, and a subsequent cognitive mapping task, requiring the pointing to landmarks from different locations. Pointing accuracy was lower in the older than younger adults. However, there was a comparable rest-related enhancement in pointing accuracy in the two age groups. Together our findings suggest that (i) the age-related decline in cognitive mapping cannot be explained by increased consolidation interference in older adults, and (ii) as we grow older rest continues to support the consolidation/integration of spatial memories. PMID:27689512

  6. Comparing Evaporative Sources of Terrestrial Precipitation and Their Extremes in MERRA Using Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wei, Jiangfeng; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2014-01-01

    A quasi-isentropic back trajectory scheme is applied to output from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications and a land-only replay with corrected precipitation to estimate surface evaporative sources of moisture supplying precipitation over every ice-free land location for the period 1979-2005. The evaporative source patterns for any location and time period are effectively two dimensional probability distributions. As such, the evaporative sources for extreme situations like droughts or wet intervals can be compared to the corresponding climatological distributions using the method of relative entropy. Significant differences are found to be common and widespread for droughts, but not wet periods, when monthly data are examined. At pentad temporal resolution, which is more able to isolate floods and situations of atmospheric rivers, values of relative entropy over North America are typically 50-400 larger than at monthly time scales. Significant differences suggest that moisture transport may be the key to precipitation extremes. Where evaporative sources do not change significantly, it implies other local causes may underlie the extreme events.

  7. Comparing clustering models in bank customers: Based on Fuzzy relational clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Hendalianpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is absolutely useful information to explore data structures and has been employed in many places. It organizes a set of objects into similar groups called clusters, and the objects within one cluster are both highly similar and dissimilar with the objects in other clusters. The K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms are the most popular clustering algorithms for their easy implementation and fast work, but in some cases we cannot use these algorithms. Regarding this, in this paper, a hybrid model for customer clustering is presented that is applicable in five banks of Fars Province, Shiraz, Iran. In this way, the fuzzy relation among customers is defined by using their features described in linguistic and quantitative variables. As follows, the customers of banks are grouped according to K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms and the proposed Fuzzy Relation Clustering (FRC algorithm. The aim of this paper is to show how to choose the best clustering algorithms based on density-based clustering and present a new clustering algorithm for both crisp and fuzzy variables. Finally, we apply the proposed approach to five datasets of customer's segmentation in banks. The result of the FCR shows the accuracy and high performance of FRC compared other clustering methods.

  8. Comparing the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic studies: a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, D.D.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Wellish, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a model to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two or more diagnostic tests. The model defines a cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) for a diagnostic test as the ratio of effective cost to base cost, only dollar costs considered. Effective cost includes base cost, cost of dealing with expected side effects, and wastage due to imperfect test performance. Test performance is measured by diagnostic utility (DU), a measure of test outcomes incorporating the decision-analytic variables sensitivity, specificity, equivocal fraction, disease probability, and outcome utility. Each of these factors affecting DU, and hence CER, is a local, not universal, value; these local values strongly affect CER, which in effect becomes a property of the local medical setting. When DU = +1 and there are no adverse effects, CER = 1 and the patient benefits from the test dollar for dollar. When there are adverse effects effective cost exceeds base cost, and for an imperfect test DU 1. As DU approaches 0 (worthless test), CER approaches infinity (no effectiveness at any cost). If DU is negative, indicating that doing the test at all would be detrimental, CER also becomes negative. We conclude that the CER model is a useful preliminary method for ranking the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic tests, and that the comparisons would best be done using local values; different groups might well arrive at different rankings. (Author)

  9. Effect of media relations on audiences: comparing how editorials and advertising influence behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tkalac Verčič

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A notion, according to which editorials have a bigger communication influence than advertisements, is very common and quite popular in public relations. The said notion is so prevalent (among both public relations and marketing communications experts that it has led to the concept of perceived influence multipliers that point to a stronger editorial influence in comparison to advertising influence (2.5 to 8 times stronger. Based on the described assumption, the aim of this paper was to further explore how the target audience perceives editorial and advertising content. The research problem was to compare the effects of both types of content on behavior and behavioral intent (through four media – Internet, radio, newspapers and television. Respondents were divided into two groups – current users of the service that was in focus (for influence on behavior and potential users (for influence on behavioral intent. Even though current users said that editorials had a bigger influence on their behavior, this difference was not significant. On the other hand, potential users stated that the advertising content shaped their behavioral intent more than did editorials. These results once again show the assumption, according to which editorials have a stronger communication influence than advertisements, to be highly questionable.

  10. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  11. THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROMOTIONAL JOURNALISM – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRINA ANIŞOARA TRIFAN (LICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose statement – This paper’s purpose is to contribute to the development of a specific know-how through the establishment of a theoretical framework of reference. This can facilitate the research steps which follow the identification; analysis; and interpretation of a new marketing instrument – promotional journalism. The objectives, of this study, relate not only to the establishment of theoretical but, also, to the practical characteristics, of promotional journalism. These are based on a comparative analysis with other related concepts and, also, on a qualitative analysis of the contents of the specific materials. Design – The research problem imposes a methodological interdisciplinary approach; this enables the identification; systematization; analysis; and theoretical interpretation of the fundamental concepts, theories and ideas, from the specialized literature, to be orientated towards studies and articles from separate fields. From the perspective of the research objectives and this interdisciplinary study of specilized literature, there was added a qualitative analysis of the content of the materials specific to promotional journalism found between 2002 and 2006, in the fashion magazine, Elle Romania. Overview - The specialized literature presented key-concepts; different terminologies; and meanings apparently for the same studied “reality“. This made the achievement of the process of conceptual delimitations even more difficult to the extent that promotional journalism was situated at the intersection of various sciences and the acknowledgment, of its related terms, were either similar or stated vaguely. Originality – This paper’s originality stems from the interdisciplinary perspective to the approach to the problematical aspect and the analysis and interpretitive complexity of the research results. These might prove useful both to the accomplishment of the studies in the field and for the practitioners and

  12. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r 2 = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs

  13. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S K [VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Water Engineering and Ecotechnology, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r{sup 2} = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs.

  14. Seminal vesicle sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using a low-energy source: Better continence and potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrenik J Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ongoing with the newer developments in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP, we report our experience in a consecutive series of 42 patients with a mean 18-month follow-up. We also studied the use of a low-energy source, especially in the region of the prostatic apex and the neurovascular bundle and evaluated its outcome on continence and potency. Materials and Methods: Between November 2003 and December 2008, 50 patients aged 50-80 yrs underwent LRP with vesicourethral anastomosis and of these, 42 patients who had a minimum follow-up of 3 months were selected for the study. Of these, the initial 16 patients were operated by the routine method and the 26 patients operated in the later part of our experience were operated upon using a minimal energy source. Results: The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 3-60. Continence was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Eleven of the 16 patients in Group I were continent as compared with 21 of 26 patients in Group II. The difference in continence rates was mainly due to less use of electrocautery and harmonic scalpel at the bladder neck. Of the eight patients who were potent pre-operatively in Group I, four remained potent 3 months after LRP. In Group II, 20 of the 26 patients were potent pre-operatively and 16 remained potent 3 months after LRP. Conclusions: Use of a low-energy source at the bladder neck and neurovascular bundle, sparing of seminal vesicle, and leaving behind a long, healthy stump of the urethra during apical dissection, is associated with better continence and potency without compromising oncological outcome.

  15. Chromogenic assay for BAY 81-8973 potency assignment has no impact on clinical outcome or monitoring in patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, S; Katterle, Y; Beckmann, H; Maas Enriquez, M

    2016-06-01

    Essentials Discrepancies can exist in factor VIII activity measured by the one-stage or chromogenic assays. LEOPOLD trial data were used to assess clinical impact of BAY 81-8973 potency assignment assay. Efficacy was not affected by the assay used for potency assignment and dosing of BAY 81-8973. Either assay may be used to measure factor VIII activity after BAY 81-8973 infusion. Background Product-specific discrepancies have been reported for factor VIII (FVIII) activity determined with one-stage or chromogenic assays. Objective To assess the clinical impact of potency assignment of BAY 81-8973, a full-length, unmodified, recombinant human FVIII, by use of the chromogenic assay or chromogenic assay adjusted to mimic results obtained with the one-stage assay Patients/methods Patients aged 12-65 years with severe hemophilia A received BAY 81-8973 in LEOPOLD I (20-50 IU kg(-1) two or three times weekly [investigator decision]) and LEOPOLD II (randomized to 20-30 IU kg(-1) twice weekly, 30-40 IU kg(-1) three times weekly, or on-demand treatment). Both trials included two 6-month crossover periods in which potency labeling was determined with the chromogenic substrate assay as per the European Pharmacopoeia (CS/EP) or the chromogenic substrate assay adjusted to mimic results obtained with the one-stage assay (CS/ADJ). The annualized bleeding rate (ABR) and FVIII incremental recovery were assessed by the use of pooled data. Results The analysis was perfomed on 121 patients. Median (quartile [Q] 1; Q3) ABRs during the CS/EP and CS/ADJ periods were 1.98 (0; 5.92) and 1.98 (0; 7.34), respectively. The mean incremental recovery was > 2 IU dL(-1) per IU kg(-1) in both periods with the use of either assay for postinfusion FVIII measurements. The median (Q1; Q3) chromogenic/one-stage assay recovery ratio was 1.054 (0.892; 1.150) for the CS/EP period when a plasma standard was used for calibration. Conclusions No impact on the ABR was observed with chromogenic-based as compared

  16. GENDER BIAS IN THE PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA: COMPARING PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTITIONERS’ JOB FUNCTIONS, INCOMES, AND CAREER PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesuselvi Manickam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is an increase in women working outside their home to sustain themselves economically and socially, but the working experiences can be problematic for women when gender discrimination exists in the workplace. In the early 1960s, women were entering the public relations industry at a rate faster than their male counterparts, but gender bias was a sore issue in the industry. Numerous studies have been conducted on gender bias, and the findings indicate that female public relations practitioners receive unequal treatment in their organisation. For that reason, this study investigated whether gender bias exists in the public relations industry in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and if so, what the impact was on the practitioners’ work performance. The study used an in-depth interview with five public relations practitioners from public relations agencies and corporate companies. Feminist Standpoint Theory served as a framework for this study. Results revealed that in Malaysia, gender bias is not prevalent because of cultural diversity and company policies. The priorities of these public relations agencies and organisations favor employee’s performance and competence over gender. The results also indicated that public relations practitioners are treated fairly in areas of career prospects, job functions, and remuneration.

  17. Just say 'know': how do cannabinoid concentrations influence users' estimates of cannabis potency and the amount they roll in joints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tom P; Morgan, Celia J A; Hindocha, Chandni; Schafer, Gráinne; Das, Ravi K; Curran, H Valerie

    2014-10-01

    (1) To determine whether measured concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in individuals' own cannabis predict their estimates of drug potency and actual titration; and (2) to ascertain if these effects are influenced by frequency of use and cannabis type. Cross-sectional, naturalistic. Participants' own homes. A total of 247 cannabis users in the United Kingdom: 152 'recreational' (1-24 days/month) and 95 'daily' (≥25 days/month). Participants rated their own cannabis for its potency (1-10) and type ('resin', 'herbal', 'skunk') before smoking it in front of the researcher. The amount of cannabis (g) used in their joints was recorded and an additional sample was analysed for THC and CBD concentrations (%). THC concentrations were related negatively to the amount of cannabis used [unstandardized regression coefficient: b = -0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.017, -0.002]. Potency estimates were predicted by increasing THC (b = 0.055, 95% CI = 0.020, 0.090) and decreasing CBD (b = -0.160, 95% CI = -0.284, -0.062), and both of these associations were mediated by cannabis type (THC: b = 0.018, 95% CI = 0.006, 0.037; CBD: b = -0.105, 95% CI = -0.198, -0.028). Potency estimates were more reflective of THC as frequency of use increased (b = 0.004, 95% CI = 0.001, 0.007) and were 7.3 times more so in daily (partial r = 0.381) than recreational users (r = 0.052). When using their own cannabis in a naturalistic setting, people titrate the amount they roll in joints according to concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not cannabidiol (CBD). Recreational users thus show poor understanding of cannabis potency. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2015-09-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC-MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ(9)-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(8)-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(6a,10a)-THC, and 1'S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Slow self-activation enhances the potency of viridin prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Joseph; Yuan, Hushan; Smith, Adam; Pacold, Michael E; Weissleder, Ralph; Cantley, Lewis C; Josephson, Lee

    2008-08-14

    When the viridin wortmannin (Wm) is modified by reaction with certain nucleophiles at the C20 position, the compounds obtained exhibit an improved antiproliferative activity even though a covalent reaction between C20 and a lysine in the active site of PI3 kinase is essential to Wm's ability to inhibit this enzyme. Here we show that this improved potency results from an intramolecular attack by the C6 hydroxyl group that slowly converts these inactive prodrugs to the active species Wm over the 48 h duration of the antiproliferative assay. Our results provide a guide for selecting Wm-like compounds to maximize kinase inhibition with the variety of protocols used to assess the role of PI3 kinase in biological systems, or for achieving optimal therapeutic effects in vivo . In addition, the slow self-activation of WmC20 derivatives provides a mechanism that can be exploited to obtain kinase inhibitors endowed with physical and pharmacokinetic properties far different from man-made kinase inhibitors because they do not bind to kinase active sites.

  20. Potency of Thorium and Uranium in West Bangka Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Heri Syaeful; Kurnia Setiawan Widana; Muhammad Nurdin

    2014-01-01

    Thorium and uranium in Bangka Island are mainly found in monazite mineral. In the geological point of view the monazite formed in S type granite, sandstones and alluvial deposits. In Bangka Barat where several S types granite and also alluvial deposits and this area considered as a potential area for monazite placer. S type granites are predicted as a source of monazite while alluvial deposits are considered as a dispersion place for deposition of monazite. The purpose of this study is to determine the geological information and to know the hypothetical potency of thorium and uranium resources in alluvial deposits. The methods used in this study are geological mapping, measurement of thorium and uranium contents in the rock, sampling of granite for petrographic analysis, sampling of heavy mineral in alluvial deposits for grain size analysis. Results of the research show that the lithology of West Bangka region composed of schist unit, meta-sandstone unit, granite intrusion, diabase intrusion, sandstone unit and alluvial deposits. Monazite is found in granite intrusion, sandstone unit and alluvial deposits. Evolving fault strand to northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest and west-east. The results of the grain size analysis of heavy mineral shows the average percentage of monazite in the heavy mineral is 6.34%. Other potential minerals contained in placer deposits are zircon 36.65%, ilmenite 19.67% and cassiterite 14.75%. (author)

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  2. The advantages of tomosynthesis for evaluating bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures compared to radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraszko, Andrew; Siegal, Daniel; Flynn, Michael; Rao, Sudhaker D; Peterson, Ed; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the advantages of using tomosynthesis (TS) compared to radiographs in the detection, characterization, and follow-up of bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures (BP-AFF). Eight patients were identified retrospectively who underwent TS for radiographic findings suspicious for BP-AFF. Two radiologists independently interpreted 15 radiographs and 16 TS examinations, indicating the presence or absence of the following: (1) cortical "beaking" on radiographs, (2) radiolucent fracture line on radiographs, and (3) fracture lucency on TS corresponding to the site of radiographic abnormality. Radiation dose data were calculated for radiographs and TS using Monte Carlo analysis. There was agreement on 100 % of radiographs regarding the presence or absence of a cortical beak. Regarding the presence or absence of a fracture lucency, there was agreement on 100 % of TS examinations (Kappa = 1.0) and 73 % of radiographs (Kappa = 0.40 ± 0.24). For the 46 % of radiographs in which one or both radiologists did not visualize a fracture line, there was 100 % agreement for the presence of a fracture line on the corresponding TS. The interobserver agreement for fracture line detection was significantly higher for TS than for radiographs (p = 0.012). The effective radiation dose using TS was approximately 96 % lower compared to radiography. TS outperformed radiographs in the detection and characterization of BP-AFF. TS may also have advantages over radiography for BP-AFF follow-up through its unique ability to visualize fracture healing with lower effective radiation doses to the patient.

  3. Comparing the radiosensitivity of cervical and thoracic spinal cord using the relative seriality model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamus-Gorka, M.; Lind, B.K.; Brahme, A.

    2003-01-01

    Spinal cord is one of the most important normal tissues that are aimed to be spared during radiation therapy of cancer. This organ has been known for its strongly serial character and its high sensitivity to radiation. In order to compare the sensitivity of different parts of spinal cord, the early data (1970's) for radiation myelopathy available in the literature could be used. In the present study the relative seriality model (Kallman et al. 1992) has been fitted to two different sets of clinical data for spinal cord irradiation: radiation myelitis of cervical spinal cord after treating 248 patients for malignant disease of head and neck (Abbatucci et al. 1978) and radiation myelitis of thoracic spinal cord after radiation treating 43 patients with lung carcinoma (Reinhold et al. 1976). The maximum likelihood method was applied for the fitting and the corresponding parameters together with their 68% confidence intervals calculated for each of the datasets respectively. The alpha-beta ratio for the thoracic survival was also obtained. On the basis of the present study the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. radiation myelopathy is a strongly serial endpoint, 2. it appears to be differences in radiosensitivity between the cervical and thoracic region of spinal cord, 3. thoracic spinal cord revealed very serial characteristic of dose response, while the cervical myelopathy seems to be a bit less serial endpoint, 4. the dose-response curve is much steeper in case of myelopathy of cervical spinal cord, due to the much higher gamma value for this region. This work compares the fitting of NTCP model to the cervical and thoracic regions of the spinal cord and shows quite different responses. In the future more data should be tested for better understanding the mechanism of spinal cord sensitivity to radiation

  4. GENDER BIAS IN THE PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA: COMPARING PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTITIONERS’ JOB FUNCTIONS, INCOMES, AND CAREER PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yesuselvi Manickam; Tan Soon Chin; Suffian Hadi Ayub

    2016-01-01

    Today, there is an increase in women working outside their home to sustain themselves economically and socially, but the working experiences can be problematic for women when gender discrimination exists in the workplace. In the early 1960s, women were entering the public relations industry at a rate faster than their male counterparts, but gender bias was a sore issue in the industry. Numerous studies have been conducted on gender bias, and the findings indicate that female public relations ...

  5. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Work-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs compared to teachers and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Kieschke, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the status of health-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs in comparison with teachers and physicians to identify specific health risks and resources. Entrepreneurs (n = 632), teachers (n = 5,196), and physicians (n = 549) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM) was used for all professions and, in addition, two scales (health prevention and self-confidence) from the Checklist for Entrepreneurs in the sample of entrepreneurs. The largest proportion of the entrepreneurs (45%) presented with a healthy pattern (compared with 18.4% teachers and 18.3% physicians). Thirty-eight percent of entrepreneurs showed a risk pattern of overexertion and stress, followed by teachers (28.9%) and physicians (20.6%). Unambitious or burnout patterns were seen in only 9.3/8.2% of entrepreneurs, respectively, and 25.3/27.3% of teachers, and 39.6/21.5% of physicians. While the distribution of patterns in teachers and physicians differed significantly between genders, a gender difference was not found among entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs with the risk pattern of overexertion scored significantly (P successful enterprise depends, in part, on the health of the entrepreneur. The large proportion of entrepreneurs with the healthy pattern irrespective of gender may support the notion that self-selection effects of healthy individuals in this special career might be important. At the same time, a large proportion was at risk for overexertion and might benefit from measures to cope with professional demands and stress and promote a healthy behavior pattern.

  7. Navigating the complexities of qualitative comparative analysis: case numbers, necessity relations, and model ambiguities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Alrik

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) has been enjoying increasing levels of popularity in evaluation and directly neighboring fields. Its holistic approach to causal data analysis resonates with researchers whose theories posit complex conjunctions of conditions and events. However, due to QCA's relative immaturity, some of its technicalities and objectives have not yet been well understood. In this article, I seek to raise awareness of six pitfalls of employing QCA with regard to the following three central aspects: case numbers, necessity relations, and model ambiguities. Most importantly, I argue that case numbers are irrelevant to the methodological choice of QCA or any of its variants, that necessity is not as simple a concept as it has been suggested by many methodologists, and that doubt must be cast on the determinacy of virtually all results presented in past QCA research. By means of empirical examples from published articles, I explain the background of these pitfalls and introduce appropriate procedures, partly with reference to current software, that help avoid them. QCA carries great potential for scholars in evaluation and directly neighboring areas interested in the analysis of complex dependencies in configurational data. If users beware of the pitfalls introduced in this article, and if they avoid mechanistic adherence to doubtful "standards of good practice" at this stage of development, then research with QCA will gain in quality, as a result of which a more solid foundation for cumulative knowledge generation and well-informed policy decisions will also be created. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOURS RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AMONG SELECTED YOUNG CONSUMERS IN POLAND AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zegan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the key factors infl uencing human health. Consuming foods that either naturally contain or have been enriched with bioactive substances may aid the organism’s proper development and functioning and, most importantly, be a vital element in the prophylaxis of many non-communicable diseases as well as improve general sense of well-being. The aim of the study was to compare behaviours related to functional foods among a selected group of young people. The survey was conducted among 153 purposively selected young consumers from Poland and Germany in March/April 2015. An original survey questionnaire was employed. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23 software was used for statistical analysis (chi-squared test p < 0.05. The term “functional foods” was largely unknown among the respondents. A defi nite majority of the survey participants reported having bought and consumed products that, in fact, belong to this group of foods. The main source of information on the topic of functional foods was the Internet. While buying these products, respondents from both countries chiefl y took into account the price, the quality and the list of ingredients. The results point to the need to popularize information about functional foods using trustworthy sources, in order to foster nutritional awareness. Consumer knowledge is the basis for the positive perception and acceptance of health-promoting foods and for making rational dietary choices. 

  9. Comparative analysis of diosgenin in Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants by UPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tao; Fan, Lan-Lan; Chen, Hong-Li; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Suen, Hau-Man; Tang, Yi-Na; Zhu, Lin; Chu, Chu; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2014-08-09

    Dioscorea is a genus of flowering plants, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin. To screen potential resource from Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants for diosgenin extraction, a rapid method to compare the contents of diosgenin in various plants is crucial. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of diosgenin in various plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted. Twenty-four batches of plant samples from four Dioscorea species, one Smilax species and two Heterosmilax species were analyzed by using the developed method.The present method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Diosgenin was found in three Dioscorea species and one Heterosmilax species, namely D. zingiberensis, D. septemloba, D. collettii and H. yunnanensis. The method is suitable for the screening of diosgenin resources from plants. D. zingiberensis is an important resource for diosgenin harvesting.

  10. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  11. Comparative Evaluations and Microstructure: Mechanical Property Relations of Sintered Silicon Carbide Consolidated by Various Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, Prasenjit; Chatterjee, Arya; Majumdar, Bhaskar; Saha, Bhaskar Prasad; Mitra, Rahul

    2018-04-01

    A comparative evaluation between pressureless or self-sintered silicon carbide (SSiC), hot-pressed silicon carbide (HP-SiC), and spark plasma-sintered silicon carbide (SPS-SiC) has been carried out with emphasis on examination of their microstructures and mechanical properties. The effect of sample dimensions on density and properties of SPS-SiC has been also examined. Elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness measured by indentation or testing of single-edge notched beam specimens have been found to follow the following trend, HP-SiC > SSiC > SPS-SiC. The SPS-SiC samples have shown size-dependent densification and mechanical properties, with the smaller sample exhibiting superior properties. The mechanical properties of sintered SiC samples appear to be influenced by relative density, grain size, and morphology, as well as the existence of intergranular glassy phase. Studies of fracture surface morphologies have revealed the mechanism of failure to be transgranular in SSiC or HP-SiC, and intergranular in case of SPS-SiC, indicating the dominating influence of grain size and α-SiC formation with high aspect ratio.

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Skin Color Differentiation in Red Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Wang, Lanmei; Dong, Zaijie; Chen, Xingting; Song, Feibiao; Liu, Nian; Yang, Hui; Fu, Jianjun

    2016-08-11

    Red tilapia is becoming more popular for aquaculture production in China in recent years. However, the pigmentation differentiation in genetic breeding is the main problem limiting its development of commercial red tilapia culture and the genetic basis of skin color variation is still unknown. In this study, we conducted Illumina sequencing of transcriptome on three color variety red tilapia. A total of 224,895,758 reads were generated, resulting in 160,762 assembled contigs that were used as reference contigs. The contigs of red tilapia transcriptome had hits in the range of 53.4% to 86.7% of the unique proteins of zebrafish, fugu, medaka, three-spined stickleback and tilapia. And 44,723 contigs containing 77,423 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, with 16,646 contigs containing more than one SSR. Three skin transcriptomes were compared pairwise and the results revealed that there were 148 common significantly differentially expressed unigenes and several key genes related to pigment synthesis, i.e. tyr, tyrp1, silv, sox10, slc24a5, cbs and slc7a11, were included. The results will facilitate understanding the molecular mechanisms of skin pigmentation differentiation in red tilapia and accelerate the molecular selection of the specific strain with consistent skin colors.

  13. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  14. Using a mass balance to determine the potency loss during the production of a pharmaceutical blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaplow, Michael B

    2010-09-01

    The manufacture of a blend containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inert excipients is a precursor for the production of most pharmaceutical capsules and tablets. However, if there is a net water gain or preferential loss of API during production, the potency of the final drug product may be less than the target value. We use a mass balance to predict the mean potency loss during the production of a blend via wet granulation and fluidized bed drying. The result is an explicit analytical equation for the change in blend potency a function of net water gain, solids losses (both regular and high-potency), and the fraction of excipients added extragranularly. This model predicts that each 1% gain in moisture content (as determined by a loss on drying test) will decrease the API concentration of the final blend at least 1% LC. The effect of pre-blend solid losses increases with their degree of superpotency. This work supports Quality by Design by providing a rational method to set the process design space to minimize blend potency losses. When an overage is necessary, the model can help justify it by providing a quantitative, first-principles understanding of the sources of potency loss. The analysis is applicable to other manufacturing processes where the primary sources of potency loss are net water gain and/or mass losses.

  15. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Shamir, Merav H

    2014-01-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  16. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  17. Relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive lobular compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Schelomo; Hui, Jane Yuet Ching; Huang, Jing Li; Kizy, Scott; Beckwith, Heather; Blaes, Anne H; Rueth, Natasha M; Tuttle, Todd M

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have distinct clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics. The objective of the current study was to compare the relative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with ILC versus those with IDC. Women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER2) -negative, stage I/II IDC and ILC who received endocrine therapy were identified from the 2000 to 2014 California Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collected. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards modeling. In total, 32,997 women with IDC and 4638 with ILC were identified. The receipt of chemotherapy significantly decreased during the study for both subtypes. For patients with IDC, the 10-year OS rate was 95% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 93% (P chemotherapy. For patients with ILC, the 10-year OS rate was 94% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 92% (P chemotherapy. After adjusting for patient and treatment factors, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decreased 10-year hazard of death for patients with IDC (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.92). In contrast, adjuvant chemotherapy was not independently associated with the adjusted 10-year hazard of death for patients with ILC (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.46). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with improved OS for patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative, stage I/II ILC. Avoidance of ineffective chemotherapy will markedly reduce the adverse effects and economic burden of breast cancer treatment for a large proportion of patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2017;123:3015-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Wang

    Full Text Available Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA. Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development.

  19. A preliminary comparative treatment planning study for radiotherapy of age-related maculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Schwartz, L.; Lacroix, F.; Mammar, H.; Delacroix, S.; Ferrand, R.; Nauraye, C.; Desjardins, L.; Schlienger, P.; D'Hermies, F.; Frau, E.; Habrand, J.-L.; Rosenwald, J.-C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We present a comparative planning of different approaches for external radiotherapy in age-related maculopathies. Materials and methods: Calculated dose distributions and dose-volume histograms for (a) bilateral irradiation with 6 MV photons, (b) a single lateral-oblique beam using either photons, electrons or protons and (c) an anterior circular proton beam. Results: For lateral photon or electron beams the dose to the lens is usually lower than 10% of the dose to the macula. The entrance doses for bilateral photon beams are about 50% which increase up to 100% at the orbital bone. About 5 mm of optic nerves are irradiated at the maximal dose while the optic chiasma is spared. A single photon beam gives 50% of the dose to the fellow eye. The electron beam spares the fellow eye but gives a rather inhomogeneous dose to the target volume. For a lateral proton beam, 4 mm of optic nerve receives 90% of the dose, the skin dose is at least 70% of the dose to the macula and the lens and the fellow eye are spared. An anterior proton beam gives 90% of the dose to 1 mm of optic nerve and the 50% isodose approaches the periphery of the lens. Conclusion: Doses to the critical structures can be dramatically diminished for all the techniques by reducing the beam size, but only if very precise set-up techniques are used. Proton beams are an attractive solution, but the impact of such a choice on the use of proton facilities and on the national health system should be carefully evaluated, as well as the risk of radio-induced secondary neoplasias. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Social stigma related to halitosis in Saudi and British population: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yunis Saleem Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral malodor or halitosis is a common problem in the general population throughout the world. Results of previous research findings suggest that there is a relationship between oral malodor and social anxiety disorder. Halitosis can be very damaging to someone psychologically due to the social stigma. In this study, we tried to assess the social stigma related to halitosis and compare that in Saudi and British population. Methodology: A pretested questionnaire was distributed among Saudi and British population. Responses were obtained from 308 (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and 304 (United Kingdom participants. The purpose of this study was explained to the participants before distributing questionnaire form and the information was collected accordingly. Results: A total of 612 participants, 308 (Jeddah and Abha and 304 (Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Glasgow were selected and all the participants were aware of their halitosis. Selected Saudi population assessed their halitosis as mild (50.6%, moderate (30.12% and severe (19.28%. Selected British population assessed their halitosis as mild (39.71%, moderate (36.76%, and severe (23.53%. 71.2% of the Saudi population selected and 56.6% of the United Kingdom population selected responded that they encountered individuals with halitosis. 76.9% of Saudi population selected and 55.8% of United Kingdom population selected encountered social embarrassment due to halitosis. Conclusion: Considerable amount of stigma associated with halitosis persists in both countries. Though there are no significant differences in the social stigma attached with halitosis between the United Kingdom and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it is still a matter of concern.

  1. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Heljä; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antti

    2002-09-01

    Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. Contrast energy thresholds (E(th)) were measured for flicker at 1.25 to 20 Hz in strong, purely temporal (spatially uniform), additive, external noise. The masking power of white external noise, characterized by its spectral density at zero frequency N0, increases with the duration of the noise frame. For short noise frame durations, E(th) increased in direct proportion to N0, keeping the nominal signal-to-noise ratio [SNR = (E(th)/N0)(0.5)] constant at threshold. The masking effect thus increased with the duration of the noise frame and the noise mimicked white noise. When noise frame duration and N0 increased further, the nominal SNR at threshold started to decrease, indicating that noise no longer mimicked white noise. The minimum number of noise frames per flicker cycle needed to mimic white noise decreased with increasing flicker frequency from 8.3 at 1.25 Hz to 1.6 at 20 Hz. The critical high-frequency cutoff of detection-limiting temporal noise in terms of noise frames per signal cycle depends on the temporal frequency of the signal. This is opposite to the situation in the spatial domain and must be taken into consideration when temporal signals are masked with temporal noise.

  2. POTENCY OF KIPO, A TRADITIONAL FOOD FROM KOTAGEDE – YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Supartono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kipo is a traditional food from Kotagede Region – Yogyakarta, which is produced from glutinous rice. It was processed through some steps such as weighing, mixing, melting, roasting and packing. This traditional food is not popular like other traditional foods such as gudeg or yangko. Problems concerning this situation were, the information of kipo was not well delivered to the consumers and people who were doing business with kipo were very limited and only in Kotagede.This research was aimed to disclosure the potency of kipo, if it was developed as industrial foods. The aspects of market, technical and financial were conducted and analyzed. These aspects were used for giving considerations, if this product could be developed in the future. The results depicted, that from the market aspect, value kipoconsumer’s attitude index was good (3.8845 from 5. The technical aspect showed, that this industry was quite small scale with processing capacity only 19 kg product per day, used 5 menpower and 60 m2 area.Based on the financial aspect at actual capacity, the results showed Net Present Value was Rp. 70,180,679; Payback Period 1.21 years; Profitability Index 5.51;Internal Rate of Return 98.5% and Break Even Point was Rp. 505,414 or 212,693 kipo. This industry was very sensitive to the increase of interest level, total cost and decrease of price product. Some challenged aspects of kipo were, it was produced from naural sources such as glutinous rice, coconut, brown sugar and also natural food colouring agent. The traditional process was still kept and the people could enjoy how it was produced. This is the challenge to develop the traditional food as part of culinary or historical tour.

  3. Comparative and functional triatomine genomics reveals reductions and expansions in insecticide resistance-related gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Lucila; Lavore, Andrés; Sierra, Ivana; Palacio, Victorio; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesús; Latorre-Estivalis, José Manuel; Mougabure-Cueto, Gaston; Francini, Flavio; Lorenzo, Marcelo G; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Ons, Sheila; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando V

    2017-02-01

    Triatomine insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This is a neglected disease affecting approximately 8 million people in Latin America. The existence of diverse pyrethroid resistant populations of at least two species demonstrates the potential of triatomines to develop high levels of insecticide resistance. Therefore, the incorporation of strategies for resistance management is a main concern for vector control programs. Three enzymatic superfamilies are thought to mediate xenobiotic detoxification and resistance: Glutathione Transferases (GSTs), Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and Carboxyl/Cholinesterases (CCEs). Improving our knowledge of key triatomine detoxification enzymes will strengthen our understanding of insecticide resistance processes in vectors of Chagas' disease. The discovery and description of detoxification gene superfamilies in normalized transcriptomes of three triatomine species: Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma infestans and Triatoma pallidipennis is presented. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of these superfamilies among the triatomine transcriptomes and the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, also a triatomine vector of Chagas' disease, and other well-studied insect genomes was performed. The expression pattern of detoxification genes in R. prolixus transcriptomes from key organs was analyzed. The comparisons reveal gene expansions in Sigma class GSTs, CYP3 in CYP superfamily and clade E in CCE superfamily. Moreover, several CYP families identified in these triatomines have not yet been described in other insects. Conversely, several groups of insecticide resistance related enzymes within each enzyme superfamily are reduced or lacking in triatomines. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR results showed an increase in the expression of a CYP4 gene in a T. infestans population resistant to pyrethroids. These results could point to an involvement of metabolic detoxification mechanisms on the high

  4. Comparative and functional triatomine genomics reveals reductions and expansions in insecticide resistance-related gene families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Traverso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This is a neglected disease affecting approximately 8 million people in Latin America. The existence of diverse pyrethroid resistant populations of at least two species demonstrates the potential of triatomines to develop high levels of insecticide resistance. Therefore, the incorporation of strategies for resistance management is a main concern for vector control programs. Three enzymatic superfamilies are thought to mediate xenobiotic detoxification and resistance: Glutathione Transferases (GSTs, Cytochromes P450 (CYPs and Carboxyl/Cholinesterases (CCEs. Improving our knowledge of key triatomine detoxification enzymes will strengthen our understanding of insecticide resistance processes in vectors of Chagas' disease.The discovery and description of detoxification gene superfamilies in normalized transcriptomes of three triatomine species: Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma infestans and Triatoma pallidipennis is presented. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of these superfamilies among the triatomine transcriptomes and the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, also a triatomine vector of Chagas' disease, and other well-studied insect genomes was performed. The expression pattern of detoxification genes in R. prolixus transcriptomes from key organs was analyzed. The comparisons reveal gene expansions in Sigma class GSTs, CYP3 in CYP superfamily and clade E in CCE superfamily. Moreover, several CYP families identified in these triatomines have not yet been described in other insects. Conversely, several groups of insecticide resistance related enzymes within each enzyme superfamily are reduced or lacking in triatomines. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR results showed an increase in the expression of a CYP4 gene in a T. infestans population resistant to pyrethroids. These results could point to an involvement of metabolic detoxification mechanisms

  5. Early biochemical recurrence, urinary continence and potency outcomes following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Hvarness, Helle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe recovery of urinary continence and potency and report oncological and functional outcomes using the survival, continence and potency (SCP) system for patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2009...... with preoperative ESI, 77.6% (67.9-86.1) and 34.4% (24.1-47.5) maintained ESI 12 months postoperatively after bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing surgery (NS), respectively. NS (p .... Using the SCP system and defining potency as ESI, functional and oncological success 12 months after surgery was achieved in 69 out of 135 (51.1%) preoperative continent and potent patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral NS, and did not require adjuvant treatment; when defining potency as IIEF...

  6. Specific Stereoisomeric Conformations Determine the Drug Potency of Cladosporin Scaffold against Malarial Parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pronay; Babbar, Palak; Malhotra, Nipun; Sharma, Manmohan; Jachak, Gorakhnath R; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Harlos, Karl; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2018-05-21

    The dependence of drug potency on diastereomeric configurations is a key facet. Using a novel general divergent synthetic route for a three-chiral centre anti-malarial natural product cladosporin, we built its complete library of stereoisomers (cladologs) and assessed their inhibitory potential using parasite-, enzyme- and structure-based assays. We show that potency is manifest via tetrahyropyran ring conformations that are housed in the ribose binding pocket of parasite lysyl tRNA synthetase (KRS). Strikingly, drug potency between top and worst enantiomers varied 500-fold, and structures of KRS-cladolog complexes reveal that alterations at C3 and C10 are detrimental to drug potency where changes at C3 are sensed by rotameric flipping of Glutamate332. Given that scores of anti-malarial and anti-infective drugs contain chiral centers, this work provides a new foundation for focusing on inhibitor stereochemistry as a facet of anti-microbial drug development.

  7. A Comparative Study of Relational Learning Capacity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Stingless Bees (Melipona rufiventris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Conclusions/Significance Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments. PMID:23251542

  8. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauricio Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera. However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  9. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  10. Academic Public Relations Curricula: How They Compare with the Bateman-Cutlip Commission Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Hunter P.

    To see what effect the 1975 Bateman-Cutlip Commission's recommendations have had on improving public relations education in the United States, 173 questionnaires were sent to colleges or universities with accredited or comprehensive programs in public relations. Responding to five basic assumptions underlying the commission's recommendations,…

  11. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  13. Deletion Genotypes Reduce Occlusion Body Potency but Increase Occlusion Body Production in a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gloria; Williams, Trevor; Villamizar, Laura; Caballero, Primitivo; Simón, Oihane

    2013-01-01

    A Colombian field isolate (SfCOL-wt) of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) is a mixture of different genotypes. To evaluate the insecticidal properties of the different genotypic variants, 83 plaque purified virus were characterized. Ten distinct genotypes were identified (named A through J). SfCOL-A was the most prevalent (71±2%; mean ± SE) showing a PstI restriction profile indistinguishable to that of SfCOL-wt. The remaining nine genotypes presented genomic deletions of 3.8 - 21.8 Kb located mainly between nucleotides 11,436 and 33,883 in the reference genome SfMNPV-B, affecting the region between open reading frames (ORFs) sf20 and sf33. The insecticidal activity of each genotype from SfCOL-wt and several mixtures of genotypes was compared to that of SfCOL-wt. The potency of SfCOL-A occlusion bodies (OBs) was 4.4-fold higher than SfCOL-wt OBs, whereas the speed of kill of SfCOL-A was similar to that of SfCOL-wt. Deletion genotype OBs were similarly or less potent than SfCOL-wt but six deletion genotypes were faster killing than SfCOL-wt. The potency of genotype mixtures co-occluded within OBs were consistently reduced in two-genotype mixtures involving equal proportions of SfCOL-A and one of three deletion genotypes (SfCOL-C, -D or -F). Speed of kill and OB production were improved only when the certain genotype mixtures were co-occluded, although OB production was higher in the SfCOL-wt isolate than in any of the component genotypes, or mixtures thereof. Deleted genotypes reduced OB potency but increased OB production of the SfCOL-wt population, which is structured to maximize the production of OBs in each infected host. PMID:24116220

  14. EVALUATION OF POTENCY OF MUMPS VACCINE USED IN IRAN: COMPARISON OF WHO AND NIBSC METHOD IN CELL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tavajohi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination against mumps is included in world Health Organization (WHO program of global immunization. Safety and efficacy of vaccines must be confirmed by control units in charge of public health. In Iran, the secondary control on potency of vaccine has not been set up yet. We decided to overcome this problem by developing WHO and NIBSC methods in Food and Drug Control Lab. ‎Nine dilutions of vaccine from 10-1 to 10-5 in ‎0.5log10 steps were mixed with Vero cell suspension. In WHO method, the cell suspension was seeded in octaplicate (8 wells of each dilution in 24-well plate and incubated at 36°C for 10 days, during which the cells were checked for cytopathic changes everyday and positive wells were recorded. We used 5% serum and 1 × 105 cells for the assays. The test was repeated with six different vaccines produced in one batch. The mean potency was 10 4.475±0.134 CCID50/vial for each ten-dose vial. For NIBSC method the dilutions of vaccine were added to hexaplicate (6 well per dilution in 24-wells plate. After 3 hours, the medium was removed and overlay was added. Then the plates were incubated at 35°C for 10 days. After incubation period, the plaques were stained with methyl violet and counted. This assay was repeated three times and the mean of results was 5.93 log10 PFU/dose. ‎ Results indicate that the potency of the vaccine is in acceptable range in either method. WHO method is simple and less time consuming compared to NIBSC method.

  15. Deletion genotypes reduce occlusion body potency but increase occlusion body production in a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Barrera

    Full Text Available A Colombian field isolate (SfCOL-wt of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV is a mixture of different genotypes. To evaluate the insecticidal properties of the different genotypic variants, 83 plaque purified virus were characterized. Ten distinct genotypes were identified (named A through J. SfCOL-A was the most prevalent (71±2%; mean ± SE showing a PstI restriction profile indistinguishable to that of SfCOL-wt. The remaining nine genotypes presented genomic deletions of 3.8 - 21.8 Kb located mainly between nucleotides 11,436 and 33,883 in the reference genome SfMNPV-B, affecting the region between open reading frames (ORFs sf20 and sf33. The insecticidal activity of each genotype from SfCOL-wt and several mixtures of genotypes was compared to that of SfCOL-wt. The potency of SfCOL-A occlusion bodies (OBs was 4.4-fold higher than SfCOL-wt OBs, whereas the speed of kill of SfCOL-A was similar to that of SfCOL-wt. Deletion genotype OBs were similarly or less potent than SfCOL-wt but six deletion genotypes were faster killing than SfCOL-wt. The potency of genotype mixtures co-occluded within OBs were consistently reduced in two-genotype mixtures involving equal proportions of SfCOL-A and one of three deletion genotypes (SfCOL-C, -D or -F. Speed of kill and OB production were improved only when the certain genotype mixtures were co-occluded, although OB production was higher in the SfCOL-wt isolate than in any of the component genotypes, or mixtures thereof. Deleted genotypes reduced OB potency but increased OB production of the SfCOL-wt population, which is structured to maximize the production of OBs in each infected host.

  16. The emergence of industrial relations in regional trade blocks: a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminska, M.E.; Visser, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the emergence and institutionalization of regional industrial relations arrangements in six regional integration agreements (European Union, North American Free Trade Association, Mercado Común del Sur, Economic Community of West African States, Southern African Development

  17. Are All Assessments Equal? The Comparability of Demands of College-Based Assessments in a Vocationally Related Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Victoria; Novakovic, Nadezda

    2009-01-01

    The consistency of assessment demands is important to validity. This research investigated the comparability of the demands of college-assessed units within a vocationally related qualification, drawing on methodological approaches that have previously been used to compare assessments. Assessment materials from five colleges were obtained. After…

  18. Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Rosanna; Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau; Davenport, Steven; Midgette, Greg

    2017-12-01

    To (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower. Secondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis traceability system spanning 7 July 2014 to 30 September 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency. Hedonic regressions estimated how purchase quantity and potency influence cannabis flower price variation. Washington State, USA. (1) A total of 44 482 176 million cannabis purchases, including (2) 31 052 123 cannabis flower purchases after trimming price and quantity outliers. Primary outcome measures were (1) monthly expenditures on cannabis, total delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration and cannabidiol (CBD) concentration by product type and (2) excise tax-inclusive price per gram of cannabis flower. Key covariates for the hedonic price regressions included quantity purchased, THC and CBD. Traditional cannabis flowers still account for the majority of spending (66.6%), but the market share of extracts for inhalation increased by 145.8% between October 2014 and September 2016, now comprising 21.2% of sales. The average THC-level for cannabis extracts is more than triple that for cannabis flowers (68.7% compared to 20.6%). For flower products, there is a statistically significant relationship between price per gram and both THC [coefficient = 0.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.013] and CBD (coefficient = 0.017; CI = 0.015-0.019). The estimated discount elasticity is -0.06 (CI = -0.07 to -0.05). In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flower, and features growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flower, both THC and CBD are associated with higher per-gram prices, and there are small but

  19. Solidarity and ambivalence: comparing two perspectives on intergenerational relations using longitudinal panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerbrugge, Martijn J A; Komter, Aafke E

    2012-05-01

    Research on family relations has extensively used the intergenerational solidarity model proposed by Bengtson and colleagues. Recently, the relevance of this model for explaining changes in family relations has been questioned, and the concept of intergenerational ambivalence has been proposed as a relevant addition to the model, supposedly acting as a catalyst, and thus serving as an explanation for changes in family relations. This study tests both the viability of the intergenerational solidarity model and the hypothesized effect of ambivalence employing longitudinal data. We use data from 2 waves of the Netherlands' Kinship Panel Study on parent-adult child relationships to estimate latent variable structural equation models. Affection, association, and support between family members are core, mutually reinforcing dimensions of solidarity. The hypothesis that ambivalence is a catalyst for change in family relations was not confirmed. Adding conflict separately revealed that it only affects the core solidarity dimensions but is itself, like normative and structural solidarity, not influenced by them. The relevance of the concept of intergenerational ambivalence for studying changes in family relations can be questioned. The viability of the intergenerational solidarity model is, however, confirmed. The concept of intergenerational ambivalence might be further explored in qualitative studies on family change.

  20. Absolute or relative? A comparative analysis of the relationship between poverty and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Johan; Rehnberg, Johan; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the cross-national and cross-temporal association between poverty and mortality, in particular differentiating the impact of absolute and relative poverty. We employed pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. Our measure of relative poverty was based upon the standard 60% of median income. The measure of absolute, or fixed, poverty was based upon the US poverty threshold. Our analyses were conducted on data for 30 countries between 1978 and 2010, a total of 149 data points. We separately studied infant, child, and adult mortality. Our findings highlight the importance of relative poverty for mortality. Especially for infant and child mortality, we found that our estimates of fixed poverty is close to zero either in the crude models, or when adjusting for gross domestic product. Conversely, the relative poverty estimates increased when adjusting for confounders. Our results seemed robust to a number of sensitivity tests. If we agree that risk of death is important, the public policy implication of our findings is that relative poverty, which has close associations to overall inequality, should be a major concern also among rich countries.

  1. Comparative study of the shield of concrete blocks with hematite in relation to common concrete blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.; Buerger, Andre A.; Naccache, Veronica K.; Priszkulnik, Simao

    2012-01-01

    The present work shows results of an empirical evaluation of the transmission properties of two radioprotection materials: an ordinary concrete and an ordinary concrete mixed with hematite. It was used techniques of x-ray spectroscopy and measurements of the air-kerma transmitted through these two materials in order to compare the transmission properties for each one. (author)

  2. The political economy of external exploitation. A comparative investigation of China's foreign relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the selectorate theory, this article examines the link between distributional policies, autocratic cooperation, and its potential for autocratic stability. It compares to what extent Cambodia, Myanmar, and Mongolia complied with China's key external interests in the period 1990-2010.

  3. Perceptual Training Methods Compared: The Relative Efficacy of Different Approaches to Enhancing Sport-Specific Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Bruce; Schorer, Jorg; Jackson, Robin C.; Hagemann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of different perceptual training approaches for the improvement of anticipation was examined using a goalkeeping task from European handball that required the rapid prediction of shot direction. Novice participants (N = 60) were assigned equally to four different training groups and two different control groups (a placebo…

  4. What is the relative health risk to swimmers from California Seagull feces compared to bather shedders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimated infection risks to swimmers from California seagull and bather sources of fecal contamination at a beach in Southern California were compared using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The risk to swimmers of gastro-intestinal infections was estimated from Ca...

  5. Measurement of micronuclei and internal dose in mice demonstrates that 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) has no genotoxic potency in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Jenny; Törnqvist, Margareta; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne

    2017-11-01

    In this study 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a compound that appears as contaminant in refined cooking oils, has been studied with regard to genotoxicity in vivo (mice) with simultaneous measurement of internal dose using state-of-the-art methodologies. Genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations) was measured by flow cytometry with dual lasers as the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes in peripheral blood from BalbC mice intraperitoneally exposed to 3-MCPD (0, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/kg). The internal doses of 3-MCPD in the mice were calculated from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine adducts to hemoglobin (Hb), quantified at very low levels by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Convincing evidence for absence of genotoxic potency in correlation to measured internal doses in the mice was demonstrated, despite relatively high administered doses of 3-MCPD. The results are discussed in relation to another food contaminant that is formed as ester in parallel to 3-MCPD esters in oil processing, i.e. glycidol, which has been studied previously by us in a similar experimental setup. Glycidol has been shown to be genotoxic, and in addition to have ca. 1000 times higher rate of adduct formation compared to that observed for 3-MCPD. The conclusion is that at simultaneous exposure to 3-MCPD and glycidol the concern about genotoxicity would be glycidol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marstaller, J.

    1993-12-01

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  7. Towards an improved prediction of the free radical scavenging potency of flavonoids: the significance of double PCET mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Stepanić, Višnja; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The 1H(+)/1e(-) and 2H(+)/2e(-) proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes of free radical scavenging by flavonoids were theoretically studied for aqueous and lipid environments using the PM6 and PM7 methods. The results reported here indicate that the significant contribution of the second PCET mechanism, resulting in the formation of a quinone/quinone methide, effectively discriminates the active from inactive flavonoids. The predictive potency of descriptors related to the energetics of second PCET mechanisms (the second O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE2) related to hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, and the second electron transfer enthalpy (ETE2) related to sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanism) are superior to the currently used indices, which are related to the first 1H(+)/1e(-) processes, and could serve as primary descriptors in development of the QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) of flavonoids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  9. Development, comparative morphology and cornification of reptilian claws in relation to claws evolution in tetrapods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alibardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of claws in different reptiles and their cornification are analyzed using histological, ultrastructural and autoradiographic methods. Claws develop at the tip of digits in relation to the growth of the terminal phalanx and appear as modified scales. The apical epidermis of digit

  10. Dying to starve: A comparative analysis of legal aspects relating to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors explore the legal complexities surrounding the force-feeding of anorexic patients. Due to the myriad of difficulties relating to anorexia nervosa, treatment is intricate. The aim of this exposition is to clarify legal issues of consent and self-determination, with regard to both adult and minor patients. In addition, the ...

  11. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty

  12. A Comparative Study of the Cell Wall Structure of Basidiomycetous and Related Yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1971-01-01

    The wall of basidiomycetous and related yeasts showed a lamellar structure in sections of both budding cells and hyphae fixed with potassium permanganate. The yeasts also had a typical way of bud formation and septation. These features differ from those recorded for ascomycetous yeasts. In the

  13. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man [Nuclear Reactor Safety Lab., KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty.

  14. Employment status and work-related difficulties in lung cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.

  15. Comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci for tassel-related traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QIANG YI

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... in maize have evaluated flowering-related traits (Li et al. ... with Upadyayula et al. (2006). The measurements taken were TTL, the length (cm) of the tassel ...... M. Banziger, H. R. Mickelson and C. B. Penã–Valdivia), pp.

  16. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  17. Cancer-Related Constituents of Strawberry Jam as Compared with Fresh Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of two different processing methods on the contents of phenolic compounds (i.e., ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol with antioxidant and antitumor properties in strawberry jams. In turn, the results obtained were compared with those of unprocessed fruit. Additionally carcinogenic heat-induced compounds formed by the two jam making methods were evaluated. Decreases of total ellagic acid from 138.4 µg/g to 86.5 µg/g were measured in jam as compared with the intact fruit. Even higher losses of up to 90% of total flavonols were found in strawberry after the jam-making process. A comparison between the two processing methods proved shorter heating periods (around 60 min even at temperatures as high as 100 °C enabled losses of antioxidant phenolics to be minimized. Carcinogenic heat-induced volatile compounds, mainly Maillard reaction products, were formed as a result of thermal treatment during jam processing. However, shorter heating periods also helped reduce the formation of these harmful compounds. These results are deeply discussed. From a practical standpoint, the processing conditions here proposed can be used by industry to obtain strawberry jam with higher content of antioxidant flavonoids and, at the same time, reduced amounts of carcinogenic compounds.

  18. [Titration comparative study of TOPINA Tablets in patients with localization related epilepsy: double-blind comparative study by rapid and slow titration methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sunao; Inoue, Yushi; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Kato, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    To compare the tolerability and efficacy of two titration methods (rapid and slow titration) for TOPINA Tablets with different dosages and periods of escalation, a double-blind comparative study was conducted in patients with localization-related epilepsy. A total of 183 patients were randomized to either rapid titration (initial dosage 100 mg/day increased by 100-200 mg at weekly intervals) or to slow titration (initial dosage 50 mg/day increased in 50 mg/day increments at weekly intervals). TOPINA Tablets were administered for 12 weeks to the maximum dosage of 400 mg/day. The incident of adverse events leading to treatment interruptions or withdrawals was 18.9% in rapid titration and 14.8% in slow titration, with no statistical significance (p = 0.554). The incident of adverse events and adverse reactions of slow titration was slightly lower than that of rapid titration. The common adverse events and adverse reactions reported in the two titration methods were comparable and were well tolerated. On the other hand, the efficacy of slow titration, percent reduction in seizure rate and responder rate, was comparable with that of rapid titration. In conclusion, there were no significant differences of therapeutic response to TOPINA Tablets between the two titration methods.

  19. Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatapathy, Raghuraman; Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark; Moudgal, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD 50 ]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD 50 ) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD 50 and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD 50 s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD 50 for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction

  20. Usage of Production Functions in the Comparative Analysis of Transport Related Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torok Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

  1. A comparative study of event-related coupling patterns during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Alejandro; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Suazo, Vanessa; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The aim of this research is to explore the coupling patterns of brain dynamics during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). Approach. Event-related electroencephalographic (ERP) activity was recorded from 20 SCH patients and 20 healthy controls. The coupling changes between auditory response and pre-stimulus baseline were calculated in conventional EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma), using three coupling measures: coherence, phase-locking value and Euclidean distance. Main results. Our results showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to response in theta coupling and a statistically significant decrease in beta-2 coupling in controls. No statistically significant changes were observed in SCH patients. Significance. Our findings support the aberrant salience hypothesis, since SCH patients failed to change their coupling dynamics between stimulus response and baseline when performing an auditory cognitive task. This result may reflect an impaired communication among neural areas, which may be related to abnormal cognitive functions.

  2. Comparative in vitro study for orthodontic adhesives relatively to sorption and solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, A.; Mesaros, A.; Festila, D.; Moldovan, M.; Boboia, S.; Mesaros, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water sorption and solubility correspond to undesirable physical characteristics because it may cause micro leakage and dissolution for composite materials used for orthodontic attachment bonding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four composite materials employed in orthodontic as adhesives, relatively to water and 50% alcoholic solution, by means of in vitro tests of sorption and solubility. We used an experimental composite sealer SO® (ICCRR Cluj Napoca) and 3 commercial products already on the market: Blugloo® (Ormco), Opal Bond MV® (Ultradent) and Bond It® (DB orthodontics). Data were recorded and specific statistic tests were performed, revealing significant differences for all materials relatively to tested solutions. The materials expressed an adequate performance in terms of sorption and solubility, offering various alternatives for orthodontists.

  3. Depression and work related stress problems, with notes of comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Marilisa; Pettinelli, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    This paper supplies both a medical and legal analysis of work related stress problems, by going throught the role of prevention in the European legal system. The Authors, after reviewing the negative role that stress has in the management of the employment relationship, describe the main steps that have brought Europe to recognize the importance of the role of prevention, and to recognize the role of well-being in the workplace.

  4. The relationship between potency of oxidative stress and severity of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbag, Recep; Yilmaz, Remzi; Erel, Ozcan; Gultekin, Unal; Asci, Durmus; Elbasan, Zafer

    2005-08-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of congestive heart failure. To investigate and compare the oxidative-antioxidative status and oxidative stress index (OSI) of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) with those of healthy volunteers, and to determine the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ejection fraction (EF). Twenty-eight patients with IDC and 24 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Antioxidative status was evaluated by measuring the TAC and the vitamin C and thiol levels in the plasma. Oxidative status was evaluated by measuring the total peroxide level. The per cent ratio of TAC to total peroxide level was accepted as the OSI. EF was measured using Simpson's method. TAC and vitamin C and thiol levels of plasma were found to be significantly lower in patients with IDC than in control subjects (P total peroxide levels and OSIs were significantly higher in patients with IDC than in control subjects (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively). An important positive correlation was found between TAC and EF (r = 0.772; P total peroxide levels in patients. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in patients with IDC; as a result, the oxidative-antioxidative balance is shifted to the oxidative side. There is a significant correlation between the potency of oxidative stress and the severity of IDC. It is believed that supplementation of antioxidants in the treatment of IDC may be helpful to these patients.

  5. Enhanced Delivery and Potency of Self-Amplifying mRNA Vaccines by Electroporation in Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuv Banerjee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based vaccines such as viral vectors, plasmid DNA (pDNA, and mRNA are being developed as a means to address limitations of both live-attenuated and subunit vaccines. DNA vaccines have been shown to be potent in a wide variety of animal species and several products are now licensed for commercial veterinary but not human use. Electroporation delivery technologies have been shown to improve the generation of T and B cell responses from synthetic DNA vaccines in many animal species and now in humans. However, parallel RNA approaches have lagged due to potential issues of potency and production. Many of the obstacles to mRNA vaccine development have recently been addressed, resulting in a revival in the use of non-amplifying and self-amplifying mRNA for vaccine and gene therapy applications. In this paper, we explore the utility of EP for the in vivo delivery of large, self-amplifying mRNA, as measured by reporter gene expression and immunogenicity of genes encoding HIV envelope protein. These studies demonstrated that EP delivery of self-amplifying mRNA elicited strong and broad immune responses in mice, which were comparable to those induced by EP delivery of pDNA.

  6. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin.

  7. Composition and Potency Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Purified Protein Derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal T Capsel

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP purified protein derivatives (PPDs are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37°C, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtration, and protein precipitation. Three traditional production PPDs were used in this study including lot 9801, which served as a reference and has been used in the field for decades. Alternative production PPDs (0902A and 0902B, in which the autoclaving step was removed, were also analyzed in this study. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed protein smearing in traditional PPDs, but distinct bands were observed in the alternative PPD preparations. Antibody bound distinct protein bands in the alternative PPDs by immunoblot analysis, whereas an immunoreactive smear was observed with the traditional PPDs. Mass spectrometry identified 194 proteins among three PPD lots representing the two different production methods, ten of which were present in all PPDs examined. Selected proteins identified by mass spectrometry were recombinantly expressed and purified from E. coli and evaluated by the guinea pig potency test. Seven recombinant proteins showed greater erythema as compared to the reference PPD lot 9801 in paired guinea pigs and were able to stimulate interferon-gamma production in blood from Johne's positive animals. These results suggest that autoclaving culture suspensions is not a necessary step in PPD production and specific proteins could supplant the PPD antigen for intradermal skin testing procedures and for use as in-vitro assay reagents.

  8. Retained Myogenic Potency of Human Satellite Cells from Torn Rotator Cuff Muscles Despite Fatty Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Yukinori; Minowa, Takashi; Takemura, Taro; Ando, Akira; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Yabe, Yutaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common shoulder problem in the elderly that can lead to both muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration due to less physical load. Satellite cells, quiescent cells under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers, play a major role in muscle regeneration. However, the myogenic potency of human satellite cells in muscles with fatty infiltration is unclear due to the difficulty in isolating from small samples, and the mechanism of the progression of fatty infiltration has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the population of myogenic and adipogenic cells in disused supraspinatus (SSP) and intact subscapularis (SSC) muscles of the RCTs from the same patients using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The microstructure of the muscle with fatty infiltration was observed as a whole mount condition under multi-photon microscopy. Myogenic differentiation potential and gene expression were evaluated in satellite cells. The results showed that the SSP muscle with greater fatty infiltration surrounded by collagen fibers compared with the SSC muscle under multi-photon microscopy. A positive correlation was observed between the ratio of muscle volume to fat volume and the ratio of myogenic precursor to adipogenic precursor. Although no difference was observed in the myogenic potential between the two groups in cell culture, satellite cells in the disused SSP muscle showed higher intrinsic myogenic gene expression than those in the intact SSC muscle. Our results indicate that satellite cells from the disused SSP retain sufficient potential of muscle growth despite the fatty infiltration.

  9. An endogenous immune adjuvant released by necrotic cells for enhancement of DNA vaccine potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorostkar, Rohollah; Bamdad, Taravat; Parsania, Masoud; Pouriayevali, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Improving vaccine potency in the induction of a strong cell-mediated cytotoxicity can enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Necrotic cells and the supernatant of necrotic tumor cells are attractive adjuvants, on account of their ability to recruit antigen-presenting cells to the site of antigen synthesis as well as its ability to stimulate the maturation of dendritic cells. To evaluate the utility of supernatant of necrotic tumor cells as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a murine model. The supernatant of EL4 necrotic cells was co-administered with a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein B of Herpes simplex virus-1 as an antigen model under the control of Cytomegalovirus promoter. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated three times at two weeks intervals with glycoprotein B DNA vaccine and supernatant of necrotic EL4 cells. Five days after the last immunization, cell cytotoxicity, IFN-γ and IL-4 were evaluated. The obtained data showed that the production of IFN-γ from the splenocytes after antigenic stimulation in the presence of the supernatant of necrotic EL4 cells was significantly higher than the other groups (pEL4 cells in the mice immunized with DNA vaccine and supernatant of necrotic EL4 cells comparing to the other groups (p<0.001). The supernatant of necrotic cells contains adjuvant properties that can be considered as a candidate for tumor vaccination.

  10. Using Relative Statistics and Approximate Disease Prevalence to Compare Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Frank; Abbey, Craig

    2016-11-01

    Schatzkin et al. and other authors demonstrated that the ratios of some conditional statistics such as the true positive fraction are equal to the ratios of unconditional statistics, such as disease detection rates, and therefore we can calculate these ratios between two screening tests on the same population even if negative test patients are not followed with a reference procedure and the true and false negative rates are unknown. We demonstrate that this same property applies to an expected utility metric. We also demonstrate that while simple estimates of relative specificities and relative areas under ROC curves (AUC) do depend on the unknown negative rates, we can write these ratios in terms of disease prevalence, and the dependence of these ratios on a posited prevalence is often weak particularly if that prevalence is small or the performance of the two screening tests is similar. Therefore we can estimate relative specificity or AUC with little loss of accuracy, if we use an approximate value of disease prevalence.

  11. Comparative Studies of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis on Galactosidase Relating to Bombyx Lectin Activity

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 靖夫; カトウ, ヤスオ; Yasuo, Kato

    2005-01-01

    "Comparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) analysis on the haemolymph of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori and Fraction II obtained by gel filtration from the haemolymph of B. mori was performed using the 2-D mini-slab system (Atto Co.) (the first method of 2-D PAGE) and the Mini-PROTEAN mini tube gel 2-D PAGE system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.) (the second method). Moreover, two-dimensionnal electrophoresis analysis on standard β-galactosidase, grade III ...

  12. The stress response and anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia for total Hip Replacement in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Tian, Chun; Li, Min; Peng, Ming-Qing; Ma, Kun-Long; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Ding, Jia-Hui; Cai, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Recently, some scholars suggested that it is important to keep a stablehemodynamic state and prevent the stress responses in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). We conducted this randomized prospective study to observe anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia and stress response to it in geriatric patients during THR. We compared the effect of unilateral spinal and bilateral spinal on inhibition of stress response through measuring Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and cortisol (CORT). Plasma concentrations of NE, E and CORT were determined in blood samples using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) at three time points: To (prior to anesthesia) T1 (at the time point of skin closure), T2 (twenty-four hours after the operation). Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (unilateral spinal anesthesia) and group B (conventional bilateral spinal anesthesia). 7.5tymg of hypobaric bupivacaine were injected into subarachnoid cavity at group A and 12mg hypobaric bupivacaine were given at group B. The onset time of sensory and motor block, loss of pinprick sensation, degree of motor block, regression of sensory and motor blocks and hemodynamic changes were also recorded. These data were used to evaluate anesthetic potency of spinal anesthesia. The results of this experiment show that unilateral spinal anesthesia can provide restriction of sensory and motor block, minimize the incidence of hypotension and prevent the stress responses undergoing THR. It is optimal anesthesia procedure for geriatric patients by rapid subarachnoid injection of small doses of bupivacaine.

  13. An In Vitro Potency Assay for Monitoring the Immunomodulatory Potential of Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Pachler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative and immunomodulatory activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is partially mediated by secreted vesicular factors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs exocytosed by MSCs are gaining increased attention as prospective non-cellular therapeutics for a variety of diseases. However, the lack of suitable in vitro assays to monitor the therapeutic potential of EVs currently restricts their application in clinical studies. We have evaluated a dual in vitro immunomodulation potency assay that reproducibly reports the inhibitory effect of MSCs on induced T-cell proliferation and the alloantigen-driven mixed leukocyte reaction of pooled peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-cell proliferation was inhibited by MSC-derived EVs in a dose-dependent manner comparable to MSCs. In contrast, inhibition of alloantigen-driven mixed leukocyte reaction was only observed for MSCs, but not for EVs. Our results support the application of a cell-based in vitro potency assay for reproducibly determining the immunomodulatory potential of EVs. Validation of this assay can help establish reliable release criteria for EVs for future clinical studies.

  14. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Komariah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and developmentstrategy of Torajan's spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 inSanggalangi’ subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied toobserve data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old,the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years oldwith the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calvinginterval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaningmortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. Themost livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year.SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It wasshowed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy ofTorajan’s spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  15. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Setyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 in Sanggalangi subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied to observe data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of 90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old, the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years old with the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calving interval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaning mortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. The most livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year. SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It was showed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  16. Systematic review: The potency of Zataria multiflora Boiss in treatment of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi Mahboubi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis as female infectious disease is accompanied with some clinical symptoms such as vaginal abnormal discharges, itching, burning and many other unpleasant signs in patients. The responsable microorganisms in vaginitis are belonged to different kind of microorganisms including bacteria (Gardenella vaginitis, yeast (Candida albicans and protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis. The current treatments of these infections are chemical oral and vaginal drugs with many adverse effects for patients. Furthermore, appearance of resistant microorganisms to these drugs has intensified the treatment’s problem. The aim of this review article was to evaluate the potency of “Zataria multiflora” essential oil in treatment of women’s vaginitis. For preparing this manuscript, the information was extracted from different electronic and published resources. Investigation in different resources showed there were 6 clinical trials that evaluate it as suitable treatment for vaginitis. 5 clinical studies have been focused on 0.1% Z. multiflora essential oils in treatment of bacterial vaginosis (n=1, candidiasis (n=1 and trichomoniasis (n=1. Two clinical studies were related to treatments of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and mixed infection. There is one clinical study for treatment of candidiasis by 1% Z. multiflora methanol extract. Z. multiflora was formulated in cream form and applied for 5-7 continuous days. The results of clinical trials showed that Z. multiflora essential oil (0.1% can be used as safe and efficient alternative treatment for treatment of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and to a lesser extent for trichomoniasis.

  17. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29–99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935

  18. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, Saadia R.; Shah, Munir H.; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-01-01

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  19. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia R; Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, Nazia

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  20. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Saadia R. [Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H., E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaheen, Nazia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  1. Music Induces Universal Emotion-Related Psychophysiological Responses: Comparing Canadian Listeners To Congolese Pygmies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke eEgermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mbenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29 to 99 seconds in duration in random order (8 from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts. For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface, peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation. Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.

  2. Drug-related police encounters across the globe: How do they compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R

    2018-06-01

    Drug law enforcement subsumes the majority of drug policy expenditure across the globe. Fuelled by knowledge that much of this investment is ineffective or counter-productive there have been increasing calls for cross-national comparisons to identify where policing approaches differ and what types of approaches may be more effective. Yet, to date cross-national comparison of drug law enforcement has proven a methodologically hazardous affair. Using a new drug policing module added to the 2017 Global Drug Survey, this study seeks to provide the first cross-national comparison of the incidence, nature and intensity of illicit drug-related police encounters amongst people who use drugs. The Global Drug Survey was administered in late 2016. Across 26 countries including Australia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland, the UK and the USA a total of 45,942 people who had recently used drugs completed the drug policing module. Key variables assessed included the incidence and frequency of drug-related police encounters in the last 12 months that involved: a) being stopped and searched; b) encountering a drug detection dog; c) being given a caution or warning; d) being charged and arrested; and e) paying a bribe. Multi-level models were used to control for pre-existing national differences in drug use prevalence and non-drug specific policing (including the total number of police personnel in each country). Drug-related police encounters were most commonly reported in Italy and Scotland. Conversely, police encounters were most likely to lead to arrest in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The type and locations of encounters further differed across countries, with for example stop and search most reported in Greece and Colombia, and encounters with drug detection dogs most reported in Scotland, Italy, UK and Australia. Multi-level models showed that the incidence of reported policing encounters continued to differ significantly across countries after controlling for pre

  3. Comparative study of label and label-free techniques using shotgun proteomics for relative protein quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Marcus O D; Wetterhall, Magnus; Kultima, Kim; Artemenko, Konstantin

    2013-06-01

    The analytical performance of three different strategies, iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification), dimethyl labeling (DML) and label free (LF) for relative protein quantification using shotgun proteomics have been evaluated. The methods have been explored using samples containing (i) Bovine proteins in known ratios and (ii) Bovine proteins in known ratios spiked into Escherichia coli. The latter case mimics the actual conditions in a typical biological sample with a few differentially expressed proteins and a bulk of proteins with unchanged ratios. Additionally, the evaluation was performed on both QStar and LTQ-FTICR mass spectrometers. LF LTQ-FTICR was found to have the highest proteome coverage while the highest accuracy based on the artificially regulated proteins was found for DML LTQ-FTICR (54%). A varying linearity (k: 0.55-1.16, r(2): 0.61-0.96) was shown for all methods within selected dynamic ranges. All methods were found to consistently underestimate Bovine protein ratios when matrix proteins were added. However, LF LTQ-FTICR was more tolerant toward a compression effect. A single peptide was demonstrated to be sufficient for a reliable quantification using iTRAQ. A ranking system utilizing several parameters important for quantitative proteomics demonstrated that the overall performance of the five different methods was; DML LTQ-FTICR>iTRAQ QStar>LF LTQ-FTICR>DML QStar>LF QStar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Artemis and ACT: viewing, annotating and comparing sequences stored in a relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Tim; Berriman, Matthew; Tivey, Adrian; Patel, Chinmay; Böhme, Ulrike; Barrell, Barclay G; Parkhill, Julian; Rajandream, Marie-Adèle

    2008-12-01

    Artemis and Artemis Comparison Tool (ACT) have become mainstream tools for viewing and annotating sequence data, particularly for microbial genomes. Since its first release, Artemis has been continuously developed and supported with additional functionality for editing and analysing sequences based on feedback from an active user community of laboratory biologists and professional annotators. Nevertheless, its utility has been somewhat restricted by its limitation to reading and writing from flat files. Therefore, a new version of Artemis has been developed, which reads from and writes to a relational database schema, and allows users to annotate more complex, often large and fragmented, genome sequences. Artemis and ACT have now been extended to read and write directly to the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD, http://www.gmod.org) Chado relational database schema. In addition, a Gene Builder tool has been developed to provide structured forms and tables to edit coordinates of gene models and edit functional annotation, based on standard ontologies, controlled vocabularies and free text. Artemis and ACT are freely available (under a GPL licence) for download (for MacOSX, UNIX and Windows) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute web sites: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Artemis/ http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/ACT/

  5. Work-related behaviour and experience patterns of physicians compared to other professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Kieschke, Ulf; Spahn, Claudia

    2007-08-11

    To identify health risk factors and resources of physicians in comparison with other professions. Data of cross-sectional mail surveys conducted among German physicians (n = 344), teachers (n = 5169), policemen (n = 851), prison officers (n = 3653), and starting entrepreneurs (n = 632) were analysed regarding eleven health-relevant dimensions and four behaviour patterns examined by the questionnaire "Work-Related Behaviour and Experience Pattern (AVEM)". Only 17% of the physicians showed healthy behaviour and experience patterns. With 43%, they scored highest in terms of reduced working motivation. Together with the teachers, they also had the highest scores for resignation and burnout (27%). Satisfaction with life and work as well as social support showed medium scores. Starting entrepreneurs showed the healthiest patterns (45%), but also the highest risk pattern for overexertion (38%). It was possible to identify clear risk patterns for profession-related psychosocial symptoms and impairments. The high scores for reduced working motivation demonstrate the need for interventions to improve organisation of health care and individual coping strategies.

  6. Artemis and ACT: viewing, annotating and comparing sequences stored in a relational database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Tim; Berriman, Matthew; Tivey, Adrian; Patel, Chinmay; Böhme, Ulrike; Barrell, Barclay G.; Parkhill, Julian; Rajandream, Marie-Adèle

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Artemis and Artemis Comparison Tool (ACT) have become mainstream tools for viewing and annotating sequence data, particularly for microbial genomes. Since its first release, Artemis has been continuously developed and supported with additional functionality for editing and analysing sequences based on feedback from an active user community of laboratory biologists and professional annotators. Nevertheless, its utility has been somewhat restricted by its limitation to reading and writing from flat files. Therefore, a new version of Artemis has been developed, which reads from and writes to a relational database schema, and allows users to annotate more complex, often large and fragmented, genome sequences. Results: Artemis and ACT have now been extended to read and write directly to the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD, http://www.gmod.org) Chado relational database schema. In addition, a Gene Builder tool has been developed to provide structured forms and tables to edit coordinates of gene models and edit functional annotation, based on standard ontologies, controlled vocabularies and free text. Availability: Artemis and ACT are freely available (under a GPL licence) for download (for MacOSX, UNIX and Windows) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute web sites: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Artemis/ http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/ACT/ Contact: artemis@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18845581

  7. Deployment-related mental health support: comparative analysis of NATO and allied ISAF partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vermetten

    2014-08-01

    members. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrated that in all five partners state-of-the-art preventative mental healthcare was included in the last deployment in Afghanistan, including a positive approach towards strengthening the mental resilience, a focus on self-regulatory skills and self-empowerment, and several initiatives that were well-integrated in a military context. These initiatives were partly/completely implemented by the military/colleagues/supervisors and applicable during several phases of the deployment cycle. Important new developments in operational mental health support are recognition of the role of social leadership and enhancement of operational peer support. This requires awareness of mental problems that will contribute to reduction of the barriers to care in case of problems. Finally, comparing mental health support services across countries can contribute to optimal preparation for the challenges of military deployment.

  8. Obsessive compulsive and related disorders: comparing DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Anna; Fineberg, Naomi; Pallanti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recognized as mainly characterized by compulsivity rather than anxiety and, therefore, was removed from the anxiety disorders chapter and given its own in both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Beta Draft Version of the 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This revised clustering is based on increasing evidence of common affected neurocircuits between disorders, differently from previous classification systems based on interrater agreement. In this article, we focus on the classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs), examining the differences in approach adopted by these 2 nosological systems, with particular attention to the proposed changes in the forthcoming ICD-11. At this stage, notable differences in the ICD classification are emerging from the previous revision, apparently converging toward a reformulation of OCRDs that is closer to the DSM-5.

  9. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  10. A Mitochondrial Genome of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and a Comparative Analysis of Related Mitochondrial Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Yang, Jie; Li, Yinwan; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun; Hillis, David M

    2016-10-19

    The Rhyparochromidae, the largest family of Lygaeoidea, encompasses more than 1,850 described species, but no mitochondrial genome has been sequenced to date. Here we describe the first mitochondrial genome for Rhyparochromidae: a complete mitochondrial genome of Panaorus albomaculatus (Scott, 1874). This mitochondrial genome is comprised of 16,345 bp, and contains the expected 37 genes and control region. The majority of the control region is made up of a large tandem-repeat region, which has a novel pattern not previously observed in other insects. The tandem-repeats region of P. albomaculatus consists of 53 tandem duplications (including one partial repeat), which is the largest number of tandem repeats among all the known insect mitochondrial genomes. Slipped-strand mispairing during replication is likely to have generated this novel pattern of tandem repeats. Comparative analysis of tRNA gene families in sequenced Pentatomomorpha and Lygaeoidea species shows that the pattern of nucleotide conservation is markedly higher on the J-strand. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial genomes suggests that Rhyparochromidae is not the sister group to all the remaining Lygaeoidea, and supports the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  11. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A comparative study of teacher's opinions relating to inclusive classrooms in Indonesia and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennee Kantavong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the work and opinions of regular school teachers teaching in inclusive classrooms in Indonesia and Thailand. These teachers were drawn from schools participating in an in-service training program to enhance the capacity of students with special needs in regular classrooms. A sample of 172 teachers in primary schools in Thailand and 165 from Indonesia answered a questionnaire based on Friedmen's concept of teacher burnout. Eighty percent of the Thai teachers had bachelor's degrees, but only 1 percent were in special education, whereas 77 percent of the Indonesian teachers had bachelor's degrees and 13 percent were in special education. Teachers' opinions on four areas were investigated: inclusion, support from various parties, work environment, and exhaustion. There was no correlation between background variables and teachers' exhaustion and fulfillment. There was a correlation between the number of students in a class and a teacher's de-personalization at the .01 level. When considering social dimensions and exhaustion, there was a correlation at the .01 level. There was a correlation between self-fulfillment and exhaustion at the .01 level. There was no correlation between the organizational, psychological, structural and support dimensions, and exhaustion. In general, teachers reported that they received support from various parties. Most of them expressed positive opinions of students with special needs.

  13. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two closely related ground beetle species with marked genital divergence using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Kotaro; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Sota, Teiji

    2014-09-01

    Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.

  14. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.; Sicat, R.; Baum, D.; Wodo, O.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  15. Morphological diversity in tenrecs (Afrosoricida, Tenrecidae: comparing tenrec skull diversity to their closest relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sive Finlay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to quantify patterns of morphological diversity to enhance our understanding of variation in ecological and evolutionary traits. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of morphological diversity in a family of small mammals, the tenrecs (Afrosoricida, Tenrecidae. Tenrecs are often cited as an example of an exceptionally morphologically diverse group. However, this assumption has not been tested quantitatively. We use geometric morphometric analyses of skull shape to test whether tenrecs are more morphologically diverse than their closest relatives, the golden moles (Afrosoricida, Chrysochloridae. Tenrecs occupy a wider range of ecological niches than golden moles so we predict that they will be more morphologically diverse. Contrary to our expectations, we find that tenrec skulls are only more morphologically diverse than golden moles when measured in lateral view. Furthermore, similarities among the species-rich Microgale tenrec genus appear to mask higher morphological diversity in the rest of the family. These results reveal new insights into the morphological diversity of tenrecs and highlight the importance of using quantitative methods to test qualitative assumptions about patterns of morphological diversity.

  16. A comparative analysis of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene related burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Dash, Jayant K; Shrivastava, Prabhat

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies from our department reflected a trend of decreasing incidence of burns culminating from rising income levels, which were bringing about a change in the cooking fuel in many urban households [1,2]. These studies also indicated a changing scenario of increased incidence of burns from LPG mishaps [2]. In the absence of much information on the subject we felt it rather imperative to comparatively study the pattern of burn injuries resulting from LPG and kerosene. This prospective study was conducted on the clinical database of consecutive patients admitted with burns sustained due to LPG and kerosene from 1st January 2009 to 31st May 2010 (17 months). Data recorded for each patient included; age, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, literacy level, type of family unit, marital status, type of dwelling unit, mode of injury and its exact mechanism, place of incident, level of cooking stove, extent of burns (%TBSA), presence of features of inhalation injury, number of patients affected in a single mishap, size of LPG cylinder used, length of hospital stay and mortality. Of 731 flame burn patients in this study, 395 (54%) were due to kerosene burns and 200 (27.4%) from LPG mishaps. Significantly, the majority of injuries, in both the groups, occurred in lower middle class families living as nuclear units, in a single room dwelling, without a separate kitchen. Majority of LPG burns (70.5%, 141 patients) resulted from a gas leak and 25.5% were from cooking negligence (51 patients). 50.5% of kerosene accidents were from 'stove mishaps' and 49% due to cooking negligence. In all kerosene accidents the stove was kept at floor level but in LPG group 20.6% had the stove placed on a platform. There was a slight difference in mean TBSA burns; 51% in kerosene group compared to 41.5% TBSA in LPG group. There were nine episodes in LPG group in which there were more than three burn victims admitted for treatment. Very importantly, 77% patients in LPG group were from

  17. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation or maximum intercuspation in temporomandibular disorders patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hamata,Marcelo Matida; Zuim,Paulo Renato Junqueira; Garcia,Alicio Rosalino

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of occlusal splints in centric relation for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients is arguable, since this position has been defined for asymptomatic stomatognathic system. Thus, maximum intercuspation might be employed in patients with occlusal stability, eliminating the need for interocclusal records. This study compared occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation and maximum intercuspation in muscle pain reduction of TMD patients. Twenty patients with TMD of myogenous o...

  18. A comparative evaluation of static and functional methods for recording centric relation and condylar guidance: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mridul; Jain, Veena; Parkash, Hari; Kumar, Pravesh

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance using interocclusal wax and extra oral Gothic arch methods and subjective evaluation of dentures thus fabricated. Centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance was recorded by using interocclusal wax and gothic arch tracing in 28 completely edentulous patients. These records were transferred to the articulator and difference in both values was recorded. After that patients were divided in two groups according to the centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance recording method used to achieve balanced occlusion. Response of the dentures was subjectively evaluated using "Woelfel subjective evaluation criteria". Centric relation recorded by both the methods did coincide in 7.14 % of patients. Centric relation recorded by interocclusal wax was posterior to Gothic centric relation in 21.43 % of patients, and anterior to Gothic centric relation in 71.42 % patients. Gothic arch tracings gave higher mean guidance values on both the sides as compared to protrusive wax record in all the subjects, although the difference was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Subjective evaluation showed statistical insignificance for all the parameters in both groups. Gothic arch method records the centric relation at a more posterior position than the Static method, but it does not make any difference in clinical performance of the complete denture. Horizontal condylar guidance angle was approximately similar by both the methods.

  19. Informing climate-related decisions in complex river basins: A comparative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Bark, R. H.; Maia, R.; Udall, B.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated water resources management provides an important governance framework to achieve climate-related adaptation measures across socio-economic, environmental and administrative systems. Adaptation includes technical changes that improve water use efficiency, early warning, demand management (e.g. through metering and pricing), and institutional changes that improve the tradability of water rights. Supply-side strategies generally involve increases in storage capacity, abstraction from watercourses, and water transfers. Incentives for improving water-use efficiency, hold considerable promise for water savings and the reallocation of water to highly valued uses. However, conflicts exist between processes and goals of water management and governance. These militate against the effectiveness of using scientific information to meet short-term needs in the context of reducing longer-term vulnerabilities such as for “increasing water supply while meeting environmental needs.” A complete analysis of the effects of climate change on human water uses would consider cross-sector interactions, including the impacts of transfers of the use of water from one sector to another. In this presentation we will review the challenges and lessons provided in water resources management in the context of a changing climate. Lessons are drawn from watersheds around the world including the Colorado, Columbia, Murray-Darling, Guadiana and others. We explore how watershed managers and researchers are attempting to address the risks associated with climatic change and potential surprises. In spite of numerous climate impacts studies the management of the cumulative impacts of extremes (droughts, floods etc.) remains reactive and crisis-driven. Most recommendations stay within the applied sciences realm of technological interventions and supply driven approaches. Clearly more is needed to inform an integrated watershed management approaches in which adaptive management functions as

  20. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  1. Hydraphiles enhance antimicrobial potency against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mohit B; Garrad, Evan C; Stavri, Ariel; Gokel, Michael R; Negin, Saeedeh; Meisel, Joseph W; Cusumano, Zachary; Gokel, George W

    2016-06-15

    Hydraphiles are synthetic amphiphiles that form ion-conducting pores in liposomal membranes. These pores exhibit open-close behavior when studied by planar bilayer conductance techniques. In previous work, we showed that when co-administered with various antibiotics to the DH5α strain of Escherichia coli, they enhanced the drug's potency. We report here potency enhancements at low concentrations of hydraphiles for the structurally and mechanistically unrelated antibiotics erythromycin, kanamycin, rifampicin, and tetracycline against Gram negative E. coli (DH5α and K-12) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as Gram positive Bacillus subtilis. Earlier work suggested that potency increases correlated to ion transport function. The data presented here comport with the function of hydraphiles to enhance membrane permeability in addition to, or instead of, their known function as ion conductors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food-related lifestyles in a cross-cultural context: Comparing Australia with Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Li, Elton; Bruwer, Johan

    2001-01-01

    , to compare lifestyles across a number of different cultural contexts including Australia, Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related lifestyles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  3. Coping styles relate to health and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Mageroy, Nils; Pallesen, Stale; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Moen, Bente E.

    2012-01-01

    Nurses exposed to high nursing stress report no health complaints as long as they have high coping abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate coping styles in relation to the health status and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses. This comparative study included a

  4. On Modeling the Behavior of Comparators for Complex Fuzzy Objects in a Fuzzy Object-Relational Database Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuanM. Medina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parameterized definition for fuzzy comparators on complex fuzzy datatypes like fuzzy collections with conjunctive semantics and fuzzy objects. This definition and its implementation on a Fuzzy Object-Relational Database Management System (FORDBMS provides the designer with a powerful tool to adapt the behavior of these operators to the semantics of the considered application.

  5. Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

  6. The Relative Value of Investment in "Second Chance" Educational Opportunities for Adults in Sweden and Australia: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Tom; Christie, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of educational policy and provision in Sweden and Australia, with particular emphasis on the relative investment in continuing and further education in both countries. The authors investigate the extent to which further education opportunities provide a "second chance" at learning for adults…

  7. Potency of high-intensity ultrasonic treatment for grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Qian Ma; Davis, B.; Wilks, T.; StJohn, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasonic treatment (UT) for grain refinement of magnesium alloys has been investigated using a novel theoretical approach in order to better understand its grain-refining potential and the mechanism of nucleation. The process demonstrated significantly superior grain-refining potency to carbon inoculation for Al-containing magnesium alloys but inferior potency to zirconium for Al-free alloys. Details revealed by applying the theoretical approach to ultrasonic grain refinement provide new clues to understanding the mechanism of grain nucleation by UT

  8. Differential Potency of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanol Isomers for Positive Modulation of GABAA Receptor Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Luvana; Croft, Celine J; Goel, Shikha; Zaman, Naina; Tai, Angela C-S; Walch, Erin M; Smith, Kelly; Page, Alexandra; Shea, Kevin M; Hall, C Dennis; Jishkariani, D; Pillai, Girinath G; Hall, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptors meet all of the pharmacological requirements necessary to be considered important targets for the action of general anesthetic agents in the mammalian brain. In the following patch-clamp study, the relative modulatory effects of 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol diastereomers were investigated on human GABAA (α1β3γ2s) receptor currents stably expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Cis,cis-, trans,trans-, and cis,trans-isomers were isolated from commercially available 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol and were tested for positive modulation of submaximal GABA responses. For example, the addition of 30 μM cis,cis-isomer resulted in an approximately 2- to 3-fold enhancement of the EC20 GABA current. Coapplications of 30 μM 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol isomers produced a range of positive enhancements of control GABA responses with a rank order for positive modulation: cis,cis > trans,trans ≥ mixture of isomers > > cis,trans-isomer. In molecular modeling studies, the three cyclohexanol isomers bound with the highest binding energies to a pocket within transmembrane helices M1 and M2 of the β3 subunit through hydrogen-bonding interactions with a glutamine at the 224 position and a tyrosine at the 220 position. The energies for binding to and hydrogen-bond lengths within this pocket corresponded with the relative potencies of the agents for positive modulation of GABAA receptor currents (cis,cis > trans,trans > cis,trans-2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol). In conclusion, the stereochemical configuration within the dimethylcyclohexanols is an important molecular feature in conferring positive modulation of GABAA receptor activity and for binding to the receptor, a consideration that needs to be taken into account when designing novel anesthetics with enhanced therapeutic indices. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Approach to the research and the situation of Public Relations in Europe. Comparative study between German and Spanish cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. María Isabel Míguez González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of bring near to the spanish academic field the european approaches of Public Relations, this article makes a compared revision of the situation of this subject and profession in Germany and Spain. This revision shows important resemblances on the use of the term “public relations”, the confusion of this subject with other communicative activities, the professional development and the problems of the field in both countries. However, it also shows that Germany has more tradition on public relations research than Spain and, therefore, it has a more extensive corpus of theories about this subject. For this reason, since important resemblances exist in other aspects, german research on public relations could be interesting for the spanish academic field both to explain the situation of public relations in Spain and to motivate theoretical development in our country.

  10. Food-related lifestyles in a cross-cultural context: Comparing Australia with Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Li, Elton; Bruwer, Johan

    2001-01-01

    is inextricably linked to values and the processes by which people seek to achieve their values through various modes of expression, including food. This research therefore employs the Food-Related Lifestyles (FRL) instrument developed by Grunert et al. (1993), which is rooted in the personal values concept......, to compare lifestyles across a number of different cultural contexts including Australia, Singapore, Britain, France and Denmark. The research represents the first stage in an on-going process of mapping movements in Australian consumer food-related lifestyles and linking these to global trends and changes....

  11. Universal Survival Curve and Single Fraction Equivalent Dose: Useful Tools in Understanding Potency of Ablative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Clint; Papiez, Lech; Zhang Shichuan; Story, Michael; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Overprediction of the potency and toxicity of high-dose ablative radiotherapy such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by the linear quadratic (LQ) model led to many clinicians' hesitating to adopt this efficacious and well-tolerated therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to offer an alternative method of analyzing the effect of SBRT by constructing a universal survival curve (USC) that provides superior approximation of the experimentally measured survival curves in the ablative, high-dose range without losing the strengths of the LQ model around the shoulder. Methods and Materials: The USC was constructed by hybridizing two classic radiobiologic models: the LQ model and the multitarget model. We have assumed that the LQ model gives a good description for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) for the dose to the shoulder. For ablative doses beyond the shoulder, the survival curve is better described as a straight line as predicted by the multitarget model. The USC smoothly interpolates from a parabola predicted by the LQ model to the terminal asymptote of the multitarget model in the high-dose region. From the USC, we derived two equivalence functions, the biologically effective dose and the single fraction equivalent dose for both CFRT and SBRT. Results: The validity of the USC was tested by using previously published parameters of the LQ and multitarget models for non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. A comparison of the goodness-of-fit of the LQ and USC models was made to a high-dose survival curve of the H460 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Conclusion: The USC can be used to compare the dose fractionation schemes of both CFRT and SBRT. The USC provides an empirically and a clinically well-justified rationale for SBRT while preserving the strengths of the LQ model for CFRT

  12. Stat5 phosphorylation is responsible for the excessive potency of HB-EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeongyeon; Kim, Jae Geun; Kim, Sunghwan; Kang, Hara

    2017-12-23

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a potent growth factor involved in wound healing and tumorigenesis. Despite the sequence similarity between HB-EGF and EGF, HB-EGF induces cellular proliferation and migration more potently than EGF. However, the differential regulation by HB-EGF and EGF has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we compared signaling pathways activated by HB-EGF and EGF to understand the details of the molecular mechanism of the high potency induced by HB-EGF. HB-EGF specifically induced the phosphorylation of EGFR-Y1045 and activated Stat5, which is responsible for promoting cell proliferation, and migration. The competition of phosphorylated EGFR-Y1045 inhibited Stat5 activation and consequently lowered the effect of HB-EGF on cell proliferation, suggesting that the phosphorylation of EGFR-Y1045 is essential for the activation of Stat5. The phosphorylation of EGFR-Y1045 and Stat5 induced by HB-EGF was prevented by sequestering the heparin-binding domain, suggesting that the heparin-binding domain is critical for HB-EGF-mediated signaling and cellular responses. In conclusion, the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF was responsible for EGFR-mediated Stat5 activation, resulting in a more potent cellular proliferation, and migration than that mediated by EGF. This molecular mechanism is useful for understanding ligand-specific EGFR signaling and developing biomedicines for wound healing or cancer therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Compositions and comparisons of antimicrobial potencies of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of 10 essential oils extracted from various plant species were investigated and compared with the activities of 10 commercial antibiotics against 10 strains of bacteria using agar diffusion method. Although, all the essential oils were active at concentration ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/ml, their ...

  14. A Dragon and a Dove? A Comparative Overview of Chinese and European Trade Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s footprint in African trade grows larger by the day, the need to contextualize this rise through comparative analysis becomes ever more necessary. This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: those of a dragon and a dove. The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: the policies and institutional mechanisms that shape the relationship; the composition of the trade flows; the geographic distribution of trade dominance; and the influence of norms and values on the trade pattern. It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

  15. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.; Corsini, E.; Spiekstra, S.W.; Galbiati, V.; Fuchs, H.W.; Degeorge, G.; Troese, M.; Hayden, P.; Deng, W.; Roggen, E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low

  16. Single-cell entropy for accurate estimation of differentiation potency from a cell's transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Enver, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The ability to quantify differentiation potential of single cells is a task of critical importance. Here we demonstrate, using over 7,000 single-cell RNA-Seq profiles, that differentiation potency of a single cell can be approximated by computing the signalling promiscuity, or entropy, of a cell's transcriptome in the context of an interaction network, without the need for feature selection. We show that signalling entropy provides a more accurate and robust potency estimate than other entropy-based measures, driven in part by a subtle positive correlation between the transcriptome and connectome. Signalling entropy identifies known cell subpopulations of varying potency and drug resistant cancer stem-cell phenotypes, including those derived from circulating tumour cells. It further reveals that expression heterogeneity within single-cell populations is regulated. In summary, signalling entropy allows in silico estimation of the differentiation potency and plasticity of single cells and bulk samples, providing a means to identify normal and cancer stem-cell phenotypes. PMID:28569836

  17. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between genotoxic potency and the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and nitro-PAH in urban and semi-rural air masses has been investigated. The Salmonella/microsome assay has been used as a measure of genotoxic po...

  18. Collaborative study for the validation of alternative in vitro potency assays for human tetanus immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S; Janssen, S W J; de Vries, B; Terao, E; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2010-07-01

    An international collaborative study to validate 2 alternative in vitro methods for the potency testing of human tetanus immunoglobulin products was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). The study, run in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) under the aegis of the European Commission and the Council of Europe, involved 21 official medicines control and industry laboratories from 15 countries. Both methods, an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) and a toxoid inhibition assay (TIA), showed good reproducibility, repeatability and precision. EIA and TIA discriminated between low, medium and high potency samples. Potency estimates correlated well and both values were in close agreement with those obtained by in vivo methods. Moreover, these alternative methods allowed to resolve discrepant results between laboratories that were due to product potency loss and reporting errors. The study demonstrated that EIA and TIA are suitable quality control methods for tetanus immunoglobulin, which can be standardised in a control laboratory using a quality assurance system. Consequently, the Group of Experts on Human Blood and Blood Products of the European Pharmacopoeia revised the monograph on human tetanus immunoglobulins to include both the methods as compendial alternatives to the in vivo mouse challenge assay. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conformational Flexibility Determines Selectivity and Antibacterial, Antiplasmodial, and Anticancer Potency of Cationic α-Helical Peptides*

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, Louic S.; Lan, Yun; Abbate, Vincenzo; Ruh, Emrah; Bui, Tam T.; Wilkinson, Louise J.; Kanno, Tokuwa; Jumagulova, Elmira; Kozlowska, Justyna; Patel, Jayneil; McIntyre, Caitlin A.; Yam, W. C.; Siu, Gilman; Atkinson, R. Andrew; Lam, Jenny K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have the potential to act against multiple pathogenic targets. Results: AMPs that maintain conformational flexibility are more potent against multiple pathogens and less hemolytic. Conclusion: Antimicrobial action and hemolysis proceed via differing mechanisms. Significance: The potency, selectivity, and ability of AMPs to reach intracellular pathogens can be modulated using general principles.

  20. Differential responses to cannabis potency: a typology of users based on self-reported consumption behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Dirk J; Benschop, Annemieke; Wouters, Marije

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether a classification of cannabis users into different types can help to clarify the relationship between cannabis potency and consumption behaviour, harmful physical effects and psychological dependency. A field sample of 388 respondents was recruited who had smoked cannabis at least once in the past month. They were contacted and interviewed in 28 cannabis coffee shops located in five Dutch cities. Data were collected with an assisted self-completion questionnaire. Cluster analysis was performed using the k-means method. Various ways were observed in which cannabis users in natural settings adjusted their intake to the potency of the drug. Cluster analysis identified three broad types of cannabis users. The strongest high type was the youngest, consumed the highest monthly dose, inhaled higher-potency cannabis more deeply, and scored highest on psychological cannabis dependency. The consistent high type preferred milder cannabis, consumed the lowest monthly dose, and compensated for stronger cannabis by inhaling less deeply and smoking less. The steady quantity type was the oldest, usually smoked alone, consumed an intermediate monthly dose, and did not tend to adjust the depth of inhalation to the potency of the cannabis. The results suggest that this typology might also reflect three successive stages in the careers of continuing cannabis users. Laboratory studies to assess the effects of higher THC concentrations on external and internal exposure to cannabis should allow for the possibility that the types of users studied can affect the results.

  1. Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and evaluation of growth using different serum concentration and volume of media. ... The culture flasks containing different volumes of growth medium with 10% serum concentration such as 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 ml were added to a series of culture flasks. All the ...

  2. Novel view on predicting acute toxicity: Decomposing toxicity data in species vulnerability and chemical potency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Posthuma, L.; Zwart, D.D.; van de Meent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical risk assessment usually applies empirical methods to predict toxicant effects on different species. We propose a more mechanism-oriented approach, and introduce a method to decompose toxicity data in a contribution from the chemical (potency) and from the exposed species (vulnerability). We

  3. Cold chain facility status and the potency of animal rabies vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies vaccine failures were reported in literature. Realising that rabies vaccine is sensitive to temperature change, there is need to assess the storage condition of rabies vaccine from distribution centres to veterinary clinics where they are used. This is to establish the sustained potency from source to use. Cold-Chain ...

  4. Complementary three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of binding affinity and functional potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Ahring, Philip K; Dyhring, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Complementary 3D-QSAR modeling of binding affinity and functional potency is proposed as a tool to pinpoint the molecular features of the ligands, and the corresponding amino acids in the receptor, responsible for high affinity binding vs those driving agonist behavior and receptor activation. Th...

  5. Antecendents and consequences of group potency : a study of self-managing teams in customer services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes and tests a model of antecedents and consequences of group potency in self-managing teams in retail banking. Based on data collected from boundary-spanning service employees organized in 60 teams and their customers, our findings reveal a significant positive impact of group

  6. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. In ova angiogenesis analgesic and anti inflammatory potency of Aerva monsoniae (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potency of aqueous extract of Aerva monsoniae (A. monsoniae by in vitro method using fertilized eggs, in vivo analgesic and anti inflammatory activity in rodents and the anti bacterial activity on the bacterial strains that infect the wound. Methods: The whole plant of A. monsoniae was extracted with water and then subjected to preliminary chemical screening. It was then evaluated for in ova angiogenesis on fertilized white leg horn eggs using the concentrations of 200-600 毺 g/mL. The analgesic activity was evaluated in mice using the dose 100 and 250 mg/kg. The anti inflammatory activity was evaluated in rats using the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. In both the parameters water was used as the control and diclofenac was used the standard. The anti bacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerugenosa was performed. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins. The in ova angiogenesis revealed a dose dependent activity which proves the wound healing claim of the plant as more number of blood capillaries were formed at the site of the drug. The plant proved to be a potent analgesic and anti inflammatory agent at doses 1 00 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg. The anti bacterial activity was present but at higher doses. Conclusions: The parameters studied in the present investigation proved that the plant is a potent wound healer. Further in vivo wound healing studies on animal model is desired. As the extract showed potent analgesic, anti inflammatory and anti bacterial properties, it can be considered that when formulated into suitable formulation, and it can reduce the pain, inflammation and infections related to wound very well.

  8. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Manikantan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus from Epinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results: Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3 mm] was observed against Proteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1 mm] was observed against Vibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5– 37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactivepotency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  9. On relations between quality management, doing business and life quality (a comparative analysis of Balkans with western European countries)

    OpenAIRE

    CEKO ENRIKO

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of research: Determination of relations between quality management, doing business and life quality and giving some thoughts to improve the situation regarding the quality institutions and quality infrastructure parallel with doing business climate and life quality. Methods: Collection of information, data and facts for quality management, doing business and life quality mainly from primary sources, comparing the information, data and facts gathered, conducting relevant analysis a...

  10. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of

  11. High potency inhibition of hERG potassium channels by the sodium–calcium exchange inhibitor KB-R7943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Zhang, Yihong; Du, Chunyun; Dempsey, Christopher E; Hancox, Jules C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE KB-R7943 is an isothiourea derivative that is used widely as a pharmacological inhibitor of sodium–calcium exchange (NCX) in experiments on cardiac and other tissue types. This study investigated KB-R7943 inhibition of hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) K+ channels that underpin the cardiac rapid delayed rectifier potassium current, IKr. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements were made of hERG current (IhERG) carried by wild-type or mutant hERG channels and of native rabbit ventricular IKr. Docking simulations utilized a hERG homology model built on a MthK-based template. KEY RESULTS KB-R7943 inhibited both IhERG and native IKr rapidly on membrane depolarization with IC50 values of ∼89 and ∼120 nM, respectively, for current tails at −40 mV following depolarizing voltage commands to +20 mV. Marked IhERG inhibition also occurred under ventricular action potential voltage clamp. IhERG inhibition by KB-R7943 exhibited both time- and voltage-dependence but showed no preference for inactivated over activated channels. Results of alanine mutagenesis and docking simulations indicate that KB-R7943 can bind to a pocket formed of the side chains of aromatic residues Y652 and F656, with the compound's nitrobenzyl group orientated towards the cytoplasmic side of the channel pore. The structurally related NCX inhibitor SN-6 also inhibited IhERG, but with a markedly reduced potency. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS KB-R7943 inhibits IhERG/IKr with a potency that exceeds that reported previously for acute cardiac NCX inhibition. Our results also support the feasibility of benzyloxyphenyl-containing NCX inhibitors with reduced potential, in comparison with KB-R7943, to inhibit hERG. PMID:21950687

  12. The potency and impotence of official language policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tore

    2010-01-01

    purism’ towards English across several Nordic speech communities. Thus, in both settings we will depart from a characterisation of ‘official’ language ideology, which in turn will be compared, firstly, to ‘lay’ language ideology – as this is offered both consciously and subconsciously (since...... this distinction has turned out to be of decisive importance) – and, secondly, to the facts of language use....

  13. MACULAR ATROPHY FINDINGS BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY COMPARED WITH FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN TREATED EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasago, Yukari; Shiragami, Chieko; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Osaka, Rie; Ono, Aoi; Yamashita, Ayana; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Hirooka, Kazuyuki

    2017-11-28

    To compare the areas of choriocapillaris (CC) nonperfusion and macular atrophy (MA) in treated exudative age-related macular degeneration. This was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Forty-four eyes exhibiting MA (42 patients with age-related macular degeneration), with a dry macula, underwent fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography angiography. The area of MA detected by fundus autofluorescence and CC nonperfusion detected by optical coherence tomography angiography was measured using image analysis software. The rates of concordance between the MA and CC nonperfusion areas were calculated. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the areas of MA and CC nonperfusion in age-related macular degeneration eyes. The mean areas of MA and CC nonperfusion were 5.95 ± 4.50 mm and 10.66 ± 7.05 mm, respectively (paired t-test, P autofluorescence matching optical coherence tomography angiography showed that the CC nonperfusion area was almost included in the MA area. The mean concordance rate for the MA area inside the CC nonperfusion area was 87.7 ± 13.9%. The MA and CC nonperfusion areas markedly overlapped. The area of CC nonperfusion correlated with the MA area. Choroidal ischemia might be involved in the pathogenesis of MA in treated age-related macular degeneration.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Image and surgery-related costs comparing cone beam CT and panoramic imaging before removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Bo; Olsen, Kim Rose; Christensen, Jennifer Heather

    2014-01-01

    resource utilization. Differences in resources used for surgical and post-surgical management were calculated for each patient. Results: Converted to monetary units, the total costs for panoramic imaging equalized (sic)49.29 and for CBCT examination (sic)184.44. Modifying effects on this outcome......Objectives: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to derive the absolute and relative costs of cone beam CT (CBCT) and panoramic imaging before removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the study aimed to analyse the influence of different cost-setting scenarios...... on the outcome of the absolute and relative costs and the incremental costs related to surgery. Methods: A randomized clinical trial compared complications following surgical removal of a mandibular third molar, where the pre-operative diagnostic method had been panoramic imaging or CBCT. The resources implied...

  15. Development of a surrogate angiogenic potency assay for clinical-grade stem cell production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Nicholas; Cutrone, Rochelle; Raber, Amy; Perry, Robert; Van't Hof, Wouter; Deans, Robert; Ting, Anthony E; Woda, Juliana

    2012-09-01

    Clinical results from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients treated with MultiStem®, a large-scale expanded adherent multipotent progenitor cell population (MAPC), have demonstrated a strong safety and benefit profile for these cells. The mechanism of benefit with MAPC treatment is a result, in part, of its ability to induce neovascularization through trophic support. Production of clinical-grade stem cell products requires the development of lot-release criteria based on potency assays that directly reflect the fundamental mechanistic pathway underlying the therapeutic response to verify manufacturing process consistency and product potency. Using an in vitro endothelial tube formation assay, a potency assay has been developed that reflects MAPC pro-angiogenic activity. Serum-free conditioned media collected from MAPC culture induced endothelial tube formation. A proteomic survey of angiogenic factors produced by the cells in vitro revealed candidate factors linked to angiogenic potency. Three cytokines, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 (CXCL5), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were required for this angiogenic activity. Depletion of any of these factors from the media prevented tube formation, while adding back increasing amounts of these cytokines into the depleted serum-free conditioned media established the lower limits of each of the cytokines required to induce angiogenesis. A necessary threshold of angiogenic factor expression was established using an in vitro angiogenesis assay. By correlating the levels of the cytokines required to induce tube formation in vitro with levels of the factors found in the spent media from manufacturing production runs, detection of these factors was identified as a surrogate potency assay with defined pass/fail criteria.

  16. A content analysis of tweets about high-potency marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Sowles, Shaina J; Krauss, Melissa J; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2016-09-01

    "Dabbing" involves heating extremely concentrated forms of marijuana to high temperatures and inhaling the resulting vapor. We studied themes describing the consequences of using highly concentrated marijuana by examining the dabbing-related content on Twitter. Tweets containing dabbing-related keywords were collected from 1/1-1/31/2015 (n=206,854). A random sample of 5000 tweets was coded for content according to pre-determined categories about dabbing-related behaviors and effects experienced using a crowdsourcing service. An examination of tweets from the full sample about respiratory effects and passing out was then conducted by selecting tweets with relevant keywords. Among the 5000 randomly sampled tweets, 3540 (71%) were related to dabbing marijuana concentrates. The most common themes included mentioning current use of concentrates (n=849; 24%), the intense high and/or extreme effects from dabbing (n=763; 22%) and excessive/heavy dabbing (n=517; 15%). Extreme effects included both physiological (n=124/333; 37%) and psychological effects (n=55/333; 17%). The most common physiologic effects, passing out (n=46/333; 14%) and respiratory effects (n=30/333; 9%), were then further studied in the full sample of tweets. Coughing was the most common respiratory effect mentioned (n=807/1179; 68%), and tweeters commonly expressed dabbing with intentions to pass out (416/915; 45%). This study adds to the limited understanding of marijuana concentrates and highlights self-reported physical and psychological effects from this type of marijuana use. Future research should further examine these effects and the potential severity of health consequences associated with concentrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social media for arthritis-related comparative effectiveness and safety research and the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Chen, Lang; Higginbotham, Phillip; Nowell, W Benjamin; Gal-Levy, Ronit; Willig, James; Safford, Monika; Coe, Joseph; O'Hara, Kaitlin; Sa'adon, Roee

    2017-03-07

    Social media may complement traditional data sources to answer comparative effectiveness/safety questions after medication licensure. The Treato platform was used to analyze all publicly available social media data including Facebook, blogs, and discussion boards for posts mentioning inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid, psoriatic). Safety events were self-reported by patients and mapped to medical ontologies, resolving synonyms. Disease and symptom-related treatment indications were manually redacted. The units of analysis were unique terms in posts. Pre-specified conditions (e.g. herpes zoster (HZ)) were selected based upon safety signals from clinical trials and reported as pairwise odds ratios (ORs); drugs were compared with Fisher's exact test. Empirically identified events were analyzed using disproportionality analysis and reported as relative reporting ratios (RRRs). The accuracy of a natural language processing (NLP) classifier to identify cases of shingles associated with arthritis medications was assessed. As of October 2015, there were 785,656 arthritis-related posts. Posts were predominantly US posts (75%) from patient authors (87%) under 40 years of age (61%). For HZ posts (n = 1815), ORs were significantly increased with tofacitinib versus other rheumatoid arthritis therapies. ORs for mentions of perforated bowel (n = 13) were higher with tocilizumab versus other therapies. RRRs associated with tofacitinib were highest in conditions related to baldness and hair regrowth, infections and cancer. The NLP classifier had a positive predictive value of 91% to identify HZ. There was a threefold increase in posts following television direct-to-consumer advertisement (p = 0.04); posts expressing medication safety concerns were significantly more frequent than favorable posts. Social media is a challenging yet promising data source that may complement traditional approaches for comparative effectiveness research for new medications.

  18. RELATIVE POTENCY OF ORAL ANTIGENS IN PROVOKING FOOD ALLERGY IN THE MOUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. While the oral route is the most relevant method of exposure, oral tolerance is an impediment. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish...

  19. Is it useful to add acetaminophen to high-potency opioids in cancer-related pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Corsi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El dolor es uno de los síntomas más frecuentes y relevantes en pacientes oncológicos. La estrategia analgésica escalonada de la Organización Mundial de la Salud postula el uso de opioides fuertes asociado a coadyuvantes como el paracetamol o los antiinflamatorios no esteroidales en el peldaño III. Sin embargo, existe la duda si agregar paracetamol a un esquema analgésico basado en opioides fuertes presenta algún beneficio en pacientes oncológicos con dolor moderado a severo. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen cinco estudios aleatorizados. Extrajimos los datos relevantes y resumimos los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que agregar paracetamol a los opioides fuertes podría hacer poca o nula diferencia en el control del dolor en pacientes oncológicos.

  20. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  1. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B.; Karim, Helmet T.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wilckens, Kristine A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Kupfer, David J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H.; Franzen, Peter L.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Methods: Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21–60), sex, and race. We conducted [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMRglc. Results: Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at Pcorrected sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. Citation: Kay DB, Karim HT, Soehner AM, Hasler BP, Wilckens KA, James JA, Aizenstein HJ, Price JC, Rosario BL, Kupfer DJ, Germain A, Hall MH, Franzen PL, Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ. Sleep-wake differences in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose among patients with insomnia compared with good sleepers. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1779–1794. PMID:27568812

  2. Design-related bias in estimates of accuracy when comparing imaging tests: examples from breast imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Ciatto, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This work highlights concepts on the potential for design-related factors to bias estimates of test accuracy in comparative imaging research. We chose two design factors, selection of eligible subjects and the reference standard, to examine the effect of design limitations on estimates of accuracy. Estimates of sensitivity in a study of the comparative accuracy of mammography and ultrasound differed according to how subjects were selected. Comparison of a new imaging test with an existing test should distinguish whether the new test is to be used as a replacement for, or as an adjunct to, the conventional test, to guide the method for subject selection. Quality of the reference standard, examined in a meta-analysis of preoperative breast MRI, varied across studies and was associated with estimates of incremental accuracy. Potential solutions to deal with the reference standard are outlined where an ideal reference standard may not be available in all subjects. These examples of breast imaging research demonstrate that design-related bias, when comparing a new imaging test with a conventional imaging test, may bias accuracy in a direction that favours the new test by overestimating the accuracy of the new test or by underestimating that of the conventional test. (orig.)

  3. The quality of intensive care unit nurse handover related to end of life: a descriptive comparative international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Endacott, Ruth; Chaboyer, Wendy; Benbinishty, Julie; Ben Nun, Maureen; Ryan, Helen; Schoter, Amanda; Boulanger, Carole; Chamberlain, Wendy; Spooner, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Quality ICU end-of-life-care has been found to be related to good communication. Handover is one form of communication that can be problematic due to lost or omitted information. A first step in improving care is to measure and describe it. The objective of this study was to describe the quality of ICU nurse handover related to end-of-life care and to compare the practices of different ICUs in three different countries. This was a descriptive comparative study. The study was conducted in seven ICUs in three countries: Australia (1 unit), Israel (3 units) and the UK (3 units). A convenience sample of 157 handovers was studied. Handover quality was rated based on the ICU End-of-Life Handover tool, developed by the authors. The highest levels of handover quality were in the areas of goals of care and pain management while lowest levels were for legal issues (proxy and advanced directives) related to end of life. Significant differences were found between countries and units in the total handover score (country: F(2,154)=25.97, p=studied. The total score was higher when quality of care might be deemed at greater risk (if the nurses did not know the patient or the patient was expected to die), indicating that nurses were exercising some form of discretionary decision making around handover communication; thus validating the measurement tool. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A Comparative Study of Trade Relations and the Spatial-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economy between China and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing economic importance of the Asia-Pacific Region, the economic interdependence among countries in the region has gradually enhanced. With the continuous opening up of the two countries, Sino-Vietnamese economic relations have also been deepened. However, the export trade between Vietnam and China has been competitive. China and Vietnam seek to dominate or join an agreement that is conducive to their own trade, which also exacerbates the trade competition between the two countries. This paper compares China and Vietnam and analyzes their foreign trade data from 2005 to 2014. By analyzing the competitiveness of export commodities, the trade division effect and spatio-temporal changes of the geo-economic relationship in the Asia-Pacific Region, this study explores Sino-Vietnamese trade relations and compares the pattern of geo-economic evolution between the two countries. The findings show that China and Vietnam have similarities and substitutability in textiles, apparel and footwear in terms of commodity structure. There is already a trade diversion effect between Vietnam and China on these commodities, but it is not substantial. From a geographic perspective, China’s geo-economic relations in the Pacific Rim present an increasingly dispersed trend. However, the spatial pattern of Vietnam’s geo-economy has maintained a low-level and stable spatial agglomeration over the last decade.

  5. A randomized controlled trial comparing alpha blocker (tamsulosin) and anticholinergic (solifenacin) in treatment of ureteral stent-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahas, Ahmed R; Tharwat, Mohamed; Elsaadany, Mohamed; Mosbah, Ahmed; Gaballah, Mohamed A

    2016-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of tamsulosin and solifenacin in relieving ureteral stents related symptoms. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between January 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 20-50 years who underwent temporary unilateral ureteral stent for drainage of calcular upper tract obstruction or after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Patients with history of lower urinary tract symptoms before stent placement, stents that were fixed after open or laparoscopic procedures, and those who developed complications related to the primary procedure were not included. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups using computer-generated random tables. Patients in group 1 received placebo, patients in group 2 received tamsulosin 0.4 mg once daily, and those in group 3 received solifenacin 5 mg once daily. Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) was answered by all patients 1-2 weeks after stent placement. The primary outcome was the comparison of total score of USSQ between all groups. The study included 131 patients. All baseline characteristics (age, sex, side, indication, length, and duration of stent) were comparable for all groups. Total USSQ score was 61 in solifenacin group, 76 in tamsulosin group, and 83 in control group (P tamsulosin group (P tamsulosin alone or solifenacin alone in patients with ureteral stents can improve the quality of life by decreasing ureteral stent-related symptoms. Solifenacin was better than tamsulosin. CLINICALTRIAL. NCT01880619.

  6. Bio-potency of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiarasi Velayutham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, larvicidal potentials of Dictyota ciliata J. Agardh (D. ciliata. Methods: Phytochemical, antibacterial screening, cytotoxicity and larvicidal properties of the D. ciliata extracts were carried out according to standard methods. Cytotoxicity and larvicidal potentials were analyzed by means of computerized probit analysis program. Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the crude extracts of D. ciliata. The methanolic extracts of D. ciliata showed the highest metabolites presence compared to other tested extracts. The antibacterial activity illustrated that the acetone extracts of D. ciliata exhibited the highest zone of inhibition [(10±0.2 mm] against Morganella morganii. Highest larval mortality (50% was observed in the crude methanolic extracts of D. ciliata against Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50=202.82 mg/L and LC90 value is 488.52 mg/L. The result of brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed highest cytotoxicity in methanolic extracts of D. ciliata with LC50 and LC90 values at 340.14 mg/L and 555.58 mg/L respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present phytochemical analysis and biological assays will help the manufacturers for identification and selection of raw materials for drug production.

  7. TwiMed: Twitter and PubMed Comparable Corpus of Drugs, Diseases, Symptoms, and Their Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Nestor; Miyao, Yusuke; Collier, Nigel

    2017-05-03

    Work on pharmacovigilance systems using texts from PubMed and Twitter typically target at different elements and use different annotation guidelines resulting in a scenario where there is no comparable set of documents from both Twitter and PubMed annotated in the same manner. This study aimed to provide a comparable corpus of texts from PubMed and Twitter that can be used to study drug reports from these two sources of information, allowing researchers in the area of pharmacovigilance using natural language processing (NLP) to perform experiments to better understand the similarities and differences between drug reports in Twitter and PubMed. We produced a corpus comprising 1000 tweets and 1000 PubMed sentences selected using the same strategy and annotated at entity level by the same experts (pharmacists) using the same set of guidelines. The resulting corpus, annotated by two pharmacists, comprises semantically correct annotations for a set of drugs, diseases, and symptoms. This corpus contains the annotations for 3144 entities, 2749 relations, and 5003 attributes. We present a corpus that is unique in its characteristics as this is the first corpus for pharmacovigilance curated from Twitter messages and PubMed sentences using the same data selection and annotation strategies. We believe this corpus will be of particular interest for researchers willing to compare results from pharmacovigilance systems (eg, classifiers and named entity recognition systems) when using data from Twitter and from PubMed. We hope that given the comprehensive set of drug names and the annotated entities and relations, this corpus becomes a standard resource to compare results from different pharmacovigilance studies in the area of NLP. ©Nestor Alvaro, Yusuke Miyao, Nigel Collier. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 03.05.2017.

  8. Women with coronary artery disease report worse health-related quality of life outcomes compared to men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbraith P Diane

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there have been substantial medical advances that improve the outcomes following cardiac ischemic events, gender differences in the treatment and course of recovery for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD continue to exist. There is a general paucity of data comparing the health related quality of life (HRQOL in men and women undergoing treatment for CAD. The purpose of this study was to compare HRQOL outcomes of men and women in Alberta, at one-year following initial catheterization, after adjustment for known demographic, co-morbid, and disease severity predictors of outcome. Method The HRQOL outcome data were collected by means of a self-reported questionnaire mailed to patients on or near the one-year anniversary of their initial cardiac catheterization. Using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ, 5 dimensions of HRQOL were measured: exertional capacity, anginal stability, anginal frequency, quality of life and treatment satisfaction. Data from the APPROACH registry were used to risk-adjust the SAQ scale scores. Two analytical strategies were used including general least squares linear modeling, and proportional odds modeling sometimes referred to as the "ordinal logistic modeling". Results 3392 (78.1% patients responded to the follow-up survey. The adjusted proportional odds ratios for men relative to women (PORs > 1 = better indicated that men reported significantly better HRQOL on all 5 SAQ dimensions as compared to women. (PORs: Exertional Capacity 3.38 (2.75–4.15, Anginal Stability 1.23 (1.03–1.47, Anginal Frequency 1.70 (1.43–2.01, Treatment Satisfaction 1.27 (1.07–1.50, and QOL 1.74 (1.48–2.04. Conclusions Women with CAD consistently reported worse HRQOL at one year follow-up compared to men. These findings underline the fact that conclusions based on research performed on men with CAD may not be valid for women and that more gender-related research is needed. Future studies are needed to

  9. Relative Effectiveness of Letrozole Compared With Tamoxifen for Patients With Lobular Carcinoma in the BIG 1-98 Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzger Filho, Otto; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Mallon, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    assigned onto the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial and who had centrally reviewed pathology data were included (N = 2,923). HER2-negative IDC and ILC were additionally classified as hormone receptor-positive with high (luminal B [LB] -like) or low (luminal A [LA] -like) proliferative activity......PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative effectiveness of letrozole compared with tamoxifen for patients with invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) or classic invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) who were randomly...

  10. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues...... cuticle thickness, while Pegarinhos adds a thicker epidermis and palisade parenchyma to increase protection to water loss. These data is one of the first comparative approaches to the leaf characterization of these cultivars, and should now be combined with physiological and biochemical studies...

  11. Molecular phylogeny and comparative morphology indicate that odontostomatids (Alveolata, Ciliophora) form a distinct class-level taxon related to Armophorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Noemi M; Vizzoni, Vinicius F; Borges, Bárbara do N; A G Soares, Carlos; Silva-Neto, Inácio D da; S Paiva, Thiago da

    2018-04-18

    The odontostomatids are among the least studied ciliates, possibly due to their small sizes, restriction to anaerobic environments and difficulty in culturing. Consequently, their phylogenetic affinities to other ciliate taxa are still poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed newly obtained ribosomal gene sequences of the odontostomatids Discomorphella pedroeneasi and Saprodinium dentatum, together with sequences from the literature, including Epalxella antiquorum and a large assemblage of ciliate sequences representing the major recognized classes. The results show that D. pedroeneasi and S. dentatum form a deep-diverging branch related to metopid and clevelandellid armophoreans, corroborating the old literature. However E. antiquorum clustered with the morphologically discrepant plagiopylids, indicating that either the complex odontostomatid body architecture evolved convergently, or the positioning of E. antiquorum as a plagiopylid is artifactual. A new ciliate class, Odontostomatea n. cl., is proposed based on molecular analyses and comparative morphology of odontostomatids with related taxa. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Comparative analysis of peroxidase profiles in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.): evaluation of leaf growth related isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Wang, Chenchen; Huang, Jiabao; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Wang, Haiou

    2013-01-15

    Plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) with different isoforms catalyze various reactions in plant growth and development. However, it is difficult to elucidate the function of each isozyme in one plant. Here, we compared profiles of entire isozyme in young seedling and mature leaves of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) on zymogram and ion exchange chromatography in order to investigate leaf growth related peroxidase isozymes. The results showed that four isozymes were constitutively expressed in kale leaves, whereas other two isozymes were induced in the mature leaves. The Mono Q ion exchange chromatography separated the six isozymes into two major groups due to the difference in their isoelectric points. The results suggested that although there were several isozymes in the leaves of Chinese kale, one isozyme functioned mainly through the leaf development. Two anionic isozymes with molecular weights lower than 32 kDa were considered mature related. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing health-related quality of life of employed women and housewives: a cross sectional study from southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravi Fatihe Kerman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Considering the role of women in family and social health and the specific cultural characteristics of our province, we aimed to compare the quality of life of employed women with housewives in Zahedan, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out during 2009–2010 in Zahedan, Iran. The sample consisted of 110 housewives and 110 employed women selected randomly from ten health care centers. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare quality of life in housewives and employed women while controlling for age, education and income. Results The mean (±SD age of participants was 33.87± 8.95 years. Eighty-eight women (40% had a university degree with a mean (±SD official education of 10.8 (±4.9 years. The results indicated that employed women scored higher than housewives in all measures except for physical functioning. The differences were found to be remarkable for vitality, mental health and role emotional. However, after controlling for age, education and family income, none of differences reached significant level. Conclusion After controlling for potential confounders, the findings from this study indicated that there were no significant differences in quality of life between employed women and housewives. However, employed women scored higher on the SF-36, especially on the role emotional, vitality, and mental health. The findings suggest that associations exist between some aspects of health-related quality of life and employment. Indeed improving health-related quality of life among housewives seems essential.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation or maximum intercuspation in temporomandibular disorders patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Matida Hamata

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of occlusal splints in centric relation for temporomandibular disorders (TMD patients is arguable, since this position has been defined for asymptomatic stomatognathic system. Thus, maximum intercuspation might be employed in patients with occlusal stability, eliminating the need for interocclusal records. This study compared occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation and maximum intercuspation in muscle pain reduction of TMD patients. Twenty patients with TMD of myogenous origin and bruxism were divided into 2 groups treated with splints in maximum intercuspation (I or centric relation (II. Clinical, electrognathographic and electromyographic examinations were performed before and 3 months after therapy. Data were analyzed by the Student's t test. Differences at 5% level of probability were considered statistically significant. There was a remarkable reduction in pain symptomatology, without statistically significant differences (p>0.05 between the groups. There was mandibular repositioning during therapy, as demonstrated by the change in occlusal contacts on the splints. Electrognathographic examination demonstrated a significant increase in maximum left lateral movement for group I and right lateral movement for group II (p0.05 in the electromyographic activities at rest after utilization of both splints. In conclusion, both occlusal splints were effective for pain control and presented similar action. The results suggest that maximum intercuspation may be used for fabrication of occlusal splints in patients with occlusal stability without large discrepancies between centric relation and maximum intercuspation. Moreover, this technique is simpler and less expensive.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation or maximum intercuspation in temporomandibular disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamata, Marcelo Matida; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Garcia, Alicio Rosalino

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of occlusal splints in centric relation for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients is arguable, since this position has been defined for asymptomatic stomatognathic system. Thus, maximum intercuspation might be employed in patients with occlusal stability, eliminating the need for interocclusal records. This study compared occlusal splints fabricated in centric relation and maximum intercuspation in muscle pain reduction of TMD patients. Twenty patients with TMD of myogenous origin and bruxism were divided into 2 groups treated with splints in maximum intercuspation (I) or centric relation (II). Clinical, electrognathographic and electromyographic examinations were performed before and 3 months after therapy. Data were analyzed by the Student's t test. Differences at 5% level of probability were considered statistically significant. There was a remarkable reduction in pain symptomatology, without statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the groups. There was mandibular repositioning during therapy, as demonstrated by the change in occlusal contacts on the splints. Electrognathographic examination demonstrated a significant increase in maximum left lateral movement for group I and right lateral movement for group II (p0.05) in the electromyographic activities at rest after utilization of both splints. In conclusion, both occlusal splints were effective for pain control and presented similar action. The results suggest that maximum intercuspation may be used for fabrication of occlusal splints in patients with occlusal stability without large discrepancies between centric relation and maximum intercuspation. Moreover, this technique is simpler and less expensive.

  16. Potency of carbapenems for the prevention of carbapenem-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the high potency of a new carbapenem doripenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakyo, Shihomi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Tanimoto, Koichi; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Ike, Yasuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    The potencies of the carbapenems; doripenem (DRPM), meropenem (MEPM) and imipenem (IPM) in preventing the emergence of carbapenem-resistant mutants were examined in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The carbapenems predominantly selected carbapenem-resistant mutants or carbapenem mutants with reduced susceptibilities that were specifically resistant to carbapenems and had arisen as a result of the reduced level of expression of the outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of about 48,000 (OprD). The potency of carbapenems in preventing the growth of the mutants differed for DRPM, MEPM and IPM. The isolation frequency of the mutant was examined on agar plates containing each of the carbapenems at a concentration of 1/2 or 1/4 MIC of each carbapenem for that mutant. Mutants were not selected on agar containing DRPM at a frequency of greater than 10(-9) per cell per generation, whereas mutants of each strain were selected on agar containing MEPM or IPM at frequencies of 10(-7) to 10(-9) per cell per generation. The drug concentrations and the drug concentration range for the selective increase of carbapenem resistant mutants in the broth culture containing each carbapenem differed for each carbapenem. DRPM exhibited both the lowest drug concentration and the narrowest range of drug concentration for selection of the carbapenem-resistant mutants. The results shown in this report indicated that DRPM exhibited the greatest ability to prevent the emergence of the mutant.

  17. Women Build Long Bones With Less Cortical Mass Relative to Body Size and Bone Size Compared With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Karl J; Bigelow, Erin M R; Schlecht, Stephen H

    2015-08-01

    The twofold greater lifetime risk of fracturing a bone for white women compared with white men and black women has been attributed in part to differences in how the skeletal system accumulates bone mass during growth. On average, women build more slender long bones with less cortical area compared with men. Although slender bones are known to have a naturally lower cortical area compared with wider bones, it remains unclear whether the relatively lower cortical area of women is consistent with their increased slenderness or is reduced beyond that expected for the sex-specific differences in bone size and body size. Whether this sexual dimorphism is consistent with ethnic background and is recapitulated in the widely used mouse model also remains unclear. We asked (1) do black women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with black men; (2) do white women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with white men; and (3) do female mice build bones with reduced cortical area compared with male mice? Bone strength and cross-sectional morphology of adult human and mouse bone were calculated from quantitative CT images of the femoral midshaft. The data were tested for normality and regression analyses were used to test for differences in cortical area between men and women after adjusting for body size and bone size by general linear model (GLM). Linear regression analysis showed that the femurs of black women had 11% lower cortical area compared with those of black men after adjusting for body size and bone size (women: mean=357.7 mm2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 347.9-367.5 mm2; men: mean=400.1 mm2; 95% CI, 391.5-408.7 mm2; effect size=1.2; pbone size (women: mean=350.1 mm2; 95% CI, 340.4-359.8 mm2; men: mean=394.3 mm2; 95% CI, 386.5-402.1 mm2; effect size=1.3; pbone size (female: mean=0.73 mm2; 95% CI, 0.71-0.74 mm2; male: mean=0.70 mm2; 95% CI, 0.68-0.71 mm2; effect size=0.74; p=0.04, GLM). Female femurs are not simply a more slender version of male

  18. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  19. [Effect of 2-phenoxyethanol on potency of Sabin inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and its safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Chuan-xiu; Jiang, Shu-de; Yang, Jian-yong; Sun, Ming-bo; Xie, Ming-xue; Zhang, Xin-wen; Liao, Guo-yang; Li, Wei-dong

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the effect of 2-phenoxyethanol on potency of Sabin inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV). Sabin IPV samples containing 5 mg or 7 mg 2-phenoxyethanol each dosage respectively were placed separately at 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C for 2 days and 7 days. D-antigen contents were tested with ELISA method. Then neutralizing antibodies in mice and guinea pigs were detected. The safety experiment was performed according to unusual toxicity test of China requirement for biological product. After addition of 2-phenoxyethanol, the I, II, and III D-antigen contents of Sabin IPV did not change. The antibody levels in mice and guinea pigs were not different between experimental group and control group. Animals were safe during observation period. 2-Phenoxyethanol had no effect on potency and safety of Sabin IPV. It can be used as antiseptic for Sabin IPV.

  20. Potency of Education Historical Tourismof World War II Japanese Cavesand Bunkersin Coastal Banyuwangi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi, Miftahul; Qiram, Ikhwanul

    2018-05-01

    Banyuwangi district has some Japanese caves and bunkers of World War II. The location of the objects are along the Banyuwangi coast as a maritime defense during the war. This structures can be used as education historical tourism object. There are many similar structures in other area that have been neglected and do not get enough preservation attention. This research is aimed to identify the potency of education historical tourism of Japanese caves and bunker in Banyuwangi. The research is done by field research for the observation of objects physical condition. It is also done by interviewing local government, historical actors and surrounding community. The result shows that the caves and bunker have a great potency but have not been used as education historical object.

  1. Potency of carcinogens derived from covalent DNA binding and stimulation of DNA synthesis in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, W.K.; Buesser, M.T.; Sagelsdorff, P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the stimulation of cell division for the initiation (and possibly promotion) of liver tumors by chemical carcinogens, the incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into liver DNA was determined in male rats. Single doses of various levels of aflatoxin B1, benzidine and carbon tetrachloride (all known to be genotoxic via DNA binding) did not affect cell division, whereas several hepatocarcinogens known not to bind to DNA (alpha-HCH, clofibrate, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) gave rise to a dose-dependent stimulation of liver DNA synthesis within 24 h. An equation combining the influences of mitotic stimulation, expressed as dose required to double the control level of DNA synthesis, and DNA binding potency, expressed as the Covalent Binding Index, correlated well with the carcinogenic potency for both classes of hepatocarcinogens

  2. Assessment of the skin sensitization potency of eugenol and its dimers using a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Noda, Shuji; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kakishima, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Kanji; Kimber, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a serious health problem. There is a need to identify and characterize skin sensitization hazards, particularly with respect to relative potency, so that accurate risk assessments can be developed. For these purposes the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed. Here, we have investigated further a modi fi cation of this assay, non-radioisotopic LLNA, which in place of tritiated thymidine to measure lymph node cell proliferation employs incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Using this method we have examined the skin sensitizing activity of eugenol, a known human contact allergen, and its dimers 2,2'-dihydroxyl-3,3'-dimethoxy-5,5'-diallyl-biphenyl (DHEA) and 4,5'-diallyl-2'-hydroxy-2,3'-dimethoxy phenyl ether (DHEB). Activity in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) also measured. On the basis of GPMT assays, eugenol was classified as a mild skin sensitizer, DHEA as a weak skin sensitizer and DHEB as an extreme skin sensitizer. In the non-radioisotopic LLNA all chemicals were found to give positive responses insofar as each was able to provoke a stimulation index (SI) of >or=3 at one or more test concentrations. The relative skin sensitizing potency of these chemicals was evaluated in the non-radioisotopic LLNA by derivation of an ec(3) value (the concentration of chemical required to provoke an SI of 3). The ec(3) values calculated were 25.1% for eugenol, >30% for DHEA and 2.3% for DHEB. Collectively these data suggest that assessments of relative potency deriving from non-radioisotopic LLNA responses correlate well with evaluations based on GPMT results. These investigations provide support for the proposal that the non-radioisotopic LLNA may serve as an effective alternative to the GPMT where there is a need to avoid the use of radioisotopes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Teratogenic potency of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran and of three mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mice. Problems with risk assessment using TCDD toxic-equivalency factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Tetsuji (Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)); Golor, G. (Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)); Hagenmaier, H. (Inst. fuer Organische Chemie, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)); Neubert, D. (Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    The potency of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (P5CDF) and of three defined 2,3,7,8-TCDD-free mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) to induce cleft palates in NMRI mice was studied. The data were compared with a dose-response curve for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The slope of the dose-response curve for P5CDF was the same as for TCDD. However, application of the International-TCDD-Toxic-Equivalency (I-TE) factor (NATO/CCMS 1988) of 0.5 overestimated the potency of the pentachlorinated congener about 2.5-fold under these experimental conditions, suggesting 0.2 as a TE factor. When assessing the cleft palate frequency on the basis of I-TEs and the weight of the substances, the potencies of the two PCDF mixtures studied were also clearly overestimated. This result was not substantially changed when using the TE factor of 0.2 for P5CDF. For the PCDD mixture studied, the cleft palate-inducing potency found largely agreed with the prediction when applying the I-TE factors. According to our data, the use of TE factors as calculated by the UBA/BGA (1985) or the NATO/CCMS (1988) are both conservative when attempting to assess the cleft palate incidence induced by PCDF mixtures in mice. (orig.)

  4. Comparing the Relative Efficacy of Narrative vs Nonnarrative Health Messages in Reducing Health Disparities Using a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila T; Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Zhao, Nan; Amezola de Herrera, Paula; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes A

    2015-10-01

    We compared the relative efficacy of a fictional narrative film to a more traditional nonnarrative film in conveying the same health information. We used a random digit dial procedure to survey the cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, living in Los Angeles, California, from 2011 to 2012. Participants (n = 704) were randomly assigned to view either a narrative or nonnarrative film containing the same information about how cervical cancer could be prevented or detected, and they were re-contacted 2 weeks and 6 months later. At 2 weeks, both films produced a significant increase in cervical cancer-related knowledge and attitudes, but these effects were significantly higher for the narrative film. At 6 months, viewers of both films retained greater than baseline knowledge and more positive attitudes toward Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, but women who saw the narrative were significantly more likely to have had or scheduled a Pap test. The narrative was particularly effective for Mexican American women, eliminating cervical cancer screening disparities found at baseline. Narratives might prove to be a useful tool for reducing health disparities.

  5. In vivo potency of different ligands on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Liszli, Peter; Benedek, Gyorgy; Keresztes, Csilla; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-09-05

    The Ranvier nodes of thick myelinated nerve fibers contain almost exclusively voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs), while the unmyelinated fibers have several receptors (e.g., cannabinoid, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1), too. Therefore, a nerve which contains only motor fibers can be an appropriate in vivo model for selective influence of Navs. The goals were to evaluate the potency of local anesthetic drugs on such a nerve in vivo; furthermore, to investigate the effects of ligands with different structures (arachidonic acid, anandamide, capsaicin and nisoxetine) that were proved to inhibit Navs in vitro with antinociceptive properties. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was explored in anesthetized Wistar rats; after its stimulation, the electrical activity of the vibrissae muscles was registered following the perineural injection of different drugs. Lidocaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine evoked dose-dependent decrease in electromyographic activity, i.e., lidocaine had lower potency than bupivacaine or ropivacaine. QX-314 did not cause any effect by itself, but its co-application with lidocaine produced a prolonged inhibition. Nisoxetine had a very low potency. While anandamide and capsaicin in high doses caused about 50% decrease in the amplitude of action potential, arachidonic acid did not influence the responses. We proved that the classical local anesthetics have high potency on motor nerves, suggesting that this method might be a reliable model for selective targeting of Navs in vivo circumstances. It is proposed that the effects of these endogenous lipids and capsaicin on sensory fibers are not primarily mediated by Navs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anticancer potency of black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) from Mentawai Islands, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari; Utmi Arma; Syafruddin Ilyas; Dian Handayani

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The source of bioactive compounds believed to have strong anticancer potency is derived from sea cucumber. Black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) is a dominant species in Mentawai Islands, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Key factor compound that acts as anticancer in sea cucumber extract is tritepenoid also known as Frondoside A. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the active compound taken from black sea cucumber as anticancer. Methods: Methods u...

  7. Generation of Arctic-like Rabies Viruses Containing Chimeric Glycoproteins Enables Serological Potency Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Emma; Ali, Ruqiyo; Horton, Daniel; Corti, Davide; Banyard, Ashley; Fooks, Anthony; Wright, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Rabies viruses have the highest case fatality rate of any known virus and are responsible for an estimated 60,000 deaths each year. This is despite the fact that there are highly efficacious vaccines and post-exposure prophylaxis available. However, while it is assumed these biologics provide protection against all rabies virus isolates, there are certain subdivisions of RABV lineages, such as within the Arctic-like RABV (AL rabies virus lineage, where data is limited and thus the potency of ...

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia FEKIH; Hocine ALLALI; Abdeslem Nacer AREZKI AIT; Salima MERGHACHE; Djamila MAGHNIA; Jean COSTA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster) growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 9...

  9. Progress in applying the Three Rs to the potency testing of Botulinum toxin type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughan, Donald

    2006-06-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is being increasingly used for a range of therapeutic purposes and also for cosmetic reasons. For many years, the potency of BTA has been measured by using an LD50 assay in mice. This assay is a cause for concern due to its unpleasant nature and extreme severity, and the requirement for high numbers of mice to be used. Alternatives to this potency assay are presently reviewed with particular reference to the work at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), and to recent work by the UK manufacturer of the substance. An in vivo local paralysis assay with considerably less severity has been developed and is in use at the NIBSC. Alternative, ex vivo functional assays in use include the measurement of BTA-induced paralysis of neurally-stimulated rodent diaphragm or rat intercostal muscle. The latter method has the advantage of allowing more preparations to be derived from one animal. However, these ex vivo methods have not yet been fully validated and accepted by regulatory agencies as potency assays. Endopeptidase assays, although not measuring muscle paralysis directly, may provide a very useful consistency test for batch release and may replace the routine use of the LD50 test for that purpose. These assays measure the cleavage of the SNAP-25 protein (the final stage of BTA action), and have been validated for batch release by the National Control Laboratory (NIBSC), and are in regular use there. ELISA assays, used alongside the endopeptidase assay, also provide useful confirmatory information on the amounts of functional (and non-functional) BTA present. The UK manufacturer is further validating its endopeptidase assay, an ex vivo muscle assay and an ELISA. It is anticipated that their work will lead to a change in the product license, hopefully within the next two years, and will form a critical milestone towards the end of the LD50 potency test.

  10. Novel Anticonvulsant Analogs of Dextromethorphan: Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    dextromethorphan (014, [+J-3-aethyl-l7-methylmorphinan) may be, in part, due to its ____________________metabolism to the PCP-like compound... Dextromethorphan : Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile1 FRANK C. TORTELLA, LYDIA ROBLES, JEFFREY M. WITKIN and AMY HAUCK NEWMAN... dextromethorphan ; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PCP, phencyclidine hydrochloride; DX, dextrorphan; AHN649, [(+)-3- amino-1 7-methylmorphinan]; AHN1 -036

  11. Development and Rainfed Paddy Soils Potency Derived From Lacustrine Material in Paguyaman, Gorontalo

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin

    2011-01-01

    Rainfed paddy soils that are derived from lacustrine and include of E4 agroclimatic zone have many unique properties and potentially for paddy and corn plantations. This sreseach was aimed to: (1) study the soil development of rainfed paddy soils derived from lacustrine and (2) evaluate rainfed paddy soils potency for paddy and corn in Paguyaman. Soil samples were taken from three profiles according to toposequent, and they were analyzed in laboratory. Data were analyzed with descripti...

  12. N-Aryl-oxazolidin-2-imine Muscle Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Potency through Pharmacophore Reorientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirschl, Alexandra A.; Zou, Yan; Krystek, Jr., Stanley R.; Sutton, James C.; Simpkins, Ligaya M.; Lupisella, John A.; Kuhns, Joyce E.; Seethala, Ramakrishna; Golla, Rajasree; Sleph, Paul G.; Beehler, Blake C.; Grover, Gary J.; Egan, Donald; Fura, Aberra; Vyas, Viral P.; Li, Yi-Xin; Sack, John S.; Kish, Kevin F.; An, Yongmi; Bryson, James A.; Gougoutas, Jack Z.; DiMarco, John; Zahler, Robert; Ostrowski, Jacek; Hamann, Lawrence G.; (BMS)

    2010-11-09

    A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) scaffold was discovered as a byproduct obtained during synthesis of our earlier series of imidazolidin-2-ones. The resulting oxazolidin-2-imines are among the most potent SARMs known, with many analogues exhibiting sub-nM in vitro potency in binding and functional assays. Despite the potential for hydrolytic instability at gut pH, compounds of the present class showed good oral bioavailability and were highly active in a standard rodent pharmacological model.

  13. A study on some welfare-related parameters of hDAF transgenic pigs when compared with their conventional close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Stancampiano, L; Govoni, N; Zannoni, A; Nannoni, E; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2014-05-01

    Pigs are increasingly used in medical research as transgenic laboratory animals; however, little knowledge is presently available concerning their welfare assessment. The aim of the present study was to investigate some welfare-related parameters of transgenic pigs intended for xenotrasplantation (human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF)) when compared with their conventional (i.e. not transgenic) close relatives (full sibs and half sibs). A total of 14 Large White female transgenic pigs and 10 female non-transgenic (conventional) pigs from four litters were used. All pigs were from the same conventional boar, donor of the semen treated for sperm-mediated gene transfer. During the experiment, BW ranged from 50 to about 80 kg and pigs were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Animals were subjected to a set of behavioural tests: a human approach test (HAT), a novel object test (NOT) and an open-door test (ODT). Food preferences were tested through the offer of different foods (banana, apple, carrot, cracker and lemon). During a 4-day period, pigs were diurnally videotaped to study the prevalence of the different behaviours and social interactions (aggressive and non-aggressive interactions). At the end of the trial, cortisol level had been assessed on bristles. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between hDAF transgenic and conventional pigs with respect to growth traits, reactivity towards unexpected situations (HAT, NOT, ODT), food preferences, main behavioural traits, social interactions and hair cortisol.

  14. Potency testing of veterinary vaccines: the way from in vivo to in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Judith; Lang, Stefan; Balks, Elisabeth; Kamphuis, Elisabeth; Duchow, Karin; Loos, Daniela; Rau, Henriette; Motitschke, Andreas; Jungbäck, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Current quality control of inactivated animal vaccines still focuses on the potency of final products in a batch-wise manner. Animal welfare concerns as well as scientific considerations have led to the '3Rs-concept' that comprises the refinement of animal procedures, the reduction of animal numbers, and the replacement of animal models. Although the 3Rs-concept has been widely accepted as a fundamental principle, the number of approved alternatives for in vivo tests is still limited. To promote further progress, the international scientific workshop 'Potency Testing of Veterinary Vaccines: The Way from in vivo to in vitro' was held at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut in Langen, Germany, on 01-03 December 2010. More than 130 participants from industry, academia and regulatory authorities discussed the current state of the 3Rs-concept, examples of its successful implementation as well as still existing hurdles. Special emphasis was laid on the 'consistency approach' that aims to ensure relevant quality attributes of vaccine batches by in vitro analyses during production rather than by in vivo potency tests on the final product. This report provides an overview of the insights gained, including the recommendations produced at the end of the workshop. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. © 2016 World Psychiatric Association.

  16. Traditional marijuana, high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose‐response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co‐administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high‐potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:27717258

  17. Potency trends of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, M A; Ross, S A; Mehmedic, Z; Arafat, R; Yi, B; Banahan, B F

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of 35,312 cannabis preparations confiscated in the USA over a period of 18 years for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and other major cannabinoids is reported. Samples were identified as cannabis, hashish, or hash oil. Cannabis samples were further subdivided into marijuana (loose material, kilobricks and buds), sinsemilla, Thai sticks and ditchweed. The data showed that more than 82% of all confiscated samples were in the marijuana category for every year except 1980 (61%) and 1981 (75%). The potency (concentration of delta9-THC) of marijuana samples rose from less than 1.5% in 1980 to approximately 3.3% in 1983 and 1984, then fluctuated around 3% till 1992. Since 1992, the potency of confiscated marijuana samples has continuously risen, going from 3.1% in 1992 to 4.2% in 1997. The average concentration of delta9-THC in all cannabis samples showed a gradual rise from 3% in 1991 to 4.47% in 1997. Hashish and hash oil, on the other hand, showed no specific potency trends. Other major cannabinoids [cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabichromene (CBC)] showed no significant change in their concentration over the years.

  18. Titration calorimetry of anesthetic-protein interaction: negative enthalpy of binding and anesthetic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, I; Yamanaka, M

    1997-04-01

    Anesthetic potency increases at lower temperatures. In contrast, the transfer enthalpy of volatile anesthetics from water to macromolecules is usually positive. The transfer decreases at lower temperature. It was proposed that a few selective proteins bind volatile anesthetics with negative delta H, and these proteins are involved in signal transduction. There has been no report on direct estimation of binding delta H of anesthetics to proteins. This study used isothermal titration calorimetry to analyze chloroform binding to bovine serum albumin. The calorimetrically measured delta H cal was -10.37 kJ.mol-1. Thus the negative delta H of anesthetic binding is not limited to signal transduction proteins. The binding was saturable following Fermi-Dirac statistics and is characterized by the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, which is interfacial. The high-affinity association constant, K, was 2150 +/- 132 M-1 (KD = 0.47 mM) with the maximum binding number, Bmax = 3.7 +/- 0.2. The low-affinity K was 189 +/- 3.8 M-1 (KD = 5.29 mM), with a Bmax of 13.2 +/- 0.3. Anesthetic potency is a function of the activity of anesthetic molecules, not the concentration. Because the sign of delta H determines the temperature dependence of distribution of anesthetic molecules, it is irrelevant to the temperature dependence of anesthetic potency.

  19. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout is insensitive to target copy number but is dependent on guide RNA potency and Cas9/sgRNA threshold expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Garmen; Khan, Fehad J; Gao, Shaojian; Stommel, Jayne M; Batchelor, Eric; Wu, Xiaolin; Luo, Ji

    2017-11-16

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful gene editing tool for gene knockout studies and functional genomic screens. Successful implementation of CRISPR often requires Cas9 to elicit efficient target knockout in a population of cells. In this study, we investigated the role of several key factors, including variation in target copy number, inherent potency of sgRNA guides, and expression level of Cas9 and sgRNA, in determining CRISPR knockout efficiency. Using isogenic, clonal cell lines with variable copy numbers of an EGFP transgene, we discovered that CRISPR knockout is relatively insensitive to target copy number, but is highly dependent on the potency of the sgRNA guide sequence. Kinetic analysis revealed that most target mutation occurs between 5 and 10 days following Cas9/sgRNA transduction, while sgRNAs with different potencies differ by their knockout time course and by their terminal-phase knockout efficiency. We showed that prolonged, low level expression of Cas9 and sgRNA often fails to elicit target mutation, particularly if the potency of the sgRNA is also low. Our findings provide new insights into the behavior of CRISPR/Cas9 in mammalian cells that could be used for future improvement of this platform. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  1. Andrographolide sodium bisulphite-induced inactivation of urease: inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Xie; Su, Ji-Yan; Chen, Hai-Ming; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-07-16

    The inhibitory effect of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) on jack bean urease (JBU) and Helicobacter pylori urease (HPU) was performed to elucidate the inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA, 25 °C. The ammonia formations, indicator of urease activity, were examined using modified spectrophotometric Berthelot (phenol-hypochlorite) method. The inhibitory effect of ASB was characterized with IC50 values. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots for JBU inhibition of ASB was constructed from the kinetic data. SH-blocking reagents and competitive active site Ni2+ binding inhibitors were employed for mechanism study. Molecular docking technique was used to provide some information on binding conformations as well as confirm the inhibition mode. The IC50 of ASB against JBU and HPU was 3.28±0.13 mM and 3.17±0.34 mM, respectively. The inhibition proved to be competitive and concentration- dependent in a slow-binding progress. The rapid formation of initial ASB-JBU complex with an inhibition constant of Ki=2.86×10(-3) mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of Ki*=1.33×10(-4) mM. The protective experiment proved that the urease active site is involved in the binding of ASB. Thiol reagents (L-cysteine and dithiothreithol) strongly protect the enzyme from the loss of enzymatic activity, while boric acid and fluoride show weaker protection, indicating that the active-site sulfhydryl group of JBU was potentially involved in the blocking process. Moreover, inhibition of ASB proved to be reversible since ASB-inactivated JBU could be reactivated by dithiothreitol application. Molecular docking assay suggested that ASB made contacts with the important sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residue and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. ASB was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration

  2. Assessment of metal sensitizer potency with the reconstructed human epidermis IL-18 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susan; Kosten, Ilona; Veldhuizen, Rosalien; Spiekstra, Sander; Corsini, Emanuela; Roggen, Erwin; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Feilzer, Albert J; Kleverlaan, Cees J

    2018-01-15

    According to the new EU Medical Devices (MDR) legislation coming into effect in 2017, manufactures will have to comply with higher standards of quality and safety for medical devices in order to meet common safety concerns regarding such products. Metal alloys are extensively used in dentistry and medicine (e.g. orthopedic surgery and cardiology) even though clinical experience suggests that many metals are sensitizers. The aim of this study was to further test the applicability domain of the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) IL-18 assay developed to identify contact allergens and in doing so: i) determine whether different metal salts, representing leachables from metal alloys used in medical devices, could be correctly labelled and classified; and ii) assess the ability of different salts for the same metal to penetrate the skin stratum corneum. Twenty eight chemicals including 15 metal salts were topically exposed to RhE. Nickel, chrome, gold, palladium were each tested in two different salt forms, and titanium in 4 different salt forms. Metal salts were labelled (YES/NO) as sensitizer if a threshold of more than 5 fold IL18 release was reached. The in vitro estimation of expected sensitization induction level (potency) was assessed by interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 with LLNA EC3 and human NOEL values from standard reference curves generated using DNCB (extreme) and benzocaine (weak). Metal salts, in contrast to other chemical sensitizers and with the exception of potassium dichromate (VI) and cobalt (II) chloride, were not identified as contact allergens since they only induced a small or no increase in IL-18 production. This finding was not related to a lack of stratum corneum skin penetration since EC50 values (decrease in metabolic activity; MTT assay) were obtained after topical RhE exposure to 8 of the 15 metal salts. For nickel, gold and palladium salts, differences in EC50 values between two salts for the same metal could not be

  3. Toots, tastes and tester shots: user accounts of drug sampling methods for gauging heroin potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ondocsin, Jeff; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2018-05-16

    Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption. Ninety-one current heroin injectors were interviewed (Baltimore, n = 22; Chicago, n = 24; Massachusetts and New Hampshire, n = 36; San Francisco, n = 9). Experience injecting heroin ranged from methods of sampling "heroin" were identified, sometimes used in combination, ranging from non-injecting routes (snorting, smoking or tasting a small amount prior to injection) to injecting a partial dose and waiting. Partial injection took different forms: a "slow shot" where the user injected a portion of the solution in the syringe, keeping the needle in the injection site, and continuing or withdrawing the syringe or a "tester shot" where the solution was divided into separate injections. Other techniques included getting feedback from others using heroin of the same batch or observing those with higher tolerance injecting heroin from the same batch before judging how much to inject themselves. Although a minority of those interviewed described using these drug sampling techniques, there is clearly receptivity among some users to protecting themselves by using a variety of methods. The use of drug sampling as a means of preventing an overdose from injection drug use reduces the quantity absorbed at any one time allowing users to monitor drug strength and titrate their dose accordingly. Given the highly unpredictable potency of the drugs currently being sold as heroin in the US

  4. Comparative analysis of purified Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxin congeners and related marine toxins using a modified ELISA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora, Cara E; Hokama, Y; Ebesu, Joanne S M

    2006-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody to ciguatoxin (CTX) produced from a hybridoma cell line was assayed for the detection of four congeners of CTX: Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), Pacific ciguatoxin-2 (P-CTX-2), Pacific ciguatoxin-3 (P-CTX-3), and Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) and related marine toxins, including domoic acid, palytoxin, and okadaic acid, using a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lower detection limits were assessed and linearity was statistically established (P<0.05) for P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 and C-CTX-1 at concentrations ranging from 0 to 5.00 ng, while the other marine toxins showed statistically insignificant cross-reactivities at similar concentrations. Thus, the monoclonal antibody to CTX is able to specifically detect various CTX congeners at levels comparable to those naturally occurring in ciguatoxic fish. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Health-related quality of life of prostate cancer patients compared to the general German population: age-specific results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Rabenalt, Robert; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the age-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of prostate cancer patients (PCPs). 387 PCPs were asked to self-assess their HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Patients' data were compared with those of the general German population. The reported global health/QOL scores of the study group and the general German population are nearly equal. However, most of the subdomains of HRQOL are negatively affected in PCPs, especially in younger patients (

  6. Comparative physiology and relative swimming performance of three redhorse (Moxostoma spp.) species: associations with fishway passage success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D; Binder, Thomas R; Hatin, Daniel; Dumont, Pierre; Stamplecoskie, Keith M; Molina, Juan M; Smokorowski, Karen E; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of biological criteria to inform fish passage design is limited, partially due to the lack of understanding of biological motivators, cues, and constraints, as well as a lack of biological performance evaluations of structures once they are built. The Vianney-Legendre vertical slot fishway on the Richelieu River, Quebec, Canada, passes large numbers of migrating redhorse (Moxostoma spp.) upriver to spawning grounds each year. We evaluated the physiological capacity and relative swimming ability of three redhorse species (Moxostoma anisurum, Moxostoma carinatum, Moxostoma macrolepidotum; silver, river, and shorthead redhorse, respectively) to determine how these biotic factors relate to variation in fishway passage success and duration. Shorthead redhorse had higher maximum metabolic rates and were faster swimmers than silver and river redhorse at their species-specific peak migration temperatures. Blood lactate and glucose concentrations recovered more quickly for river redhorse than for silver and shorthead redhorse, and river redhorse placed second in terms of metabolic recovery and swim speed. Interestingly, fish sampled from the top of the fishway had nearly identical lactate, glucose, and pH values compared to control fish. Using passive integrated transponders in 2010 and 2012, we observed that passage success and duration were highly variable among redhorse species and were not consistent among years, suggesting that other factors such as water temperature and river flows may modulate passage success. Clearly, additional research is needed to understand how organismal performance, environmental conditions, and other factors (including abundance of conspecifics and other comigrants) interact with fishway features to dictate which fish will be successful and to inform research of future fishways. Our research suggests that there may be an opportunity for a rapid assessment approach where fish chased to exhaustion to determine maximal values

  7. Relating Language and Music Skills in Young Children: A First Approach to Systemize and Compare Distinct Competencies on Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well

  8. Relating language and music skills in young children: a first approach to systemize and compare distinct competencies on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cohrdes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes potentially related to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation in watermelon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening. The watermelon cultivar '203Z' and its near-isogenic line (NIL 'SW' (in the '203Z' background were used as experimental materials. The results suggested that soluble sugar consist of fructose, glucose and sucrose while malic-, citric-, and oxalic acids are the primary organic acids in watermelon fruit. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to soluble sugar- and organic acid accumulation and metabolism were identified. These include the DEGs encoding raffinose synthase, sucrose synthase (SuSy, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSs, insoluble acid invertases (IAI, NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-cyt MDH, aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT, and citrate synthase (CS. This is the first report addressing comparative transcriptome analysis via NILs materials in watermelon fruit. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism that leads to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation and metabolism during watermelon fruit development and ripening.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes potentially related to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhao, Shengjie; Lu, Xuqiang; He, Nan; Zhu, Hongju; Dou, Junling; Liu, Wenge

    2018-01-01

    Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening. The watermelon cultivar '203Z' and its near-isogenic line (NIL) 'SW' (in the '203Z' background) were used as experimental materials. The results suggested that soluble sugar consist of fructose, glucose and sucrose while malic-, citric-, and oxalic acids are the primary organic acids in watermelon fruit. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to soluble sugar- and organic acid accumulation and metabolism were identified. These include the DEGs encoding raffinose synthase, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSs), insoluble acid invertases (IAI), NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-cyt MDH), aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT), and citrate synthase (CS). This is the first report addressing comparative transcriptome analysis via NILs materials in watermelon fruit. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism that leads to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation and metabolism during watermelon fruit development and ripening.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes potentially related to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhao, Shengjie; Lu, Xuqiang; He, Nan; Zhu, Hongju; Dou, Junling

    2018-01-01

    Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening. The watermelon cultivar ‘203Z’ and its near-isogenic line (NIL) ‘SW’ (in the ‘203Z’ background) were used as experimental materials. The results suggested that soluble sugar consist of fructose, glucose and sucrose while malic-, citric-, and oxalic acids are the primary organic acids in watermelon fruit. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to soluble sugar- and organic acid accumulation and metabolism were identified. These include the DEGs encoding raffinose synthase, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSs), insoluble acid invertases (IAI), NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-cyt MDH), aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT), and citrate synthase (CS). This is the first report addressing comparative transcriptome analysis via NILs materials in watermelon fruit. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism that leads to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation and metabolism during watermelon fruit development and ripening. PMID:29324867

  12. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP3 provides candidates of survival-related genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Soomin; Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Kwondo; Yoo, DongAhn; Lee, Chanho; Kang, Jungsun; Cho, Kyungjin; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kwak, Woori; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is found in various environmental niches such as in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal host or a fermented food. This species isolated from a certain environment is known to possess a variety of properties according to inhabited environment's adaptation. However, a causal relationship of a genetic factor and phenotype affected by a specific environment has not been systematically comprehended. L. plantarum GB-LP3 strain was isolated from Korean traditional fermented vegetable and the whole genome of GB-LP3 was sequenced. Comparative genome analysis of GB-LP3, with other 14 L. plantarum strains, was conducted. In addition, genomic island regions were investigated. The assembled whole GB-LP3 genome contained a single circular chromosome of 3,206,111bp with the GC content of 44.7%. In the phylogenetic tree analysis, GB-LP3 was in the closest distance from ZJ316. The genomes of GB-LP3 and ZJ316 have the high level of synteny. Functional genes that are related to prophage, bacteriocin, and quorum sensing were found through comparative genomic analysis with ZJ316 and investigation of genomic islands. dN/dS analysis identified that the gene coding for phosphonate ABC transporter ATP-binding protein is evolutionarily accelerated in GB-LP3. Our study found that potential candidate genes that are affected by environmental adaptation in Korea traditional fermented vegetable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Which Triple Aim related measures are being used to evaluate population management initiatives? An international comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Roy J P; Drewes, Hanneke W; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Ruwaard, Dirk; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A

    2016-05-01

    Population management (PM) initiatives are introduced in order to create sustainable health care systems. These initiatives should focus on the continuum of health and well-being of a population by introducing interventions that integrate various services. To be successful they should pursue the Triple Aim, i.e. simultaneously improve population health and quality of care while reducing costs per capita. This study explores how PM initiatives measure the Triple Aim in practice. An exploratory search was combined with expert consultations to identify relevant PM initiatives. These were analyzed based on general characteristics, utilized measures and related selection criteria. In total 865 measures were used by 20 PM initiatives. All quality of care domains were included by at least 11 PM initiatives, while most domains of population health and costs were included by less than 7 PM initiatives. Although their goals showed substantial overlap, the measures applied showed few similarities between PM initiatives and were predominantly selected based on local priority areas and data availability. Most PM initiatives do not measure the full scope of the Triple Aim. Additionally, variety between measures limits comparability between PM initiatives. Consensus on the coverage of Triple Aim domains and a set of standardized measures could further both the inclusion of the various domains as well as the comparability between PM initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in patients with anterior tuberculosis compared to tobacco related COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiedem, Elise; Ikomey, George Mondinde; Nkenfou, Céline; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Mesembe, Martha; Chegou, Novel Njweipi; Jacobs, Graeme Brendon; Okomo Assoumou, Marie Claire

    2018-03-27

    The inflammatory profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to tobacco is known in certain studies while that of the post tuberculosis form is not yet known. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes cells in sputum of COPD patients with history of smoking or anterior tuberculosis. Enumeration of cells in samples was analyzed using standard microscopy. We enrolled 92 participants, 46 (50%) were COPD subjects comprising 22 (47.83%) smokers and 24 (52.17%) with anterior tuberculosis while 46 (50%) healthy persons constituted the control group. The levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were statistically higher in COPD patients compared to the control group with p-values of 0.0001 respectively. Neutrophils levels were higher in COPD patients with history of tobacco than in COPD patients with anterior tuberculosis with a mean rate of 4.72 × 10 6 /ml and 2.48 × 10 6 /ml respectively (p = 0.04). The monocytes and lymphocytes levels were not statistically different between the two sub-groups of COPD patients with p-value of 0.052 and 0.91 respectively. Neutrophils are the only inflammatory cells that were significantly higher in COPD patients with history of smoking as compared to COPD patients with anterior tuberculosis.

  15. Analysis of the Relative Sustainability of Land Devoted to Bioenergy: Comparing Land-Use Alternatives in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashun Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When developing land to meet various human needs, conducting assessments of different alternatives regarding their sustainability is critical. Among different alternatives of land-use, devoting land to bioenergy is relatively novel, in high demand, and important for addressing the energy crisis and mitigating carbon emissions. Furthermore, the competition and disputes among limited land-use for bioenergy and the combination of food production and housing are tense. Thus, which alternative of land-use is more sustainable is an important question, yet it is still under-investigated. The main purposes of this study are to investigate the merits and problems of land-use for bioenergy and to compare the relative sustainability of land-use for bioenergy, food production, and housing based on habitants’ perceptions. Multi-criteria analysis is applied to the case study in the context of China, evaluating multiple criteria in economic, environmental, and social dimensions. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive assessment of different scenarios of land-use designed to be implemented and some implications for optimum land-use policies.

  16. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Andreas Hogervorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90% (SD 4%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 minute segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% (SD 5% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz.

  17. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824, a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production.

  18. Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable evolution among core genes with therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Gregory R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough understanding of their genomic context, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from Clostridium perfringens, an important agricultural and human pathogen. Results Phage whole-genome tetra-nucleotide signatures and proteomic tree topologies correlated closely with host phylogeny. Comparisons of our phage genomes to 26 others revealed three shared COGs; of particular interest within this core genome was an endolysin (PF01520, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and a holin (PF04531. Comparative analyses of the evolutionary history and genomic context of these common phage proteins revealed two important results: 1 strongly significant host-specific sequence variation within the endolysin, and 2 a protein domain architecture apparently unique to our phage genomes in which the endolysin is located upstream of its associated holin. Endolysin sequences from our phages were one of two very distinct genotypes distinguished by variability within the putative enzymatically-active domain. The shared or core genome was comprised of genes with multiple sequence types belonging to five pfam families, and genes belonging to 12 pfam families, including the holin genes, which were nearly identical. Conclusions Significant genomic diversity exists even among closely-related bacteriophages. Holins and endolysins represent conserved functions across divergent phage genomes and, as we demonstrate here, endolysins can have significant variability and host-specificity even among closely-related genomes. Endolysins in our phage genomes may be subject to different selective pressures than the rest of the genome. These findings may have important implications for potential biotechnological applications of phage gene products.

  19. An overview of the report: Correlation between carcinogenic potency and the maximum tolerated dose: Implications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Gaylor, D.W.; Soms, A.P.; Szyszkowicz, M.

    1993-01-01

    Current practice in carcinogen bioassay calls for exposure of experimental animals at doses up to and including the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies have been used to compute measures of carcinogenic potency such as the TD 50 as well as unit risk factors such as q 1 for predicting low-dose risks. Recent studies have indicated that these measures of carcinogenic potency are highly correlated with the MTD. Carcinogenic potency has also been shown to be correlated with indicators of mutagenicity and toxicity. Correlation of the MTDs for rats and mice implies a corresponding correlation in TD 50 values for these two species. The implications of these results for cancer risk assessment are examined in light of the large variation in potency among chemicals known to induce tumors in rodents. 119 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.

  1. Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, Raymond J. M.; Rigter, Sander; Koeter, Maarten W.; Brunt, Tibor M.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2005 the average percentage of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana as sold in Dutch coffeeshops has increased substantially; the potency of domestic products (Nederwiet and Nederhasj) has particularly increased. In contrast with imported marijuana, Nederwiet hardly

  2. Visual search for feature conjunctions: an fMRI study comparing alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) to ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Conaill, Carrie R; Malisza, Krisztina L; Buss, Joan L; Bolster, R Bruce; Clancy, Christine; de Gervai, Patricia Dreessen; Chudley, Albert E; Longstaffe, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) falls under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis of ARND is difficult because individuals do not demonstrate the characteristic facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). While attentional problems in ARND are similar to those found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the underlying impairment in attention pathways may be different. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted at 3 T. Sixty-three children aged 10 to 14 years diagnosed with ARND, ADHD, and typically developing (TD) controls performed a single-feature and a feature-conjunction visual search task. Dorsal and ventral attention pathways were activated during both attention tasks in all groups. Significantly greater activation was observed in ARND subjects during a single-feature search as compared to TD and ADHD groups, suggesting ARND subjects require greater neural recruitment to perform this simple task. ARND subjects appear unable to effectively use the very efficient automatic perceptual 'pop-out' mechanism employed by TD and ADHD groups during presentation of the disjunction array. By comparison, activation was lower in ARND compared to TD and ADHD subjects during the more difficult conjunction search task as compared to the single-feature search. Analysis of DTI data using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) showed areas of significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in ARND compared to TD subjects. Damage to the white matter of the ILF may compromise the ventral attention pathway and may require subjects to use the dorsal attention pathway, which is associated with effortful top-down processing, for tasks that should be automatic. Decreased functional activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of ARND subjects may be due to a

  3. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5alpha-reductase irreversibly catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions. Clinical studies of SPE have been equivocal, with some showing significant results and others not. These inconsistent results may be due, in part, to varying bioactivities of the SPE used in the studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system. On the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5alpha-reduced product 5alpha-androstanedione, the inhibitory potency was measured and compared to those of finasteride, an approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II. SPET-085 effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is very low compared to data reported for other extracts. It can be concluded from data in the literature that SPET-085 is as effective as a hexane extract of saw palmetto that exhibited the highest levels of bioactivity, and is more effective than other SPEs tested. This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to

  4. Potency determination of factor VIII and factor IX for new product labelling and postinfusion testing: challenges for caregivers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodt, J; Hubbard, A R; Wicks, S J; Gray, E; Neugebauer, B; Charton, E; Silvester, G

    2015-07-01

    A workshop organized by the European Medicines Agency and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare was held in London, UK on November 28-29, 2013, to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the characterization of new factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates with respect to potency assays and testing of postinfusion material. The objective was to set the basis for regulatory authorities' discussion on the most appropriate potency assay for the individual products, and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) discussion on whether to propose revision of the Ph. Eur. monographs with respect to potency assays in the light of information on new FVIII and FIX concentrates. The workshop showed that for all products valid assays vs. the international concentrate standards were obtained and potency could be expressed in International Units. The Ph. Eur. chromogenic potency assay gave valid assay results which correlate with in vivo functionality of rFVIII products. For some modified rFVIII products and all modified rFIX products, one-stage clotting assay methods result in different potencies depending on the activated partial thromboplastin time reagent. As a consequence, monitoring of patients' postinfusion levels is challenging but it was pointed out that manufacturers are responsible for providing the users with appropriate information for use and laboratory testing of their product. Strategies to avoid misleading determination of patents' plasma levels, e.g. information on suitable assays, laboratory standards or correction factors were discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of cocaine and methylphenidate have been linked to their ability to block dopamine transporters (DAT). Though cocaine and methylphenidate have similar in vitro affinities for DAT the abuse of methylphenidate in humans is substantially lower than of cocaine. To test if differences in in vivo potency at the DAT between these two drugs could account for the differences in their abuse liability the authors compared the levels of DAT occupancies that they had previously reported separately for intravenous methylphenidate in controls and for intravenous cocaine in cocaine abusers. DAT occupancies were measured with Positron Emission Tomography using [ 11 C]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, in 8 normal controls for the methylphenidate study and in 17 active cocaine abusers for the cocaine study. The ratio of the distribution volume of [ 11 C]cocaine in striatum to that in cerebellum, which corresponds to Bmax/Kd+1, was used as measure of DAT availability. Parallel measures were obtained to assess the cardiovascular effects of these two drugs. Methylphenidate and cocaine produced comparable dose-dependent blockage of DAT with an estimated ED 50 for methylphenidate of 0.07 mg/kg and for cocaine of 0.13 mg/kg. Both drugs induced similar increases in heart rate and blood pressure but the duration of the effects were significantly longer for methylphenidate than for cocaine

  6. Comparative mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 and functional characterization of resistance-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huagang; Zhu, Shanying; Jiang, Zhengning; Ji, Yaoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Renhui; Bie, Tongde

    2016-04-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 was physically and comparatively mapped by newly developed markers. Seven candidate genes were verified to be required for Pm21 -mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew. Pm21, a gene derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, has been transferred into common wheat and widely utilized in wheat resistance breeding for powdery mildew. Previously, Pm21 has been located to the bin FL0.45-0.58 of 6VS by using deletion stocks. However, its fine mapping is still a hard work. In the present study, 30 gene-derived 6VS-specific markers were obtained based on the collinearity among genomes of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza and Triticeae, and then physically and comparatively mapped in the bin FL0.45-0.58 and its nearby chromosome region. According to the maps, the bin FL0.45-0.58 carrying Pm21 was closely flanked by the markers 6VS-03 and 6VS-23, which further narrowed the orthologous regions to 1.06 Mb in Brachypodium and 1.38 Mb in rice, respectively. Among the conserved genes shared by Brachypodium and rice, four serine/threonine protein kinase genes (DvMPK1, DvMLPK, DvUPK and DvPSYR1), one protein phosphatase gene (DvPP2C) and two transcription factor genes (DvGATA and DvWHY) were confirmed to be required for Pm21-mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) and transcriptional pattern analyses. In summary, this study gives new insights into the genetic basis of the Pm21 locus and the disease resistance pathways mediated by Pm21.

  7. Some anemonefish lack personality: a comparative assessment of behavioral variation and repeatability in relation to environmental and social factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marian Y. L.; Beasley, Amanda L.; Douglass, Tasman; Whalan, Steve; Scott, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Determining the extent of repeatable differences in the behavior of animals and the factors that influence behavioral expression is important for understanding individual fitness and population processes, thereby aiding in species conservation. However, little is known about the causes of variation in the repeatability of behavioral differences among species because rarely have comparative studies been undertaken to examine the repeatability of behavioral differences among individuals within their natural ecological settings. Using two species of endemic subtropical anemonefishes, Amphiprion mccullochi and A. latezonatus at Lord Howe and North Solitary Islands, Australia, we conducted an in situ comparative analysis of personality traits, examining the repeatability of boldness, sociability and aggression as well as the potential role of environmental and social factors on behavioral expression. For A. mccullochi, only boldness and aggression were highly repeatable and these behaviors formed a behavioral syndrome. For A. latezonatus, none of the three behaviors were repeatable due to low-inter-individual variation in behavior. We suggest that the harsher and more variable environmental and social conditions experienced by A. latezonatus have resulted in reduced repeatability in behavior, in contrast to A. mccullochi which typically inhabits a more stable lagoonal reef environment. Additionally, group size and size rank, rather than nearest-neighbor distance and anemone size, influenced the expression of these behaviors in both species, suggesting that behavioral variation was more sensitive to social than environmental factors. Overall, differences in repeatability between these closely related species likely reflect adaptations to contrasting environmental and social conditions, although alternative explanations must be considered. The differences in behavioral consistency between these two endemic anemonefishes could lead to disparity in their resilience to

  8. Comparative fate of an organochlorine, chlordecone, and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro, in soils and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, Florence; Cattan, Philippe; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Carles, Céline; Letourmy, Philippe; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    We address the problem of the comparative environmental fate of a pesticide, chlordecone (CLD), and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro (CLD-5b-hydro). We used a large database including data from two types of contaminated volcanic soils, andosol and nitisol, and thirteen crops grown in the French West Indies in historically polluted soils. We performed in-depth statistical analysis of the effect of different parameters (soil type, crop, organ, etc.) on the ratio of CLD-5b-hydro to CLD in both soils and plants. The environmental fate of the two compounds differed depending on the type of soil. Proportionally, more CLD-5b-hydro than CLD was measured in nitisols than in andosols. Compared to CLD, we also found a preferential transfer of CLD-5b-hydro from the soil to the plant. Finally, mobilization of the two compounds differed according to the species of crop but also within the plant, with increasing ratios from the roots to the top of the plant. The properties of the compound played a key role in the underlying processes. Because CLD-5b-hydro is more soluble in water and has a lower K(ow) than CLD, CLD-5b-hydro (1) was more easily absorbed from soils by plants, (2) was less adsorbed onto plant tissues and (3) was transported in greater quantities through the transpiration stream. Due to the amounts of CLD-5b-hydro we measured in some plant parts such as cucurbit fruits, an assessment of the toxicity of this CLD monodechlorinated product is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Health-related quality of life and health care use in cancer survivors compared with patients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, Marianne J; Korevaar, Joke C; Hopman, Petra E P C; Donker, Gé A; Schellevis, François G; Rijken, Mieke P M

    2016-03-15

    The number of cancer survivors is steadily increasing and these patients often experience long-lasting health problems. To make care for cancer survivors sustainable for the future, it would be relevant to put the effects of cancer in this phase into perspective. Therefore, the authors compared health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health care use among cancer survivors with that of patients with chronic diseases. Patients diagnosed at age >18 years with a cancer with a 5-year survival rate > 20% and no distant metastases at the time of diagnosis and patients aged >18 years with physician-diagnosed somatic chronic diseases without cancer were sent a questionnaire. HRQOL was measured with the RAND-36, a measure of HRQOL. Self-reported health care use was measured for general practitioner care, specialist care, rehabilitative care, physical therapy, ambulatory mental health care, and occupational health care. A total of 601 cancer survivors and 1052 patients with chronic diseases without cancer were included in the current study. Multimorbidity was observed in 63% of the cancer survivors and 61% of the patients with chronic diseases. The HRQOL of the cancer survivors was significantly better than that of patients with chronic diseases after adjustment for age and sex. For the mental functioning subscale, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Cancer survivors were found to be less likely to have visited a general practitioner or cardiologist compared with patients with chronic diseases. When considering physical HRQOL and health care use, cancer survivors appear to fare better than the average patient with chronic diseases. No difference in mental functioning was observed in the current study. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. Comparing different kinds of words and word-word relations to test an habituation model of priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

    2017-06-01

    Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer. The predicted effect of prime duration depends both on this assumed representational hierarchy and the assumption that synaptic depression underlies habituation. The current study tested these assumptions by comparing different kinds of words (e.g., words versus non-words) and different kinds of word-word relations (e.g., associative versus repetition). For each experiment, the predictions of the original model were compared to an alternative model with different representational assumptions. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that non-words and inverted words require longer prime durations to eliminate positive repetition priming (i.e., a slower transition from positive to negative priming). Experiment 2 confirmed the prediction that associative priming increases and then decreases with increasing prime duration, but remains positive even with long duration primes. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of repetition and associative priming using a within-subjects design and combined these effects by examining target words that were expected to repeat (e.g., viewing the target word 'BACK' after the prime phrase 'back to'). These results support the originally assumed representational hierarchy and more generally the role of habituation in temporal parsing and priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparative Study of Continental vs. Intraoceanic Arc Mantle Melting: Experimentally Determined Phase Relations of Hydrous, Primitive Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S.; Johnston, A.; Wallace, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely recognized that H2O and other volatiles play a crucial role in mantle melting in subduction zones. This work is a comparative study focused on determining the H2O-undersaturated, near-liquidus phase relations for two primitive subduction related compositions with the goal of determining the P-T-H2O conditions of mantle melting beneath arcs. These samples, JR-28, a calc-alkaline basalt from Volcan Jorullo, Mexico, and ID-16, a tholeiitic basalt from Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, have major element compositions that indicate they are primary, mantle-derived melts. H2O-undersaturated piston cylinder experiments have been carried out at upper mantle pressures and temperatures (1.0-2.0 GPa and 1100-1350°C). The near-liquidus mineralogy of these two compositions has been mapped in P-T- H2O space in order to constrain the conditions under which these melts are multiply saturated with a mantle residue (lherzolite or harzburgite). Previous studies of dissolved volatiles in olivine-hosted melt inclusions have provided an estimate of pre-eruptive H2O-contents for JR-28 at ≥5 wt% H2O and experiments have been carried out accordingly. Preliminary results for JR-28 at 5 wt% H2O show olivine ± Cr-rich spinel on the liquidus at 1.0 GPa and enstatite as the liquidus phase at higher pressures (1.3 to 2.0 GPa). Ca-rich pyroxene appears in only one experiment 50°C below the liquidus at 1.5 GPa. These data show that JR-28 melts are multiply saturated with a harzburgite assemblage at ~1175°C and ~1.2 GPa at 5 wt% H2O. Experiments at 7 wt% H2O show similar results, although the olivine/Cr-spinel stability field expands at the expense of the enstatite stability field. Consequently, the olivine-enstatite cotectic is shifted to higher pressures and slightly cooler temperatures. The relatively high SiO2 content in the bulk rock (~52 wt% SiO2) supports the hypothesis that JR-28 last equilibrated with a depleted or harzburgite residue rather than a more fertile mantle

  12. Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemma L Geoghegan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. By analyzing co-phylogenetic processes in 19 virus families and their eukaryotic hosts we provide a quantitative and comparative estimate of the relative frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species transmission among virus families. Notably, our analysis reveals that cross-species transmission is a near universal feature of the viruses analyzed here, with virus-host co-divergence occurring less frequently and always on a subset of viruses. Despite the overall high topological incongruence among virus and host phylogenies, the Hepadnaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Poxviridae, Papillomaviridae and Adenoviridae, all of which possess double-stranded DNA genomes, exhibited more frequent co-divergence than the other virus families studied here. At the other extreme, the virus and host trees for all the RNA viruses studied here, particularly the Rhabdoviridae and the Picornaviridae, displayed high levels of topological incongruence, indicative of frequent host switching. Overall, we show that cross-species transmission plays a major role in virus evolution, with all the virus families studied here having the potential to jump host species, and that increased sampling will likely reveal more instances of host jumping.

  13. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative studies on the increase of uterine weight and related mechanisms of cadmium and p-nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenchang; Yang Jinsong; Wang Jiali; Xia Pincang; Xu Youqiong; Jia Haimei; Chen Yongshan

    2007-01-01

    The research was designed to compare the effect of cadmium and p-nonylphenol on the increase of uterine weight and to study the related mechanisms. It provided basic evidence for us to understand the possible different mechanisms among different EEDs. In this study, both ovaries of 60 Wistar rats (28 days age) were ectomized, and after 21 days recovery, the rats were randomly assigned into six groups and exposed to cadmium (0.12, 1.20 mg/kg), NP (100, 200 mg/kg), control (sterile PBS), and positive control (17β-estradiol) per day for 3 days, respectively, then related indexes were detected. The results showed that the increase of uterine weight induced by cadmium was accompanied by the increase of the thickness of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium but the decrease of nuclear/cytoplasm of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium, while the increase of uterine weight induced by p-nonylphenol was accompanied by the increase of the thickness of luminal epithelium cell, endometrium, and myometrium but the decrease of nuclear/cytoplasm of luminal epithelium cell and endometrium. Cadmium could inhibit the positive expression of PCNA while p-nonylphenol prompted it. Exposure to cadmium and NP both could also stimulate phosphorylation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, implying that this signal pathway had an effect on the increase of the uterine weight induced by cadmium and p-nonylphenol. The results indicate that cadmium may induce the increase of uterine weight, which is accompanied with toxic effect on endometrium, while NP's effect of the increase of uterine weight is due to cell proliferation of endometrium, the mechanisms of which are the same as estrogen, but they may both activate ERK signal pathway

  15. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous discectomy for lumbar radiculopathy related to disc herniation: a comparative prospective study comparing lateral to medial herniated discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Centre Hospital-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Radiology, Hopital archet 2, Nice (France); Foti, Pauline [Centre Hospital-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Medical Statistics, Hopital archet 2, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Boileau, Pascal [Centre Hospital-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hopital archet 2, Nice (France)

    2013-01-15

    To evaluate and compare two groups of patients with sciatica due to intervertebral disc herniation with no neurologic deficit. The groups consisted of patients with intervertebral disc herniation in a medial location (group 1) and those in a lateral location (group 2). A total of 200 patients were included in the study and were followed for a minimum of 6 months. In our series, we treated 80 postero-lateral herniated discs (40% of cases), 46 postero-medial herniated discs (23%), and 74 foraminal herniated discs (37%). Level L3-L4 was treated in 30 cases (15%), L4-L5 in 98 cases (49%), and L5-S1 in 72 cases (36%). The procedure was performed under dual guidance: fluoroscopic and CT. A helical probe was activated. It penetrates the herniated disc and causes the pulpous material to be mechanically evacuated through the probe. All 200 patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. In group 1, the patients had a mean pain score of 7.9 {+-} 2.5 VAS units (range 6-10 units) prior to intervention. This was reduced to 3.2 {+-} 2.1 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 48 h follow-up and increased to 3.9 {+-} 1.2 VAS units (range 0-10 VAS units) at 1 month follow-up and further reduced to 2.7 {+-} 1.2 units (range 0-10 VAS units) at 6 month follow-up. In group 2, the patients had a mean pain score of 8.2 {+-} 3.2 VAS units (range 6-10 units) prior to intervention. This was reduced to 2.8 {+-} 1.5 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 48 h follow-up and decreased to 1.5 {+-} 0.9 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 1 month and further reduced to 1.1 {+-} 0.5 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 6 months. Our study showed that results were more satisfactory for the hernia located laterally (postero-lateral, foraminal, and extra-foraminal) as compared to the hernia located posteromedially. (orig.)

  16. CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous discectomy for lumbar radiculopathy related to disc herniation: a comparative prospective study comparing lateral to medial herniated discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Foti, Pauline; Hauger, Olivier; Boileau, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare two groups of patients with sciatica due to intervertebral disc herniation with no neurologic deficit. The groups consisted of patients with intervertebral disc herniation in a medial location (group 1) and those in a lateral location (group 2). A total of 200 patients were included in the study and were followed for a minimum of 6 months. In our series, we treated 80 postero-lateral herniated discs (40% of cases), 46 postero-medial herniated discs (23%), and 74 foraminal herniated discs (37%). Level L3-L4 was treated in 30 cases (15%), L4-L5 in 98 cases (49%), and L5-S1 in 72 cases (36%). The procedure was performed under dual guidance: fluoroscopic and CT. A helical probe was activated. It penetrates the herniated disc and causes the pulpous material to be mechanically evacuated through the probe. All 200 patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. In group 1, the patients had a mean pain score of 7.9 ± 2.5 VAS units (range 6-10 units) prior to intervention. This was reduced to 3.2 ± 2.1 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 48 h follow-up and increased to 3.9 ± 1.2 VAS units (range 0-10 VAS units) at 1 month follow-up and further reduced to 2.7 ± 1.2 units (range 0-10 VAS units) at 6 month follow-up. In group 2, the patients had a mean pain score of 8.2 ± 3.2 VAS units (range 6-10 units) prior to intervention. This was reduced to 2.8 ± 1.5 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 48 h follow-up and decreased to 1.5 ± 0.9 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 1 month and further reduced to 1.1 ± 0.5 VAS units (range 0-10 units) at 6 months. Our study showed that results were more satisfactory for the hernia located laterally (postero-lateral, foraminal, and extra-foraminal) as compared to the hernia located posteromedially. (orig.)

  17. Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesink, Raymond J M; Rigter, Sander; Koeter, Maarten W; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-12-01

    Between 2000 and 2005 the average percentage of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana as sold in Dutch coffeeshops has increased substantially; the potency of domestic products (Nederwiet and Nederhasj) has particularly increased. In contrast with imported marijuana, Nederwiet hardly contained any cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid that is thought to offset some of the adverse effects of THC. In 2005, the THC content in Nederwiet was significantly lower than in 2004. This study investigates the further decrease or increase of cannabinoids in these cannabis products. From 2005 to 2015 five different cannabis products were bought anonymously in 50 coffeeshops that were selected randomly each year from all coffeeshops in the Netherlands. A total of 2126 cannabis samples were bought, consisting of 664 Nederwiet samples (most popular), 537 Nederwiet samples (supposed strongest varieties), 183 imported herbal cannabis samples, 140 samples of cannabis resin made of Nederwiet and 602 samples of imported cannabis resin. All samples were analysed chemically for their THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) content. Between 2005 and 2015, the mean potencies of the most popular and the strongest Nederwiet and of imported cannabis resin were 16.0±4.0%, 17.0±3,9% and 16.5±6.3%, respectively. Imported herbal cannabis (6.5±3.5%) and cannabis resin made from Nederwiet (30.2±16.4%) contained, respectively, less (β=-10.0, P<0.001) and more (β=13.7, P<0.001) THC than imported cannabis resin. Linear regression models were used to study the trends in THC of the different cannabis products over time. A marginal, but significant (P<0.001), overall decline of THC per year of 0.22% was found in all cannabis products. However, no significant difference was found between the five products in the THC linear trajectories across time. Of all the cannabis products, only imported cannabis resin contained a relatively high CBD/THC ratio (median 0.42). The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC

  18. Comparing the Effectiveness of Bevacizumab to Ranibizumab in Patients with Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The BRAMD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M E Schauwvlieghe

    Full Text Available To compare the effectiveness of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Multicentre, randomized, controlled, double-masked clinical trial in 327 patients. The non-inferiority margin was 4 letters.Patients ≥ 60 years of age with primary or recurrent sub- or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV secondary to AMD with a total area of CNV < 12 disc areas and a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA score between 20 and 78 letters on an EDTRS like chart in the study eye.Monthly intravitreal injections with 1.25 mg bevacizumab or 0.5 mg ranibizumab were given during one year. Intention to treat with last observation carried forward analysis was performed.Primary outcome was the change in BCVA in the study eye from baseline to 12 months.The mean gain in BCVA was 5.1 (±14.1 letters in the bevacizumab group (n = 161 and 6.4 (±12.2 letters in the ranibizumab group (n = 166 (p = 0.37. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval of the difference in BCVA gain was 3.72. The response to bevacizumab was more varied; 24% of patients showed a gain of ≥15 letters, 11% a loss of ≥15 letters and 65% a gain or loss < 15 letters compared to 19%, 5% and 76% respectively for ranibizumab (p = 0.038. No significant differences in absolute CRT and CRT change (p = 0.13 or in the presence of subretinal or intraretinal fluid (p = 0.14 and 0.10, respectively were observed. However, the presence of any fluid on SD-OCT (subretinal and/or intraretinal differed significantly (p = 0.020, with definite fluid on SD-OCT in 45% of the patients for bevacizumab versus 31% for ranibizumab. The occurrence of serious adverse events and adverse events was similar, with 34 SAEs and 256 AEs in the bevacizumab group and 37 SAEs and 299 AEs in the ranibizumab group (p = 0.87 and p = 0.48, respectively.Bevacizumab was not inferior to ranibizumab. The response to bevacizumab was more varied with higher percentages of both

  19. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of age related macula degeneration compared with fluorescence angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröschl, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In industrialised nations age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness and severe visual impairment. AMD is a disease of the retina characterized by the accumulation of metabolic products in the macula. In early stages drusen and pigment disorders occur, in late stages a dry form is distinguished from the exsudative form with choroidal neovascularisation. AMD causes vision disorders such as blurred vision of the central part of the visual field, leading finally to a dark spot. Several therapies are available for the exsudative form, however an exact diagnosis is partially essential. The gold standard for the diagnosis of AMD is fluorescein angiography (FA, an invasive investigation with intravenous application of a dye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a more recent non-invasive procedure. Objectives: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of OCT compared to FA. Ethical, societal and legal aspects are also considered. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 34 international databases which yielded 2324 articles. Eight publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: The number of studies investigating OCT compared to FA in patients with AMD is presently very limited and the quality of the studies is generally low. The number of investigated patients is below 35 in four publications and in only one publication it is above 100. Moreover in most of the articles very selected patient groups are studied. Economic studies concerning the efficiency of OCT compared to FA cannot be identified. DiscussionEven though the patient groups investigated and the objectives of the studies are very heterogenous, all publications uniformly show that OCT cannot replace FA. However, OCT yields additional diagnostic findings and may verify unclear findings of FA. Therefore the application of OCT in addition to FA is useful in

  20. Cholecystokinin receptors on gallbladder muscle and pancreatic acinar cells: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schrenck, T.; Moran, T.H.; Heinz-Erian, P.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    To compare receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK) in pancreas and gallbladder, we measured binding of 125I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled CCK-8 (125I-BH-CCK-8) to tissue sections from guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas under identical conditions. In both tissues, binding had similar time-, temperature-, and pH dependence, was reversible, saturable and inhibited only by CCK related peptides or CCK receptor antagonists. Autoradiography localized 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding to the smooth muscle layer in the gallbladder. Binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 to gallbladder sections was inhibited by various agonists with the following potencies (IC50):CCK-8 (0.4 nM) greater than des(SO3)CCK-8 (0.07 microM) greater than gastrin-17-I (1.7 +/- 0.3 microM) and by various receptor antagonists with the following potencies: L364,718 (1.5 nM) greater than CR 1409 (0.19 microM) greater than asperlicin = CBZ-CCK-(27-32)-NH2 (1 microM) greater than Bt2cGMP (120 microM). Similar potencies were found for the agonists and antagonists for pancreas sections. Inhibition of binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 by 11 different analogues of proglumide gave similar potencies for both pancreas and gallbladder. The potencies of agonists in stimulating and antagonists in inhibiting CCK-stimulated contraction or amylase release correlated closely with their abilities to inhibit 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding to gallbladder or pancreas sections or acini, respectively. The present results demonstrate and characterize a method that can be used to compare the CCK receptors in guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas under identical conditions. Moreover, this study demonstrates that gallbladder and pancreatic CCK receptors have similar affinities for the various agonists and antagonists tested and, therefore, provides no evidence that they represent different subtypes of CCK receptors that can be distinguished pharmacologically

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis and identification of candidate effectors in two related rust species (Gymnosporangium yamadae and Gymnosporangium asiaticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Si-Qi; Cao, Bin; Tian, Cheng-Ming; Liang, Ying-Mei

    2017-08-23

    Rust fungi constitute the largest group of plant fungal pathogens. However, a paucity of data, including genomic sequences, transcriptome sequences, and associated molecular markers, hinders the development of inhibitory compounds and prevents their analysis from an evolutionary perspective. Gymnosporangium yamadae and G. asiaticum are two closely related rust fungal species, which are ecologically and economically important pathogens that cause apple rust and pear rust, respectively, proved to be devastating to orchards. In this study, we investigated the transcriptomes of these two Gymnosporangium species during the telial stage of their lifecycles. The aim of this study was to understand the evolutionary patterns of these two related fungi and to identify genes that developed by selection. The transcriptomes of G. yamadae and G. asiaticum were generated from a mixture of RNA from three biological replicates of each species. We obtained 49,318 and 54,742 transcripts, with N50 values of 1957 and 1664, for G. yamadae and G. asiaticum, respectively. We also identified a repertoire of candidate effectors and other gene families associated with pathogenicity. A total of 4947 pairs of putative orthologues between the two species were identified. Estimation of the non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratios for these orthologues identified 116 pairs with Ka/Ks values greater than1 that are under positive selection and 170 pairs with Ka/Ks values of 1 that are under neutral selection, whereas the remaining 4661 genes are subjected to purifying selection. We estimate that the divergence time between the two species is approximately 5.2 Mya. This study constitutes a de novo assembly and comparative analysis between the transcriptomes of the two rust species G. yamadae and G. asiaticum. The results identified several orthologous genes, and many expressed genes were identified by annotation. Our analysis of Ka/Ks ratios identified orthologous genes subjected to

  2. Potency of delta 9-THC and other cannabinoids in cannabis in England in 2005: implications for psychoactivity and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, David J; Clark, Peter; Brown, Marc B

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography was used to study the cannabinoid content ("potency") of illicit cannabis seized by police in England in 2004/5. Of the four hundred and fifty two samples, indoor-grown unpollinated female cannabis ("sinsemilla") was the most frequent form, followed by resin (hashish) and imported outdoor-grown herbal cannabis (marijuana). The content of the psychoactive cannabinoid delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) varied widely. The median THC content of herbal cannabis and resin was 2.1% and 3.5%, respectively. The median 13.9% THC content of sinsemilla was significantly higher than that recorded in the UK in 1996/8. In sinsemilla and imported herbal cannabis, the content of the antipsychotic cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) was extremely low. In resin, however, the average CBD content exceeded that of THC, and the relative proportions of the two cannabinoids varied widely between samples. The increases in average THC content and relative popularity of sinsemilla cannabis, combined with the absence of the anti-psychotic cannabinoid CBD, suggest that the current trends in cannabis use pose an increasing risk to those users susceptible to the harmful psychological effects associated with high doses of THC.

  3. Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses Reveal a FluG-Mediated Signaling Pathway Relating to Asexual Sporulation of Antrodia camphorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Xiang; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jin-Song; Geng, Yan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Ma, Yan-He

    2017-09-01

    Medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata sporulate large numbers of arthroconidia in submerged fermentation, which is rarely reported in basidiomycetous fungi. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying this asexual sporulation (conidiation) remain unclear. Here, we used comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to elucidate possible signaling pathway relating to the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata. First, 104 differentially expressed proteins and 2586 differential cDNA sequences during the culture process of A. camphorata were identified by 2DE and RNA-seq, respectively. By applying bioinformatics analysis, a total of 67 genes which might play roles in the sporulation were obtained, and 18 of these genes, including fluG, sfgA, SfaD, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, nsdD, brlA, abaA, wetA, ganB, fadA, PkaA, veA, velB, vosA, and stuA might be involved in a potential FluG-mediated signaling pathway. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the 18 genes in the proposed FluG-mediated signaling pathway were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, our study helps elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata, and provides also useful transcripts and proteome for further bioinformatics study of this valuable medicinal mushroom. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

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    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  5. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 and related members of Lactobacillus. spp reveal adaptations to dairy and gut environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhuqing; Geng, Weitao; Li, Chao; Sun, Ye; Wang, Yanping

    2017-10-09

    It is important for probiotics that are currently utilized in the dairy industry to have clear genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genetic characteristics of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 were studied by undertaking a comparative genomics study, and key genes for adaptation to different environments were investigated and validated in vitro. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer resulting in strong self-defense mechanisms was detected in the ZW3 genome. We identified a series of genes relevant for dairy environments and the intestinal tract, particularly for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) revealed significant increases in the relative expression of pgm, ugp, and uge during the mid-logarithmic phase, whereas the expression of pgi was higher at the beginning of the stationary phase. The enzymes encoded by these four genes concertedly regulated carbon flux, which in turn modulated the production of EPS precursors. Moreover, ZW3 tolerated pH 3.5 and 3% bile salt and retained cell surface hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation. In conclusion, we explored the potential of ZW3 for utilization in both the dairy industry and in probiotic applications. Additionally, we elucidated the regulation of the relevant genes involved in EPS production.

  6. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The giant panda has an interesting bamboo diet unlike the other species in the order of Carnivora. The umami taste receptor gene T1R1 has been identified as a pseudogene during its genome sequencing project and confirmed using a different giant panda sample. The estimated mutation time for this gene is about 4.2 Myr. Such mutation coincided with the giant panda's dietary change and also reinforced its herbivorous life style. However, as this gene is preserved in herbivores such as cow and horse, we need to look for other reasons behind the giant panda's diet switch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since taste is part of the reward properties of food related to its energy and nutrition contents, we did a systematic analysis on those genes involved in the appetite-reward system for the giant panda. We extracted the giant panda sequence information for those genes and compared with the human sequence first and then with seven other species including chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, cat, horse, and cow. Orthologs in panda were further analyzed based on the coding region, Kozak consensus sequence, and potential microRNA binding of those genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch.

  7. Predictive modelling of 2-year potency outcomes using a novel 90-day erection fullness scale after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Linda M; Osann, Kathryn; Skarecky, Douglas; Ahlering, Thomas E

    2018-03-09

    To introduce a patient-reported erection fullness scale (%fullness) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) as a qualitative adjunct to the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and as a 90-day predictor of 2-year potency outcomes. Prospective data were collected from 540 men with preoperative IIEF-5 scores of 22-25 who underwent RARP by a single surgeon, and of whom 299 had complete data at all time points up to 2 years. In addition to standard assessment tools (IIEF-5 and erections sufficient for intercourse [ESI]), the men were asked to 'indicate the fullness you are able to achieve in erections compared to before surgery?' (range: 0-100%). The primary outcome was prediction of potency (defined as ESI) at 24 months, based on 90-day %fullness tertile (0-24%, 25-74% and 75-100%). A total of 299 men with complete follow-up were included in the study. Significant predictors of 24-month potency included age, body mass index, pathological stage, nerve-sparing status and %fullness tertiles. When the men (preoperative IIEF-5 score 22-25) were assessed at 90 days after RARP, 181/299 (61%) had erections inadequate for intercourse. If IIEF-5 scores of 1-6 were used, 142/181 men (78%) would be targeted for early intervention. By contrast, if 0-24% fullness was used, 88/181 men (49%) would be targeted. If both the IIEF-5 score and %fullness were used, this would be reduced to 77/181 men (43%). We introduce %fullness as a qualitative adjunct to the IIEF-5 score, and separately as a 90-day predictor of 2-year potency recovery. This initial report is hypothesis-generating, such that the use of %fullness enables the identification of men who are most likely to benefit from early, secondary intervention. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Vasorelaxant potencies and receptor binding affinities of atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.N.; Green, E.M.; Artman, L.D.; Devine, E.M.; Sarin, V.; Rockway, T.W.; Connolly, P.J.; Kiso, Y.; Holleman, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    ANH (1-28) (α-rat ANP) produces hypotensive effects in vivo, presumably via interaction with specific receptors. Vasorelaxant potencies (pD 2 ) and intrinsic activities of ANH analogues were measured in histamine constricted rabbit aorta rings. Binding affinities (K/sub I/) of the compounds were studied in rabbit aorta renal cortex and adrenal, using the radio-ligand 125 I-Tyr 28 -ANH (1-28). Significant correlations (r 2 s in aorta, and the log D/sub I/s in each of the three tissues were observed for the following cyclic compounds, listed in order of potency: ANH (1-28) greater than or equal to ANH (6-28) greater than or equal to Met 12 -ANH (1-28) (α-human ANP) greater than or equal to cyclohexyl-Ala (Cha) 8 -ANH (5-28) > Lys 11 -ANH (5-28) = ANH (5-28) (atriopeptin III) = ANH (5-27) (atriopeptin II) = Cha 21 -ANH (5-28) greater than or equal to ANH (7-28) > Cha 15 -ANH (5-28) = Pro 10 -ANH (5-28) = ANH (5-25) (atriopeptin I) = Asn 13 -ANH (5-28) = Tyr 9 -ANH (5-28) > des-Gly 9 -ANH (5-28) > ANH (7-23) = Pro 10 -ANH (7-23) greater than or equal to (D)Ala 9 -ANH (7-23) > Pro 9 -ANH (7-13). In summary, the affinities of several ANH analogues for both vascular and nonvascular receptors agree with their vasorelaxant potencies

  9. Study of the effect of thiols on the vasodilatory potency of S-nitrosothiols by using a modified aortic ring assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giustarini, Daniela; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Rossi, Ranieri

    2011-01-01

    Both low-molecular-mass thiols (LMM-SH) and protein thiols (P-SH) can modulate the biological activity of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) via S-transnitrosation reactions. It has been difficult to evaluate the entity of this effect in blood circulation by in vitro assays with isolated aorta rings so far, because media rich in proteins cannot be used due to the foaming as a consequence of the needed gas bubbling. We have modified the original apparatus for organ bioassay in order to minimize foaming and to increase analytical performance. By using this modified bioassay we investigated the vasodilatory potency of various endogenous RSNOs in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of albumin and LMM-SH. Our results show that the sulfhydryl group of the cysteine moiety of albumin and LMM-SH has a dramatic effect on the vasodilatory potency of RSNO. Considering the equilibrium constants for S-transnitrosation reactions and the concentration of P-SH and LMM-SH we measured in healthy humans (aged 18-85 years), we infer that the age-dependency of hematic levels of LMM-SH may have a considerable impact in RSNO-mediated vasodilation. S-Nitrosoproteins such as S-nitrosoalbumin may constitute a relatively silent and constant amount of circulating RSNO. On the other hand, LMM-SH may mediate and control the biological actions of S-nitrosoproteins via S-transnitrosation reactions, by forming more potent nitric oxide-releasing LMM-S-nitrosothiols. Lifestyle habits, status of health and individual age are proven factors that, in turn, may influence the concentration of these compounds. These aspects should be taken into consideration when testing the vasodilatory effects of RSNO in pre-clinical studies. - Highlights: → A modification of the organ chamber apparatus for aortic ring bioassays is proposed. → The new apparatus can work in the presence of albumin at physiological concentrations. → Potency of RSNOs was studied in the presence of albumin and low molecular

  10. Homeopathic Individualized Q-Potencies versus Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression: Double-Blind, Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C. Adler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1 in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the m