WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative phase difference

  1. Remark on Relations Between Different Non-integrable Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhiyu; Qian Shangwu

    2005-01-01

    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the definitions and relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  2. Phase difference statistics related to sensor and forest parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A.; Mougin, E.; Beaudoin, A.; Goze, S.; Nezry, E.; Touzi, R.; Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The information content of ordinary synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is principally contained in the radiometric polarization channels, i.e., the four Ihh, Ivv, Ihv and Ivh backscattered intensities. In the case of clutter, polarimetric information is given by the four complex degrees of coherence, from which the mean polarization phase differences (PPD), correlation coefficients or degrees of polarization can be deduced. For radiometric features, the polarimetric parameters are corrupted by multiplicative speckle noise and by some sensor effects. The PPD distribution is related to the sensor, speckle and terrain properties. Experimental results are given for the variation of the terrain hh/vv mean phase difference and magnitude of the degree of coherence observed on bare soil and on different pine forest stands.

  3. Investigation of Polarization Phase Difference Related to Forest Fields Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, M.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD) statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.), poplar (Populus L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF POLARIZATION PHASE DIFFERENCE RELATED TO FOREST FIELDS CHARACTERIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L., red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill B.S.P., poplar (Populus L., red oak (Quercus rubra L. , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  5. Hemispheric Lateralization of Event-Related Brain Potentials in Different Processing Phases during Unimanual Finger Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Li

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional MRI and brain electrophysiology studies have studied the left-right differences during the tapping tasks and found that the activation of left hemisphere was more significant than that of right hemisphere. In this study, we wanted to delineate this lateralization phenomenon not only in the execution phase but also in other processing phases, such as early visual, pre-executive and post-executive phases. We have designed a finger-tapping task to delineate the left-right differences of event related potentials (ERPs to right finger movement in sixteen right handed college students. The mean amplitudes of ERPs were analyzed to examine the left-right dominance of cortical activity in the phase of early visual process (75-120ms, pre-execution (175-260ms, execution (310-420ms and post-execution (420-620ms. In the execution phase, ERPs at the left electrodes were significantly more pronounced than those at the right electrodes (F3 > F4, C3 > C4, P3 > P4, O1 > O2 under the situation without comparing the central electrodes (Fz, Cz, Pz, and Oz. No difference was found between left and right electrodes in other three phases except the C3 electrode still showed more dominant than C4 in the pre- and post-execution phase. In conclusion, the phenomenon of brain lateralization occur major in the execution phase. The central area also showed the lateralization in the pre- and post-execution to demonstrate its unique lateralized contributions to unilateral simple finger movements.

  6. Assessment of intersegmental coordination of rats during walking at different speeds - Application of continuous relative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    of the CRP (ACRP) and DP and on the mean ACRP and mean DP was established by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Absolute and relative reliability were assessed by measurement error and intra-class correlation coefficient. The SPM analysis revealed time dependent......The present study investigated the feasibility and reliability of continuous relative phase (CRP) and deviation phase (DP) to assess intersegmental hind limb coordination pattern and coordination variability in rats during walking. Twenty-six adult rats walked at 8 m/min, 12 m/min and 16 m....../min while two-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Segment angles and segment angular velocities of the paw, shank and thigh on the left hind-limb were extracted from 15 strides and CRP was calculated for the paw-shank and shank-thigh coupling. The effect of walking speed on the time point average curve...

  7. Covariant phase difference observables in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Covariant phase difference observables are determined in two different ways, by a direct computation and by a group theoretical method. A characterization of phase difference observables which can be expressed as the difference of two phase observables is given. The classical limits of such phase difference observables are determined and the Pegg-Barnett phase difference distribution is obtained from the phase difference representation. The relation of Ban's theory to the covariant phase theories is exhibited

  8. Phase relation of LaFe11· 6Si1· 4 compounds annealed at different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 2. Phase relation of LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds annealed at different high-temperature and the magnetic property of LaFe11.6−CoSi1.4 compounds. Xiang Chen Yungui Chen Yongbai Tang. Volume 35 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 175-182 ...

  9. The Italian National Forest Inventory: geographical and positioning aspects in relation to the different phases of the project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo Colle; Antonio Floris; Gianfranco Scrinzi; Giovanni Tabacchi; Lorenzo Cavini

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe in depth the analysis and solutions to manage the multiple coordinates of the sampling objects coming from the three different phases of the second Italian national forest inventory (Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei serbatoi forestali di Carbonio [INFC]). In particular, this article describes the criteria used to determine the...

  10. Differences and discriminatory power of water polo game-related statistics in men in international championships and their relationship with the phase of the competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M; Tella, Victor; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Domínguez, Ana M

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to compare water polo game-related statistics by context (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classification, and semifinal/bronze medal/gold medal), and (b) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 230 men's matches played in World Championships (2007, 2009, and 2011) and European Championships (2008 and 2010) were analyzed. Differences between contexts (winning or losing teams) in each phase (preliminary, classification, and semifinal/bronze medal/gold medal) were determined using the chi-squared statistic, also calculating the effect sizes of the differences. A discriminant analysis was then performed after the sample-splitting method according to context (winning and losing teams) in each of the 3 phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables are both offensive and defensive, including action shots, sprints, goalkeeper-blocked shots, and goalkeeper-blocked action shots. However, the number of discriminatory variables decreases as the phase becomes more demanding and the teams become more equally matched. The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases (preliminary, classificatory, and semifinal/bronze medal/gold medal phase) with high percentages (91, 90, and 73%, respectively). Again, the model selected both defensive and offensive variables.

  11. Menstrual phase-related differences in the pulsatility index on the central retinal artery suggest an oestrogen vasodilatation effect that antagonizes with progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Carlos; Faria, Marcos; Pettersen, Heverton; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2011-03-01

    The actual effect of steroid hormones on cerebral microcirculation is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate vascular flow variations in the central retinal artery that may exist during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. A total of 34 healthy women were included in this observational, longitudinal, and prospective study. All participants were submitted to dopplerfluxometric evaluation of the eyes in order to study the pulsatility index (PI) of the central retinal arteries, during four phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular, mid follicular, periovulatory, and mid luteal phases. Subjects' ages ranged from 14 to 47 years old (mean: 29.7 ± 10.1) and PI did not differ among age groups. The PI of the central retinal artery was different among the four phases of the menstrual cycle. PI showed a significant decrease from early follicular phase (1.72) to mid follicular phase (1.57) (p = 0.037), and was similar during periovulatory phase (1.56) and significantly increased in mid luteal phase (1.70). After that it returned to the values observed in the early follicular phase. Our results suggest the existence of an oestrogen vasodilatation effect on the central retinal artery that is menstrual phase-related and antagonized by progesterone.

  12. Local coexistance of different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Under intuitively reasonable assumptions it is shown that in two dimensions different phases cannot exist locally. In three dimensions we discuss the possibility of local coexistance of districts with different magnetization for the Heisenberg ferromagnet and show that an interaction that breaks rotational invariance is necessary for this phenomenon. (Author)

  13. Sex Differences in Countermovement Jump Phase Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The countermovement jump (CMJ is commonly used to explore sex differences in neuromuscular function, but previous studies have only reported gross CMJ measures or have partly examined CMJ phase characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ phase characteristics between male and female athletes by comparing the force-, power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves throughout the entire CMJ, in addition to gross measures. Fourteen men and fourteen women performed three CMJs on a force platform from which a range of kinetic and kinematic variables were calculated via forward dynamics. Jump height (JH, reactive strength index modified, relative peak concentric power, and eccentric and concentric displacement, velocity, and relative impulse were all greater for men (g = 0.58–1.79. Relative force-time curves were similar between sexes, but relative power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves were greater for men at 90%–95% (immediately before and after peak power, 47%–54% (start of eccentric phase and 85%–100% (latter half of concentric phase, and 65%–87% (bottom of countermovement and initial concentric phase of normalized jump time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between sexes, with men demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger concentric impulse and, thus, achieving greater velocity throughout most of the concentric phase, including take-off.

  14. Difference optimization: Automatic correction of relative frequency and phase for mean non-edited and edited GABA 1H MEGA-PRESS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleve, Marianne; Krämer, Martin; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2017-06-01

    Phase and frequency corrections of magnetic resonance spectroscopic data are of major importance to obtain reliable and unambiguous metabolite estimates as validated in recent research for single-shot scans with the same spectral fingerprint. However, when using the J-difference editing technique 1H MEGA-PRESS, misalignment between mean edited (ON ‾) and non-edited (OFF ‾) spectra that may remain even after correction of the corresponding individual single-shot scans results in subtraction artefacts compromising reliable GABA quantitation. We present a fully automatic routine that iteratively optimizes simultaneously relative frequencies and phases between the mean ON ‾ and OFF ‾ 1H MEGA-PRESS spectra while minimizing the sum of the magnitude of the difference spectrum (L1 norm). The proposed method was applied to simulated spectra at different SNR levels with deliberately preset frequency and phase errors. Difference optimization proved to be more sensitive to small signal fluctuations, as e.g. arising from subtraction artefacts, and outperformed the alternative spectral registration approach, that, in contrast to our proposed linear approach, uses a nonlinear least squares minimization (L2 norm), at all investigated levels of SNR. Moreover, the proposed method was applied to 47 MEGA-PRESS datasets acquired in vivo at 3 T. The results of the alignment between the mean OFF ‾ and ON ‾ spectra were compared by applying (a) no correction, (b) difference optimization or (c) spectral registration. Since the true frequency and phase errors are not known for in vivo data, manually corrected spectra were used as the gold standard reference (d). Automatically corrected data applying both, method (b) or method (c), showed distinct improvements of spectra quality as revealed by the mean Pearson correlation coefficient between corresponding real part mean DIFF ‾ spectra of Rbd = 0.997 ± 0.003 (method (b) vs. (d)), compared to Rad = 0.764 ± 0.220 (method (a) vs

  15. Substorms during different storm phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After the deep solar minimum at the end of the solar cycle 23, a small magnetic storm occurred on 20–26 January 2010. The Dst (disturbance storm time index reached the minimum of −38 nT on 20 January and the prolonged recovery that followed the main phase that lasted for about 6 days. In this study, we concentrate on three substorms that took place (1 just prior to the storm, (2 during the main phase of the storm, and (3 at the end of the recovery of the storm. We analyse the solar wind conditions from the solar wind monitoring spacecraft, the duration and intensity of the substorm events as well as the behaviour of the electrojet currents from the ground magnetometer measurements. We compare the precipitation characteristics of the three substorms. The results show that the F-region electron density enhancements and dominant green and red auroral emission of the substorm activity during the storm recovery resembles average isolated substorm precipitation. However, the energy dissipated, even at the very end of a prolonged storm recovery, is very large compared to the typical energy content of isolated substorms. In the case studied here, the dissipation of the excess energy is observed over a 3-h long period of several consecutive substorm intensifications. Our findings suggest that the substorm energy dissipation varies between the storm phases.

  16. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  17. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  18. Cultural differences in cognition: Rosetta Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Helen Altman; Lin, Mei-Hua; Radford, Mark; Masuda, Takahiko; Choi, Incheol; Lien, Yunnwen; Yeh, Yeiyuh; Boff, Kenneth R

    2009-10-01

    Cultural differences in cognition are important during multinational commercial, military, and humanitarian operations. The Rosetta Project addresses definition and measurement of key cognitive dimensions. Six potential diagnostic measures related to Analytic-Holistic reasoning were assessed: the Exclusion Task, the Attribution Complexity Scale, the Syllogism Task, Categorization, the Framed Line Test, and the Facial Expression Task. 379 participants' ages ranged from 17 to 24 years (M = 19.8, SD = 1.4). 64.6% were women; Eastern Asian groups (Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) were assumed to have Holistic reasoning tendencies, and those from a Western group (USA) were assumed to have Analytic tendencies. Participants were recruited from subject pools in psychology using the procedures of each university. Results on the Exclusion and Categorization Tasks confirmed hypothesized differences in Analytic-Holistic reasoning. The Attribution Complex-ity Scale and the Facial Expression Task identified important differences among the four groups. Outcomes on the final two tasks were confounded by unrelated group differences, making comparisons difficult. Building on this exploratory study, Rosetta Phase II will include additional groups and cognitive tasks. Measures of complex cognition are also incorporated to link findings to the naturalistic contexts.

  19. Phase Difference Measurement Method Based on Progressive Phase Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for phase difference measurement based on the principle of progressive phase shift (PPS. A phase difference measurement system based on PPS and implemented in the FPGA chip is proposed and tested. In the realized system, a fully programmable delay line (PDL is constructed, which provides accurate and stable delay, benefitting from the feed-back structure of the control module. The control module calibrates the delay according to process, voltage and temperature (PVT variations. Furthermore, a modified method based on double PPS is incorporated to improve the resolution. The obtained resolution is 25 ps. Moreover, to improve the resolution, the proposed method is implemented on the 20 nm Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale platform, and test results indicate that the obtained measurement error and clock synchronization error is within the range of ±5 ps.

  20. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...... of perovskites the solar light absorption efficiency varies greatly depending not only on bandgap size and character (direct/indirect) but also on the dipole matrix elements. The oxides exhibit generally a fairly weak absorption efficiency due to indirect bandgaps while the most efficient absorbers are found...... in the classes of oxynitride and organometal halide perovskites with strong direct transitions....

  1. Frequency dependence of polarization phase difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Rao, Y.S.; Wang, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    Polarimetric AIRSAR data of July 13, 1990 acquired over Mahatango watershed area was processed for the identification of corn fields an forested areas. Polarization Phase Difference (PPD) values were computed for the corn fields at P-, L- and C- bands and studied as a function of frequency. The results compare well with the model calculations at 24 deg. incidence angle where as the locations of corn fields were computed to be at 35 deg. incidence angle. The discrepancy is attributed to lack of accurate ground truth and the undulating topography of the corn fields. Another study reported here deals with the usefulness of Polarization Index (PI) for the study of vegetation. PI was found to be dependent on frequency for corn fields where as for forest trees no such dependence was noticed. PI HH,HV is more useful parameter compared to PI HH,VV even for the study of corn fields. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs

  2. Phase analysis of circadian-related genes in two tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Leping

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent circadian clock studies using gene expression microarray in two different tissues of mouse have revealed not all circadian-related genes are synchronized in phase or peak expression times across tissues in vivo. Instead, some circadian-related genes may be delayed by 4–8 hrs in peak expression in one tissue relative to the other. These interesting biological observations prompt a statistical question regarding how to distinguish the synchronized genes from genes that are systematically lagged in phase/peak expression time across two tissues. Results We propose a set of techniques from circular statistics to analyze phase angles of circadian-related genes in two tissues. We first estimate the phases of a cycling gene separately in each tissue, which are then used to estimate the paired angular difference of the phase angles of the gene in the two tissues. These differences are modeled as a mixture of two von Mises distributions which enables us to cluster genes into two groups; one group having synchronized transcripts with the same phase in the two tissues, the other containing transcripts with a discrepancy in phase between the two tissues. For each cluster of genes we assess the association of phases across the tissue types using circular-circular regression. We also develop a bootstrap methodology based on a circular-circular regression model to evaluate the improvement in fit provided by allowing two components versus a one-component von-Mises model. Conclusion We applied our proposed methodologies to the circadian-related genes common to heart and liver tissues in Storch et al. 2, and found that an estimated 80% of circadian-related transcripts common to heart and liver tissues were synchronized in phase, and the other 20% of transcripts were lagged about 8 hours in liver relative to heart. The bootstrap p-value for being one cluster is 0.063, which suggests the possibility of two clusters. Our methodologies can

  3. Pulsed cathodoluminescence of nanoscale aluminum oxide with different phase compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.S.; Zvonarev, S.V.; Medvedev, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The methods of pulsed cathodoluminescence have been used to study compacted powders and ceramics containing different phases of aluminum oxide. An intensive luminescence of the samples under study in the visible, NIR, and UV regions of the spectrum has been found. The luminescence bands are very broad and include a few components. The number of the bands depends on the phase composition of the samples. The oxygen vacancies, which capture one or two electrons, produce luminescence centers in the near UV region. The most probable in the visible region is the luminescence of aggregate defects, impurities, and surface centers. - Highlights: → We investigate pulsed cathodoluminescence spectra of nanoscale alumina. → We found the intensive luminescence in the visible, NIR, and UV regions. → The transformation of R-line structure depends on phase composition of alumina. → We substantiate the relation of luminescence bands with concrete centers.

  4. Different workplace-related strains and different workplace-related anxieties in different professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Similar to the spectrum of the traditional anxiety disorders, there are also different types of workplace-related anxieties. The question is whether in different professional settings different facets of workplace-related anxieties are predominant. A convenience sample of 224 inpatients (71% women) from a department of psychosomatic medicine was investigated. They were assessed with a structured diagnostic interview concerning anxiety disorders and specific workplace-related anxieties. Office workers suffer relatively most often from specific social anxiety, insufficiency, and workplace phobia. Service workers suffer predominantly from unspecific social anxiety. Health care workers are characterized by insufficiency, adjustment disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and workplace phobia. Persons in production and education are least often affected by workplace-related anxieties. Different types of anxiety are seen in different professional domains, parallel to workplace characteristics.

  5. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Ivano E. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Thygesen, Kristian S. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Jacobsen, Karsten W. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden–Popper and Dion–Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum.

  6. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy

    2016-01-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender...

  7. Metrology of two-phase flow: different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.; Reocreux, M.; Ricque, R.

    Nine papers are presented concerning different methods of measuring two-phase flow. Some of the methods and equipment discussed include: radiation absorption, electromagnetic flowmeter, anemometry, resistance probes, phase indicating microthermocouples, optical probes, sampling methods, and pitot tubes

  8. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These

  9. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhwan Kwon

    Full Text Available Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head

  10. YBCO SQUIDs with unconventional current phase relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauch, T.; Johansson, J.; Cedergren, K.; Lindstroem, T.; Lombardi, F.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) dc sperconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) characterized by an unconventional Josephson current phase relation (CPR). We have focused on SQUID configurations with Josephson junctions where the lobe of the order parameter in one electrode is facing a node in the other electrode. This order parameter arrangement should enhance the appearance of a sin(2φ) term in the CPR. The response of the critical current of the dc SQUID, under the effect of an external magnetic field, has been measured in temperature, down to 20 mK. Our experimental data have been compared with numerical simulations of the SQUIDs dynamics by considering a CPR of a single junction of the form I(φ) = I I sin(φ) - I II sin(2φ) where I I and I II are, respectively, the first and second harmonic component. In our devices the values of the sin(2φ) term are such that the fundamental state of the SQUID is naturally double degenerate. This is of great relevance for applications of d-wave SQUIDs in quantum information processing

  11. Origin of the Nonsinusoidal current-phase relation of a superconducting bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugahara, M.

    1977-01-01

    The current-phase relation of a long superconducting bridge is investigated with the use of the Aslamazov-Larkin model and the Ginzburg-Landau equation. The feedback effect of the supercurrent to the phase difference in the weak link is taken into consideration. The derived nonsinusoidal current-phase relation explains the experiments of Jackel et al. very well

  12. A possible relation between leptogenesis and PMNS phases

    CERN Document Server

    Covi, Laura; Kyae, Bumseok; Nam, Soonkeon

    2016-01-01

    The CP phase relevant in the leptogenesis is related to the PMNS phase in case only one CP phase appears in the full theory. Thus, the CP phase is introduced by spontaneous CP violation at a high energy scale toward realizing the successful Kobayashi-Maskawa electroweak CP violation. This phase is in a complex vacuum expectation value of a standard model singlet field. We find new $W$ boson exchange diagrams for leptogenesis. Assuming that the lightest (intermediate scale) Majorana lepton $N_0$ dominates the lepton asymmetry, the lepton asymmetry and the PMNS phase are related.

  13. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.

  14. Chaos crisis in coupled Duffing's systems with initial phase difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Qinsheng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of coupled Duffing's oscillators with initial phase difference is investigated in this Letter. For the averaged equations, different equilibrium points can be observed, the number of which may vary with the parameters. The stable equilibrium points, corresponding to the periodic motion of the original coupled oscillators, may coexist with different patterns of dynamics, including chaos. Furthermore, two different chaotic attractors associated with different attracting basin coexist for certain parameter conditions, which may interact with each other to form an enlarged chaotic attractor. Several new dynamical phenomena such as boundary chaos crises have been predicted as the initial phase difference varies

  15. Different rates of DNA replication at early versus late S-phase sections: multiscale modeling of stochastic events related to DNA content/EdU (5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine) incorporation distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Zhao, Hong; Rybak, Paulina; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Kimmel, Marek

    2014-09-01

    Mathematical modeling allows relating molecular events to single-cell characteristics assessed by multiparameter cytometry. In the present study we labeled newly synthesized DNA in A549 human lung carcinoma cells with 15-120 min pulses of EdU. All DNA was stained with DAPI and cellular fluorescence was measured by laser scanning cytometry. The frequency of cells in the ascending (left) side of the "horseshoe"-shaped EdU/DAPI bivariate distributions reports the rate of DNA replication at the time of entrance to S phase while their frequency in the descending (right) side is a marker of DNA replication rate at the time of transition from S to G2 phase. To understand the connection between molecular-scale events and scatterplot asymmetry, we developed a multiscale stochastic model, which simulates DNA replication and cell cycle progression of individual cells and produces in silico EdU/DAPI scatterplots. For each S-phase cell the time points at which replication origins are fired are modeled by a non-homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP). Shifted gamma distributions are assumed for durations of cell cycle phases (G1, S and G2 M), Depending on the rate of DNA synthesis being an increasing or decreasing function, simulated EdU/DAPI bivariate graphs show predominance of cells in left (early-S) or right (late-S) side of the horseshoe distribution. Assuming NHPP rate estimated from independent experiments, simulated EdU/DAPI graphs are nearly indistinguishable from those experimentally observed. This finding proves consistency between the S-phase DNA-replication rate based on molecular-scale analyses, and cell population kinetics ascertained from EdU/DAPI scatterplots and demonstrates that DNA replication rate at entrance to S is relatively slow compared with its rather abrupt termination during S to G2 transition. Our approach opens a possibility of similar modeling to study the effect of anticancer drugs on DNA replication/cell cycle progression and also to quantify other

  16. Microangiopathic complications related to different alleles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Journal Home ... Microangiopathic complications related to different alleles of manganese superoxide dismutase gene in diabetes mellitus type 1. TM EL Masry ... 23(2) 2005: 155-167 ...

  17. Relations between effective potentials in different dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Using dimensional regularization, the one-loop approximation for the effective potential (finite temperature) is computed as an analytic function of the number of dimensions. It is shown that a simple relation exists between potentials for different dimensions. This relation reduces to a simple derivative when these numbers differ by two units. The limit of zero temperature is calculated and also the finite temperature corrections are given. (Author) [pt

  18. Phase characteristics of rheograms. Original classification of phase-related changes of rheos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Rudenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The phase characteristics of a rheogram are described in literature in general only. The existing theory of impedance rheography is based on an analysis of the form of rheogram envelopes, but not on the phase-related processes and their interpretation according to the applicable laws of physics. The aim of the present paper is to describe the phase-related characteristics of a rheogram of the ascending aorta. The method of the heart cycle phase analysis has been used for this purpose. By synchronizing an ECG of the aorta and a rheogram, an analysis of specific changes in the aorta blood filling in each phase is provided. As a result, the phase changes of a rheogram associated with the ECG phase structure are described and tabulated for first time. The author hereof offers his own original classification of the phase-related changes of rheograms.

  19. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  20. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  1. Current-phase relations and noise in rf biased SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.; Clark, T.D.; Buhrman, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of the weak link current-phase relation on noise in rf biased SQUIDs. Non-sinusoidal current-phase relations were observed in various weak links, and these non-sinusoidal relations were correlated with significantly increased intrinsic noise in the SQUID ring. The current-phase relation was also found to affect the amplitude of the rf SQUID ring dissipation. The result of an rf SQUID system noise analysis shows that, due to increased intrinsic noise and reduced ring dissipation, the minimum attainable noise for a SQUID ring having a very non-sinusoidal current-phase relation is considerably greater than for a ring with a sinusoidal relation

  2. Characteristic and Wigner function for number difference and operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Hu Haipeng

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the characteristic function in the sense of number difference-operational phase, and we employ the correlated-amplitude-number-difference state representation to calculate it. It results in the form of the corresponding Wigner function and Wigner operator. The marginal distributions of the generalized Wigner function are briefly discussed

  3. An Exploration on the Suitability of Airborne Carbonyl Compounds Analysis in relation to Differences in Instrumentation (GC-MS versus HPLC-UV and Standard Phases (Gas versus Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative performance figure of merits was investigated for the two most common analytical methods employed for carbonyl compounds (CC, for example, between high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV detector (with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH derivatization and thermal desorption (TD-gas chromatography (GC-mass spectrometry (MS (without derivatization. To this end, the suitability of each method is assessed by computing the relative recovery (RR between the gas- and liquid-phase standards containing a suite of CC such as formaldehyde (FA, acetaldehyde (AA, propionaldehyde (PA, butyraldehyde (BA, isovaleraldehyde (IA, and valeraldehyde (VA along with benzene (B as a recovery reference for the GC method. The results confirm that a TD-GC-MS is advantageous to attain the maximum recovery for the heavier CCs (i.e., with molecular weights (MW above BA−MW ≥ 74. On the other hand, the HPLC-UV is favorable for the lighter CCs (like FA and AA with the least bias. Such compound-specific responses for each platform are validated by relative ordering of CCs as a function of response factor (RF, method detection limit (MDL, and recovery pattern. It is thus desirable to understand the advantages and limitations of each method to attain the CC data with the least experimental bias.

  4. Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Leif Kjær

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree $k$ and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed ...

  5. Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Leif Kjær

    We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed by G...

  6. Cultivating cultural differences in aymmetric power relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, S.B.; Buyn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we integrate findings from interviews and ethnographic case studies to explore issues of culture and identity in Japanese-Dutch work relations in two different contexts: Japanese firms in the Netherlands and Dutch firms in Japan. It is suggested that cultural identities do not carry

  7. Models for assessing the relative phase velocity in a two-phase flow. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrath, A.; Ringel, H.

    2000-06-01

    The knowledge of slip or drift flux in two phase flow is necessary for several technical processes (e.g. two phase pressure losses, heat and mass transfer in steam generators and condensers, dwell period in chemical reactors, moderation effectiveness of two phase coolant in BWR). In the following the most important models for two phase flow with different phase velocities (e.g. slip or drift models, analogy between pressure loss and steam quality, ε - ε models and models for the calculation of void distribution in reposing fluids) are classified, described and worked up for a further comparison with own experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hiroaki; Fujino, Takeo; Tateno, Jun

    1975-07-01

    Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of the compounds for nuclear fuels are presented, including melting point, thermal expansion, diffusion and magnetic and electric properties. Emphasis is on oxides, carbides and nitrides of thorium, uranium and plutonium. (auth.)

  9. Broadband phase difference method for ultrasonic velocimetry in molten glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Ihara, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry in molten glass. Realization of such a technique has two difficulties: ultrasonic transmission into molten salt and Doppler signal processing. Buffer rod technique was developed in our research to transmit ultrasound into high temperature molten glass. This article discusses newly developed signal processing technique named broadband phase difference method. (J.P.N.)

  10. Spatial-frequency spectrum of patterns changes the visibility of spatial-phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that spatial-frequency components over a 4-octave range affected the visibility of spatial-phase differences. Contrast thresholds were measured for discrimination between two (+45- and -45-deg) spatial phases of a sinusoidal test grating added to a background grating. The background could contain one or several sinusoidal components, all in 0-deg phase. Phase differences between the test and the background were visible at lower contrasts when test and background frequencies were harmonically related than when they were not, when test and background frequencies were within 1 octave than when they were farther apart, when the fundamental frequency of the background was low than when it was high, and for some discriminations more than for others, after practice. The visibility of phase differences was not affected by additional components in the background if the fundamental and difference frequencies of the background remained unchanged. Observers' reports of their strategies gave information about the types of attentive processing that were used to discriminate phase differences. Attentive processing facilitated phase discrimination for multifrequency gratings spanning a much wider range of spatial frequencies than would be possible by using only local preattentive processing. These results were consistent with the visibility of phase differences being processed by some combination of even- and odd-symmetric simple cells tuned to a wide range of different spatial frequencies.

  11. Comparative study of interventricular phase difference and pressure gradient in cases of isolated ventricular septal defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhaddad, SH; Moustafa, H; Ziada, G; Seleem, Z; Elsabban, KH; Mahmoud, F [Nuclear medicine department and pediatric cardiology department Faculty of medicine, Cairo university, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    One hundred and fifty patients with isolated VSD were evaluated by radionuclide MUGA study and Echo-Doppler. Difference between phase angle of the right and left ventricles as detected by MUGA had been divided into main four groups according to pressure gradient between the two ventricles : group I (with pressure gradient {<=}30 mmHg and phase difference 80.10 degree{+-}34.1), group III (with pressure gradient > 70 mmHg and phase difference -0.5 degree {+-} 8.4). It has been found that there was a significant difference between the 4 groups as regards right - to - left ventricular phase difference (P<0.0001). There was significant delay in emptying of right ventricle in groups with pressure gradient < 50 mmHg. Regression analysis revealed inverse correlation between right -to- left ventricular phase difference with changes in pressure gradient (r= 0.81). Similarly, significant correlation had been found between right -to-left ventricular phase difference in relation Qp/Qs (r=0.85); conclusion: interventricular phase difference can be used to evaluate interventricular pressure gradient in cases of isolated VSD. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Measurement of phase function of aerosol at different altitudes by CCD Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiyu; Yuan, Ke'e.; Yang, Jie; Hu, Shunxing

    2018-02-01

    The aerosols near the ground are closely related to human health and climate change, the study on which has important significance. As we all know, the aerosol is inhomogeneous at different altitudes, of which the phase function is also different. In order to simplify the retrieval algorithm, it is usually assumed that the aerosol is uniform at different altitudes, which will bring measurement error. In this work, an experimental approach is demonstrated to measure the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles at different heights by CCD lidar system, which could solve the problem of the traditional CCD lidar system in assumption of phase function. The phase functions obtained by the new experimental approach are used to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles. By comparison of the aerosol extinction coefficient retrieved by Mie-scattering aerosol lidar and CCD lidar at night, the reliability of new experimental approach is verified.

  13. Effect of atomic initial phase difference on spontaneous emission of an atom embedded in photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, Zhang; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Xiang-Qian, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of initial phase difference between the two excited states of a V-type three-level atom on its steady state behaviour of spontaneous emission. A modified density of modes is introduced to calculate the spontaneous emission spectra in photonic crystal. Spectra in free space are also shown to compare with that in photonic crystal with different relative positions of the excited levels from upper band-edge frequency. It is found that the initial phase difference plays an important role in the quantum interference property between the two decay channels. For a zero initial phase, destructive property is presented in the spectra. With the increase of initial phase difference, quantum interference between the two decay channels from upper levels to ground level turns to be constructive. Furthermore, we give an interpretation for the property of these spectra. (atomic and molecular physics)

  14. Diffusionless phase transitions and related structures in oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulesteix, C.

    1992-01-01

    The relative importance of oxides in the field of materials science has been spectacularly increasing during the last twenty years. First the study of ferroelectrics kept the attention of scientists. Nevertheless this domain is far from being worked out and a lot of new results and of new fields of interest were recently discovered. Other ferroic oxides, especially ferroelastics, have also been the subject of a very great number of new results. In these cases the properties of oxides are at room temperature very tightly related to the phase transition that is generally occurring a few hundred of degrees above this room temperature. In many other cases also properties of oxides can be related to the existence of a phase transition or to a rather similar phenomenon. This book has been specially devoted to the study of the properties of oxides which are in some way related to the existence of a phase transition. The first chapters are focussed on general considerations: the first one is devoted to a general study of phase transitions, the second one to the twinning phenomenon which is of special interest for many oxides. Chapters 3 and 4 are focussed on ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials. These four chapters consitute the first part of the book. Chapters 5 to 8 are devoted to the study of oxides of special interest which have some of their properties related to a phase transition or to a rather similar phenomenon: rare earth oxides, oxides with a diffuse phase transition, zirconia and alumina systems, tungsten oxides and their relatives. These four chapters constitute the second part of the book. (orig.)

  15. Voices from different cultures: Foundation Phase students’ understanding across

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalie Botha

    2011-12-01

    can extend boundaries beyond our single perspectives and experiences to the varying perspectives of others. This becomes particularly important for teachers of young children who may have very different life experiences from those of the children they teach. In this project, we examined storytelling as a way to cross-cultural boundaries and of harnessing the diverse worlds of South African citizens pedagogically. We asked fourth year students in a Foundation Phase teacher education programme to identify a person from a different cultural and linguistic group; and to have that person share a story with them to discover how the experience of listening to stories from different cultures, languages, and belief systems might influence their attitudes towards teaching children with those characteristic differences.

  16. Intelligence related differences in EEG-bandpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppelmayr, Michael; Klimesch, W; Sauseng, P; Hödlmoser, K; Stadler, W; Hanslmayr, S

    2005-06-24

    Several studies on the relationship between event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) and cognitive performance revealed contradictory results particularly for the alpha band. Studies from our laboratory have shown that good performers show a larger upper alpha ERD (interpreted in terms of larger cortical activation) than bad performers. In contrast, other researchers found evidence for the neural efficiency hypothesis, which states that more intelligent subjects exhibit a smaller extent of cortical activation, which is assumed to be reflected by a smaller upper alpha ERD. Here we address the question whether these divergent results may be due to differences in general task difficulty. Using a modified version of the RAVEN, individually divided into easy and difficult tasks, a group of average and a group of highly intelligent subjects (IQ- and IQ+) have been investigated. While in the theta frequency IQ+ subjects generally exhibited a significantly stronger activation, we found a significant interaction of task difficulty and IQ group in the upper alpha band, indicating both, a weaker activation for the high IQ group during the easy tasks, and a significant increase from easy to difficult tasks for IQ+ only.

  17. Control of risks: comparative evaluation between the different kind of approach in industrial area. Relative focalization to nuclear and chemical sectors. Phase two; Maitrise des risques: evaluation comparative des modes d`approche dans les secteurs industriels. Focalisation relative aux secteurs nucleaires et chimiques. Deuxieme phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J; El Jammal, M H

    1997-12-31

    The research made here for the Ministry of Environment, aims the probabilistic approach, to examine its differences with the determinist approach in the frame of risk management, and to know if the both approaches are inducted by the nature of dangers, the quality of data, the theoretical knowledge or the kind of problem to mange ( monitoring of installations, functioning agreements, and so on). The nuclear activities, the chemical installations and the transports of dangerous materials illustrate the present purpose. (N.C.)

  18. Control of risks: comparative evaluation between the different kind of approach in industrial area. Relative focalization to nuclear and chemical sectors. Phase two; Maitrise des risques: evaluation comparative des modes d`approche dans les secteurs industriels. Focalisation relative aux secteurs nucleaires et chimiques. Deuxieme phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; El Jammal, M.H

    1996-12-31

    The research made here for the Ministry of Environment, aims the probabilistic approach, to examine its differences with the determinist approach in the frame of risk management, and to know if the both approaches are inducted by the nature of dangers, the quality of data, the theoretical knowledge or the kind of problem to mange ( monitoring of installations, functioning agreements, and so on). The nuclear activities, the chemical installations and the transports of dangerous materials illustrate the present purpose. (N.C.)

  19. Two-phase exchangers with small temperature differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moracchioli, R.; Marie, G.; Lallee, J. de.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility in using heat available at low temperature level is shown (industrial wastes, solar energy, geothermal energy, heat power from seas). Special emphasis is put on the importance of heat exchangers that commonly should be evaporators and condensors working with small temperature differences (20 to 100 deg C). The expansion of the so-called ''new'' energies or recovery processes will depend on the physical performance of exchangers (Rankine two-phase cycles) and cost of the elementary exchange interfaces and assembling technics [fr

  20. Current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a weak link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, F.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a repulsive square barrier by solving analytically the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The barrier height and width fix the current-phase relation j(δφ), which tends to j∼cos(δφ/2) for weak barriers and to the Josephson sinusoidal relation j∼sin(δφ) for strong barriers. Between these two limits, the current-phase relation depends on the barrier width. In particular, for wide-enough barriers, we observe two families of multivalued current-phase relations. Diagrams belonging to the first family, already known in the literature, can have two different positive values of the current at the same phase difference. The second family, new to our knowledge, can instead allow for three different positive currents still corresponding to the same phase difference. Finally, we show that the multivalued behavior arises from the competition between hydrodynamic and nonlinear-dispersive components of the flow, the latter due to the presence of a soliton inside the barrier region.

  1. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of phase relations and metasomatism in shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, P.; Oliot, E.; Marquer, D.

    2009-04-01

    Ductile shear zones have been recognized for a long time as privileged sites of intense fluid-rock interactions in the crust. In most cases they induce focused changes in mineralogy and bulk chemical composition (metasomatism) which in turn may control the deformation and fluid-migration processes. Therefore understanding these processes requires in a first step to be able to model phase relations in such open system. In this contribution, emphasizes in placed on metasomatic aspects of the problem. Indeed , in many ductile shear zones reported in metagranites, deformation and fluid-rock interactions are associated with gain in MgO and losses of CaO and Na2O (K2O is also a mobile component but it can be either gained or lost). Although the mineralogical consequences of this so-called Mg-metasomatism are well-documented (replacement of K-feldspar into phengite, breakdown of plagioclase into ab + ep, crystallization of chlorite), the origin of this coupled mass-transfer is still unknown. We have performed a forward modeling of phase relationships using petrogenetic grids and pseudosections that consider variations in chemical potential (μ) of the mobile elements (MgO, CaO, Na2O). Chemical potential gradients being the driving force of mass transfer, μ-μ diagrams are the most appropriate diagrams to model open systems where fluid-rock interactions are prominent. Chemical potential diagrams are equivalent to activity diagrams but our approach differs from previous work because (1) solid solutions are taken into account (2) phase relations are modeled in a more realistic chemical system (Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) and (3) the use of pseudosections allows to predict changes of the mineralogy (modes, composition) for the specific bulk composition studied. A particular attention is paid to the relationships between component concentrations and chemical potentials, which is not obvious in multi-component system. The studied shear zone is located in the Grimsel

  3. How to Evaluate Phase Differences between Trial Groups in Ongoing Electrophysiological Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies endeavor to reveal periodicities in sensory and cognitive functions, by comparing the distribution of ongoing (pre-stimulus) oscillatory phases between two (or more) trial groups reflecting distinct experimental outcomes. A systematic relation between the phase of spontaneous electrophysiological signals, before a stimulus is even presented, and the eventual result of sensory or cognitive processing for that stimulus, would be indicative of an intrinsic periodicity in the underlying neural process. Prior studies of phase-dependent perception have used a variety of analytical methods to measure and evaluate phase differences, and there is currently no established standard practice in this field. The present report intends to remediate this need, by systematically comparing the statistical power of various measures of “phase opposition” between two trial groups, in a number of real and simulated experimental situations. Seven measures were evaluated: one parametric test (circular Watson-Williams test), and three distinct measures of phase opposition (phase bifurcation index, phase opposition sum, and phase opposition product) combined with two procedures for non-parametric statistical testing (permutation, or a combination of z-score and permutation). While these are obviously not the only existing or conceivable measures, they have all been used in recent studies. All tested methods performed adequately on a previously published dataset (Busch et al., 2009). On a variety of artificially constructed datasets, no single measure was found to surpass all others, but instead the suitability of each measure was contingent on several experimental factors: the time, frequency, and depth of oscillatory phase modulation; the absolute and relative amplitudes of post-stimulus event-related potentials for the two trial groups; the absolute and relative trial numbers for the two groups; and the number of permutations used for non-parametric testing

  4. Tracking cognitive phases in analogical reasoning with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mandy J; McClelland, M Michelle; Donovan, Colin M; Tillman, Gail D; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2012-03-01

    Analogical reasoning consists of multiple phases. Four-term analogies (A:B::C:D) have an encoding period in which the A:B pair is evaluated prior to a mapping phase. The electrophysiological timing associated with analogical reasoning has remained unclear. We used event-related potentials to identify neural timing related to analogical reasoning relative to perceptual and semantic control conditions. Spatiotemporal principal-components analyses revealed differences primarily in left frontal electrodes during encoding and mapping phases of analogies relative to the other conditions. The timing of the activity differed depending upon the phase of the problem. During the encoding of A:B terms, analogies elicited a positive deflection compared to the control conditions between 400 and 1,200 ms, but for the mapping phase analogical processing elicited a negative deflection that occurred earlier and for a shorter time period, between 350 and 625 ms. These results provide neural and behavioral evidence that 4-term analogy problems involve a highly active evaluation phase of the A:B pair. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Susceptibility of Hep3B cells in different phases of cell cycle to tBid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Hong; Chen, George G; Ye, Caiguo; Leung, Billy C S; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2011-01-01

    tBid is a pro-apoptotic molecule. Apoptosis inducers usually act in a cell cycle-specific fashion. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether effect of tBid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells was cell cycle phase specific. We synchronized Hep3B cells at G0/G1, S or G2/M phases by chemicals or flow sorting and tested the susceptibility of the cells to recombinant tBid. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by TUNEL. The results revealed that tBid primarily targeted the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, and it also increased the cells at the G2/M phase. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), on the other hand, arrested Hep3B cells at the G0/G1 phase, but significantly reduced cells at G2/M phase. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and caspases were altered in line with the change in the cell cycle. The combination of tBid with 5-FU caused more cells to be apoptotic than either agent alone. Therefore, the complementary effect of tBid and 5-FU on different phases of the cell cycle may explain their synergistric effect on Hep3B cells. The elucidation of the phase-specific effect of tBid points to a possible therapeutic option that combines different phase specific agents to overcome resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioautographic analysis of changes in different phases of cell kinetics in murine oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Suck; You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    The age related changes in the life cycle of the progenitor cell population of murine oral epithelia was studied. Using radioautographic methods which have been adopted in previous cell cycle studies, the age-related changes of different phases in renewing cells of the palatal, buccal and lingual mucosae were determined. The results confirm published findings on cell cycle changes of epithelia with aging and illustrated further that mitotic phases which has hither to been considered stationary, also changes with aging. The major parts revealed by this study are as follows: 1. The basal progenitor cells in different regions of oral mucosa have different generation times. 2. The basal cell cycle time increases as a function of aging and the region most affected by aging appears to be the epithelium of the cheek. 3. The phases of the cell cycle affected by the process of aging are in increasing order of magnitude: M-, S- and G1-phase. 4. The age related change in the number of DNA synthesizing basal progenitor cells occurs at two age periods. Between 1 and 12 months of life it decreases, while from 12 to 20 months it increases.

  7. On analytical justification of phase synchronization in different chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erjaee, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In analytical or numerical synchronizations studies of coupled chaotic systems the phase synchronizations have less considered in the leading literatures. This article is an attempt to find a sufficient analytical condition for stability of phase synchronization in some coupled chaotic systems. The method of nonlinear feedback function and the scheme of matrix measure have been used to justify this analytical stability, and tested numerically for the existence of the phase synchronization in some coupled chaotic systems.

  8. Geometric phase of neutrinos: Differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Hiesmayr, B. C.; Vitiello, G.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the non-cyclic geometric phase for neutrinos. We find that the geometric phase and the total phase associated to the mixing phenomenon provide a theoretical tool to distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. Our results hold for neutrinos propagating in vacuum and through the matter. We feed the values of the experimental parameters in our formulas in order to make contact with experiments. Although it remains an open question how the geometric phase of neutrinos could be detected, our theoretical results may open new scenarios in the investigation of the neutrino nature.

  9. Study of apparent diffusion coefficient value in breasts of different ages and different menstrual phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ping; Wang Yafei; Huang Hao; Liu Qinfang; Chen Yerong; Tan Jishan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the differences of ADC values in breasts of women of different ages and different menstrual phases, so as to direct the choice of the examination time of MR DWI. Methods: The breasts of 65 healthy volunteers were scanned with the routine MRI plain scan and DWI in the menstrual, proliferative and secretary phases. DWI was conducted with single shot echo planar imaging technique and b value were 0, 1000 s/mm 2 . The women were divided into three groups: Group 1 (aged 20 to 29 years, 21 cases), Group 2 (aged 30 to 39, 21 cases), and Group 3 (aged 40 to 49, 23 cases). The ADC values of all 130 breasts at nipple level in the different phases were measured. The ADC values in the three age groups and in the different menstrual phases were compared using ANOVA. Results: The mean ADC values of Group 1 were (2.14±0.14) × 10 -3 , (2.03±0.18) × 10 -3 and (2.10±0.19) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for left breast, and (2.08±0.17) × 10 -3 . (2.02±0.16) × 10 -3 and (2.09±0.17) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for right breast in the menstrual, proliferative and secretary phases. They were slightly higher than Group 3, which were (2.02±0.27) × 10 -3 (1.97±0.25) × 10 -3 and (2.03±0.22) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for left breast and (1.99±0.29) × 10 -3 , (1.93±0.26) × 10 -3 and (2.03±0.28) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for right breast. The mean ADC values of Group 2 [left breast: ( 1.94 + 0. 25) × 10-3, (1.91±0.21) × 10 -3 and (1.97±0.21) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; right breast: (1.97±0.26) × 10 -3 , (1.89± 0.25) × 10 -3 and (1.96±0.22) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s] were the lowest among the three age groups. There were significant differences in different menstrual phases (F=23.600, P 0.05). Conclusions: The mean ADC values of breasts decrease markedly in the proliferative phase. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the breast ADC values should be considered in the evaluation of breast diseases with DWI. (authors)

  10. Nonequilibrium phase formation in oxides prepared at low temperature: Fergusonite-related phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.A.; Davies, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Sol-gel methods have been developed to prepare YNbO 4 , YTaO 4 , and other rare-earth niobates and tantalates with fergusonite-related crystal structures. At low temperatures, all of the fergusonites, with the exception of SmTaO 4 , crystallize in a metastable tetragonal (T') structure similar to that of tetragonal zirconia. Although all of the equilibrium forms of these oxides adopt a crystal structure containing an ordered distribution of the trivalent and pentavalent cations, a random cation distribution is obtained in the metastable T' phase. Metastable phase formation is often ascribed solely to kinetically limited topotactic crystallization. However, the changes in the grain size and unit-cell volumes that accompany the metastable-to-equilibrium fergusonite conversions imply that other physical phenomena induced by small-particle synthesis, namely the Gibbs-Thompson pressure effect and the increased contribution of surface energy, cannot be ignored

  11. Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days, influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

  12. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2013-12-04

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the Josephson current I and phase difference φ between the superconductors satisfy the relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In the presence of magnetic field along the nanowire, the interplay between the SO interaction and Zeeman effect breaks the current-phase relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In this case, we show that the critical current depends on the current direction, which qualitatively agrees with recent experimental findings.

  14. Number-Phase Wigner Representation and Entropic Uncertainty Relations for Binomial and Negative Binomial States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitabh, J.; Vaccaro, J.A.; Hill, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    We study the recently defined number-phase Wigner function S NP (n,θ) for a single-mode field considered to be in binomial and negative binomial states. These states interpolate between Fock and coherent states and coherent and quasi thermal states, respectively, and thus provide a set of states with properties ranging from uncertain phase and sharp photon number to sharp phase and uncertain photon number. The distribution function S NP (n,θ) gives a graphical representation of the complimentary nature of the number and phase properties of these states. We highlight important differences between Wigner's quasi probability function, which is associated with the position and momentum observables, and S NP (n,θ), which is associated directly with the photon number and phase observables. We also discuss the number-phase entropic uncertainty relation for the binomial and negative binomial states and we show that negative binomial states give a lower phase entropy than states which minimize the phase variance

  15. Remarks on the relation between different (open) string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alwis, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the different three-string vertices, related by conformal transformations, are in the same BRST cohomology class. We use this result to discuss the relation between different (open) string field theories. (orig.)

  16. Lifshitz-Slyozov kinetics of a nonconserved system that separates into phases of different density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Shah, Peter Jivan; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    1990-01-01

    Computer-simulation techniques are applied to analyze the late-stage ordering kinetics of a two-dimensional annealed dilute Ising model quenched into regions of its phase diagram that involve phase separation of phases with different densities. The order parameter of the model is a nonconserved...... of the phase-separation kinetics in O/W(110) systems at high coverage....

  17. Relation between secondary doping and phase separation in PEDOT:PSS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoval, Martin; Micjan, Michal; Novota, Miroslav; Nevrela, Juraj; Kovacova, Sona; Pavuk, Milan; Juhasz, Peter; Jagelka, Martin; Kovac, Jaroslav; Jakabovic, Jan [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Cigan, Marek [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina CH-2, Ilkovicova 6, Bratislava 84215 (Slovakia); Weis, Martin, E-mail: martin.weis@stuba.sk [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Surface morphology of highly conductive polymer was investigated. • Phase separation due to secondary doping is an origin of conductivity enhancement. • Phase separation is not dependent on secondary dopant type. - Abstract: Conductive copolymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative to transparent conductive oxides because of its flexibility, transparency, and low-cost production. Four different secondary dopants, namely N,N-dimethylformamide, ethyleneglycol, sorbitol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, have been used to improve the conductivity. The relation between the structure changes and conductivity enhancement is studied in detail. Atomic force microscopy study of the thin film surface reveals the phase separation of PEDOT and PSS. We demonstrate that secondary doping induces the phase separation as well as the conductivity enhancement.

  18. Phase transitions in PZT ceramics prepared by different techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Suchaneck, G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Gerlach, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, 11B (2002), s. 6966-6968 ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : PZT * phase transitions * band gap * ferroelectrics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2002

  19. The role of habit in different phases of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E; Meldrum, John T; Spence, John C

    2017-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how habit strength in a preparatory and performance phase predicts exercise while accounting for intention. The secondary purpose was to determine the strength of potential habit antecedents (affective judgement, perceived behavioural control, consistency, and cues) in both exercise phases. This was a prospective study with measures collected at baseline and week 6. Participants (n = 181) were a sample of adults (18-65) recruited across nine gyms and recreation centres who completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires after 6 weeks. Intention (β = .28, p = .00) and habit preparation (β = .20, p = .03), predicted exercise, and change of exercise with coefficients of β = .25, (p = .00) and β = .18, (p = .04), respectively, across 6 weeks but not habit performance (p>.05). This study highlighted the distinction between the two phases of exercise and the importance of preparatory habit in predicting behaviour. Focusing on a consistent preparatory routine could be helpful in establishing an exercise habit. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A recent meta-analysis found habit to correlate r = .43 with behaviour (Gardner, de Bruijn, & Lally, ). Verplanken and Melkevik () propose that habit in exercise should be measured in separate components. Phillips and Gardner () interpreted this as habitual instigation (thought) to exercise and execution. What does this study add? Extended pervious work and identified two distinct behavioural phases (preparation and performance) for exercise. Habit model revealed that temporal consistency was the strongest predictor in both phases of exercise. Intention and habit of preparatory behaviour predicted exercise fluctuations in gym members. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. WATER POLO GAME-RELATED STATISTICS IN WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS: DIFFERENCES AND DISCRIMINATORY POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Escalante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to compare women's water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal, and (ii identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women's matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots. The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively. Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots

  1. Two-dimensional characteristic polynomials in the direct calculation of optical phase sum and difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, M; Dorrio, B V; Blanco, J; Diz-Bugarin, J; Ribas, F

    2011-01-01

    Two-stage phase shifting algorithms make possible to directly recover the sum or the difference of the encoded optical phase of two different fringe patterns. These algorithms can be constructed, for example, by combining known phase shifting algorithms in a non-linear way. In this work two-stage phase shifting algorithms are linked to a two-dimensional characteristic polynomial to qualitatively analyse their behaviour against the main systematic error sources in an analysis protocol like that used for phase shifting algorithms. This tool enables us to understand the propagation of properties from precursor phase shifting algorithms to new evaluation algorithms that can be built from them.

  2. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  3. Rosetta Phase II: Measuring and Interpreting Cultural Differences in Cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Helen A; Lin, Mei-Hua; Peng, Kaiping; Bhal, Kanika; Radford, Mark H; Choi, Incheol; Mohd Noor, Noraini; Khalid, Halimahtun M; Chan, David

    2008-01-01

    .... We have taken advantage of developments in cognitive psychology to expand the test battery. This has allowed us to gain a richer picture of national differences in cognition and to capture cognitive differences important in naturalistic setting...

  4. Do Sex Differences Define Gender-Related Individual Differences within the Sexes? Evidence from Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…

  5. Ion irradiation-induced diffusion in bixbyite-fluorite related oxides: Dislocations and phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolly, Gaboriaud, E-mail: Rolly.gaboriaud@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS-University of Poitiers, SP2MI-BP 30179, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Fabien, Paumier [Institut Pprime, CNRS-University of Poitiers, SP2MI-BP 30179, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Bertrand, Lacroix [CSIC – University of Sevilla, Avenida Américo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Ion-irradiation induced diffusion and the phase transformation of a bixbyite-fluorite related rare earth oxide thin films are studied. This work is focused on yttrium sesquioxide, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin films deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique (IBS). As-deposited samples were annealed ant then irradiated at cryogenic temperature (80 K) with 260 keV Xe{sup 2+} at different fluences. The irradiated thin oxide films are characterized by X-ray diffraction. A cubic to monoclinic phase transformation was observed. Analysis of this phenomenon is done in terms of residual stresses. Stress measurements as a function of irradiation fluences were realised using the XRD-sin{sup 2}ψ method. Stress evolution and kinetic of the phase transformation are compared and leads to the role-played by the nucleation of point and extended defects.

  6. Note: Dynamic analysis of a robotic fish motion with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun; Kyung, Jinho; Lee, Sunghwi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences is studied, especially focusing on the energy consumption. Energies for thrusting a conventional robotic fish and one with caudal fin with vertical phase differences are obtained and compared each other. It is shown that a robotic fish with a caudal fin with vertical phase differences can save more energy, which implies the efficient thrusting via a vertically waving caudal fin.

  7. Sebum/Meibum Surface Film Interactions and Phase Transitional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Gerlach, Dylan; Yappert, Marta C

    2016-05-01

    Sebum may contribute to the composition of the tear film lipid layer naturally or as a contaminant artifact from collection. The aims of this study were to determine: if sebum changes the rheology of meibum surface films; if the resonance near 5.2 ppm in the 1H-NMR spectra of sebum is due to squalene (SQ); and if sebum or SQ, a major component of sebum, interacts with human meibum. Human meibum was collected from the lid margin with a platinum spatula. Human sebum was collected using lipid absorbent tape. Langmuir trough technology was used to measure the rheology of surface films. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure lipid conformation and phase transitions. We used 1H-NMR to measure composition and confirm the primary structure of SQ. The NMR resonance near 5.2 ppm in the spectra of human sebum was from SQ which composed 28 mole percent of sebum. Both sebum and SQ lowered the lipid order of meibum. Sebum expanded meibum films at lower concentrations and condensed meibum films at higher concentrations. Sebum caused meibum to be more stable at higher pressures (greater maximum surface pressure). Physiological levels of sebum would be expected to expand or fluidize meibum making it spread better and be more surface active (qualities beneficial for tear film stability). Sebum would also be expected to stabilize the tear film lipid layer, which may allow it to withstand the high shear pressure of a blink.

  8. Sebum/Meibum Surface Film Interactions and Phase Transitional Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Gerlach, Dylan; Yappert, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sebum may contribute to the composition of the tear film lipid layer naturally or as a contaminant artifact from collection. The aims of this study were to determine: if sebum changes the rheology of meibum surface films; if the resonance near 5.2 ppm in the 1H-NMR spectra of sebum is due to squalene (SQ); and if sebum or SQ, a major component of sebum, interacts with human meibum. Methods Human meibum was collected from the lid margin with a platinum spatula. Human sebum was collected using lipid absorbent tape. Langmuir trough technology was used to measure the rheology of surface films. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure lipid conformation and phase transitions. We used 1H-NMR to measure composition and confirm the primary structure of SQ. Results The NMR resonance near 5.2 ppm in the spectra of human sebum was from SQ which composed 28 mole percent of sebum. Both sebum and SQ lowered the lipid order of meibum. Sebum expanded meibum films at lower concentrations and condensed meibum films at higher concentrations. Sebum caused meibum to be more stable at higher pressures (greater maximum surface pressure). Conclusions Physiological levels of sebum would be expected to expand or fluidize meibum making it spread better and be more surface active (qualities beneficial for tear film stability). Sebum would also be expected to stabilize the tear film lipid layer, which may allow it to withstand the high shear pressure of a blink. PMID:27145473

  9. Comparison of different configurations of Phase Doppler Analyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaremba Matouš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A phase Doppler anemometry (PDA technique is widely used in experimental fluid mechanics to measure size and velocity of particles in the fluid flow. Even though this method is common in experimental fluid mechanics, there are only few techniques that might serve for the purpose of the evaluation of the PDA system. To examine results of the PDA visualizations techniques are usually used. However, this approach suffers from several aspects. Mainly, it is difficult to determine the exact position of the measurement volume of PDA system. Then it is complicated to determine which particles are passing through the measuring volume. Another way how to examine performance of the PDA system is to use two PDA systems simultaneously. By using one laser for both systems we can avoid previously mentioned aspects. In our experiments, we use fiber based PDA system and classical PDA system both made by Dantec Dynamics. The aim of this paper is to compare results from various configurations and highlight crucial parameters that influence measurements.

  10. Comparison of different configurations of Phase Doppler Analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Matouš; Malý, Milan; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    A phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique is widely used in experimental fluid mechanics to measure size and velocity of particles in the fluid flow. Even though this method is common in experimental fluid mechanics, there are only few techniques that might serve for the purpose of the evaluation of the PDA system. To examine results of the PDA visualizations techniques are usually used. However, this approach suffers from several aspects. Mainly, it is difficult to determine the exact position of the measurement volume of PDA system. Then it is complicated to determine which particles are passing through the measuring volume. Another way how to examine performance of the PDA system is to use two PDA systems simultaneously. By using one laser for both systems we can avoid previously mentioned aspects. In our experiments, we use fiber based PDA system and classical PDA system both made by Dantec Dynamics. The aim of this paper is to compare results from various configurations and highlight crucial parameters that influence measurements.

  11. RETRIEVAL OF AEROSOL PHASE FUNCTION AND POLARIZED PHASE FUNCTION FROM POLARIZATION OF SKYLIGHT FOR DIFFERENT OBSERVATION GEOMETRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phase function and polarized phase function are important optical parameters, which describe scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Polarization of skylight induced by the scattering processes is sensitive to the scattering properties of aerosols. The Stokes parameters I, Q, U and the polarized radiance Lp of skylight measured by the CIMEL dual-polar sun-sky radiometer CE318- DP can be use to retrieve the phase function and polarized phase function, respectively. Two different observation geometries (i.e., the principal plane and almucantar are preformed by the CE318-DP to detect skylight polarization. Polarization of skylight depends on the illumination and observation geometries. For the same solar zenith angle, retrievals of the phase function and the polarized phase function are still affected by the observation geometry. The performance of the retrieval algorithm for the principal plane and almucantar observation geometries was assessed by the numerical experiments at two typical high and low sun’s positions (i.e. solar zenith angles are equal to 45° and 65°. Comparing the results for the principal plane and almucantar geometries, it is recommended to utilize the principal plane observations to retrieve the phase function when the solar zenith angle is small. The Stokes parameter U and the polarized radiance Lp from the almucantar observations are suggested to retrieve the polarized phase function, especially for short wavelength channels (e.g., 440 and 500 nm.

  12. Retrieval of Aerosol Phase Function and Polarized Phase Function from Polarization of Skylight for Different Observation Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Qie, L. L.; Xu, H.; Li, Z. Q.

    2018-04-01

    The phase function and polarized phase function are important optical parameters, which describe scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Polarization of skylight induced by the scattering processes is sensitive to the scattering properties of aerosols. The Stokes parameters I, Q, U and the polarized radiance Lp of skylight measured by the CIMEL dual-polar sun-sky radiometer CE318- DP can be use to retrieve the phase function and polarized phase function, respectively. Two different observation geometries (i.e., the principal plane and almucantar) are preformed by the CE318-DP to detect skylight polarization. Polarization of skylight depends on the illumination and observation geometries. For the same solar zenith angle, retrievals of the phase function and the polarized phase function are still affected by the observation geometry. The performance of the retrieval algorithm for the principal plane and almucantar observation geometries was assessed by the numerical experiments at two typical high and low sun's positions (i.e. solar zenith angles are equal to 45° and 65°). Comparing the results for the principal plane and almucantar geometries, it is recommended to utilize the principal plane observations to retrieve the phase function when the solar zenith angle is small. The Stokes parameter U and the polarized radiance Lp from the almucantar observations are suggested to retrieve the polarized phase function, especially for short wavelength channels (e.g., 440 and 500 nm).

  13. Gender differences in triple jump phase ratios and arm swing motion of international level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female triple jumping is a relatively new athletics event. A limited number of researchers have focused on comparing male and female jumpers competing in international events, resulting in scarce findings in the literature regarding gender differences of the determinants of triple jump performance. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the possible gender differences in the approach step characteristics, the spatiotemporal parameters of the separate phases of the triple jump as performed by athletes participating in sub-elite international events. Methods: The male and female participants of the 2015 European Team Championships triple jump event were recorded with a panning video camera. Approach speed was measured using photocells. Kinematical parameters were extracted using the APAS WIZARD 13.3.0.3 software. The relationships between the examined parameters and the actual triple jump performance were examined with Pearson's correlation analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and chi-square statistical tests were run to examine the significance of the differences between genders. Results: Approach speed significantly correlated with the actual jumping distance in both males and females (p < .05. Significant gender differences (p < .05 existed concerning basic kinematical parameters. Men were found to have larger average horizontal speed of the 11 m to 1 m segment of the final approach, step length of the final six steps of the approach, step frequency of the final two steps, actual phase distances and percentage distribution of the step. Women, unlike men, used solely single arm swing techniques. No athlete executed the jump using a jump dominated technique. Conclusions: Gender differences in triple jump performance lies upon the kinematical parameters of the final two steps of the approach, the length of the step phase and the support time for the jump. The technique elements of the penultimate step are suggested to

  14. Phase difference estimation method based on data extension and Hilbert transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yan-lin; Tu, Ya-qing; Chen, Lin-jun; Shen, Ting-ao

    2015-01-01

    To improve the precision and anti-interference performance of phase difference estimation for non-integer periods of sampling signals, a phase difference estimation method based on data extension and Hilbert transform is proposed. Estimated phase difference is obtained by means of data extension, Hilbert transform, cross-correlation, auto-correlation, and weighted phase average. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed method suppresses the end effects of Hilbert transform effectively. The results of simulations and field experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves the anti-interference performance of phase difference estimation and has better performance of phase difference estimation than the correlation, Hilbert transform, and data extension-based correlation methods, which contribute to improving the measurement precision of the Coriolis mass flowmeter. (paper)

  15. Use of geostatistics on broiler production for evaluation of different minimum ventilation systems during brooding phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayla Morandi Ridolfi de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate different minimum ventilation systems, in relation to air quality and thermal comfort using geostatistics in brooding phase. The minimum ventilation systems were: Blue House I: exhaust fans + curtain management (end of the building; Blue House II: exhaust fans + side curtain management; and Dark House: exhaust fans + flag. The climate variables evaluated were: dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, during winter time, at 9 a.m., in 80 equidistant points in brooding area. Data were evaluated by geostatistic technique. The results indicate that Wider broiler houses (above 15.0 m width present the greatest ammonia and humidity concentration. Blue House II present the best results in relation to air quality. However, none of the studied broiler houses present an ideal thermal comfort.

  16. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two different mechanisms support selective attention at different phases of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Cha, Kexin; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T

    2017-06-01

    Selective attention supports the prioritized processing of relevant sensory information to facilitate goal-directed behavior. Studies in human subjects demonstrate that attentional gain of cortical responses can sufficiently account for attention-related improvements in behavior. On the other hand, studies using highly trained nonhuman primates suggest that reductions in neural noise can better explain attentional facilitation of behavior. Given the importance of selective information processing in nearly all domains of cognition, we sought to reconcile these competing accounts by testing the hypothesis that extensive behavioral training alters the neural mechanisms that support selective attention. We tested this hypothesis using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure stimulus-evoked visual responses from human subjects while they performed a selective spatial attention task over the course of ~1 month. Early in training, spatial attention led to an increase in the gain of stimulus-evoked visual responses. Gain was apparent within ~100 ms of stimulus onset, and a quantitative model based on signal detection theory (SDT) successfully linked the magnitude of this gain modulation to attention-related improvements in behavior. However, after extensive training, this early attentional gain was eliminated even though there were still substantial attention-related improvements in behavior. Accordingly, the SDT-based model required noise reduction to account for the link between the stimulus-evoked visual responses and attentional modulations of behavior. These findings suggest that training can lead to fundamental changes in the way attention alters the early cortical responses that support selective information processing. Moreover, these data facilitate the translation of results across different species and across experimental procedures that employ different behavioral training regimes.

  18. Two different mechanisms support selective attention at different phases of training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kexin; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Selective attention supports the prioritized processing of relevant sensory information to facilitate goal-directed behavior. Studies in human subjects demonstrate that attentional gain of cortical responses can sufficiently account for attention-related improvements in behavior. On the other hand, studies using highly trained nonhuman primates suggest that reductions in neural noise can better explain attentional facilitation of behavior. Given the importance of selective information processing in nearly all domains of cognition, we sought to reconcile these competing accounts by testing the hypothesis that extensive behavioral training alters the neural mechanisms that support selective attention. We tested this hypothesis using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure stimulus-evoked visual responses from human subjects while they performed a selective spatial attention task over the course of ~1 month. Early in training, spatial attention led to an increase in the gain of stimulus-evoked visual responses. Gain was apparent within ~100 ms of stimulus onset, and a quantitative model based on signal detection theory (SDT) successfully linked the magnitude of this gain modulation to attention-related improvements in behavior. However, after extensive training, this early attentional gain was eliminated even though there were still substantial attention-related improvements in behavior. Accordingly, the SDT-based model required noise reduction to account for the link between the stimulus-evoked visual responses and attentional modulations of behavior. These findings suggest that training can lead to fundamental changes in the way attention alters the early cortical responses that support selective information processing. Moreover, these data facilitate the translation of results across different species and across experimental procedures that employ different behavioral training regimes. PMID:28654635

  19. Thermodynamic and transport properties of uranium dioxide and related phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The high melting point of uranium dioxide and its stability under irradiation have led to its use as a fuel in a variety of types of nuclear reactors. A wide range of chemical and physical studies has been stimulated by this circumstances and by the complex nature of the uranium dioxide phase itself. The boundaries of this phase widen as the temperature is increased; at 2000 deg. K a single, homogeneous phase exists from U 2.27 to a hypostoichiometric (UO 2-x ) composition, depending on the oxygen potential of the surroundings. Since there is often an incentive to operate a reactor at the maximum practicable heat rating and, therefore, maximum thermal gradient in the fuel, the determination of the physical properties of the UO 2-x phase becomes a matter of great technological importance. In addition a complex sequence of U-O phases may be formed during the preparation of powder feed material or during the sintering process; these affect the microstructure and properties of the final product and have also received much attention. 184 refs, 33 figs, 15 tabs

  20. Current-induced massless mode of the interband phase difference in two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kato, G.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A current induces an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. • By controlling the boundary conditions, we can trap this phase difference. • A phase difference soliton is observed after switching off the current. - Abstract: There is a current-induced massless mode of an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. For a thin wire, the externally applied current always invokes a finite interband phase difference when the end of the wire is terminated by a natural boundary condition, i.e., where the total current is specified but the other parameters are left as free and a finite interband phase difference is allowed. This condition can be realized by the normal state region formed by the shrinking of a cross section of the wire where the critical current density is lower than that of the other region of the wire. The interband interaction in the wire cannot completely prevent the emergence of the interband phase difference, though it reduces it somewhat. Instead, boundary conditions determine the presence of the interband phase difference. By reverting the normal state into the superconducting state at the shrunken region by decreasing the current, we may trap a rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians of the interband phase difference in the wire. After switching off the current, this rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians, which continuously spreads over the whole wire, is separated into several interband phase difference solitons (i-solitons), where one i-soliton locally generates a 2π interband phase difference

  1. Right-sided phase abnormalities on gated blood pool ventriculography: Demonstration of six different patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, R.H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Ziada, G.; Al-Suhali, A.; Constantinides, C.; Nair, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Phase pattern abnormalities on multiple gated blood pool ventriculography are better reported for the left ventricle (LV) than for the right side of the heart. In a study of 92 patients who also underwent contrast ventriculography, the authors identified six different patterns of right-sided phase abnormalities and their causes: right bundle-branch block, causing delayed phase in the entire right ventricle (RV); ischemic right coronary artery disease, causing delayed phase in the inferior RV wall; pericardial effusion, causing an L-shaped area of delayed phase to the right of the septum and below the LV; pulmonary hypertension, causing delayed phase in the pulmonary infundibulum; tricuspid regurgitation, causing a crescentic area of delayed phase around and below the right RV and extending below the LV as well, and atrial septal defect causing an abnormally large auricular phase

  2. Plume Migration of Different Carbon Dioxide Phases During Geological Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the plume migration of mobile supercritical phase (flowing, aqueous phase (dissolved, and ionic phase CO2 (bicarbonate, and evaluates the spatial distribution of immobile supercritical phase (residual and mineral phase CO2 (carbonates when CO2 was sequestered. This utilized a simulation, in an anticline structure of a deep saline aquifer in the Tiechenshan (TCS field, Taiwan. All of the trapping mechanisms and different CO2 phases were studied using the fully coupled geochemical equation-of-state GEM compositional simulator. The mobile supercritical phase CO2 moved upward and then accumulated in the up-dip of the structure because of buoyancy. A large amount of immobile supercritical phase CO2 was formed at the rear of the moving plume where the imbibition process prevailed. Both the aqueous and ionic phase CO2 finally accumulated in the down-dip of the structure because of convection. The plume volume of aqueous phase CO2 was larger than that of the supercritical phase CO2, because the convection process increased vertical sweep efficiency. The up-dip of the structure was not the major location for mineralization, which is different from mobile supercritical phase CO2 accumulation.

  3. Temporal phase relation of circadian neural oscillations as the basis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    the day and the season of the year, it is not surprising that the temporal phase ..... germ cells, along with the formation of giant cells in some tubules. The spermatids ..... hourly intervals through the night to pinpoint more carefully the time of ...

  4. 49 CFR 268.3 - Different phases of the Maglev Deployment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Different phases of the Maglev Deployment Program... DEPLOYMENT PROGRAM Overview § 268.3 Different phases of the Maglev Deployment Program. (a) The Maglev... deadlines—based on the progress of the Maglev Deployment Program; grantees will be notified accordingly. (b...

  5. Socioeconomic differences in adolescent health-related behavior differ by gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential

  6. Determination of the single-phase constitutive relations of α/β dual phase TC6 titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ran; Li, Guoju [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing 100081 (China); Nie, Zhihua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Fan, Qunbo, E-mail: fanqunbo@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-10-15

    The constitutive relations of α and β phases in a TC6 titanium alloy were determined by implementing a two-phase elastic-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) framework combined with the evolution of lattice strains; these strains were obtained via in-situ tensile loading synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction experiments. It was found that the {200}{sub β} reflection has the lowest stiffness and load partitions prior to the α phase during the elastic loading stage in this alloy. The simulated parameters including the diffraction elastic constant and initial yield stress of lattice reflections exhibited satisfactory correspondence with the experimental results. Further analysis of the characteristics of the Schmid Factor (SF) distributions of the main slip systems revealed that the elastic-plastic transition process in the α phase occurs over a prolonged period. In contrast, the β phase undergoes a transient process owing to its relatively more concentrated SF frequency distributions, than those of the α phase. In addition, the fitted stress-strain curve of each phase was compared with the measured macro stress-strain curve obtained from the in-situ experiment. It revealed Young's moduli of 110.3 GPa and 104.5 GPa, and yield stresses of 877.8 MPa and 969 MPa, for the α and β phases, respectively.

  7. Discriminating the precipitation phase based on different temperature thresholds in the Songhua River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Keyuan; Zheng, Fenli; Xu, Ximeng; Qin, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Different precipitation phases (rain, snow or sleet) differ greatly in their hydrological and erosional processes. Therefore, accurate discrimination of the precipitation phase is highly important when researching hydrologic processes and climate change at high latitudes and mountainous regions. The objective of this study was to identify suitable temperature thresholds for discriminating the precipitation phase in the Songhua River Basin (SRB) based on 20-year daily precipitation collected from 60 meteorological stations located in and around the basin. Two methods, the air temperature method (AT method) and the wet bulb temperature method (WBT method), were used to discriminate the precipitation phase. Thirteen temperature thresholds were used to discriminate snowfall in the SRB. These thresholds included air temperatures from 0 to 5.5 °C at intervals of 0.5 °C and the wet bulb temperature (WBT). Three evaluation indices, the error percentage of discriminated snowfall days (Ep), the relative error of discriminated snowfall (Re) and the determination coefficient (R2), were applied to assess the discrimination accuracy. The results showed that 2.5 °C was the optimum threshold temperature for discriminating snowfall at the scale of the entire basin. Due to differences in the landscape conditions at the different stations, the optimum threshold varied by station. The optimal threshold ranged 1.5-4.0 °C, and 19 stations, 17 stations and 18 stations had optimal thresholds of 2.5 °C, 3.0 °C, and 3.5 °C respectively, occupying 90% of all stations. Compared with using a single suitable temperature threshold to discriminate snowfall throughout the basin, it was more accurate to use the optimum threshold at each station to estimate snowfall in the basin. In addition, snowfall was underestimated when the temperature threshold was the WBT and when the temperature threshold was below 2.5 °C, whereas snowfall was overestimated when the temperature threshold exceeded 4

  8. Relative importance of the different radionuclides for radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manesse, D.

    1984-12-01

    This paper tries, for several source-terms, to estimate the relative importance of the different families of radioactive products in the calculation of radiological consequences; the study takes place in the case of accidental situations of PWR reactors [fr

  9. Circadian rhythm phase shifts and endogenous free-running circadian period differ between African-Americans and European-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Charmane I; Suh, Christina; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J

    2015-02-11

    Successful adaptation to modern civilization requires the internal circadian clock to make large phase shifts in response to circumstances (e.g., jet travel and shift work) that were not encountered during most of our evolution. We found that the magnitude and direction of the circadian clock's phase shift after the light/dark and sleep/wake/meal schedule was phase-advanced (made earlier) by 9 hours differed in European-Americans compared to African-Americans. European-Americans had larger phase shifts, but were more likely to phase-delay after the 9-hour advance (to phase shift in the wrong direction). The magnitude and direction of the phase shift was related to the free-running circadian period, and European-Americans had a longer circadian period than African-Americans. Circadian period was related to the percent Sub-Saharan African and European ancestry from DNA samples. We speculate that a short circadian period was advantageous during our evolution in Africa and lengthened with northern migrations out of Africa. The differences in circadian rhythms remaining today are relevant for understanding and treating the modern circadian-rhythm-based disorders which are due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work, school and meals.

  10. Performance-related pay and gender wage differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...

  11. Study of Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Methane Phase Diagram Prediction using Two Different Potential Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad

    2011-06-06

    Lennard‐Jones (L‐J) and Buckingham exponential‐6 (exp‐6) potential models were used to produce isotherms for methane at temperatures below and above critical one. Molecular simulation approach, particularly Monte Carlo simulations, were employed to create these isotherms working with both canonical and Gibbs ensembles. Experiments in canonical ensemble with each model were conducted to estimate pressures at a range of temperatures above methane critical temperature. Results were collected and compared to experimental data existing in literature; both models showed an elegant agreement with the experimental data. In parallel, experiments below critical temperature were run in Gibbs ensemble using L‐J model only. Upon comparing results with experimental ones, a good fit was obtained with small deviations. The work was further developed by adding some statistical studies in order to achieve better understanding and interpretation to the estimated quantities by the simulation. Methane phase diagrams were successfully reproduced by an efficient molecular simulation technique with different potential models. This relatively simple demonstration shows how powerful molecular simulation methods could be, hence further applications on more complicated systems are considered. Prediction of phase behavior of elemental sulfur in sour natural gases has been an interesting and challenging field in oil and gas industry. Determination of elemental sulfur solubility conditions helps avoiding all kinds of problems caused by its dissolution in gas production and transportation processes. For this purpose, further enhancement to the methods used is to be considered in order to successfully simulate elemental sulfur phase behavior in sour natural gases mixtures.

  12. Representation of dynamic interaural phase difference in auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Malone, Brian J; Semple, Malcolm N

    2009-04-01

    Neurons in auditory cortex of awake primates are selective for the spatial location of a sound source, yet the neural representation of the binaural cues that underlie this tuning remains undefined. We examined this representation in 283 single neurons across the low-frequency auditory core in alert macaques, trained to discriminate binaural cues for sound azimuth. In response to binaural beat stimuli, which mimic acoustic motion by modulating the relative phase of a tone at the two ears, these neurons robustly modulate their discharge rate in response to this directional cue. In accordance with prior studies, the preferred interaural phase difference (IPD) of these neurons typically corresponds to azimuthal locations contralateral to the recorded hemisphere. Whereas binaural beats evoke only transient discharges in anesthetized cortex, neurons in awake cortex respond throughout the IPD cycle. In this regard, responses are consistent with observations at earlier stations of the auditory pathway. Discharge rate is a band-pass function of the frequency of IPD modulation in most neurons (73%), but both discharge rate and temporal synchrony are independent of the direction of phase modulation. When subjected to a receiver operator characteristic analysis, the responses of individual neurons are insufficient to account for the perceptual acuity of these macaques in an IPD discrimination task, suggesting the need for neural pooling at the cortical level.

  13. Impact of Three-Phase Relative Permeability and Hysteresis Models on Forecasts of Storage Associated With CO2-EOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; McPherson, Brian; Pan, Feng; Dai, Zhenxue; Moodie, Nathan; Xiao, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Geological CO2 sequestration in conjunction with enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) includes complex multiphase flow processes compared to CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Two of the most important factors affecting multiphase flow in CO2-EOR are three-phase relative permeability and associated hysteresis, both of which are difficult to measure and are usually represented by numerical interpolation models. The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of (1) the relative impacts of different three-phase relative permeability models and hysteresis models on CO2 trapping mechanisms, and (2) uncertainty associated with these two factors. Four different three-phase relative permeability models and three hysteresis models were applied to simulations of an active CO2-EOR site, the SACROC unit located in western Texas. To eliminate possible bias of deterministic parameters, we utilized a sequential Gaussian simulation technique to generate 50 realizations to describe heterogeneity of porosity and permeability, based on data obtained from well logs and seismic survey. Simulation results of forecasted CO2 storage suggested that (1) the choice of three-phase relative permeability model and hysteresis model led to noticeable impacts on forecasted CO2 sequestration capacity; (2) impacts of three-phase relative permeability models and hysteresis models on CO2 trapping are small during the CO2-EOR injection period, and increase during the post-EOR CO2 injection period; (3) the specific choice of hysteresis model is more important relative to the choice of three-phase relative permeability model; and (4) using the recommended three-phase WAG (Water-Alternating-Gas) hysteresis model may increase the impact of three-phase relative permeability models and uncertainty due to heterogeneity.

  14. Characterisation of different single and multilayer films using phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Thakur, S.

    1998-06-01

    Different single layers and multilayer coatings deposited by e-beam evaporation and r.f. sputtering techniques have been characterised by the Phase Modulated Spectroscopic Ellipsometer, installed recently in the Spectroscopy Division, B.A.R.C. The Phase Modulated technique provides a faster and more accurate data acquisition process than the conventional ellipsometry. Measurements have been done on single layers of Cu, Si and ZrO 2 films and on multilayer thin films devices e.g., high reflectivity mirror, beam combiner, beam splitter, narrow band filter etc. consisting of several bilayers of TiO 2 /SiO 2 . The measured Ellipsometry spectra is then fitted with a theoretical spectra generated assuming an appropriate model regarding the sample. The layer thickness and composition have been used as fitting parameters. The optical constants of the substrates have been supplied and a trial dispersion relation have been used for the layers. In case of inhomogeneous layers, trial compositions have been given for the individual components for each layer. The roughness of the layers has been taken into account by assuming the film to be an inhomogeneous mixture of material and voids. The fittings have been done objectively by minimising the squared difference (χ 2 ) between the measured and calculated values of the ellipsometric parameters and thus accurate information have been derived regarding the thickness and optical constants (viz, the refractive index and extinction coefficient) of the different layers, the surface roughness and the inhomogeneities present in the layers. (author)

  15. Simple markers for subclinical inflammation in the different phases of bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yildiz

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Recently, a growing number of publications have suggested that the immune-inflammatory system may be involved in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and red cell distribution width (RDW in the three different phases of BD patients compared to each other and controls. Methods: One hundred eighty-seven bipolar patients (78 euthymic, 53 manic/hypomanic and 56 depressed, and 62 age and sex matched controls were enrolled. Sociodemographic variables and complete blood count parameters of the patients and the control group were recorded. Results: The groups did not differ from each other on the hematological parameters, except for NLR and RDW. Post-hoc analyses revealed that NLR values were significantly higher in the euthymic and manic/hypomanic bipolar groups compared to control group. In addition, post-hoc analyses revealed that RDW values were significantly higher in the manic/hypomanic bipolar group relative to the control group. Discussion: Longitudinal studies evaluating the levels of inflammatory markers in the early phases of the disorder, and their relationship with the development of different episodes and medical comorbidities may be useful to understand the role of inflammation in BD.

  16. Differences in hamstring activation characteristics between the acceleration and maximum-speed phases of sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Ayako; Nagano, Yasuharu; Ono, Takashi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate activation characteristics of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles during the acceleration and maximum-speed phases of sprinting. Lower-extremity kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the BFlh and ST muscles were examined during the acceleration sprint and maximum-speed sprint in 13 male sprinters during an overground sprinting. Differences in hamstring activation during each divided phases and in the hip and knee joint angles and torques at each time point of the sprinting gait cycle were determined between two sprints. During the early stance of the acceleration sprint, the hip extension torque was significantly greater than during the maximum-speed sprint, and the relative EMG activation of the BFlh muscle was significantly higher than that of the ST muscle. During the late stance and terminal mid-swing of maximum-speed sprint, the knee was more extended and a higher knee flexion moment was observed compared to the acceleration sprint, and the ST muscle showed higher activation than that of the BFlh. These results indicate that the functional demands of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles differ between two different sprint performances.

  17. Political Efficacy in Adolescence: Development, Gender Differences, and Outcome Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…

  18. Phase-dependent quantum interference between different pathways in bichromatic harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Cai; Li-Ming, Wang; Hao-Xue, Qiao

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the harmonic generation of the hydrogen atom subjected to a collinear bichromatic laser field by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the split-operator pseudo-spectral method. By adding a frequency variation to the additional field, the contributions of different pathways to particular order harmonic generation can be isolated. The quantum interference pattern between harmonic pathways, which influences the harmonic intensity, is found to be either constructive or destructive with respect to different relative phase of the two field components. Detailed description of up to the 35th-order harmonics and the harmonic pathways for a wide range of field parameters is presented. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Phase transformation of aluminium hydroxide to aα- alumina prepared from different aluminium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masliana Muslimin; Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2006-01-01

    The study intends to look at the most suitable aluminium salt to produce a single-phase a-alumina by the hydrothermal method. In the process to produce alumina from the calcination of aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), three different aluminium salts namely aluminium sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 2), aluminium nitrate (A(NO 3 ) 3 ) and aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) were tried. The process involved the used of NH 4 OH as the precipitating medium. Aluminium hydroxide produced from each of these salts were characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to identity the crystalline phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced by all the different aluminium salts is present as boehmite or pseudo-boehmite phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced from Al 2 (SO) 2 , Al(NO) 3 and AlCl 3 shows the transformation of the boehmite phase to a α-alumina phase at 500 0 C. On further heating, the α-alumina continuously formed at 800 o C followed soon at 1000 o C. But for the Al(NO3) 3 salts a different phase transitions occurs on heating especially at 1000 o C. Here it was observed not a single alumina phase is presence but the presence of both α and γ--alumina phases. At 1300 o C, the single α-alumina phase was formed. The study concluded that aluminium sulphate is recommended in order to obtain a single-phase α-alumina with the required characteristics. (Author)

  20. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    2004-01-01

    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  1. The Effect of Wettability Heterogeneity on Relative Permeability of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: A Lattice Boltzmann Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Kang, Qinjun; Yao, Jun; Viswanathan, Hari; Pawar, Rajesh; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai

    2018-02-01

    Relative permeability is a critical parameter characterizing multiphase flow in porous media and it is strongly dependent on the wettability. In many situations, the porous media are nonuniformly wet. To investigate the effect of wettability heterogeneity on relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media, a multi-relaxation-time color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model is adopted to simulate oil/water two-phase flow in porous media with different oil-wet solid fractions. For the water phase, when the water saturation is high, the relative permeability of water increases with the increase of oil-wet solid fraction under a constant water saturation. However, as the water saturation decreases to an intermediate value (about 0.4-0.7), the relative permeability of water in fractionally wet porous media could be lower than that in purely water-wet porous media, meaning additional flow resistance exists in the fractionally wet porous media. For the oil phase, similar phenomenon is observed. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the wettability-related microscale fluid distribution. According to both our simulation results and theoretical analysis, it is found that the relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media is strongly related to three parameters: the fluid saturation, the specific interfacial length of fluid, and the fluid tortuosity in the flow direction. The relationship between the relative permeability and these parameters under different capillary numbers is explored in this paper.

  2. Efficiency in supercritical fluid chromatography with different superficially porous and fully porous particles ODS bonded phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E

    2012-03-09

    The chromatographic efficiency, in terms of plate number per second, was dramatically improved by the introduction of sub-two microns particles with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). On the other hand, the recent development of superficially porous particles, called core-shell or fused-core particles, appears to allow the achievement of the same efficiency performances at higher speed without high pressure drops. CO₂-based mobile phases exhibiting much lower viscosities than aqueous based mobile phases allow better theoretical efficiencies, even with 3-5 μm particles, but with relative low pressure drops. They also allow much higher flow rates or much longer columns while using conventional instruments capable to operate below 400 bar. Moreover, the use of superficially porous particles in SFC could enhance the chromatographic performances even more. The kinetic behavior of ODS phases bonded on these particles was studied, with varied flow rates, outlet (and obviously inlet) pressures, temperatures, by using a homologous series (alkylbenzenes) with 10% modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in the carbon dioxide mobile phase. Results were also compared with classical fully porous particles, having different sizes, from 2.5 to 5 μm. Superior efficiency (N) and reduced h were obtained with these new ODS-bonded particles in regards to classical ones, showing their great interest for use in SFC. However, surprising behavior were noticed, i.e. the increase of the theoretical plate number vs. the increase of the chain length of the compounds. This behavior, opposite to the one classically reported vs. the retention factor, was not depending on the outlet pressure, but on the flow rate and the temperature changes. The lower radial trans-column diffusion on this particle types could explain these results. This diffusion reduction with these ODS-bonded superficially porous particles seems to decrease with the increase of the residence time of compounds

  3. 7T T-2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, S.; Doan, N.T.; Versluis, M.J.; Goos, J.D.C.; Webb, A.G.; Oleksik, A.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Weverlinge-Rynsburger, A.W.E.; Blauw, G. J.; Reiber, J.H.C.; van Buchem, M.A.; Milles, J.; van der Grond, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T

  4. Study of pressure drop, void fraction and relative permeabilities of two phase flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Dhir, V.K.; Marshall, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two phase flow through porous layers formed of non-heated glass particles (nominal diameter 1 to 6 mm) has been made. Particulate bed depths of 30 cm and 70 cm were used. The effect of particle size, particle size distribution and bed porosity on void fraction and pressure drop through a particulate bed formed in a cylindrical test section has been investigated. The superficial velocity of liquid (water) is varied from 1.83 to 18.3 mm/s while the superficial velocity of gas (air) is varied from 0 to 68.4 mm/s. These superficial velocities were chosen so that pressure drop and void fraction measurement could be made for the porous layer in fixed and fluidized states. A model based on drift flux approach has been developed for the void fraction. Using the two phase friction pressure drop data, the relative permeabilities of the two phases have been concluded with void fraction. The void fraction and two phase friction pressure gradient in beds composed of mixtures of spherical particles as well as sharps of different nominal sizes have also been examined. It is found that the models for single size particles are also applicable to mixtures of particles if a mean particle diameter for the mixture is defined

  5. The Microstructure Evolution of Dual-Phase Pipeline Steel with Plastic Deformation at Different Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L. K.; Xu, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, H. T.; Tong, M. X.; Zhu, R. H.; Zhou, G. S.

    2017-07-01

    Tensile properties of the high-deformability dual-phase ferrite-bainite X70 pipeline steel have been investigated at room temperature under the strain rates of 2.5 × 10-5, 1.25 × 10-4, 2.5 × 10-3, and 1.25 × 10-2 s-1. The microstructures at different amount of plastic deformation were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Generally, the ductility of typical body-centered cubic steels is reduced when its stain rate increases. However, we observed a different ductility dependence on strain rates in the dual-phase X70 pipeline steel. The uniform elongation (UEL%) and elongation to fracture (EL%) at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1 increase about 54 and 74%, respectively, compared to those at 2.5 × 10-5 s-1. The UEL% and EL% reach to their maximum at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1. This phenomenon was explained by the observed grain structures and dislocation configurations. Whether or not the ductility can be enhanced with increasing strain rates depends on the competition between the homogenization of plastic deformation among the microconstituents (ultra-fine ferrite grains, relatively coarse ferrite grains as well as bainite) and the progress of cracks formed as a consequence of localized inconsistent plastic deformation.

  6. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  7. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  8. Spin interferometry and phase relations in three level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehring, M.; Stoll, M.E.; Wolff, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    The sign of the wavefunctions of deuterium, a spin-1 nucleus, under a 2π rotation (spinor character) has been studied with using a single crystal of 98% deuterated hexamethyl-benzene (HMB, C 6 (CD 3 ) 6 ). In a large magnetic fields, the three energy levels of the Zeeman hamiltonian have equal spacing, whereas unequivalent transition frequencies may occur if a suitable quadrupolar interaction is included. Three types of experiment are discussed. Simultaneous irradiation of both transitions with a field strength ω 1 in the x direction verified spin-locking, quadrature, or phase variation; consecutive irradiation at both transition with π-pulses showed coherence transfer from transition 1-2 to the forbidden transition 1-3; double quantum spinor behavior was demonstrated by applying rf field of strength ω 1 = γH 1 at the 'double quantum transition' frequency ω 0

  9. Age-Related Differences in Multiple Task Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men excee...

  10. Different responses of spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha activity to ambient luminance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-12-04

    Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse-correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear. Here, we investigated the effect of ambient luminance changes, known to dramatically modulate neural oscillations, on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha. We investigated the effect of ambient luminance on EEG alpha during spontaneous human brain activity at rest (experiment 1) and during visual stimulation (experiment 2). Results show that spontaneous alpha amplitude increased by decreasing ambient luminance, while alpha frequency remained unaffected. In the second experiment, we found that under low-luminance viewing, the stimulus-related alpha amplitude was lower, and its frequency was slightly faster. These effects were evident in the phase-locked part of the alpha response (echo function), but weaker or absent in the induced (non-phase-locked) alpha responses. Finally, we explored the possible behavioural correlates of these modulations in a monocular critical flicker frequency task (experiment 3), finding that dark adaptation in the left eye decreased the temporal threshold of the right eye. Overall, we found that ambient luminance changes impact differently on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha expression. We suggest that stimulus-related alpha activity is crucial in determining human temporal segmentation abilities. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. EEG Oscillations Are Modulated in Different Behavior-Related Networks during Rhythmic Finger Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Martin; Scherer, Reinhold; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-11-16

    Sequencing and timing of body movements are essential to perform motoric tasks. In this study, we investigate the temporal relation between cortical oscillations and human motor behavior (i.e., rhythmic finger movements). High-density EEG recordings were used for source imaging based on individual anatomy. We separated sustained and movement phase-related EEG source amplitudes based on the actual finger movements recorded by a data glove. Sustained amplitude modulations in the contralateral hand area show decrease for α (10-12 Hz) and β (18-24 Hz), but increase for high γ (60-80 Hz) frequencies during the entire movement period. Additionally, we found movement phase-related amplitudes, which resembled the flexion and extension sequence of the fingers. Especially for faster movement cadences, movement phase-related amplitudes included high β (24-30 Hz) frequencies in prefrontal areas. Interestingly, the spectral profiles and source patterns of movement phase-related amplitudes differed from sustained activities, suggesting that they represent different frequency-specific large-scale networks. First, networks were signified by the sustained element, which statically modulate their synchrony levels during continuous movements. These networks may upregulate neuronal excitability in brain regions specific to the limb, in this study the right hand area. Second, movement phase-related networks, which modulate their synchrony in relation to the movement sequence. We suggest that these frequency-specific networks are associated with distinct functions, including top-down control, sensorimotor prediction, and integration. The separation of different large-scale networks, we applied in this work, improves the interpretation of EEG sources in relation to human motor behavior. EEG recordings provide high temporal resolution suitable to relate cortical oscillations to actual movements. Investigating EEG sources during rhythmic finger movements, we distinguish sustained from

  12. Phase of Spontaneous Slow Oscillations during Sleep Influences Memory-Related Processing of Auditory Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Creery, Jessica D; Paller, Ken A

    2016-01-27

    Slow oscillations during slow-wave sleep (SWS) may facilitate memory consolidation by regulating interactions between hippocampal and cortical networks. Slow oscillations appear as high-amplitude, synchronized EEG activity, corresponding to upstates of neuronal depolarization and downstates of hyperpolarization. Memory reactivations occur spontaneously during SWS, and can also be induced by presenting learning-related cues associated with a prior learning episode during sleep. This technique, targeted memory reactivation (TMR), selectively enhances memory consolidation. Given that memory reactivation is thought to occur preferentially during the slow-oscillation upstate, we hypothesized that TMR stimulation effects would depend on the phase of the slow oscillation. Participants learned arbitrary spatial locations for objects that were each paired with a characteristic sound (eg, cat-meow). Then, during SWS periods of an afternoon nap, one-half of the sounds were presented at low intensity. When object location memory was subsequently tested, recall accuracy was significantly better for those objects cued during sleep. We report here for the first time that this memory benefit was predicted by slow-wave phase at the time of stimulation. For cued objects, location memories were categorized according to amount of forgetting from pre- to post-nap. Conditions of high versus low forgetting corresponded to stimulation timing at different slow-oscillation phases, suggesting that learning-related stimuli were more likely to be processed and trigger memory reactivation when they occurred at the optimal phase of a slow oscillation. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of memory reactivation during sleep, supporting the idea that reactivation is most likely during cortical upstates. Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by synchronized neural activity alternating between active upstates and quiet downstates. The slow-oscillation upstates are thought to provide a

  13. A multi-institutional survey evaluating patient related QA – phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In phase I of the survey a planning intercomparison of patient-related QA was performed at 12 institutions. The participating clinics created phantom based IMRT and VMAT plans which were measured utilizing the ArcCheck diode array. Mobius3D (M3D was used in phase II. It acts as a secondary dose verification tool for patient-specific QA based on average linac beam data collected by Mobius Medical Systems. All Quasimodo linac plans will be analyzed for the continuation of the intercomparison. We aim to determine if Mobius3D is suited for use with diverse treatment techniques, if beam model customization is needed. Initially we computed first Mobius3D results by transferring all plans from phase I to our Mobius3D server. Because of some larger PTV mean dose differences we checked if output factor customization would be beneficial. We performed measurements and output factor correction to account for discrepancies in reference conditions. Compared to Mobius3D's preconfigured average beam data values, these corrected output factors differed by ±1.5% for field sizes between 7x7cm2 and 30x30cm2 and to −3.9% for 3x3cm2. Our method of correcting the output factors turns out good congruence to M3D's reference values for these medium field sizes.

  14. Directional spectrum of ocean waves from array measurements using phase/time/path difference methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Menon, H.B.

    Wave direction has for the first time been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated from array measurements using the phase/time/path difference (PTPD) methods of Esteva in case of polygonal arrays and Borgman in case of linear arrays...

  15. The Effect of Different Phases of Synchrony on Pain Threshold in a Drumming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Sullivan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral synchrony has been linked to endorphin activity (Cohen et al., 2010; Sullivan and Rickers, 2013; Sullivan et al., 2014; Tarr et al., 2015, 2016; Weinstein et al., 2016. This has been called the synchrony effect. Synchrony has two dominant phases of movement; in-phase and anti-phase. The majority of research investigating synchrony’s effect on endorphin activity has focused on in-phase synchrony following vigorous activities. The only research to investigate the effects of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity found that anti-phase synchronized rowing did not produce the synchrony effect (Sullivan et al., 2014. Anti-phase synchrony, however, is counter-intuitive to the sport of rowing and may have interfered with the synchrony effect. This study investigated the effect of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity in a different task (i.e., drumming. University students (n = 30 were asked to drum solo and in in-phase and anti-phase pairs for 3 min. Pain threshold was assessed as an indirect indicator of endorphin activity prior to and following the task. Although the in-phase synchrony effect was not found, a repeated measures ANOVA found that there was a significant difference in pain threshold change among the three conditions [F(2,24 = 4.10, = 0.255, p < 0.05. Post hoc t-tests showed that the anti-phase condition had a significantly greater pain threshold change than both the solo and in-phase conditions at p < 0.05. This is the first time that anti-phase synchrony has been shown to produce the synchrony effect. Because anti-phase drumming may have required more attention between partners than in-phase synchrony, it may have affected self-other merging (Tarr et al., 2014. These results support Tarr et al.’s (2014 model that multiple mechanisms account for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold, and suggest that different characteristics of the activity may influence the synchrony effect.

  16. Different phase delays of peripheral input to primate motor cortex and spinal cord promote cancellation at physiological tremor frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koželj, Saša; Baker, Stuart N

    2014-05-01

    Neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex (M1) are partially phase-locked to cycles of physiological tremor, but with opposite phases. Convergence of spinal and cortical activity onto motoneurons may thus produce phase cancellation and a reduction in tremor amplitude. The mechanisms underlying this phase difference are unknown. We investigated coherence between spinal and M1 activity with sensory input. In two anesthetized monkeys, we electrically stimulated the medial, ulnar, deep radial, and superficial radial nerves; stimuli were timed as independent Poisson processes (rate 10 Hz). Single units were recorded from M1 (147 cells) or cervical spinal cord (61 cells). Ninety M1 cells were antidromically identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs); M1 neurons were additionally classified according to M1 subdivision (rostral/caudal, M1r/c). Spike-stimulus coherence analysis revealed significant coupling over a broad range of frequencies, with the strongest coherence at <50 Hz. Delays implied by the slope of the coherence phase-frequency relationship were greater than the response onset latency, reflecting the importance of late response components for the transmission of oscillatory inputs. The spike-stimulus coherence phase over the 6-13 Hz physiological tremor band differed significantly between M1 and spinal cells (phase differences relative to the cord of 2.72 ± 0.29 and 1.72 ± 0.37 radians for PTNs from M1c and M1r, respectively). We conclude that different phases of the response to peripheral input could partially underlie antiphase M1 and spinal cord activity during motor behavior. The coordinated action of spinal and cortical feedback will act to reduce tremulous oscillations, possibly improving the overall stability and precision of motor control. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Age-Related Reversals in Neural Recruitment across Memory Retrieval Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-17

    Over the last several decades, neuroimaging research has identified age-related neural changes that occur during cognitive tasks. These changes are used to help researchers identify functional changes that contribute to age-related impairments in cognitive performance. One commonly reported example of such a change is an age-related decrease in the recruitment of posterior sensory regions coupled with an increased recruitment of prefrontal regions across multiple cognitive tasks. This shift is often described as a compensatory recruitment of prefrontal regions due to age-related sensory-processing deficits in posterior regions. However, age is not only associated with spatial shifts in recruitment, but also with temporal shifts, in which younger and older adults recruit the same neural region at different points in a task trial. The current study examines the possible contribution of temporal modifications in the often-reported posterior-anterior shift. Participants, ages 19-85, took part in a memory retrieval task with a protracted retrieval trial consisting of an initial memory search phase and a subsequent detail elaboration phase. Age-related neural patterns during search replicated prior reports of age-related decreases in posterior recruitment and increases in prefrontal recruitment. However, during the later elaboration phase, the same posterior regions were associated with age-related increases in activation. Further, ROI and functional connectivity results suggest that these posterior regions function similarly during search and elaboration. These results suggest that the often-reported posterior-anterior shift may not reflect the inability of older adults to engage in sensory processing, but rather a change in when they recruit this processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current study provides evidence that the often-reported posterior-anterior shift in aging may not reflect a global sensory-processing deficit, as has often been reported, but rather a

  18. Audibility of spectral differences in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The spatial resolution at which head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are available is an important aspect in the implementation of three-dimensional sound. Specifically, synthesis of moving sound requires that HRTFs are sufficiently close so the simulated sound is perceived as moving smoothly....... How close they must be, depends directly on how much the characteristics of neighboring HRTFs differ, and, most important, when these differences become audible. Differences between HRTFs exist in the interaural delay (ITD) and in the spectral characteristics, i.e. the magnitude spectrum of the HRTFs...

  19. Racial Differences in College Students' Assessments of Campus Race Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; McCallum, Debra M.; Hughes, Michael; Smith, Gabrielle P. A.; McKnight, Utz

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the principles of critical race theory, we sought to understand how race and racism help explain differences in White and Black students' assessments of race relations on a predominantly White college campus. The authors employed data from a campus-wide survey conducted in Spring 2013 at the University of Alabama; the sample numbered…

  20. Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university workers to resolving conflict through mediation. ... df =253, P>0.05). It is therefore recommended that university workers should be adequately trained in the procedures of using mediation so as to build their capacity in resolving conflict at home and workplace.

  1. Adolescent Friendship Relations and Developmental Outcomes: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…

  2. Individual Differences on Job Stress and Related Ill Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodraga Stefanovska Petkovska

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Employees are exposed to many potential work related stressors which differently affect their job satisfaction and result in ill health. A better understanding of the individual characteristics and potential stressors should subsequently help managers' better deal with this problem. This underlines the need for further research and design of stress reduction interventions.

  3. Adolescent friendship relations and developmental outcomes: ethnic and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The

  4. Another Look at Gender-Related Differences in Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Dorothy; Green, Samuel, B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines self-related behavioral differences in terms of broad leadership styles. While male leaders used a more social style than female leaders, both male and female leaders used language that indicated a task-oriented approach to a significantly greater degree when instructing a female rather than a male subordinate. (Author/LHW)

  5. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  6. Chaos resulting from nonlinear relations between different variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohtani, Akitaka

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We prove a general result on the existence of chaos. → We focus on the cyclic composites of interdependent relations between different variables. → By considering several examples, we conclude that the cyclic composites play an important role in detecting chaotic dynamics. - Abstract: In this study, we further develop the perturbation method of Marotto and investigate the general mechanisms responsible for nonlinear dynamics, which are typical of multidimensional systems. We focus on the composites of interdependent relations between different variables. First, we prove a general result on chaos, which shows that the cyclic composites of nonlinear interdependent relations are sources of chaotic dynamics in multidimensional systems. By considering several examples, we conclude that the cyclic composites play an important role in detecting chaotic dynamics.

  7. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Observation of different phases during an ELM crash with the help of nitrogen seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P A; Wolfrum, E; Dunne, M G.; Dux, R; Gude, A; Kurzan, B; Pütterich, T; Rathgeber, S K.; Weller, A; Wenninger, R; Vicente, J

    2014-01-01

    A new method was applied to indirectly obtain information about the features of the crash of the H-mode edge transport barrier in consequence of an edge localized mode (ELM). The method is based on a combination of fast measurements, without spatial resolution, and relatively slow measurements, with high spatial resolution. The comparison of two different ELM scenarios in the full metal tokamak ASDEX Upgrade—a standard scenario and one with additional nitrogen seeding—revealed a two-fold nature of the ELM crash. In the case with additional nitrogen only a part of the standard crash is observed. This suggests the standard ELM crash consists of two or more consecutive events instead of a single distinct one. Some of these events are observed to be suppressed with changes in plasma parameters. The effect of the impurity seeding on different plasma parameters is documented in detail and compared to measurements conducted in machines with a carbon wall. The radial extent of the phases observed during the ELM crash differs in the kinetic profiles, with one instability extending inside the pedestal top and the other being confined to the pedestal region. This picture can explain the differences in the loss of stored energy and the change in ELM frequency which are observed for the analysed pair of discharges. It also suggests that the ELM crash starts at the pedestal top and only then affects the steep gradient region. (paper)

  9. Differences in Funding Sources of Phase III Oncology Clinical Trials by Treatment Modality and Cancer Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Vikram; Yu, James B; Aneja, Sanjay; Wilson, Lynn D; Lloyd, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Given the limited resources available to conduct clinical trials, it is important to understand how trial sponsorship differs among different therapeutic modalities and cancer types and to consider the ramifications of these differences. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for a cross-sectional register of active, phase III, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying treatment-related endpoints such as survival and recurrence for the 24 most prevalent malignancies. We classified the RCTs into 7 categories of therapeutic modality: (1) chemotherapy/other cancer-directed drugs, (2) targeted therapy, (3) surgery, (4) radiation therapy (RT), (5) RT with other modalities, (6) multimodality therapy without RT, and (7) other. RCTs were categorized as being funded by one or more of the following groups: (1) government, (2) hospital/university, (3) industry, and (4) other. χ analysis was performed to detect differences in funding source distribution between modalities and cancer types. The percentage of multimodality trials (5%) and radiation RCTs (4%) funded by industry was less than that for chemotherapy (32%, Pfunding than any of the other modalities (Pfunded by industry if they also studied targeted therapy (Pfunded by industry than trials studying multimodality therapy or radiation. The impact of industry funding versus institutional or governmental sources of funding for cancer research is unclear and requires further study.

  10. Emotion perception and empathy: An individual differences test of relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    Numerous theories posit a positive relation between perceiving emotion expressed in the face of a stranger (emotion perception) and feeling or cognitively understanding the emotion of that person (affective and cognitive empathy, respectively). However, when relating individual differences in emotion perception with individual differences in affective or cognitive empathy, effect sizes are contradictory, but often not significantly different from zero. Based on 4 studies (study ns range from 97 to 486 persons; n total = 958) that differ from one another on many design and sample characteristics, applying advanced modeling techniques to control for measurement error, we estimate relations between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and emotion perception. Relations are tested separately for each of the 6 basic emotions (an emotion-specific model) as well as across all emotions (an emotion-general model). Reflecting the literature, effect sizes and statistical significance with an emotion-general model vary across the individual studies (rs range from -.001 to .24 for emotion perception with affective empathy and -.01 to .39 for emotion perception with cognitive empathy), with a meta-analysis of these results indicating emotion perception is weakly related with affective (r = .13, p = .003) and cognitive empathy (r = .13, p = .05). Relations are not strengthened in an emotion-specific model. We argue that the weak effect sizes and inconsistency across studies reflects a neglected distinction of measurement approach-specifically, empathy is assessed as typical behavior and emotion perception is assessed as maximal effort-and conclude with considerations regarding the measurement of each construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  12. Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of "same or different".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Antone; Kacelnik, Alex

    2016-07-15

    The ability to identify and retain logical relations between stimuli and apply them to novel stimuli is known as relational concept learning. This has been demonstrated in a few animal species after extensive reinforcement training, and it reveals the brain's ability to deal with abstract properties. Here we describe relational concept learning in newborn ducklings without reinforced training. Newly hatched domesticated mallards that were briefly exposed to a pair of objects that were either the same or different in shape or color later preferred to follow pairs of new objects exhibiting the imprinted relation. Thus, even in a seemingly rigid and very rapid form of learning such as filial imprinting, the brain operates with abstract conceptual reasoning, a faculty often assumed to be reserved to highly intelligent organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Modern Evaluation of Liquisolid Systems with Varying Amounts of Liquid Phase Prepared Using Two Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Vraníková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquisolid systems are an innovative dosage form used for enhancing dissolution rate and improving in vivo bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations require specific evaluation methods for their quality assurance (e.g., evaluation of angle of slide, contact angle, or water absorption ratio. The presented study is focused on the preparation, modern in vitro testing, and evaluation of differences of liquisolid systems containing varying amounts of a drug in liquid state (polyethylene glycol 400 solution of rosuvastatin in relation to an aluminometasilicate carrier (Neusilin US2. Liquisolid powders used for the formulation of final tablets were prepared using two different methods: simple blending and spraying of drug solution onto a carrier in fluid bed equipment. The obtained results imply that the amount of liquid phase in relation to carrier material had an effect on the hardness, friability, and disintegration of tablets, as well as their height. The use of spraying technique enhanced flow properties of the prepared mixtures, increased hardness values, decreased friability, and improved homogeneity of the final dosage form.

  14. Obesity-related differences in neural correlates of force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Shortz, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    Greater body segment mass due to obesity has shown to impair gross and fine motor functions and reduce balance control. While recent studies suggest that obesity may be linked with altered brain functions involved in fine motor tasks, this association is not well investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural correlates of motor performance in non-obese and obese adults during force control of two upper extremity muscles. Nine non-obese and eight obese young adults performed intermittent handgrip and elbow flexion exertions at 30% of their respective muscle strengths for 4 min. Functional near infrared spectroscopy was employed to measure neural activity in the prefrontal cortex bilaterally, joint steadiness was computed using force fluctuations, and ratings of perceived exertions (RPEs) were obtained to assess perceived effort. Obesity was associated with higher force fluctuations and lower prefrontal cortex activation during handgrip exertions, while RPE scores remained similar across both groups. No obesity-related differences in neural activity, force fluctuation, or RPE scores were observed during elbow flexion exertions. The study is one of the first to examine obesity-related differences on prefrontal cortex activation during force control of the upper extremity musculature. The study findings indicate that the neural correlates of motor activity in the obese may be muscle-specific. Future work is warranted to extend the investigation to monitoring multiple motor-function related cortical regions and examining obesity differences with different task parameters (e.g., longer duration, increased precision demands, larger muscles, etc.).

  15. Automatic mimicry reactions as related to differences in emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnby-Borgström, Marianne

    2002-12-01

    The hypotheses of this investigation were derived by conceiving of automatic mimicking as a component of emotional empathy. Differences between subjects high and low in emotional empathy were investigated. The parameters compared were facial mimicry reactions, as represented by electromyographic (EMG) activity when subjects were exposed to pictures of angry or happy faces, and the degree of correspondence between subjects' facial EMG reactions and their self-reported feelings. The comparisons were made at different stimulus exposure times in order to elicit reactions at different levels of information processing. The high-empathy subjects were found to have a higher degree of mimicking behavior than the low-empathy subjects, a difference that emerged at short exposure times (17-40 ms) that represented automatic reactions. The low-empathy subjects tended already at short exposure times (17-40 ms) to show inverse zygomaticus muscle reactions, namely "smiling" when exposed to an angry face. The high-empathy group was characterized by a significantly higher correspondence between facial expressions and self-reported feelings. No differences were found between the high- and low-empathy subjects in their verbally reported feelings when presented a happy or an angry face. Thus, the differences between the groups in emotional empathy appeared to be related to differences in automatic somatic reactions to facial stimuli rather than to differences in their conscious interpretation of the emotional situation.

  16. High-pressure phase relations and thermodynamic properties of CaAl 4Si 2O 11 CAS phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaogi, M.; Haraguchi, M.; Yaguchi, M.; Kojitani, H.

    2009-03-01

    Phase relations in CaAl4Si2O11 were examined at 12-23 GPa and 1000-1800 °C by multianvil experiments. A three-phase mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum is stable below about 13 GPa at 1000-1800 °C. At higher pressure and at temperature below about 1200 °C, a mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum is stable, indicating the decomposition of kyanite. Above about 1200 °C, CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase is stable at pressure higher than about 13 GPa. The triple point is placed at 14.7 GPa and 1280 °C. The equilibrium boundary of formation of CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum has a small negative slope, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum has a strongly negative slope, while the decomposition boundary of kyanite has a small positive slope. Enthalpies of the transitions were measured by high-temperature drop-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation of CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum was 139.5 ± 15.6 kJ/mol, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum was 94.2 ± 15.4 kJ/mol. The transition boundaries calculated using the measured enthalpy data were consistent with those determined by the high-pressure experiments. The boundaries in this study are placed about 3 GPa higher in pressure and about 200 °C lower in temperature than those by Zhai and Ito [Zhai, S., Ito, E., 2008. Phase relations of CaAl4Si2O11 at high-pressure and high-temperature with implications for subducted continental crust into the deep mantle. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 167, 161-167]. Combining the thermodynamic data measured in this study with those in the literature, dissociation boundary of CAS phase into a mixture of Ca-perovskite, corundum and stishovite and that of grossular into Ca-perovskite plus corundum were calculated to further constrain the stability field of CAS phase. The result suggests that the stability of CAS phase would be limited at the bottom of

  17. Comparison of phase-constrained parallel MRI approaches: Analogies and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaimer, Martin; Heim, Marius; Neumann, Daniel; Jakob, Peter M; Kannengiesser, Stephan; Breuer, Felix A

    2016-03-01

    Phase-constrained parallel MRI approaches have the potential for significantly improving the image quality of accelerated MRI scans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of two different phase-constrained parallel MRI formulations, namely the standard phase-constrained approach and the virtual conjugate coil (VCC) concept utilizing conjugate k-space symmetry. Both formulations were combined with image-domain algorithms (SENSE) and a mathematical analysis was performed. Furthermore, the VCC concept was combined with k-space algorithms (GRAPPA and ESPIRiT) for image reconstruction. In vivo experiments were conducted to illustrate analogies and differences between the individual methods. Furthermore, a simple method of improving the signal-to-noise ratio by modifying the sampling scheme was implemented. For SENSE, the VCC concept was mathematically equivalent to the standard phase-constrained formulation and therefore yielded identical results. In conjunction with k-space algorithms, the VCC concept provided more robust results when only a limited amount of calibration data were available. Additionally, VCC-GRAPPA reconstructed images provided spatial phase information with full resolution. Although both phase-constrained parallel MRI formulations are very similar conceptually, there exist important differences between image-domain and k-space domain reconstructions regarding the calibration robustness and the availability of high-resolution phase information. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Different Phases of Earthquake Cycle Reflected in GPS Measured Crustal Deformations along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, G.; Klotz, J.

    2001-12-01

    largest ever recorded earthquake on the earth. To properly interpret given observations, we developed the fully \\textsc{3D} Andean Elastic Dislocation Model (AEDM), which is used to explain the dominant inter-seismic signal. The subtraction of the AEDM predicted deformation rates from the observations leads towards the "filtered" residual velocity field, that can be used to highlight, for example, the post-seismic deformation effects. Also, in the central section of the SAGA network, the residual velocity field indicates the existence of more long-term (i.e. geologic) deformations. In summary, the changing spatial-temporal pattern of GPS measured crustal deformation rates along the central and southern Andes is governed by the relative importance of different phases of earthquake deformation cycle.

  19. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending.

  20. S-phase cell distribution in the small intestine irradiated at different times of the day. 2. Recovery phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Fabbrica, D [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1983-01-01

    Modifications occurring during recovery in the small intestine of animals exposed to the same radiation dose given at different times of the day were evaluated. S-phase cell distribution along the crypts and invertase activity were evaluated to ascertain the functional capacity of epithelial cells. In animals killed between 5 and 6 days after exposure, S-phase cell distribution and functional conditions tended towards normality although recovery was not complete. Labelled cells occurred also at villus junctions, demonstrating limitation in size of the differentiating compartment. This was confirmed by reduced activity of the brush border enzymes. Animals irradiated at the end of the dark period recovered more quickly and efficiently. In this group, labelled cell distribution was almost the same as in the controls starting from 120 h, and invertase activity was also closer to the controls than in any other group.

  1. Timely event-related synchronization fading and phase de-locking and their defects in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Myung-Kul; Moon, Jin-Hwa; Kang, Joong Koo; Kwon, Oh-Young; Park, Ki-Jong; Shon, Young-Min; Lee, Il Keun; Jung, Ki-Young

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of event-related synchronization (ERS) fading and phase de-locking of alpha waves during passive auditory stimulation (PAS) in the migraine patients. The subjects were 16 adult women with migraine and 16 normal controls. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data obtained during PAS with standard (SS) and deviant stimuli (DS) were used. Alpha ERS fading, the phase locking index (PLI) and de-locking index (DLI) were evaluated from the 10 Hz complex Morlet wavelet components at 100 ms (t100) and 300 ms (t300) after PAS. At t100, significant ERS was found with SS and DS in the migraineurs and controls (P=0.000). At t300 in the controls, ERS faded to zero for DS while in the migraineurs there was no fading for DS. In both groups the PLI for SS and DS was significantly reduced, i.e. de-locked, at t300 compared to t100 (P=0.000). In the migraineurs, the DLI for DS was significantly lower than in the controls (P=0.003). The alpha ERS fading and phase de-locking are defective in migraineurs during passive auditory cognitive processing. The defects in timely alpha ERS fading and in de-locking may play a role in the different attention processing in migraine patients. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relations between the kinetic equation and the Langevin models in two-phase flow modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss PDF and stochastic models which are used in two-phase flow modelling. The aim of the present analysis is essentially to try to determine relations and consistency between different models. It is first recalled that different approaches actually correspond to PDF models written either in terms of the process trajectories or in terms of the PDF itself. The main difference lies in the choice of the independent variables which are retained. Two particular models are studied, the Kinetic Equation and the Langevin Equation model. The latter uses a Langevin equation to model the fluid velocities seen along particle trajectories. The Langevin model is more general since it contains an additional variable. It is shown that, in certain cases, this variable can be summed up exactly to retrieve the Kinetic Equation model as a marginal PDF. A joint fluid and solid particle PDF which includes the characteristics of both phases is proposed at the end of the paper. (author)

  3. The relationship between optical guiding and the relative phase in free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, H.P.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between the relative phase and optical guiding in the free-electron laser is studied. The relative phase in this case is defined as the shift in the wavenumber from the vacuum value integrated over the interaction length. In terms of the optical guiding of the signal in free-electron lasers, the relative phase must be positive in order for refractive guiding of the signal to occur. The relative phase is studied from the standpoint of the linear stability analysis in both the high- and low-gain regimes, and the qualitative implications in each of these regimes of the relative phase on the refractive guiding of the signal are identical. Specifically, the relative phase is found to be negative at the low-frequency over this band until it turns positive at a frequency approximately 10% below the frequency of peak gain. Thus optical guiding is indicated over a large portion, but not all, of the gain band. A quantitative measure of the optical guiding of the signal is obtained by an analytic formulation of the guiding of the signal. This formulation is based upon a separable beam approximation in which the evolution of the signal is determined by a Green's function analysis. The specific example of interest involves the low-gain regime prior to saturation. In this case, it is shown that the analytic result is in substantial agreement with the calculation of the relative phase

  4. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender-related differences in individuals seeking treatment for kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (PKleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.

  6. The effect of phase difference between powered electrodes on RF plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proschek, M; Yin, Y; Charles, C; Aanesland, A; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M; Boswell, R W

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements carried out on plasmas created in five different RF discharge systems. These systems all have two separately powered RF (13.56 MHz) electrodes, but differ in overall size and in the geometry of both vacuum chambers and RF electrodes or antennae. The two power supplies were synchronized with a phase-shift controller. We investigated the influence of the phase difference between the two RF electrodes on plasma parameters and compared the different system geometries. Single Langmuir probes were used to measure the plasma parameters in a region between the electrodes. Floating potential and ion density were affected by the phase difference and we found a strong influence of the system geometry on the observed phase difference dependence. Both ion density and floating potential curves show asymmetries around maxima and minima. These asymmetries can be explained by a phase dependence of the time evolution of the electrode-wall coupling within an RF-cycle resulting from the asymmetric system geometry

  7. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Hibiki, T.; Mishima, K.; Nishihara, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Kanda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1998-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor there is a possibility of boiling of fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the recriticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large density difference is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although the large density difference may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with large density difference has not been performed well. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography. The effect of the large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified. (author)

  8. Respiratory functions in asthmatic and normal women during different phases of menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, D.B.; Sandhu, P.K.; Dhillon, S.; Arora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cycle is an integral part of life of women. There is widespread agreement that changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone associated with menstrual cycle also affect different systems of the body besides reproductive system. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone are maximum in the secretory phase and minimum just before the menstruation .Bronchial asthma is one of the commonest chronic respiratory diseases. Premenstrual worsening of asthma symptoms has been reported to affect 33-40% of asthmatic women. This exacerbation of asthma symptoms has been correlated with the oestrogen and progesterone levels. The association between menstrual cycle and lung functions in normal females has also been recognised. The pathophysiology of this process is still not proved. The purpose of our study was to confirm the probable effects of the female hormones on lung functions in normal and asthmatic women in different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare them. Methods: The study was done on 40 normal and 40 asthmatic females in the age group of 15-45 years. Pulmonary function tests were done in three phases of menstrual cycle i.e. follicular, secretory and menstrual in all the subjects. Results: The mean value of lung functions, i.e., FVC, FEV, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 200-1200 were significantly lower in asthmatic females than normal ones (p<0.01) in all three phases. The lung functions of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic females in secretory phase were significantly higher than in menstrual phase (p<0.005). The PFTs in menstrual phase were even lower than the follicular phase (p<0.04). Conclusion: Respiratory parameters of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic women in reproductive age group show significant variation in different phases of menstrual cycle. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of progesterone and probably oestrogen might have contributed to it. The lung function parameters in asthmatics were of lower value compared to normal women. (author)

  9. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Gyrator transform of Gaussian beams with phase difference and generation of hollow beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyu; Xia, Hui; Yu, Tao; Xie, Ding; Xie, Wenke

    2018-03-01

    The optical expression of Gaussian beams with phase difference, which is caused by gyrator transform (GT), has been obtained. The intensity and phase distribution of transform Gaussian beams are analyzed. It is found that the circular hollow vortex beam can be obtained by overlapping two GT Gaussian beams with π phase difference. The effect of parameters on the intensity and phase distributions of the hollow vortex beam are discussed. The results show that the shape of intensity distribution is significantly influenced by GT angle α and propagation distance z. The size of the hollow vortex beam can be adjusted by waist width ω 0. Compared with previously reported results, the work shows that the hollow vortex beam can be obtained without any model conversion of the light source.

  11. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Abé

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  12. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  13. Different phases of a system of hard rods on three dimensional cubic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwar, N.; Dhar, Deepak; Rajesh, R.

    2017-11-01

    We study the different phases of a system of monodispersed hard rods of length k on a cubic lattice, using an efficient cluster algorithm able to simulate densities close to the fully-packed limit. For k≤slant 4 , the system is disordered at all densities. For k=5, 6 , we find a single density-driven transition, from a disordered phase to high density layered-disordered phase, in which the density of rods of one orientation is strongly suppressed, breaking the system into weakly coupled layers. Within a layer, the system is disordered. For k ≥slant 7 , three density-driven transitions are observed numerically: isotropic to nematic to layered-nematic to layered-disordered. In the layered-nematic phase, the system breaks up into layers, with nematic order in each layer, but very weak correlation between the ordering directions of different layers. We argue that the layered-nematic phase is a finite-size effect, and in the thermodynamic limit, the nematic phase will have higher entropy per site. We expect the systems of rods in four and higher dimensions will have a qualitatively similar phase diagram.

  14. A discussion of hyperbolicity in CATHENA 4. Virtual mass and phase-to-interface pressure differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, Nusret U.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the one-dimensional equations of motion for two-phase flow are non-hyperbolic. Non-hyperbolicity can lead to numerical instabilities, destroying the solution. However, researchers in the last few decades were able to show that inclusion of virtual mass and/or phase-to-interface pressure differences in the momentum equations successfully render the equations of motion hyperbolic. In the present paper, the effect of including virtual mass and phase-to-interface pressure terms in the momentum equations on the hyperbolicity of the two-phase model in the CATHENA 4 code is discussed. The study is motivated by the fact that the inclusion of either model has been shown in the open literature to lead to a hyperbolic system separately. However, no known study exists that examine hyperbolicity in the presence of both these terms in the momentum equations. In this work, both terms are considered in the model equations simultaneously and their implications on the hyperbolicity of the two-phase model are discussed. Specifically, it is shown that in the case of mixed flow, there is a distinct region of non-hyperbolicity that developers need to be aware of when their equations include both the virtual mass and the phase-to-interface terms. Selecting the coefficients of phase-to-interface pressure difference terms properly ensures that the equations are hyperbolic for a wide range of conditions. (orig.)

  15. Mycotoxin production in wheat grains by different Aspergilli in relation to different relative humidities and storage periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalla, Mohamed Mabrouk; Hassanein, Naziha Mohamed; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; Youssef, Youssef Abdel-ghany

    2003-02-01

    Four different Aspergilli (Aspergillus oryzae, A. parasiticus, A. terreus and A. versicolor) were grown on wheat grains underdifferent degrees of relative humidity 14, 50, 74, 80 and 90%. Samples of wheat grains were taken monthly for a period of six months and examined for mycotoxin production. A. oryzae was found to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, zearalenone, DON and T-2 toxins under elevated degrees of humidity and prolonged periods of storage. A. parasiticus produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV, DON and T-2 toxins in high concentrations during a period of not more than three months storage at 14% relative humidity; at an increased level of relative humidity of 74% ochratoxin A, zearalenone and sterigmatocystin were also produced at high levels. The isolate was drastic in toxin production. A. terrus produced toxins at 14% relative humidity (aflatoxin G2 and DON) at levels much higher than any other prevalent degrees of humidity. A. versicolor is highly sensitive to relative humidity and grain moisture content It produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV and DON at a relative humidity of 50% and another toxins (aflatoxin G2, ochratoxins A, B and zearalenone) at 74%. The microorganism can be considered a trichothecene producer under suitable relative humidity.

  16. Relating Fresh Concrete Viscosity Measurements from Different Rheometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Martys, Nicos S

    2003-01-01

    Concrete rheological properties need to be properly measured and predicted in order to characterize the workability of fresh concrete, including special concretes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). It was shown by a round-robin test held in 2000 [1,2] that different rheometer designs gave different values of viscosity for the same concrete. While empirical correlation between different rheometers was possible, for a procedure that is supposed to "scientifically" improve on the empirical slump tests, this situation is unsatisfactory. To remedy this situation, a new interpretation of the data was developed. In this paper, it is shown that all instruments tested could be directly and quantitatively compared in terms of relative plastic viscosity instead of the plastic viscosity alone. This should eventually allow the measurements from various rheometer designs to be directly calibrated against known standards of plastic viscosity, putting concrete rheometry and concrete workability on a sounder materials science basis.

  17. Automatic frequency and phase alignment of in vivo J-difference-edited MR spectra by frequency domain correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, Evita C; Philips, Bart W J; Heerschap, Arend; van der Graaf, Marinette

    2017-12-01

    J-difference editing is often used to select resonances of compounds with coupled spins in 1 H-MR spectra. Accurate phase and frequency alignment prior to subtracting J-difference-edited MR spectra is important to avoid artefactual contributions to the edited resonance. In-vivo J-difference-edited MR spectra were aligned by maximizing the normalized scalar product between two spectra (i.e., the correlation over a spectral region). The performance of our correlation method was compared with alignment by spectral registration and by alignment of the highest point in two spectra. The correlation method was tested at different SNR levels and for a broad range of phase and frequency shifts. In-vivo application of the proposed correlation method showed reduced subtraction errors and increased fit reliability in difference spectra as compared with conventional peak alignment. The correlation method and the spectral registration method generally performed equally well. However, better alignment using the correlation method was obtained for spectra with a low SNR (down to ~2) and for relatively large frequency shifts. Our correlation method for simultaneously phase and frequency alignment is able to correct both small and large phase and frequency drifts and also performs well at low SNR levels.

  18. Task-and phase-related changes in cortico-muscular coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masakado, Yoshihisa; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    -level tonic dorsiflexion. In all subjects coherence disappeared during the ramp phase for both isometric and quasi-isotonic contraction. Coherence at other frequencies was also not observed in any of the subjects during the ramp phase. During the hold phase at the stronger level of contraction coherence...... reappeared quickly and had the same size as at the low level of contraction. However, a significantly larger level of coherence was found during quasi-isotonic than during the isometric contraction. This demonstrates that cortico-muscular coherence in the 15-35 Hz frequency band is phase- and task......-related. The decrease in 15-35 Hz coherence during the ramp phase may be related to event-related desynchronization of EEG activity. The larger level of coherence during quasi-isotonic contraction may reflect a higher demand of precise control of the joint position. It may also reflect a greater need for binding...

  19. Plasticity-induced characteristic changes of pattern dynamics and the related phase transitions in small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xu-Hui; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Orofacial muscular activity and related skin movement during the preparatory and sustained phases of tone production on the French horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takeshi; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.

  1. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian Modeling of the Dynamics of Phase Modulations and their Application to Auditory Evoked Responses at Different Loudness Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab eMortezapouraghdam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of long-term habituation signatures of auditory selective attention reflected in the instantaneous phase information of the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs at four distinct stimuli levels of 60dB SPL, 70dB SPL, 80dB SPL and 90dB SPL. The analysis is based on the single-trial level. The effect of habituation can be observed in terms of the changes (jitter in the instantaneous phase information of ERPs. In particular, the absence of habituation is correlated with a consistently high phase synchronization over ERP trials.We estimate the changes in phase concentration over trials using a Bayesian approach, in which the phase is modeled as being drawn from a von Mises distribution with a concentration parameter which varies smoothly over trials. The smoothness assumption reflects the fact that habituation is a gradual process.We differentiate between different stimuli based on the relative changes and absolute values of the estimated concentration parameter using the proposed Bayesian model.

  3. Opto-electronic properties of bismuth oxide films presenting different crystallographic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Celia L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, UNAM, Unidad de Posgrado, Edificio C, Piso 1, Zona Cultural de CU, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Depablos-Rivera, Osmary, E-mail: osmarydep@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, UNAM, Unidad de Posgrado, Edificio C, Piso 1, Zona Cultural de CU, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Calz. México Xochimilco No. 289 Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, C.P.14389, Ciudad de México, D.F. (Mexico); Muhl, Stephen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Zeinert, Andreas; Lejeune, Michael; Charvet, Stephane; Barroy, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Camps, Enrique [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, kilómetro 36.5. La Marquesa, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, CP 52750, Estado de México (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-03-02

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of bismuth oxide thin films deposited by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering were studied. The Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates under different power and substrate temperatures in an oxygen-enriched plasma leading to films with different crystalline phase as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were measured using ellipsometric spectroscopy and optical transmission spectra. In order to parameterize the optical dispersion functions (n, k) of the films, the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion model was used. The optical bandgap was then assessed by different methods and the results are compared to the thermal variations of the electrical resistivity of the films. It was found that the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical gap strongly depend on the deposition conditions and the crystalline phase; the fluorite defect cubic δ-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase showed the lowest optical gap and lower resistivity. - Highlights: • Different bismuth oxide phases were obtained by sputtering. • The power and substrate temperature were the two key parameters. • Room temperature delta-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were obtained. • The optical bandgap was around 1.5 and 2.2 eV, depending on the phase. • The bismuth oxide films presented activation energies around 1 eV.

  4. Opto-electronic properties of bismuth oxide films presenting different crystallographic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Celia L.; Depablos-Rivera, Osmary; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Muhl, Stephen; Zeinert, Andreas; Lejeune, Michael; Charvet, Stephane; Barroy, Pierre; Camps, Enrique; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-01-01

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of bismuth oxide thin films deposited by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering were studied. The Bi 2 O 3 thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates under different power and substrate temperatures in an oxygen-enriched plasma leading to films with different crystalline phase as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were measured using ellipsometric spectroscopy and optical transmission spectra. In order to parameterize the optical dispersion functions (n, k) of the films, the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion model was used. The optical bandgap was then assessed by different methods and the results are compared to the thermal variations of the electrical resistivity of the films. It was found that the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical gap strongly depend on the deposition conditions and the crystalline phase; the fluorite defect cubic δ-Bi 2 O 3 phase showed the lowest optical gap and lower resistivity. - Highlights: • Different bismuth oxide phases were obtained by sputtering. • The power and substrate temperature were the two key parameters. • Room temperature delta-Bi 2 O 3 thin films were obtained. • The optical bandgap was around 1.5 and 2.2 eV, depending on the phase. • The bismuth oxide films presented activation energies around 1 eV

  5. Age-related differences in the attention network test (ANT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboz, Nadia; Zamarian, Stefania; Cavallero, Corrado

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of aging on alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution by assessing younger (mean age = 25.8) and older (mean age = 67.9) adults' performance in the Attention Network Test that combines, in a single experimental paradigm, a flanker task with alerting and orienting cues. The analyses of response times indicated equivalent orienting and conflict resolution effects in younger and older adults. By contrast, alerting was found to be significantly reduced in the elderly. This result is only marginally in accordance with recent studies addressing the issues of age-related differences in alerting, which provide mixed results. The possible role of methodological differences across studies in accounting for the controversial results concerning the aging affect on alerting is discussed.

  6. Phase transition of the nucleon-antinucleon plasma at different ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Jansen, M.; Timoteo, V. S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate phase transitions for the Walecka model at very high temperatures. As is well known, depending on the parametrization of this model and for the particular case of a zero chemical potential (μ), a first-order phase transition is possible [J. Theis, G. Graebner, G. Buchwald, J. A. Maruhn, W. Greiner, H. Stocker, and J. Polonyi, Phys. Rev. D 28, 2286 (1983)]. We investigate this model for the case in which μ≠0. It turns out that, in this situation, phases with different values of antinucleon-nucleon ratios and net baryon densities may coexist. We present the temperature versus antinucleon-nucleon ratio as well as the temperature versus the net baryon density for the coexistence region. The temperature versus chemical potential phase diagram is also presented

  7. The difference of phase distributions in silicon after indentation with Berkovich and spherical indenters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarudi, I.; Zhang, L.C.; Cheong, W.C.D.; Yu, T.X.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the microstructure of monocrystalline silicon after indentation with a Berkovich and spherical indenter. Transmission electron microscopy on cross section view samples was used to explore the detailed distributions of various phases in the subsurfaces of indented silicon. It was found that an increase of the P max would promote the growth of the crystalline R8/BC8 phase at the bottom of the deformation zone. Microcracks were always generated in the range of the P max studied. It was also found that the deformation zones formed by the Berkovich and spherical indenters have very different phase distribution characteristics. A molecular dynamics simulation and finite element analysis supported the experimental observations and suggested that the distribution of the crystalline phases in the transformation zone after indentation was highly stress-dependent

  8. Data and analyses of phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daiman; Xu, Chengliang; Li, Changrong; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Raowen; Du, Zhenmin; Li, Junqin

    2018-02-01

    These data and analyses support the research article "Experimental study on phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system" Zhu et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include the experimental results of XRD, SEM and EPMA for the determination of the whole liquidus projection and the isothermal section at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb system. All the results enable the understanding of the constituent phases and the solidification processes of the as-cast alloys as well as the phase relations and the equilibrium regions at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system over the entire composition.

  9. The relative stability of dislocations embedded in the β phase matrix and in martensite phases in copper based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovey, Francisco; Hazarabedian, Alfredo; Garces, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    Dislocations are formed during martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys. The number of dislocations (with Burgers vector →b β = a o and line direction in the β phase) increases when the material is subjected to thermoelastic or pseudoelastic cycles. The dislocations are accumulated in the sample and are incorporated in the corresponding growing phase. The relative energy of the dislocations when embedded in the parent phase (with respect to b) one or another variant of martensite is evaluated in this work. The crystallographic changes of the dislocations provide a primary selection rule for those martensite variants in which the dislocations have the lowest energy. In order to proceed more quantitatively a full calculation of the dislocation energies has to be performed using the anisotropic theory. In this work these calculations have been made on the basis of measured elastic constants of the β and 2H phases of a Cu-Al-Ni alloy. It is concluded that those martensite variants are favored energetically whose basal plane contains the Burgers vector and line direction of the dislocations (Splitting into Shockley partials is suggested to occur). The importance of this result for the two-way shape memory (TWSM) effect is discussed and a mechanism is proposed which can account for the multiplication of dislocations during the transformation. (Author)

  10. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investi......The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate the blood flow pat- terns within a group of healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry...... to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender is observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development....

  11. Nucleosome-coupled expression differences in closely-related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbia Marinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy is negatively related to the average level of transcription factor motif binding based on studies in yeast and several other model organisms. The degree to which nucleosome-motif interactions relate to phenotypic changes across species is, however, unknown. Results We address this challenge by generating nucleosome positioning and cell cycle expression data for Saccharomyces bayanus and show that differences in nucleosome occupancy reflect cell cycle expression divergence between two yeast species, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Specifically, genes with nucleosome-depleted MBP1 motifs upstream of their coding sequence show periodic expression during the cell cycle, whereas genes with nucleosome-shielded motifs do not. In addition, conserved cell cycle regulatory motifs across these two species are more nucleosome-depleted compared to those that are not conserved, suggesting that the degree of conservation of regulatory sites varies, and is reflected by nucleosome occupancy patterns. Finally, many changes in cell cycle gene expression patterns across species can be correlated to changes in nucleosome occupancy on motifs (rather than to the presence or absence of motifs. Conclusions Our observations suggest that alteration of nucleosome occupancy is a previously uncharacterized feature related to the divergence of cell cycle expression between species.

  12. A new method for the experimental determination of three-phase relative permeabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Carrillo, Edgar Ricardo; Jose Francisco Zapata Arango; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Petroleum reservoirs under primary, secondary or tertiary recovery processes usually experience simultaneous flow of three fluids phases (oil, water and gas). Reports on some mathematical models for calculating three-phase relative permeability are available in the Literature. Nevertheless, many of these models were designed based on certain experimental conditions and reservoir rocks and fluids. Therefore, special care has to be taken when applying them to specific reservoirs. At the laboratory level, three-phase relative permeability can be calculated using experimental unsteady-state or steady state methodologies. This paper proposes an unsteady-state methodology to evaluate three-phase relative permeability using the equipment available at the petrophysical analysis Laboratory of the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP) of Ecopetrol S.A. Improvements to the equipment were effected in order to achieve accuracy in the unsteady-state measurement of three-phase relative permeability. The target of improvements was directed toward to the attainment of two objectives:1) the modification of the equipment to obtain more reliable experimental data and 2) the appropriate interpretation of the data obtained. Special attention was given to the differential pressure and uncertainty measurement in the determination of fluid saturation in the rock samples. Three experiments for three-phase relative permeability were conducted using a sample A and reservoir rock from the Colombian Foothills. Fluid tests included the utilization of synthetic brine, mineral oil, reservoir crude oil and nitrogen. Two runs were conducted at the laboratory conditions while one run was conducted at reservoir conditions. Experimental results of these tests were compared using 16 mathematical models of three-phase relative permeability. For the three-phase relative permeability to oil, the best correlations between experimental data and tests using Blunt, Hustad Hasen, and Baker's models were

  13. Angular-dependent light scattering from cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Weng, Lingdong; Zhou, Yong

    2017-10-10

    Cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle result in significant differences in light scattering properties. In order to harvest cancer cells in particular phases of the cell cycle, we cultured cancer cells through the process of synchronization. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to check the results of cell synchronization and prepare for light scattering measurements. Angular-dependent light scattering measurements of cancer cells arrested in the G1, S, and G2 phases have been performed. Based on integral calculations for scattering intensities from 5° to 10° and from 110° to 150°, conclusions have been reached. Clearly, the sizes of the cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle dominated the forward scatter. Accompanying the increase of cell size with the progression of the cell cycle, the forward scattering intensity also increased. Meanwhile, the DNA content of cancer cells in every phase of the cell cycle is responsible for light scattering at large scatter angles. The higher the DNA content of cancer cells was, the greater the positive effect on the high-scattering intensity. As expected, understanding the relationships between the light scattering from cancer cells and cell cycles will aid in the development of cancer diagnoses. Also, it may assist in the guidance of antineoplastic drugs clinically.

  14. Age-hardening and related phase transformation in an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hyo-Joung; Lee, Doung-Hun; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Takada, Yukyo; Okuno, Osamu; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2006-01-01

    The age-hardening behaviour, phase transformation and related microstructural changes of an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy were examined by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The specimen alloy showed apparent age-hardenability at the aging temperatures of 350 deg. C and 400 deg. C. By aging the solution-treated specimen at 400 deg. C, two phases of the Ag-rich α 1 phase and the Pd-containing Cu-rich α 2 phase were transformed into four phases of the Ag-rich α 1 ' phase, the Cu-rich α 2 ' phase, the CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase. Microstructure of the solution-treated specimen consisted of the Ag-rich α 1 matrix, Cu-rich α 2 particle-like structures of various sizes and the lamellar structure of the α 1 and α 2 phases. When the peak hardness was obtained, the very fine lamellar structure consisting of the Ag-rich α 1 ' and Cu-rich α 2 ' phases was newly formed in the matrix. By further aging, the very fine lamellar structure grew and coarsened apparently, and the matrix was covered with the coarsened lamellar structure. The hardness increase was considered to be caused mainly by the diffusion and precipitation of Cu from the Ag-rich α 1 matrix, and the hardness decrease in the latter stage of age-hardening process was caused by the coarsening of the very fine lamellar structure. The CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase did not contribute to the hardness increase

  15. Age-hardening and related phase transformation in an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hyo-Joung [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doung-Hun [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Kyung [Department of Dental Technology, Daegu Health College, San 7 Taejeon-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-722 (Korea, Republic of); Takada, Yukyo [Division of Dental Biomaterials, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Okuno, Osamu [Division of Dental Biomaterials, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kwon, Yong Hoon [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Il [Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 1-10 Ami-dong, Seo-gu, Pusan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hilkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2006-01-05

    The age-hardening behaviour, phase transformation and related microstructural changes of an experimental Ag-Cu-Pd-Au alloy were examined by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The specimen alloy showed apparent age-hardenability at the aging temperatures of 350 deg. C and 400 deg. C. By aging the solution-treated specimen at 400 deg. C, two phases of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} phase and the Pd-containing Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2} phase were transformed into four phases of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1}{sup '} phase, the Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2}{sup '} phase, the CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase. Microstructure of the solution-treated specimen consisted of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} matrix, Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2} particle-like structures of various sizes and the lamellar structure of the {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases. When the peak hardness was obtained, the very fine lamellar structure consisting of the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1}{sup '} and Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 2}{sup '} phases was newly formed in the matrix. By further aging, the very fine lamellar structure grew and coarsened apparently, and the matrix was covered with the coarsened lamellar structure. The hardness increase was considered to be caused mainly by the diffusion and precipitation of Cu from the Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 1} matrix, and the hardness decrease in the latter stage of age-hardening process was caused by the coarsening of the very fine lamellar structure. The CsCl-type CuPd phase and the AuCu(I) ordered phase did not contribute to the hardness increase.

  16. Small airway function changes and its clinical significance of asthma patients in different clinical phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hui Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and ΔFEV1, ΔFEF75% and ΔFEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test. Results: It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01. In addition, except for group C, ΔFEF75%,ΔFEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than ΔFEV1 levels (P<0.01. Conclusions: Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.

  17. Cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation: relation to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation.

  18. Phase relations and gibbs energies in the system Mn-Rh-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K. T.; Sriram, M. V.

    1994-07-01

    Phase relations in the system Mn-Rh-O are established at 1273 K by equilibrating different compositions either in evacuated quartz ampules or in pure oxygen at a pressure of 1.01 × 105 Pa. The quenched samples are examined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The alloys and intermetallics in the binary Mn-Rh system are found to be in equilibrium with MnO. There is only one ternary compound, MnRh2O4, with normal spinel structure in the system. The compound Mn3O4 has a tetragonal structure at 1273 K. A solid solution is formed between MnRh2O4 and Mn3O4. The solid solution has the cubic structure over a large range of composition and coexists with metallic rhodium. The partial pressure of oxygen corresponding to this two-phase equilibrium is measured as a function of the composition of the spinel solid solution and temperature. A new solid-state cell, with three separate electrode compartments, is designed to measure accurately the chemical potential of oxygen in the two-phase mixture, Rh + Mn3-2xRh2xO4, which has 1 degree of freedom at constant temperature. From the electromotive force (emf), thermodynamic mixing properties of the Mn3O4-MnRh2O4 solid solution and Gibbs energy of formation of MnRh2O4 are deduced. The activities exhibit negative deviations from Raoult’s law for most of the composition range, except near Mn3O4, where a two-phase region exists. In the cubic phase, the entropy of mixing of the two Rh3+ and Mn3+ ions on the octahedral site of the spinel is ideal, and the enthalpy of mixing is positive and symmetric with respect to composition. For the formation of the spinel (sp) from component oxides with rock salt (rs) and orthorhombic (orth) structures according to the reaction, MnO (rs) + Rh2O3 (orth) → MnRh2O4 (sp), ΔG° = -49,680 + 1.56T (±500) J mol-1 The oxygen potentials corresponding to MnO + Mn3O4 and Rh + Rh2O3 equilibria are also obtained from potentiometric measurements on galvanic

  19. The clonic phase of seizures in patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy is related to age and stimulus intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh eTseng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in patients who are drug-naïve or less-receptive to antipsychotic drugs. Several studies have discussed the correlation between patient characteristics, input current volume and seizure duration. According to the present principle of ECT guidelines, the therapeutic effect of ECT mostly correlates with seizure duration. As the tonic phase is different from the clonic phase with respect to brain function and activity, it is informative to analyse both the tonic and clonic phases. Thus, this study sought to clarify the relationship between the features of the two phases, and to re-examine and refine guidelines regarding ECT treatment.Method: ECT-course data from 44 schizophrenia patients were recollected, including the number of treatments that they had received, their gender, age, and the association of these characteristics with motor seizure duration was analysed. A two-factor correlation was employed to test the relationship between each of the two factors.Result: The meta-analysis results indicate that seizure duration and age are significantly correlated. Older patients had relatively short seizure durations after ECT-treatment. Notably, a negative correlation was only found between age and the clonic phase of the seizure, not between age and the tonic phase. Furthermore, this study also found an inverse relationship between ECT-intensity and the clonic phase, but not between ECT-intensity and the tonic phase.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that age and ECT-intensity are negatively correlated with seizure duration, particularly in the clonic phase. The present observations are not fully consistent with the basic guidelines of the APA-ECT practical manual. Accordingly, the predictions regarding the therapeutic effect of ECT can be based on both the seizure duration and the clonic phase.

  20. Ag-related alloy formation and magnetic phases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Tsai, Du-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Chen, Wei-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    The Kerr intensity versus the Ag thickness for Ag grown on the top of Co/Ir(111) exhibits an oscillating behavior with a period around one monolayer which should be due to the morphological change related electronic structure differences of the Ag layer. From systematical investigations of Ag/Co/Ir(111) films with the Co layer thinner than 4 monolayers at temperatures below 900 K, a magnetic phase diagram has been established. As the annealing temperature increases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) films, enhancements of the coercive force occur in both the polar and longitudinal configurations due to the intermixing of Ag and Co at the interface and the formation of Co–Ir alloy. The disappearance of ferromagnetism is mainly attributed to the reduced atomic percent of cobalt in Co–Ir alloy, the lowered Curie temperature by a reduction of the thickness of magnetic layers, and the intermixing of Ag and Co at the Ag/Co interface. - Highlights: • An oscillating behavior occurs due to the morphological change for Ag on Co/Ir(111). • A magnetic phase diagram has been established for Ag/Co/Ir(111). • Some Ag atoms intermix with the underlying Co layer at high temperatures. • Polar coercive force is enhanced due to the compositional change

  1. Determinants related to gender differences in general practice utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50-65 years. DESIGN: Cohort-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Danish general practice. SUBJECTS: Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer...... information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. RESULTS: Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude....... Strongest determinants for GP use among Danish adults aged 50-65 years were the presence of medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment, while lifestyle factors (e.g., body mass index, alcohol consumption and smoking) had minor effect....

  2. Experimental comparison of phase retrieval methods which use intensity distribution at different planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevkunov, I A; Petrov, N V

    2014-01-01

    Performance of the three phase retrieval methods that use spatial intensity distributions was investigated in dealing with a task of reconstruction of the amplitude characteristics of the test object. These methods differ both by mathematical models and order of iteration execution. The single-beam multiple-intensity reconstruction method showed the best efficiency in terms of quality of reconstruction and time consumption.

  3. Mid-IR spectra of different conformers of phenylalanine in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Helden, G.; Compagnon, I.; Blom, M. N.; Frankowski, M.; Erlekam, U.; Oomens, J.; Brauer, B.; Gerber, R. B.; Meijer, G.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental mid- and far-IR spectra of six conformers of phenylalanine in the gas phase are presented. The experimental spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP and at the MP2 level. The differences between B3LYP and MP2 IR spectra are found to be small. The agreement between

  4. Solvation Dynamics in Different Phases of the Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bibhisan; Satpathi, Sagar; Gavvala, Krishna; Koninti, Raj Kumar; Hazra, Partha

    2015-09-03

    Reverse hexagonal (HII) liquid crystalline material based on glycerol monooleate (GMO) is considered as a potential carrier for drugs and other important biomolecules due to its thermotropic phase change and excellent morphology. In this work, the dynamics of encapsulated water, which plays important role in stabilization and formation of reverse hexagonal mesophase, has been investigated by time dependent Stokes shift method using Coumarin-343 as a solvation probe. The formation of the reverse hexagonal mesophase (HII) and transformation to the L2 phase have been monitored using small-angle X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy experiments. REES studies suggest the existence of different polar regions in both HII and L2 systems. The solvation dynamics study inside the reverse hexagonal (HII) phase reveals the existence of two different types of water molecules exhibiting dynamics on a 120-900 ps time scale. The estimated diffusion coefficients of both types of water molecules obtained from the observed dynamics are in good agreement with the measured diffusion coefficient collected from the NMR study. The calculated activation energy is found to be 2.05 kcal/mol, which is associated with coupled rotational-translational water relaxation dynamics upon the transition from "bound" to "quasi-free" state. The observed ∼2 ns faster dynamics of the L2 phase compared to the HII phase may be associated with both the phase transformation as well as thermotropic effect on the relaxation process. Microviscosities calculated from time-resolved anisotropy studies infer that the interface is almost ∼22 times higher viscous than the central part of the cylinder. Overall, our results reveal the unique dynamical features of water inside the cylinder of reverse hexagonal and inverse micellar phases.

  5. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation at different menstrual cycle phases in diagnosis of uterine lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishaiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishaiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad2, Nazila Karimpour1, Nikol Mladkova3, Farzaneh Boromand11Department of Gynecology, 2Student Research Committee (SRC, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UKPurpose: Intrauterine lesions (IULs are a common finding in women of reproductive age, particularly infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS is a popular tool for IUL detection, but there are conflicting data with respect to its accuracy.Methods: Five hundred and six women were enrolled into the study. Of these, 496 underwent hysterosalpingography and subsequent TVS six different times during the course of their menstrual cycle. If a lesion was detected, it was further evaluated by sonohysterography (SHG and hysteroscopy.Results: Of 496 women, 41 were shown to have IULs by TVS and those lesions were confirmed in 39 by SHG and hysteroscopy. All 39 lesions were detectable during the ovulatory and early luteal phase (days 16–19 of the menstrual cycle. Accuracy of TVS during different phases was largely dependent on the size of the lesion. TVS falsely detected two lesions and missed fine adhesions in two patients.Conclusion: Accuracy of TVS in detection of IULs is highly dependent on the menstrual cycle phase, with the ovulatory and early luteal phase being the optimal time for this examination.Keywords: menstrual cycle phase, space occupying lesions, transvaginal sonography

  6. EXPLORING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, GAS PHASE METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass–metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ∼130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%–55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  7. Voltage harmonic variation in three-phase induction motors with different coil pitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ram; Moses, Anthony John; Anayi, Fatih

    2006-01-01

    A pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter feeding four different chorded three-phase induction motors was tested for low-order odd harmonic voltage component and efficiency at different loads. Total harmonic distortion (THD) due to 3rd, 5th and 9th harmonics was less in a motor with 160 o coil pitch. Particular harmonic order for each coil pitch was suppressed and the efficiency of a 120 o coil pitch motor was increased by 7.5%

  8. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase relations and physicochemical properties of the ammonium paratungstate - polyvinyl alcohol - water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroushko, A.A.; Mikhalev, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    Phase relations were studied in the ammonium paratungstate - polyvinyl alcohol - water system, isothermal cross section of the phase diagram was obtained at room temperature. Visual and microscopic observations, as well as instrumental methods were used for the detection of lines of the homogeneous polymer-salt solutions existence. Concentration ratios of density of solutions, their dynamic viscosity and refractive index were studied. Area of polymer based solutions, area of salt crystallization, heterogeneous fields with two or three phases were separated. As compared with the ammonium heptamolybdate - polyvinyl alcohol - water system the increase of solubility of components under day lighting and ultraviolet radiation escaped detection. The studied system is provided properties indicative of the formation of mesomorphic phase, photochemical reduction of ions of d-metals for the occurrence of this phase is not requirement [ru

  10. The Phase Envelope of Multicomponent Mixtures in the Presence of a Capillary Pressure Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando; Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2016-01-01

    for test mixtures with wide ranges of compositions at different capillary radii and vapor fractions. The calculation results show that the phase envelope changes everywhere except at the critical point. The bubble point and the lower branch of the dew point show a decrease in the saturation pressure......, whereas the upper branch of the dew point shows an increase. The cricondentherm is shifted to a higher temperature. We also presented a mathematical analysis of the phase envelope shift due to capillary pressure based on linear approximations. The resulting linear approximation equations can predict...... the magnitude of shift, and the approximation is close for the change in the bubble point pressure....

  11. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in... to perform the type of activity to be funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion... provided a letter in support of continued funding of DAI/IRRP based, on part, on the importance of the...

  12. Solar forced Dansgaard-Oeschger events and their phase relation with solar proxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Peter; Braun, H.; Chialvo, D. R.

    2008-01-01

    of a highly nonlinear system to quasi-periodic solar forcing plus noise. This hypothesis was challenged as inconsistent with the observed variability in the phase relation between proxies of solar activity and Greenland climate. Here we reject the claim of inconsistency by showing that this phase variability...... is a robust, generic feature of the nonlinear dynamics of DO events, as described by a model. This variability is expected from the fact that the events are threshold crossing events, resulting from a cooperative process between the periodic forcing and the noise. This process produces a fluctuating phase...

  13. Experimental analysis of influence of different lubricants types on the multi-phase ironing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Djordjević

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting results of an experimental analysis of the different types of lubricants influence on the multi-phase ironing process. Based on sliding of the metal strip between the two contact elements a special tribological model was adopted. The subject of experimental investigations was variations of the drawing force, contact pressure and the friction coefficient for each type of the applied lubricants. The ironing process was conducted in three-phases at the constant sliding velocity. The objective of this analysis was to compare all the applied lubricants in order to estimate their quality from the point of view of their applicability in the multi-phase ironing process.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LUBRICANTS TYPES ON THE MULTI-PHASE IRONING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Djordjević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting results of an experimental analysis of the different types of lubricants influence on the multi-phase ironing process. Based on sliding of the metal strip between the two contact elements a special tribological model was adopted. The subject of experimental investigations was variations of the drawing force, contact pressure and the friction coefficient for each type of the applied lubricants. The ironing process was conducted in three-phases at the constant sliding velocity. The objective of this analysis was to compare all the applied lubricants in order to estimate their quality from the point of view of their applicability in the multi-phase ironing process.

  15. Assessment of the chromatographic lipophilicity of eight cephalosporins on different stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Monika; Starek, Małgorzata; Komsta, Łukasz; Szafrański, Przemysław; Stasiewicz-Urban, Anna; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2017-04-01

    The retention behaviors were investigated for a series of eight cephalosporins in thin-layer chromatography (TLC) using stationary phases of RP-2, RP-8, RP-18, NH 2 , DIOL, and CN chemically bonded silica gel. Additionally, various binary mobile phases (water/methanol and water/acetone) were used in different volume proportions. The retention behavior of the analyzed molecules was defined by R M0 constant. In addition, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was performed in lipophilicity studies by using immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) stationary phase. Obtained chromatographic data (R M0 and logk' IAM ) were correlated with the lipophilicity, expressed as values of the log calculated (logP calc ) and experimental (logP exp(shake-flask) ) partition coefficient. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to obtain an overview of similarity or dissimilarity among the analyzed compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to compare the separation characteristics of the applied stationary phases. This study was undertaken to identify the best chromatographic system and chromatographic data processing method to enable the prediction of logP values. A comprehensive chromatographic investigation into the retention of the analyzed cephalosporins revealed a similar behavior on RP-18, RP-8 and CN stationary phases. The weak correlations obtained between experimental and certain computed lipophilicity indices revealed that R M0 and PC1/RM are relevant lipophilicity parameters and the RP-8, CN and RP-18 plates are appropriate stationary phases for lipophilicity investigation, whereas computational approaches still cannot fully replace experimentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The different baryonic Tully-Fisher relations at low masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B; Santos-Santos, Isabel; Stinson, Greg

    2016-06-11

    We compare the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) of simulations and observations of galaxies ranging from dwarfs to spirals, using various measures of rotational velocity V rot . We explore the BTFR when measuring V rot at the flat part of the rotation curve, V flat , at the extent of H i gas, V last , and using 20 per cent ( W 20 ) and 50 per cent ( W 50 ) of the width of H i line profiles. We also compare with the maximum circular velocity of the parent halo, [Formula: see text], within dark matter only simulations. The different BTFRs increasingly diverge as galaxy mass decreases. Using V last  one obtains a power law over four orders of magnitude in baryonic mass, with slope similar to the observed BTFR. Measuring V flat gives similar results as V last when galaxies with rising rotation curves are excluded. However, higher rotation velocities would be found for low-mass galaxies if the cold gas extended far enough for V rot to reach a maximum. W 20 gives a similar slope as V last but with slightly lower values of V rot for low-mass galaxies, although this may depend on the extent of the gas in your galaxy sample. W 50 bends away from these other relations towards low velocities at low masses. By contrast, [Formula: see text] bends towards high velocities for low-mass galaxies, as cold gas does not extend out to the radius at which haloes reach [Formula: see text]. Our study highlights the need for careful comparisons between observations and models: one needs to be consistent about the particular method of measuring V rot , and precise about the radius at which velocities are measured.

  17. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    2015-09-01

    Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an important role in both suicide and depression. We have employed qPCR to study 124 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) brain samples, obtained from two brain banks, from: i) young depressed patients (average age 43 years) who committed suicide (MDD-S) and depressed patients who died from causes other than suicide (MDD-NS) and from ii) elderly depressed patients (average age 75 years) who did not commit suicide (DEP). Both cohorts were individually matched with non-psychiatric non-suicide control subjects. We determined the transcript levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-regulating molecules (corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors, CRH binding protein, mineralocorticoid receptor/glucocorticoid receptor), transcription factors that regulate CRH expression, CRH-stimulating cytokines, chaperone proteins, retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B, cytochrome proteins, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and monoamines. In the MDD-S group, expression levels of CRH and neuronal NOS-interacting DHHC domain-containing protein with dendritic mRNA (NIDD) were increased. Other changes were only present in the DEP group, i.e. decreased NIDD, and increased and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) expression levels. Changes were found to be more pronounced in the anterior cingulate cortex than in the dorsolateral PFC. Depressed patients who committed suicide have different gene expression patterns than depressed patients who died of causes other than suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability analysis of single-phase thermosyphon loops by finite difference numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, examples of the application of finite difference numerical methods in the analysis of stability of single-phase natural circulation loops are reported. The problem is here addressed for its relevance for thermal-hydraulic system code applications, in the aim to point out the effect of truncation error on stability prediction. The methodology adopted for analysing in a systematic way the effect of various finite difference discretization can be considered the numerical analogue of the usual techniques adopted for PDE stability analysis. Three different single-phase loop configurations are considered involving various kinds of boundary conditions. In one of these cases, an original dimensionless form of the governing equations is proposed, adopting the Reynolds number as a flow variable. This allows for an appropriate consideration of transition between laminar and turbulent regimes, which is not possible with other dimensionless forms, thus enlarging the field of validity of model assumptions. (author). 14 refs., 8 figs

  19. Fractures and mortality in relation to different osteoporosis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Huifeng; Delzell, Elizabeth; Saag, Kenneth G; Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A; Muntner, Paul; Matthews, Robert; Guo, Lingli; Wright, Nicole; Smith, Wilson; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; O'Connor, Christopher M; Lyles, Kenneth W; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of different drugs for osteoporosis (OP). We aimed to determine if fracture and mortality rates vary among patients initiating different OP medications. We used the Medicare 5% sample to identify new users of intravenous (IV) zoledronic acid (n=1.674), oral bisphosphonates (n=32.626), IV ibandronate (n=492), calcitonin (n=2.606), raloxifene (n=1.950), or parathyroid hormone (n=549). We included beneficiaries who were ≥65 years of age, were continuously enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare and initiated therapy during 2007-2009. Outcomes were hip fracture, clinical vertebral fracture, and all-cause mortality, identified using inpatient and physician diagnosis codes for fracture, procedure codes for fracture repair, and vital status information. Cox regression models compared users of each medication to users of IV zoledronic acid, adjusting for multiple confounders. During follow-up (median, 0.8-1.5 years depending on the drug), 787 subjects had hip fractures, 986 had clinical vertebral fractures, and 2.999 died. Positive associations included IV ibandronate with hip fracture (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-4.51), calcitonin with vertebral fracture (HR=1.59, 95%CI 1.04-2.43), and calcitonin with mortality (HR=1.31; 95%CI 1.02-1.68). Adjusted HRs for other drug-outcome comparisons were not statistically significant. IV ibandronate and calcitonin were associated with higher rates of some types of fracture when compared to IV zolendronic acid. The relatively high mortality associated with use of calcitonin may reflect the poorer health of users of this agent.

  20. Degradation behavior of Mg-based biomaterials containing different long-period stacking ordered phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiuming; Guo, Jianxin; Fu, Hui; Cai, Xuecheng; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Baozhong; Xu, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phases play an essential role in the development of magnesium alloys because they have a direct effect on mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloys. The LPSO structures are mostly divided to 18R and 14H. However, to date there are no consistent opinions about their degradation properties although both of them can improve mechanical properties. Herein we have successfully obtained two LPSO phases separately in the same Mg-Dy-Zn system and comparatively investigated the effect of different LPSO phases on degradation behavior in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution. Our results demonstrate that a fine metastable 14H-LPSO phase in grain interior is more effective to improve corrosion resistance due to the presence of a homogeneous oxidation film and rapid film remediation ability. The outstanding corrosion resistant Mg-Dy-Zn based alloys with a metastable 14H-LPSO phase, coupled with low toxicity of alloying elements, are highly desirable in the design of novel Mg-based biomaterials, opening up a new avenue in the area of bio-Mg.

  1. Alteration of Hormonal Levels in a Rootless Epiphytic Bromeliad in Different Phenological Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier; Endres

    1999-11-01

    Major changes in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (CK) levels occur at different phenological phases of Tillandsia recurvata shoots. This epiphytic rootless bromeliad was chosen as suitable material for hormonal analysis because CK synthesis is restricted to the shoots, thus avoiding problems in the interpretation of results caused by translocation and interconversion of CK forms between roots and leaves encountered in plants with both organs. Young plants of T. recurvata have weak apical dominance because side shoots appeared early in development, and branch growth was correlated with a strong increase in the level of zeatin. The flowering phase was characterized by a significant increase in free base CKs, zeatin, and isopentenyladenine compared with the levels found in adult vegetative shoots. In contrast, both free-base CKs declined in the fruiting phenological phase, and the IAA level increased dramatically. It was concluded that in phases characterized by intense organ formation, such as in the juvenile and flowering stages, there was an enhancement of CK content, mainly caused by zeatin, leading to a lower IAA/CK ratio. Higher ratios were correlated with phases that showed no organogenesis, such as adult and fruiting phenologies.

  2. Application of coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy to different carbon phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Djourelov, N.; Suzuki, T.; Kondo, K.; Ito, Y.; Shantarovich, V.; Onoe, J.

    2004-01-01

    Coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy was applied to C60 and C70 fullerenes and other carbon phases, such as nanotubes and graphites. Remarkable differences were observed in the Doppler-broadening of the positron annihilation γ-rays in these materials, which reflect the different densities distribution of the momentum for electrons annihilated with positrons. This would be caused by the different composition of the π and σ electrons in annihilation with positrons. This result shows the sensitivity of the coincidence Doppler-broadening method to determine the density distribution of electrons sampled by positrons. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of the pressure difference across the core during PWR-LOCA reflood phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Murao, Yoshio

    1979-03-01

    The flooding rate of the core influences largely cooling of the core during the reflood phase of a PWR-LOCA. Since the void fraction of two-phase flow in the core is important determining the flooding rate, it is essential to examine this void fraction. The void fraction in the core during the reflood phase obtained by experiment was compared with those predicted by the correlations respectively of Akagawa, Nicklin, Zuber, Yeh, Griffice, Behringer and Jhonson. Only Yeh's correlation was found to be usable for the purpose. The pressure difference of the core during the reflood phase was calculated by reflood analyzing code REFLA-1D using Yeh's correlation. Following are the results: (1) During the steady-state period after quenching of the heaters, the prediction agrees within +-15% with the experiment. (2) During the transient period when the quench front is advancing, the prediction is not in agreement with the experiment, the difference being about +-40%. Influence of the advancing quench front upon the void fraction in the core must further be studied. (author)

  4. Sex differences in a landmark environmental re-orientation task only during the learning phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Iasevoli, Luigi; Giannone, Gianluca; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2011-10-10

    Sex differences are consistently reported in human navigation. Indeed, to orient themselves during navigation women are more likely to use landmark-based strategies and men Euclidean-based strategies. The difference could be due to selective social pressure, which fosters greater spatial ability in men, or biological factors. And the great variability of the results reported in the literature could be due to the experimental setting more than real differences in ability. In this study, navigational behaviour was assessed by means of a place-learning task in which a modified version of the Morris water maze for humans was used to evaluate sex differences. In using landmarks, sex differences emerged only during the learning phase. Although the men were faster than the women in locating the target position, the differences between the sexes disappeared in delayed recall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive Peptide Ion Structure Studies Using Ion Mobility Techniques: Part 3. Relating Solution-Phase to Gas-Phase Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Valentine, Stephen J

    2018-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been utilized to study peptide ion conformer establishment during the electrospray process. An explicit water model is used for nanodroplets containing a model peptide and hydronium ions. Simulations are conducted at 300 K for two different peptide ion charge configurations and for droplets containing varying numbers of hydronium ions. For all conditions, modeling has been performed until production of the gas-phase ions and the resultant conformers have been compared to proposed gas-phase structures. The latter species were obtained from previous studies in which in silico candidate structures were filtered according to ion mobility and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) reactivity matches. Results from the present study present three key findings namely (1) the evidence from ion production modeling supports previous structure refinement studies based on mobility and HDX reactivity matching, (2) the modeling of the electrospray process is significantly improved by utilizing initial droplets existing below but close to the calculated Rayleigh limit, and (3) peptide ions in the nanodroplets sample significantly different conformers than those in the bulk solution due to altered physicochemical properties of the solvent. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Tempering response to different morphologies of martensite in tensile deformation of dual-phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, E.; Manzoor, T.; Sarwar, M.; Arif, M.; Hussain, N.

    2011-01-01

    A low alloy steel containing 0.2% C was heat treated with three cycles of heat treatments with the aim to acquire different morphologies of martensite in dual phase microstructure. Microscopic examination revealed that the morphologies consisting of grain boundary growth, scattered laths and bulk form of martensite were obtained. These morphologies have their distinct patterns of distribution in the matrix (ferrite). In tensile properties observations the dual phase steel with bulk morphology of martensite showed minimum of ductility but high tensile strength as compared to other two morphologies. This may be due to poor alignments of bulk martensite particles along tensile axes during deformation. Tempering was employed with various holding times at 550 deg. C to induce ductility in the heat treated material. The tempering progressively increased the ductility by increasing holding time. However, tempering response to strengths and ductilities was different to all three morphologies of martensite. (author)

  7. Modeling Sluggishness in Binaural Unmasking of Speech for Maskers With Time-Varying Interaural Phase Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauth, Christopher F; Brand, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In studies investigating binaural processing in human listeners, relatively long and task-dependent time constants of a binaural window ranging from 10 ms to 250 ms have been observed. Such time constants are often thought to reflect "binaural sluggishness." In this study, the effect of binaural sluggishness on binaural unmasking of speech in stationary speech-shaped noise is investigated in 10 listeners with normal hearing. In order to design a masking signal with temporally varying binaural cues, the interaural phase difference of the noise was modulated sinusoidally with frequencies ranging from 0.25 Hz to 64 Hz. The lowest, that is the best, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were observed for the lowest modulation frequency. SRTs increased with increasing modulation frequency up to 4 Hz. For higher modulation frequencies, SRTs remained constant in the range of 1 dB to 1.5 dB below the SRT determined in the diotic situation. The outcome of the experiment was simulated using a short-term binaural speech intelligibility model, which combines an equalization-cancellation (EC) model with the speech intelligibility index. This model segments the incoming signal into 23.2-ms time frames in order to predict release from masking in modulated noises. In order to predict the results from this study, the model required a further time constant applied to the EC mechanism representing binaural sluggishness. The best agreement with perceptual data was achieved using a temporal window of 200 ms in the EC mechanism.

  8. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  9. Remarks on nonlinear relation among phases and frequencies in modulational instabilities of parallel propagating Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nariyuki

    2006-01-01

    -static approximation, and thus long time evolution of the Alfvén modulational instability in the DNLS and in the Hall-MHD models differs significantly, even though the initial plasma and parent wave parameters are chosen in such a way that the modulational instability is the most dominant instability among various parametric instabilities. One of the most important features which only appears in the Hall-MHD model is the generation of sound waves driven by ponderomotive density fluctuations. We discuss relationship between the dispersion relation, energy exchange among wave modes, and coherence of phases in the waveforms in the real space. Some relevant future issues are discussed as well.

  10. Household costs of illness during different phases of tuberculosis treatment in Central Asia: a patient survey in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdualimova Hanifa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related costs incurred by patients constitute a severe economic burden for households especially in low-income countries. High household costs of illness lead to impoverishment; they impair affordability and equitable access to health care and consequently hamper tuberculosis (TB control. So far, no study has investigated patient costs of TB in the former Soviet Union. Methods All adult new pulmonary TB cases enrolled into the DOTS program in 12 study districts during the study period were enrolled. Medical and non-medical expenditure as well as loss of income were quantified in two interviews covering separate time periods. Costs of different items were summed up to calculate total costs. For missing values, multiple imputation was applied. Results A cohort of 204 patients under DOTS, 114 men and 90 women, participated in the questionnaire survey. Total illness costs of a TB episode averaged $1053 (c. $4900 purchasing power parity, PPP, of which $292, $338 and $422 were encountered before the start of treatment, during intensive phase and in continuation phase, respectively. Costs per month were highest before the start of treatment ($145 and during intensive phase ($153 and lower during continuation phase ($95. These differences were highly significant (paired t-test, p Conclusions The illness-related costs of an episode of TB exceed the per capita GDP of $1600 PPP about two-and-a-half times. Hence, these costs are catastrophic for concerned households and suggest a high risk for impoverishment. Costs are not equally spread over time, but peak in early stages of treatment, exacerbating the problem of affordability. Mitigation strategies are needed in order to control TB in Tajikistan and may include social support to the patients as well as changes in the management of TB cases. These mitigation strategies should be timed early in treatment when the cost burden is highest.

  11. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, Tracey L.; Segal, Ahuva Y.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M) aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and had slow eye movements (SEM) measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual’s circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further investigation. PMID:26043207

  12. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L Sletten

    Full Text Available Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS and had slow eye movements (SEM measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p < 0.01, greater sleepiness (r = 0.510, p < 0.0001, and more slow eye movements (r = 0.375, p = 0.022 were significantly associated with later DLMO, consistent with participants waking at an earlier circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual's circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further

  13. Localizing age-related individual differences in a hierarchical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and self-reported health could be localized. The results indicated that each type of individual difference characteristic exhibited a d...

  14. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Eto, M.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the

  15. Hydrothermal Phase Relations Among Uranyl Minerals at the Nopal I Analog Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranyl mineral paragenesis at Nopal I is an analog of spent fuel alteration at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic studies suggest a variety of possible hydrothermal conditions for uranium mineralization at Nopal I. Calculated equilibrium phase relations among uranyl minerals show uranophane stability over a broad range of realistic conditions and indicate that uranyl mineral variety reflects persistent chemical potential heterogeneity. (author)

  16. Pure phase LaFeO3 perovskite with improved surface area synthesized using different routes and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosavi, Priti V.; Biniwale, Rajesh B.

    2010-01-01

    Three different wet chemistry routes, namely co-precipitation, combustion and sol-gel methods were used to synthesize LaFeO 3 perovskite with improved surface area. The synthesized perovskite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption, ultraviolet diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UVDRS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. Improved surface area was observed for all three methods as compared to the previously reported values. The perovskite synthesized using sol-gel method yields comparatively pure, crystalline phase of LaFeO 3 and relatively higher surface area of 16.5 m 2 g -1 and porosity. The material synthesized using co-precipitation method yielded other phases in addition to the targeted phase. The morphology of perovskite synthesized using co-precipitation method was uniform agglomerates. Combustion method yields flakes type morphology and that of sol-gel method was open pore type morphology. The selection of method for perovskite synthesis largely depends on the targeted application and the desired properties of perovskites. The results reported in this study are useful for establishing a simple scalable method for preparation of high surface area LaFeO 3 as compared to solid-oxide method. Further, the typical heating cycle followed for calcinations resulted in relatively high surface area in the case of all three methods.

  17. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  18. Age-Related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age. PMID:27803685

  19. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  20. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  1. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Panel with Phase Change Materials under Different Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power generation efficiency of photovoltaic (PV panels depends on the solar irradiation flux and the operating temperature of the solar cell. To increase the power generation efficiency of a PV system, this study evaluated the feasibility of phase change materials (PCMs to reduce the temperature rise of solar cells operating under the climate in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, two PCMs with different phase change characteristics were prepared and the phase change temperatures and thermal conductivities were compared. The diurnal thermal behavior of PV panels with PCMs under the Seoul climate was evaluated using a 2-D transient thermal analysis program. This paper discusses the heat flow characteristics though the PV cell with PCMs and the effects of the PCM types and macro-packed PCM (MPPCM methods on the operating temperatures under different weather conditions. Selection of the PCM type was more important than the MMPCM methods when PCMs were used to enhance the performance of PV panels and the mean operating temperature of PV cell and total heat flux from the surface could be reduced by increasing the heat transfer rate through the honeycomb grid steel container for PCMs. Considering the mean operating temperature reduction of 4 °C by PCM in this study, an efficiency improvement of approximately 2% can be estimated under the weather conditions of Seoul.

  2. Comparison between two different methods for evaluating rumen papillae measures related to different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Brusaferro, Andrea; Catorci, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Although the Geographical Information System (GIS), which integrates computerized drawing computer assisted design (CAD) and relational databases (data base management system (DBMS)), is best known for applications in geographical and planning cartography, it can also use many kinds of information concerning the territory. A multidisciplinary project was initiated since 5 years a multidisciplinary study was initiated to use GIS to integrate environmental and ecological data with findings on animal health, ethology, and anatomy. This study is chiefly aimed at comparing two different methods for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. To this scope, 21 female sheep (Ovis aries) on different alimentary regimes (e.g., milk and forage mixed diet, early herbaceous diet, dry hay diet, and fresh hay diet at the maximum of pasture flowering and at the maximum of pasture dryness) were used; after slaughtering, 20 papillae were randomly removed from each sample collected from four indicator regions of rumen wall, placed near a metric reference and digitally photographed. The images were developed with the ArcGIS™ software to calculate the area of rumen papillae by means of GIS and to measure their mid-level width and length to calculate the papillae area as previously performed with a different method. Spatial measurements were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. This work demonstrates that the GIS methodology can be efficiently used for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. In addition, GIS demonstrated to be a rapid, precise, and objective tool when compared with previously used method. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Exploring differences of soil quality as related to management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soil, vegetation and biodiversity) and productivity. Vegetation condition in contrasting land-use management systems is well documented in semiarid rangelands, but relatively little information is available on soil quality. This study explores soil ...

  4. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Gagarina; Indre Pikturniene

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla) and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambi...

  5. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  6. Relative phase asynchrony and long-range correlation of long-term solar magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2017-07-01

    Statistical signal processing is one of the most important tasks in a large amount of areas of scientific studies, such as astrophysics, geophysics, and space physics. Phase recurrence analysis and long-range persistence are the two dynamical structures of the underlying processes for the given natural phenomenon. Linear and nonlinear time series analysis approaches (cross-correlation analysis, cross-recurrence plot, wavelet coherent transform, and Hurst analysis) are combined to investigate the relative phase interconnection and long-range correlation between solar activity and geomagnetic activity for the time interval from 1932 January to 2017 January. The following prominent results are found: (1) geomagnetic activity lags behind sunspot numbers with a phase shift of 21 months, and they have a high level of asynchronous behavior; (2) their relative phase interconnections are in phase for the periodic scales during 8-16 years, but have a mixing behavior for the periodic belts below 8 years; (3) both sunspot numbers and geomagnetic activity can not be regarded as a stochastic phenomenon because their dynamical behaviors display a long-term correlation and a fractal nature. We believe that the presented conclusions could provide further information on understanding the dynamical coupling of solar dynamo process with geomagnetic activity variation, and the crucial role of solar and geomagnetic activity in the long-term climate change.

  7. Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of lipid bilayers in different phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh eJadidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A general computational method is introduced to estimate the Poisson's ratio for membranes with small thickness.In this method, the Poisson's ratio is calculated by utilizing a rescaling of inter-particle distancesin one lateral direction under periodic boundary conditions. As an example for the coarse grained lipid model introduced by Lenz and Schmid, we calculate the Poisson's ratio in the gel, fluid, and interdigitated phases. Having the Poisson's ratio, enable us to obtain the Young's modulus for the membranes in different phases. The approach may be applied to other membranes such as graphene and tethered membranes in orderto predict the temperature dependence of its Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus.

  8. Single phase-change analysis of two different PCMs filled in a heat transfer module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Kang, Chae Dong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Kuk [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Phase change material(PCM) is tried to secondary heat source in solar heat pump system. A numerical study of the phase change dominant heat transfer is done with a heat transfer module, which consists of a water path(BRINE), heat transfer plates(HTP), and PCM layers of high-temperature one(HPCM, 78-79 .deg. C) and low-temperature one(LPCM, 28-29 .deg. C). There are five arrangements consisting of BRINE, HTP, HPCM, and LPCM layers in the heat transfer module. The time and heat transfer rate for PCM melting/solidification are compared between arrangements. And the numerical time without convection is compared to the experimental one for melting/solidification. From the numerical analysis, the time for melting/solidification is different to 10 hours, depending on the arrangement.

  9. Selective oxidation of dual phase steel after annealing at different dew points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha; Madeira, Laureanny; Vilela, Jose Mario Carneiro; Andrade, Margareth Spangler; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; Guimarães, Juliana Porto; Alvarenga, Evandro de Azevedo

    2011-04-01

    Hot galvanized steels have been extensively used in the automotive industry. Selective oxidation on the steel surface affects the wettability of zinc on steel and the grain orientation of inhibition layer (Fe-Al-Zn alloy) and reduces the iron diffusion to the zinc layer. The aim of this work is to identify and quantify selective oxidation on the surface of a dual phase steel, and an experimental steel with a lower content of manganese, annealed at different dew points. The techniques employed were atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. External selective oxidation was observed for phosphorus on steel surface annealed at 0 °C dp, and for manganese, silicon, and aluminum at a lower dew point. The concentration of manganese was higher on the dual phase steel surface than on the surface of the experimental steel. The concentration of molybdenum on the surface of both steels increased as the depth increased.

  10. Molecular differences between deuterated and protonated polystyrenes using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayillo, Sindy; Gray, Michael J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Dennis, Gary R

    2005-05-06

    Isotopic substitution is a technique used to highlight particular bonds within a molecule for kinetic, spectroscopic and structure analysis. It is presumed that although some properties such as stretching frequencies will not be the same for substituted analogues, the chemical interactions will not vary appreciably as a function of labelling. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography has been used to demonstrate that there are significant differences between the chromatographic behaviour of a sequence of deuterated and protonated oligomeric polystyrenes. Two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography was used to show that even the diasteromers of the oligomers (n = 5) have retention mechanisms that are dependent on the subtle changes to the molecular conformation and electronic structure, which are a consequence of deuteration.

  11. Direct phase derivative estimation using difference equation modeling in holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the direct phase derivative estimation from a single spatial frequency modulated carrier fringe pattern in holographic interferometry. The fringe intensity in a given row/column is modeled as a difference equation of intensity with spatially varying coefficients. These coefficients carry the information on the phase derivative. Consequently, the accurate estimation of the coefficients is obtained by approximating the coefficients as a linear combination of the predefined linearly independent basis functions. Unlike Fourier transform based fringe analysis, the method does not call for performing the filtering of the Fourier spectrum of fringe intensity. Moreover, the estimation of the carrier frequency is performed by applying the proposed method to a reference interferogram. The performance of the proposed method is insensitive to the fringe amplitude modulation and is validated with the simulation results. (paper)

  12. Preparation of n-tetradecane-containing microcapsules with different shell materials by phase separation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qingwu [Department of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2009-10-15

    Microcapsules for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer enhancement have attracted great attention. Microencapsulation of n-tetradecane with different shell materials was carried out by phase separation method in this paper. Acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (AS), acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene copolymer (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as the shell materials. The structures, morphologies and the thermal capacities of the microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ternary phase diagrams showed the potential encapsulation capabilities of the three shell materials. The effects of the shell/core ratio and the molecular weight of the shell material on the encapsulation efficiency and the thermal capacity of the microcapsules were also discussed. Microcapsules with melting enthalpy > 100 J/g, encapsulation efficiency 66-75%, particle size<1 {mu}m were obtained for all three shell materials. (author)

  13. Phase relations and Gibbs energies of spinel phases and solid solutions in the system Mg-Rh-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.T., E-mail: katob@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Prusty, Debadutta [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Kale, G.M. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refinement of phase diagram for the system Mg-Rh-O and thermodynamic data for spinel compounds MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A solid-state electrochemical cell is used for thermodynamic measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An advanced design of the solid-state electrochemical cell incorporating buffer electrodes is deployed to minimize polarization of working electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regular solution model for the spinel solid solution MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} - Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} based on ideal mixing of cations on the octahedral site is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors responsible for stabilization of tetravalent rhodium in spinel compounds are identified. - Abstract: Pure stoichiometric MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} could not be prepared by solid state reaction from an equimolar mixture of MgO and Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3} in air. The spinel phase formed always contained excess of Mg and traces of Rh or Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The spinel phase can be considered as a solid solution of Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} in MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The compositions of the spinel solid solution in equilibrium with different phases in the ternary system Mg-Rh-O were determined by electron probe microanalysis. The oxygen potential established by the equilibrium between Rh + MgO + Mg{sub 1+x}Rh{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} was measured as a function of temperature using a solid-state cell incorporating yttria-stabilized zirconia as an electrolyte and pure oxygen at 0.1 MPa as the reference electrode. To avoid polarization of the working electrode during the measurements, an improved design of the cell with a buffer electrode was used. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of MgRh{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}RhO{sub 4} were deduced from the measured electromotive force (e.m.f.) by invoking a model for the spinel solid solution. The parameters of the model were optimized using the measured

  14. Sex-related differences in outcomes after hallux valgus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Ji Wun; Park, Sung Bum; Kim, Jin Kak

    2015-03-01

    With differences between the sexes in foot bone anatomy and ligamentous laxity, there is the possibility that the results of hallux valgus surgery may also differ between the sexes. We aimed to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between the sexes. The authors retrospectively reviewed 60 males (66 feet) and 70 females (82 feet) who underwent distal or proximal chevron osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity between June 2005 and December 2011. We compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the sexes. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics between the sexes. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score, visual analogue scale for pain, and patient satisfaction at the last follow-up did not differ significantly between the sexes. The mean preoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and inter-metatarsal angle (IMA) were not significantly different between the sexes. At the last follow-up, the mean HVA was significantly greater in females (p=0.003) than in males; mean IMA was not significantly different between the sexes. The mean correction of HVA in males was significantly greater than that in females (p=0.014). There were no significant differences between the sexes regarding clinical outcomes after distal and proximal chevron osteotomy. However, male patients achieved greater correction of HVA than female patients. There is a possibility that sexual dimorphism of the foot may affect postoperative HVA.

  15. Age-Related Difference in Functional Brain Connectivity of Mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-shu; Wu, Ching-yi; Wu, Shih-yun; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Cheng, Dong-hui; Lo, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature. For the OA and the YA group, we identified the mastication-related hubs, i.e., the nodes for which the degree centrality (DC) was positively correlated with the MPI. For each pair of nodes, we identified the inter-nodal link for which the FC was positively correlated with the MPI. The network analysis revealed that, in the YA group, the FC between the sensorimotor cortex, the thalamus (THA) and the cerebellum was positively correlated with the MPI. Consistently, the cerebellum nodes were defined as the mastication-related hubs. In contrast, in the OA group, we found a sparser connection within the sensorimotor regions and cerebellum and a denser connection across distributed regions, including the FC between the superior parietal lobe (SPL), the anterior insula (aINS) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Compared to the YA group, the network of the OA group also comprised more mastication-related hubs, which were spatially distributed outside the sensorimotor regions, including the right SPL, the right aINS, and the bilateral dACC. In general, the findings supported the hypothesis that in OA, higher masticatory performance is associated with a widespread pattern of mastication-related hubs. Such a widespread engagement of multiple brain regions associated with the MPI may reflect an increased demand in sensorimotor integration, attentional

  16. Are there differences in acute phase inflammation markers regarding the type of heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Agüero-Ramón-Llin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if there are differences in inflammatory markers in the acute phase between systolic heart failure and heart failure with preserved systolic function. One hundred and thirty-one patients with acute heart failure were recruited consecutively. At admission, plasma fibrinogen, Creactive protein, sialic acid, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6 and NTproBNP were all evaluated. If the ejection fraction was 45% or over patients were included in the HF-PSF group; the remaining patients were included in the SHF group. The HF-PSF patients were older (72±10 vs 63±12 years, P<0.001, presented a higher rate of atrial fibrillation (56.1 vs 21.3%, P<0.001, and had a lower rate of hemoglobin (12.2±2 vs 13.3±2.1 g/dL, P<0.01. No significant differences were observed in the inflammation markers analyzed among SHF and HFPSF groups. In the acute phase of heart failure there is a marked elevation of inflammatory markers but there are no differences in the inflammatory markers analyzed between the two different types of heart failure

  17. Theoretical Prediction of Melting Relations in the Deep Mantle: the Phase Diagram Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, D.; Ottonello, G. A.; Vetuschi Zuccolini, M.; Attene, M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the outstanding progress in computer technology and experimental facilities, understanding melting phase relations in the deep mantle is still an open challenge. In this work a novel computational scheme to predict melting relations at HP-HT by a combination of first principles DFT calculations, polymer chemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics is presented and discussed. The adopted theoretical framework is physically-consistent and allows to compute multi-component phase diagrams relevant to Earth's deep interior in a broad range of P-T conditions by a convex-hull algorithm for Gibbs free energy minimisation purposely developed for high-rank simplexes. The calculated phase diagrams are in turn used as a source of information to gain new insights on the P-T-X evolution of magmas in the deep mantle, providing some thermodynamic constraints to both present-day and early Earth melting processes. High-pressure melting curves of mantle silicates are also obtained as by-product of phase diagram calculation. Application of the above method to the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MAS) ternary system highlights as pressure effects are not only able to change the nature of melting of some minerals (like olivine and pyroxene) from eutectic to peritectic (and vice versa), but also simplify melting relations by drastically reducing the number of phases with a primary phase field at HP-HT conditions. It turns out that mineral phases like Majorite-Pyrope garnet and Anhydrous Phase B (Mg14Si5O24), which are often disregarded in modelling melting processes of mantle assemblages, are stable phases at solidus or liquidus conditions in a P-T range compatible with the mantle transition zone (i.e. P = 16 - 23 GPa and T = 2200 - 2700 °C) when their thermodynamic and thermophysical properties are properly assessed. Financial support to the Senior Author (D.B.) during his stay as Invited Scientist at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP, Paris) is warmly acknowledged.

  18. Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography of homologs of Antimycin-A and related derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Sharon L.

    1989-01-01

    Using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique, a mixture of antimycins A was separated into eight hitherto unreported subcomponents, Ala, Alb, A2a, A2b, A3a, A3b, A4a, and A4b. Although a base-line resolution of the known four major antimycins Al, A2, A3, and A4 was readily achieved with mobile phases containing acetate buffers, the separation of the new antibiotic subcomponents was highly sensitive to variation in mobile phase conditions. The type and composition of organic modifiers, the nature of buffer salts, and the concentration of added electrolytes had profound effects on capacity factors, separation factors, and peak resolution values. Of the numerous chromatographic systems examined, a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (70:30) and 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium phosphate at pH 3.0 yielded the most satisfactory results for the separation of the subcomponents. Reversed-phase gradient HPLC separation of the dansylated or methylated antibiotic compounds produced superior chromatographic characteristics and the presence of added electrolytes was not a critical factor for achieving separation. Differences in the chromatographic outcome between homologous and structural isomers were interpretated based on a differential solvophobic interaction rationale. Preparative reversed-phase HPLC under optimal conditions enabled isolation of pure samples of the methylated antimycin subcomponents for use in structural studies.

  19. Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia relate differently to insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.Y.; Meskers, C.G.M.; van Heemst, D.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Craen, A.J.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is important in insulinstimulated glucose uptake. Sarcopenia is, therefore, a possible risk factor for insulin resistance. Currently, different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia include low muscle mass, muscle strength, and walking speed. We assessed these muscle characteristics in

  20. Individual differences in children's materialism: the role of peer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Dittmar, Helga

    2008-01-01

    Associations between materialism and peer relations are likely to exist in elementary school children but have not been studied previously. The first two studies introduce a new Perceived Peer Group Pressures (PPGP) Scale suitable for this age group, demonstrating that perceived pressure regarding peer culture (norms for behavioral, attitudinal, and material characteristics) can be reliably measured and that it is connected to children's responses to hypothetical peer pressure vignettes. Studies 3 and 4 evaluate the main theoretical model of associations between peer relations and materialism. Study 3 supports the hypothesis that peer rejection is related to higher perceived peer culture pressure, which in turn is associated with greater materialism. Study 4 confirms that the endorsement of social motives for materialism mediates the relationship between perceived peer pressure and materialism.

  1. Structural integration and performance of inter-sectoral public health-related policy networks: An analysis across policy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Raab, J; Grêaux, K M; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Inter-sectoral policy networks may be effective in addressing environmental determinants of health with interventions. However, contradictory results are reported on relations between structural network characteristics (i.e., composition and integration) and network performance, such as addressing environmental determinants of health. This study examines these relations in different phases of the policy process. A multiple-case study was performed on four public health-related policy networks. Using a snowball method among network actors, overall and sub-networks per policy phase were identified and the policy sector of each actor was assigned. To operationalise the outcome variable, interventions were classified by the proportion of environmental determinants they addressed. In the overall networks, no relation was found between structural network characteristics and network performance. In most effective cases, the policy development sub-networks were characterised by integration with less interrelations between actors (low cohesion), more equally distributed distances between the actors (low closeness centralisation), and horizontal integration in inter-sectoral cliques. The most effective case had non-public health central actors with less connections in all sub-networks. The results suggest that, to address environmental determinants of health, sub-networks should be inter-sectorally composed in the policy development rather than in the intervention development and implementation phases, and that policy development actors should have the opportunity to connect with other actors, without strong direction from a central actor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MODELLING THE INTERACTION IN GAME SPORTS - RELATIVE PHASE AND MOVING CORRELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lames

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Model building in game sports should maintain the constitutive feature of this group of sports, the dynamic interaction process between the two parties. For single net/wall games relative phase is suggested to describe the positional interaction between the two players. 30 baseline rallies in tennis were examined and relative phase was calculated by Hilbert transform from the two time-series of lateral displacement and trajectory in the court respectively. Results showed that relative phase indicates some aspects of the tactical interaction in tennis. At a more abstract level the interaction between two teams in handball was studied by examining the relationship of the two scoring processes. Each process can be conceived as a random walk. Moving averages of the scoring probabilities indicate something like a momentary strength. A moving correlation (length = 20 ball possessions describes the momentary relationship between the teams' strength. Evidence was found that this correlation is heavily time-dependent, in almost every single game among the 40 examined ones we found phases with a significant positive as well as significant negative relationship. This underlines the importance of a dynamic view on the interaction in these games.

  3. Women's preferences for men's beards show no relation to their ovarian cycle phase and sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Lee, Anthony J; Blake, Khandis R; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-01-01

    According to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, women's mate preferences for male morphology indicative of competitive ability, social dominance, and/or underlying health are strongest at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. However, recent meta-analyses are divided on the robustness of such effects and the validity of the often-used indirect estimates of fertility and ovulation has been called into question in methodological studies. In the current study, we test whether women's preferences for men's beardedness, a cue of male sexual maturity, androgenic development and social dominance, are stronger at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to during the early follicular or the luteal phase. We also tested whether levels of estradiol, progesterone, and the estradiol to progesterone ratio at each phase were associated with facial hair preferences. Fifty-two heterosexual women completed a two-alternative forced choice preference test for clean-shaven and bearded male faces during the follicular, peri-ovulatory (validated by the surge in luteinizing hormone or the drop in estradiol levels) and luteal phases. Participants also provided for one entire menstrual cycle daily saliva samples for subsequent assaying of estradiol and progesterone. Results showed an overall preference for bearded over clean-shaven faces at each phase of the menstrual cycle. However, preferences for facial hair were not significantly different over the phases of menstrual cycle and were not significantly associated with levels of reproductive hormones. We conclude that women's preferences for men's beardedness may not be related to changes in their likelihood of conception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasien, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipole-dipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points ("T[subscript b]") for a subset of simple organic systems. The model is based upon a statistical analysis using multiple linear regression on a series of straight-chain organic…

  5. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  6. Bragg peak and relative biological efficiency of different ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček st., Miloš; Judas, Libor; Kundrát, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. 1 (2002), S309-S309 ISSN 0167-8140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK4055109 Keywords : Bragg peak * relative biological efficisncy * radiological mechanism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2002

  7. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  8. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  9. Age-related differences in muscular capacity among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, H.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the age-related changes in muscular capacity in a working population, and to investigate whether these changes are dependent on sports participation. Methods: Data were used from the longitudinal study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress and health (n = 1,800). At

  10. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    OBJECTIVE: Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an

  11. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P.; Zeidan, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  12. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P. [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Modelling and High Performance Computing, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Zeidan, D. [School of Basic Sciences and Humanities, German Jordanian University, Amman (Jordan)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  13. Sex-related differences in attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    The sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities is a continuing topic of major interest. Besides, the influences of trends over time and possible effects of sex steroid and assessment time on cognition have expanded the necessity to re-evaluate differences between men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare cognitive performance between men and women in a strongly controlled experiment. In total, 28 men and 25 women were investigated. Variables of body temperature and heart rate were assessed. A cognitive test battery was used to assess attention (visual search, unpredictable task switching as well as complex visual search and predictable task switching tests) and memory (forced visual memory, forward digit span and free recall test). The differences in heart rate and body temperatures between men and women were not significant. There were no differences in the mean values of attention and memory abilities between men and women. Coefficients of variation of unpredictable task switching response and forward digit span were lower (Pattention task incorrect response and negatively correlated (Pmemory task. Current study showed no sex differences in the mean values of cognition, whereas higher intra-individual variability of short-term memory and attention switching was identified in women, indicating that their performance was lower on these cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent condition

  15. In-phase and out-of-phase gradient-echo imaging in abdominal studies: intra-individual comparison of three different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Miguel; Heredia, Vasco; Campos, Rafael O. P. de; Azevedo, Rafael M.; Semelka, Richard C.; Dale, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: T1-weighted gradient-echo in-phase and out-of-phase imaging is an essential component of comprehensive abdominal MR exams. It is useful for the study of fat-containing lesions and to identify various disease states related to the presence of fat in the liver. Purpose: To compare three T1-weighted in-phase and out-of-phase (IP/OP) gradient-echo imaging sequences in an intra-individual fashion, and to determine whether advantages exist for each of these sequences for various patient types. Material and Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive subjects (74 men, 44 women; mean age 53.9 ± 13.8 years) who had MRI examinations containing all three different IP/OP sequences (two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo [2D-GRE], three-dimensional gradient-echo [3D-GRE], and magnetization-prepared gradient-recall echo [MP-GRE]) were included. Two different reviewers independently and blindly qualitatively evaluated IP/OP sequences to determine image quality, extent of artifacts, lesion detectability and conspicuity, and subjective grading of liver steatosis for the various sequences. Quantitative analysis was also performed. Qualitative and quantitative data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Respiratory ghosting, parallel imaging, and truncation artifacts as well as shading and blurring were more pronounced with 3D-GRE IP/OP imaging. Overall image quality was higher with 2D-GRE (P < 0.05). Detectability of low-fluid content lesions was lower with IP/OP MP-GRE sequences. MP-GRE sequences had the lowest SNRs (P < 0.001). Liver-to-spleen and liver-to-lesion CNRs were significantly lower with 3D-GRE and MP-GR, respectively (P < 0.001). Fat liver indexes showed strongly positive correlation between all sequences. Conclusion: Currently, 2D-GRE remains the best approach for clinical IP/OP imaging. The good image quality of MP-GRE sequences acquired in a free-breathing manner should recommend its use in patients unable to suspend breathing

  16. In-phase and out-of-phase gradient-echo imaging in abdominal studies: intra-individual comparison of three different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Miguel; Heredia, Vasco; Campos, Rafael O. P. de; Azevedo, Rafael M.; Semelka, Richard C. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)); Dale, Brian M. (Siemens Medical Systems, Morrisville (United States)), email: richsem@med.unc.edu

    2012-05-15

    Background: T1-weighted gradient-echo in-phase and out-of-phase imaging is an essential component of comprehensive abdominal MR exams. It is useful for the study of fat-containing lesions and to identify various disease states related to the presence of fat in the liver. Purpose: To compare three T1-weighted in-phase and out-of-phase (IP/OP) gradient-echo imaging sequences in an intra-individual fashion, and to determine whether advantages exist for each of these sequences for various patient types. Material and Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive subjects (74 men, 44 women; mean age 53.9 +- 13.8 years) who had MRI examinations containing all three different IP/OP sequences (two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo [2D-GRE], three-dimensional gradient-echo [3D-GRE], and magnetization-prepared gradient-recall echo [MP-GRE]) were included. Two different reviewers independently and blindly qualitatively evaluated IP/OP sequences to determine image quality, extent of artifacts, lesion detectability and conspicuity, and subjective grading of liver steatosis for the various sequences. Quantitative analysis was also performed. Qualitative and quantitative data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Respiratory ghosting, parallel imaging, and truncation artifacts as well as shading and blurring were more pronounced with 3D-GRE IP/OP imaging. Overall image quality was higher with 2D-GRE (P < 0.05). Detectability of low-fluid content lesions was lower with IP/OP MP-GRE sequences. MP-GRE sequences had the lowest SNRs (P < 0.001). Liver-to-spleen and liver-to-lesion CNRs were significantly lower with 3D-GRE and MP-GR, respectively (P < 0.001). Fat liver indexes showed strongly positive correlation between all sequences. Conclusion: Currently, 2D-GRE remains the best approach for clinical IP/OP imaging. The good image quality of MP-GRE sequences acquired in a free-breathing manner should recommend its use in patients unable to suspend breathing

  17. Sexual-orientation-related differences in verbal fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Abrahams, Sharon; Wilson, Glenn D

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the performance of 60 heterosexual men, 60 gay men, 60 heterosexual women, and 60 lesbians on 3 tests of verbal fluency known to show gender differences: letter, category, and synonym fluency. Gay men and lesbians showed opposite-sex shifts in their profile of scores. For letter fluency, gay men outperformed all other groups; lesbians showed the lowest scores. For category fluency, gay men and heterosexual women jointly outperformed lesbians and heterosexual men. Finally, gay men outperformed all other groups on synonym fluency, whereas lesbians and heterosexual men performed similarly. A difference between heterosexual men and women was demonstrated on category and synonym fluency only. The findings implicate within-sex differences in the functioning of the prefrontal and temporal cortices.

  18. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict.

  19. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, P.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.)

  20. DIFFERENCES OF ANTROPOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO SEX OF PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Gojković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As per sample of 212 examinees at the age of 11 (±6 months at the fifth grade in Montenegrin elementary schools, it was used the system of 12 variables for the estimation of anthropometrical characteristis. The purpose of the examination was to establish differentiations between different students sex in the initial and final measuring. As for results given by using discriminant analysis and univariant analysis of variance on the anthropometrical student's status, it can be concluded that there's a statistical significant level in discrimination of subsamples of different sex.

  1. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  2. Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Perception Do Not Necessarily Entail Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Christopher C.; Newman, Rochelle S.; Dilley, Laura C.; Idsardi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A new literature has suggested that speech rate can influence the parsing of words quite strongly in speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between younger adults and older adults in the use of context speech rate in word segmentation, given that older adults perceive timing information differently from younger…

  3. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Maria Chiara; Chiara Barsotti, Maria; Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Sanguinetti, Elena; Magera, Angela; Al Kayal, Tamer; Feriani, Roberto; Di Stefano, Rossella; Soldani, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization). Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2) and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB). Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v). Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (pplatelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  4. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Barsotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2 and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB. Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v. Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (p<0.05 vs. control, comparably to the positive control. Both platelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  5. Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Hoose, C.

    2009-11-01

    Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit), which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m-2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.

  6. Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoose

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit, which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m−2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.

  7. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  8. Idiom understanding in adulthood: examining age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Idioms are figurative expressions such as hold your horses, kick the bucket, and lend me a hand, which commonly occur in everyday spoken and written language. Hence, the understanding of these expressions is essential for daily communication. In this study, we examined idiom understanding in healthy adults in their 20s, 40s, 60s and 80s (n=30 per group) to determine if performance would show an age-related decline. Participants judged their own familiarity with a set of 20 idioms, explained the meaning of each, described a situation in which the idiom could be used, and selected the appropriate interpretation from a set of choices. There was no evidence of an age-related decline on any tasks. Rather, the 60s group reported greater familiarity and offered better explanations than did the 20s group. Moreover, greater familiarity with idioms was associated with better understanding in adults.

  9. Sex-related differences in attention and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Solianik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Current study showed no sex differences in the mean values of cognition, whereas higher intra-individual variability of short-term memory and attention switching was identified in women, indicating that their performance was lower on these cognitive abilities.

  10. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  11. Gender-related differences in functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonheim, M.M.; Hulst, H.E.; Landi, D.; Ciccarelli, O.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Vrenken, H.; Polman, C.H.; Stam, C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Geurts, J.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gender effects are strong in multiple sclerosis (MS), with male patients showing a worse clinical outcome than female patients. Functional reorganization of neural activity may contribute to limit disability, and possible gender differences in this process may have important clinical

  12. Observing cataclysmic variables and related objects with different techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 675-682 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects /2./. Palermo , 09.09.2013-14.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * binaries * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  14. Analysis of expression profile of mce operon genes (mce1, mce2, mce3 operon) in different Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates at different growth phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratibha; Katoch, V M; Mohanty, K K; Chauhan, Devendra Singh

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) has four homologous mammalian cell entry (mce) operons (mce1-4) that encode exported proteins and have a possible role in the virulence mechanism of this pathogen. The expression of mce operon is considered to be complex and not completely understood. Although expression of mce operon at different in vitro growth phases has been studied earlier, its expression in different M. tuberculosis isolates under different growth phases is not yet studied. The present preliminary study was conducted on a limited number of isolates to know the trend of expression pattern of mce operon genes in different M. tuberculosis isolates under different growth stages. In this study, we monitored the transcriptional profile of selected mce operon genes (mce1A, mce1D, mce2A, mce2D, mce3A, mce3C) in different M.tuberculosis isolates (MDR1, MDR2, and sensitive isolate) at early exponential and stationary phases using real-time quantitative PCR. The expression ratio of all selected mce operon genes in all M. tuberculosis isolates was reduced at the initial phase and increased substantially at a later phase of growth. Higher expression of mce1 operon genes was found in all M. tuberculosis isolates as compared to other mce operon genes (mce2 and mce3 operons) at stationary growth phase. the higher expression of mce operon genes at stationary phase (as compared to early exponential phase) suggested growth phase dependent expression of mce operon genes. This indicated that the mce operon genes might have a role in M. tuberculosis survival and adaptation on the onset of adverse condition like stationary phase. Identification of differentially expressed genes will add to our understanding of the bacilli involved in adaptation to different growth conditions.

  15. The relative phases of basal ganglia activities dynamically shape effective connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnan, Hayriye; Duff, Eugene Paul; Brown, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Optimal phase alignment between oscillatory neural circuits is hypothesized to optimize information flow and enhance system performance. This theory is known as communication-through-coherence. The basal ganglia motor circuit exhibits exaggerated oscillatory and coherent activity patterns in Parkinson's disease. Such activity patterns are linked to compromised motor system performance as evinced by bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, suggesting that network function might actually deteriorate once a certain level of net synchrony is exceeded in the motor circuit. Here, we characterize the processes underscoring excessive synchronization and its termination. To this end, we analysed local field potential recordings from the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus of five patients with Parkinson's disease (four male and one female, aged 37-64 years). We observed that certain phase alignments between subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus amplified local neural synchrony in the beta frequency band while others either suppressed it or did not induce any significant change with respect to surrogates. The increase in local beta synchrony directly correlated with how long the two nuclei locked to beta-amplifying phase alignments. Crucially, administration of the dopamine prodrug, levodopa, reduced the frequency and duration of periods during which subthalamic and pallidal populations were phase-locked to beta-amplifying alignments. Conversely ON dopamine, the total duration over which subthalamic and pallidal populations were aligned to phases that left beta-amplitude unchanged with respect to surrogates increased. Thus dopaminergic input shifted circuit dynamics from persistent periods of locking to amplifying phase alignments, associated with compromised motoric function, to more dynamic phase alignment and improved motoric function. This effect of dopamine on local circuit resonance suggests means by which novel electrical interventions might prevent resonance-related

  16. Two cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) treated with Iminitab (Glivec) in different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoli, R.; Ciarlo, S.; Acosta, I.; Perez, S.; Lagorio, S.; Pratti, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: IMINITAB, inhibitor of cytoplasmic transduction signs, and hindering neoplastic cells growth, is a new therapeutic agent for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It is a tyrosine kinase bcrabl inhibitor, inhibiting also the c-kit receptor protein in gastrointestinal neoplasia and small cells lung cancer. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of this agent in CML patients in two different time-periods, namely the chronic phase and the acute one. We hereby present two patients: 1) a 48 years old patient with radioactive contamination history, and 2) a 19 years old patient. In both cases diagnosis was confirmed by BM and BM biopsy, neutrophile alkaline phosphatase, and Ph chromosome t(9;22) (q34;q11). There were non-compatible BM donors available. Both patients were treated with hydroxyurea, hydroxyurea plus interferon, and one of them adding ARAC. Since there was no favorable response an Iminitab course was started. Patient (2) with blastic crisis remitted for 12 month until subsequent relapse and death. Patient (1) treated during chronic phase is still in remission. Neither of them attained negative Ph chromosome. Up to now, current reports show a high percentage of relapse in patients treated during the acute phase, while the chronic ones present a smaller number of relapses. It is to be noted the importance of the follow up during the chronic phase, due to the short time drug utilization in our country (May 2001). Good tolerance and sustained remission in CML patients allows being optimistic regarding this therapeutic agent. (author)

  17. Pressure transient analysis in single and two-phase water by finite difference methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, G.F.; Daley, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of LMFBR steam generators is the possibility of leakage from a steam generator water tube. The ensuing sodium/water reaction will be largely controlled by the amount of water available at the leak site, thus analysis methods treating this event must have the capability of accurately modeling pressure transients through all states of water occurring in a steam generator, whether single or two-phase. The equation systems of the present model consist of the conservation equations together with an equation of state for one-dimensional homogeneous flow. These equations are then solved using finite difference techniques with phase considerations and non-equilibrium effects being treated through the equation of state. The basis for water property computation is Keenan's 'fundamental equation of state' which is applicable to single-phase water at pressures less than 1000 bars and temperatures less than 1300 0 C. This provides formulations allowing computation of any water property to any desired precision. Two-phase properties are constructed from values on the saturation line. The use of formulations permits the direct calculation of any thermodynamic property (or property derivative) to great precision while requiring very little computer storage, but does involve considerable computation time. For this reason an optional calculation scheme based on the method of 'transfinite interpolation' is included to give rapid computation in selected regions with decreased precision. The conservation equations were solved using the second order Lax-Wendroff scheme which includes wall friction, allows the formation of shocks and locally supersonic flow. Computational boundary conditions were found from a method-of-characteristics solution at the reservoir and receiver ends. The local characteristics were used to interpolate data from inside the pipe to the boundary

  18. Quantum mechanical systems interacting with different polarizations of gravitational waves in noncommutative phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Swarup

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the extreme smallness of any noncommutative scale that may exist in nature, both in the spatial and momentum sector of the quantum phase space, a credible possibility of their detection lies in the gravitational wave (GW) detection scenario, where one effectively probes the relative length-scale variations ˜O [10-20-10-23] . With this motivation, we have theoretically constructed how a free particle and a harmonic oscillator will respond to linearly and circularly polarized gravitational waves if their quantum mechanical phase space has a noncommutative structure. We critically analyze the formal solutions which show resonance behavior in the responses of both free particle and HO systems to GW with both kind of polarizations. We discuss the possible implications of these solutions in detecting noncommutativity in a GW detection experiment. We use the currently available upper-bound estimates on various noncommutative parameters to anticipate the relative importance of various terms in the solutions. We also argue how the quantum harmonic oscillator system we considered here can be very relevant in the context of the resonant bar detectors of GW which are already operational.

  19. Navy Job-Related Male-Female Differences: Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    and 50 female Caucasian South African healing sciences students and 44 male and 43 female American medical, dental, physiotherapy students were...lesser extent, even the primary differences. The subjects used in the cited research, especially in the cognitive areas, were usually college students ...that may make college students atypical of and noncomparable to Navy enlisted personnel of the same general age. This appears more likely for males

  20. DIFFERENCES OF ANTROPOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO SEX OF PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Gojković; Branislav Radulović

    2010-01-01

    As per sample of 212 examinees at the age of 11 (±6 months) at the fifth grade in Montenegrin elementary schools, it was used the system of 12 variables for the estimation of anthropometrical characteristis. The purpose of the examination was to establish differentiations between different students sex in the initial and final measuring. As for results given by using discriminant analysis and univariant analysis of variance on the anthropometrical student's status, it can be concluded that th...

  1. Gender-related differences in prolactin secretion in pituitary prolactinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, H.; Haraoka, J.; Akada, K.; Azuma, S.

    2002-01-01

    In pituitary prolactinomas, serum prolactin (PRL) levels usually parallel the tumor size. We conducted a retrospective study to determine differences in PRL production between men and women with prolactinomas. A total of 51 patients, 16 men and 35 women, was studied. We investigated clinical, endocrinological, radiological and histological findings, and estimated the tumor volume (TV) by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Correlation between PRL level and TV was low in men (R=0.458), in contrast to women (R=0.953), c. Men with prolactinomas showed predominance of large tumors (P=0.0009) with high PRL levels (P=0.0009) and had greater tendencies for cyst formation (P=0.0047). Large prolactinomas tended to be accompanied by cyst(s) (P=0.0051) and hemorrhage (P=0.0015), both of which were associated with reduced PRL secretion (P=0.0004 and P<0.0001, respectively). When the volume of the cysts and hemorrhage was subtracted from the total TV, correlation between PRL level and TV became greater (R=0.905) with no gender difference. Histological examination demonstrated a sparsely granulated type of lactotroph adenoma with occasional fibrosis, particularly in tumors with hemorrhage and cysts. Although a significant discrepancy between PRL level and TV may exist in prolactinomas when intratumoral hemorrhage and/or cysts are present, there is no essential difference in PRL secretion between the sexes. (orig.)

  2. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Mozdzen, G. [Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2F, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Weigel, F.; Varga, M. [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  3. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojacz, H.; Mozdzen, G.; Weigel, F.; Varga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  4. Age-Related Differences of Maximum Phonation Time in Patients after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro P. Izawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Maximum phonation time (MPT, which is related to respiratory function, is widely used to evaluate maximum vocal capabilities, because its use is non-invasive, quick, and inexpensive. We aimed to examine differences in MPT by age, following recovery phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR. Methods: This longitudinal observational study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients who were divided into the middle-aged group (<65 years, n = 29 and older-aged group (≥65 years, n = 21. MPTs were measured at 1 and 3 months after cardiac surgery, and were compared. Results: The duration of MPT increased more significantly from month 1 to month 3 in the middle-aged group (19.2 ± 7.8 to 27.1 ± 11.6 s, p < 0.001 than in the older-aged group (12.6 ± 3.5 to 17.9 ± 6.0 s, p < 0.001. However, no statistically significant difference occurred in the % change of MPT from 1 month to 3 months after cardiac surgery between the middle-aged group and older-aged group, respectively (41.1% vs. 42.1%. In addition, there were no significant interactions of MPT in the two groups for 1 versus 3 months (F = 1.65, p = 0.20. Conclusion: Following phase II, CR improved MPT for all cardiac surgery patients.

  5. Age-Related Differences of Maximum Phonation Time in Patients after Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Kasahara, Yusuke; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2017-12-21

    Background and aims: Maximum phonation time (MPT), which is related to respiratory function, is widely used to evaluate maximum vocal capabilities, because its use is non-invasive, quick, and inexpensive. We aimed to examine differences in MPT by age, following recovery phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Methods: This longitudinal observational study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients who were divided into the middle-aged group (<65 years, n = 29) and older-aged group (≥65 years, n = 21). MPTs were measured at 1 and 3 months after cardiac surgery, and were compared. Results: The duration of MPT increased more significantly from month 1 to month 3 in the middle-aged group (19.2 ± 7.8 to 27.1 ± 11.6 s, p < 0.001) than in the older-aged group (12.6 ± 3.5 to 17.9 ± 6.0 s, p < 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference occurred in the % change of MPT from 1 month to 3 months after cardiac surgery between the middle-aged group and older-aged group, respectively (41.1% vs. 42.1%). In addition, there were no significant interactions of MPT in the two groups for 1 versus 3 months (F = 1.65, p = 0.20). Conclusion: Following phase II, CR improved MPT for all cardiac surgery patients.

  6. Same but different: pleiotropy in centrosome-related microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ryan S; Schoborg, Todd A; Rusan, Nasser M

    2018-02-01

    An intimate link between centrosome function and neurogenesis is revealed by the identification of many genes with centrosome-associated functions that are mutated in microcephaly disorders. Consistent with the major role of the centrosome in mitosis, mutations in these centrosome-related microcephaly (CRM) genes are thought to affect neurogenesis by depleting the pool of neural progenitor cells, primarily through apoptosis as a consequence of mitotic failure or premature differentiation as a consequence of cell cycle delay and randomization of spindle orientation. However, as suggested by the wide range of microcephaly phenotypes and the multifunctional nature of many CRM proteins, this picture of CRM gene function is incomplete. Here, we explore several examples of CRM genes pointing to additional functions that contribute to microcephaly, including regulation of cell cycle signaling, actin cytoskeleton, and Hippo pathway proteins, as well as functions in postmitotic neurons and glia. As these examples are likely just the tip of the iceberg, further exploration of the roles of microcephaly-related genes are certain to reveal additional unforeseen functions important for neurodevelopment. © 2018 O‘Neill et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  8. Organic and inorganic speciation of particulate matter formed during different combustion phases in an improved cookstove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Patel, Sameer; Martinez, Raul; Mitroo, Dhruv; Fortenberry, Claire; Walker, Michael; Williams, Brent; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-10-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion in cookstoves has established health impacts including bladder and lung cancers, cataracts, low birth weight, and pneumonia. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) from 4 commonly-used solid fuels (coal, dung, ambient/dry applewood, and oakwood pellets), emitted from a gasifier cookstove, as well as propane, were examined. Temporal changes between the different cookstove burn-phases were also explored. Normalized concentrations of non-refractory PM 1 , total organics, chloride, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and 41 particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (TAG), respectively. Coal demonstrated the highest fraction of organic matter in its particulate emission composition (98%), followed by dung (94%). Coal and dung also demonstrated the highest numbers and concentrations of PAHs. While dry applewood emitted ten times lower organic matter compared to ambient applewood, a higher fraction of these organics was composed of PAHs, especially the more toxic ones such as benzo(a)pyrene (9.63ng/L versus 0.04ng/L), and benzo(b)fluoranthene (31.32ng/L versus 0.19ng/L). Data from the AMS demonstrated no clear trends for any of the combustion fuels over the different combustion phases unlike the previously reported trends observed for the physical characteristics. Of the solid fuels, pellets demonstrated the lowest emissions. Emissions from propane were below the quantification limit of the instruments. This work highlights the benefits of incorporating additional metrics into the cookstove evaluation process, thus enriching the existing PM data inventory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Relations between different objective milking speed recording systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the sources of variation of milking speed assessed through automatic computerised devices included in milking machines, to study the relationships between this trait and milking speed assessed through stopwatch and to develop statistical procedures useful for converting automatic device milking time into stopwatch milking time in order to obtain a fast, simple and cheap collection of milking time records for genetic evaluation purposes. A total of 571 records of stopwatch milking time (SMT, device milking time (DMT and milk yield at milking were collected in 23 herds of the Trentino Alto Adige region in Italy equipped with two types of automatic milking devices. After log-transformation of SMT (lnSMT and DMT (lnDMT and a preliminary analysis of sources of variation of lnDMT, dataset was partitioned into two mutually exclusive subsets: a calibration one, used for statistical analysis, and a validation one, used as test set to validate the prediction models. This procedure was replicated 6 times in order to repeat the cross validation accordingly. Three conversion models have been compared, based on different combinations of the effects of lnDMT, milking device and herd within milking device on lnSMT. Solutions of the models have been applied for each replicate to the validation dataset for estimating lnSMT and the soundness of conversion equations have been evaluated considering the correlation between estimated and actual lnSMT and bias and precision of estimates. Milking time assessed through different procedures resulted in differences between methods for both mean and distribution, and these suggested the need of developing statistical procedures aimed to the conversion of DMT into SMT before their use in sire evaulation. The soundness of the models tended to slightly increase with the increase in the number of effects considered. The correlation between estimated and actual SMT was in the range of 0.80 to 0

  10. The relative biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the literature relevant to the selection of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for use in arriving at values of the quality factor (Q). Emphasis is placed on response to small ( M . In a wide variety of systems, the RBE M for fast (fission) neutrons, with low doses and dose rates, appears to be of the order of 20 or more compared to moderately filtered 250 kVp x rays and 40 or more compared to higher energy gamma rays. These values, which are much larger than those observed with large doses delivered at high dose rates, are due mainly, but not entirely, to a decrease in the slope of the curve for the ow-LET reference radiation at low dose

  11. Peptic ulcer frequency differences related to h. Pylori or aines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Diego Michelon de; Pires, Rafael Cardoso; Rohde, Sofia Laura; Kavalco, Caroline Mayara; Fagundes, Renato Borges

    2015-01-01

    Peptic ulcer etiology has been changing because of H. pylori decline. To estimate peptic ulcer prevalence in 10 years-interval and compare the association with H. pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods Records assessment in two periods: A (1997-2000) and B (2007-2010), searching for peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use. Peptic ulcer occurred in 30.35% in A and in 20.19% in B. H. pylori infection occurred in 73.3% cases in A and in 46.4% in B. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use was 3.5% in A and 13.3% in B. Neither condition occurred in 10.4% and 20.5% in A and B respectively. Comparing both periods, we observed reduction of peptic ulcer associated to H. pylori (P=0.000), increase of peptic ulcer related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (P=0.000) and idiopathic peptic ulcer (P=0.002). The concurrent association of H. pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was also higher in B (P=0.002). Rates of gastric ulcer were higher and duodenal ulcer lower in the second period. After 10 years, the prevalence of peptic ulcer decreased, as well as ulcers related to H. pylori whereas ulcers associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased. There was an inversion in the pattern of gastric and duodenal ulcer and a rise of idiopathic peptic ulcer.

  12. PEPTIC ULCER FREQUENCY DIFFERENCES RELATED TO H. PYLORI OR AINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Michelon de CARLI

    Full Text Available Background Peptic ulcer etiology has been changing because of H. pylori decline. Objectives To estimate peptic ulcer prevalence in 10 years-interval and compare the association with H. pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods Records assessment in two periods: A (1997-2000 and B (2007-2010, searching for peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use. Results Peptic ulcer occurred in 30.35% in A and in 20.19% in B. H. pylori infection occurred in 73.3% cases in A and in 46.4% in B. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use was 3.5% in A and 13.3% in B. Neither condition occurred in 10.4% and 20.5% in A and B respectively. Comparing both periods, we observed reduction of peptic ulcer associated to H. pylori (P=0.000, increase of peptic ulcer related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (P=0.000 and idiopathic peptic ulcer (P=0.002. The concurrent association of H. pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was also higher in B (P=0.002. Rates of gastric ulcer were higher and duodenal ulcer lower in the second period. Conclusions After 10 years, the prevalence of peptic ulcer decreased, as well as ulcers related to H. pylori whereas ulcers associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased. There was an inversion in the pattern of gastric and duodenal ulcer and a rise of idiopathic peptic ulcer.

  13. Trends and racial differences in birth weight and related survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G R; Tompkins, M E; Allen, M C; Hulsey, T C

    1999-06-01

    In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates. Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation. We define the birth weight threshold for adverse survival odds as the birth weight at which 50% or more of infants in the population died within the first month of life. Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants. By the end of the study period, the birth weight at which over 50% of newborns died within the first month of life was 696 g for Whites and 673 g for African-Americans. The ongoing decline in neonatal mortality is mainly due to reductions in birth weight specific neonatal mortality, probably related to high-risk obstetric and neonatal care. Technological developments in these areas may have differentially benefited Whites, resulting in an increasing racial disparity in mortality rates. Moreover, the relatively greater and increasing mortality risk from postmaturity and macrosomia in infants of African-America mothers may further exacerbate the racial gap in infant mortality.

  14. Relative position control design of receiver UAV in flying-boom aerial refueling phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shuai; Yuan, Suozhong

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes the design of the relative position-keeping control of the receiver unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with the time-varying mass in the refueling phase utilizing an inner-outer loop structure. Firstly, the model of the receiver in the refueling phase is established. And then tank model is set up to analyze the influence of fuel transfer on the receiver. Subsequently, double power reaching law based sliding mode controller is designed to control receiver translational motion relative to tanker aircraft in the outer loop while active disturbance rejection control technique is applied to the inner loop to stabilize the receiver. In addition, the closed-loop stabilities of the subsystems are established, respectively. Finally, an aerial refueling model under various refueling strategies is utilized. Simulations and comparative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On Dual Phase-Space Relativity, the Machian Principle and Modified Newtonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of the Mach's principle of inertia within the context of the Dual Phase Space Relativity which is compatible with the Eddington-Dirac large numbers coincidences and may provide with a physical reason behind the observed anomalous Pioneer acceleration and a solution to the riddle of the cosmological constant problem ( Nottale ). The cosmological implications of Non-Archimedean Geometry by assigning an upper impassible scale in Nature and the cosmological variations of the fundamental constants are also discussed. We study the corrections to Newtonian dynamics resulting from the Dual Phase Space Relativity by analyzing the behavior of a test particle in a modified Schwarzschild geometry (due to the the effects of the maximal acceleration) that leads in the weak-field approximation to essential modifications of the Newtonian dynamics and to violations of the equivalence principle. Finally we follow another avenue and find modified Newtonian dynamics induced by the Yang's Noncommut...

  16. Modelling phase separation in Fe-Cr system using different atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castin, N.; Bonny, G.; Terentyev, D.; Lavrentiev, M.Yu.; Nguyen-Manh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations were performed to study α-α' phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys. Two different energy models and two approaches to estimate the local vacancy migration barriers were used. The energy models considered are a two-band model Fe-Cr potential and a cluster expansion, both fitted to ab initio data. The classical Kang-Weinberg decomposition, based on the total energy change of the system, and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), employed as a regression tool were used to predict the local vacancy migration barriers 'on the fly'. The results are compared with experimental thermal annealing data and differences between the applied AKMC approaches are discussed. The ability of the ANN regression method to accurately predict migration barriers not present in the training list is also addressed by performing cross-check calculations using the nudged elastic band method.

  17. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  18. Calculated Phase Relations in the System KFMASH Between 6 and 16 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonne, H.; Brandelik, A.

    2005-12-01

    To better understand the modal compositions of deeply buried metagranitoids and metapelites, phase relations in the model system K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (KFMASH) with SiO2 in excess were calculated applying thermodynamic principles. We used the software package PTGIBBS, published data, and thermodynamic data (e.g. for phase egg (AlSiO3OH), K-hollandite (KAlSi3O8)) newly derived on the basis of former high-pressure (HP) experiments. Non-ideal mixing was considered for the solid solution series of garnet (components: pyrope, majorite, almandine) and potassic white mica (components: muscovite, MgAl-celadonite, FeAl-celadonite). For phases such as HP-clinoenstatite ((Mg,Fe)SiO3), Si-spinel ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4), and beta phase ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) only binary solid solutions, assuming ideal mixing, were taken into account. On the basis of the above data, we constructed petrogenetic grids mainly for the P-T range 6 to 16 GPa and 600 to 1600 ° C. Typical features of these grids are, for instance, the disappearance of K-cymrite (KAlSi3O8 H2O) with rising pressure close to 10 GPa and the occurrence of phase egg above 12 GPa. In KMASH potassic white mica reacts with OH-topaz at about 11 GPa (1000-1200 ° C) to form pyrope + K-hollandite. The content of majorite component in pyrope is less than 1 mol% which is systematically so for all garnets coexisting with an Al-silicate at least up to 16 GPa. Potassic white mica, which is virtually pure MgAl-celadonite, finally breaks down at pressures close to 12 GPa. Decomposition assemblages are K-hollandite + HP-clinoenstatite + H2O (T free) garnet + Al-silicate. The latter phase is either OH-topaz (Al2SiO4(OH)2) or phase egg or kyanite also depending on the availability of H2O. Metagranitoids should be composed of shishovite + K-hollandite + majorite-bearing garnet + (enstatite-rich) clinopyroxene. Si-spinel is an important additional phase in this assemblage. This phase shows increasing amounts by approaching to 16 GPa.

  19. CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT PHASE DEVELOPMENT OF RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B. Bocharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dedicated to analysis of Russian-Israeli international business relations by using of all the arsenal of modern methods. The article investigates the possibility of using the geo-political, geo-economic and geo-cultural approaches to definition of optimal ways of relations between the two countries' development. It demonstrates that due to the historical and cultural features of the nature of relations between those two countries, geo-cultural approach is more preferable. Also, the article shows that this approach of the analysis is not often used for the analysis of relations of Russia with other countries. The geo-cultural approach of analysis had used for elaboration of suggestions of new phase of development of business relations between Russia and Israel.

  20. One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ru [Quantitative Light Imaging Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Wang Zhuo; Leigh, Joe; Popescu, Gabriel [Quantitative Light Imaging Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sobh, Nahil [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Millet, Larry; Gillette, Martha U [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Levine, Alex J, E-mail: alevine@chem.ucla.edu, E-mail: gpopescu@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-09-21

    We studied the active transport of intracellular components along neuron processes using a new method developed in our laboratory: dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy. This method is able to quantitatively map spatially the heterogeneous dynamics of the concentration field of the cargos at submicron resolution without the need for tracking individual components. The results in terms of density correlation function reveal that the decay rate is linear in wavenumber, which is consistent with a narrow Lorentzian distribution of cargo velocity. (paper)

  1. Relation of Sociodemographics and Personal Hygiene on Different Childhood Dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchan, E; Kumar, A; Bk, G; Thapa, P; Pun, J

    2015-01-01

    Skin diseases in children contribute to significant morbidity and psychological distress. Infective dermatoses are one of the major dermatoses in children. Low socioeconomic status, overcrowding and poor personal hygiene has been linked to skin diseases. To find out the prevalence of infectious skin disease in children, rate of transmissible skin disease and association of sociodemographic factors and personal hygiene on infective childhood dermatoses. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Pediatric and Dermatology Department, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A total of 226 patients were examined over a period of one year. Relation of sociodemographics, crowding and personal hygiene on skin disease were assessed. The most common category was Infections and Infestations (51.3%) followed by Dermatitis (27.9%). Transmissible skin disease was seen in 49.6%. Low socioeconomic status and overcrowding were associated with increased risk for infective dermatoses. Skin disease in children constitutes a public health problem. Improving the socioeconomic status and personal hygiene can help to reduce the incidence of skin disease in children.

  2. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  3. Effect of phase change material on the heat transfer rate of different building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mushfiq; Alam, Shahnur; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is widely known as latent heat storage. A comprehensive study is carried out to investigate the effect of PCM on heat transfer rate of building materials. Paraffin is used as PCM along with different conventional building materials to investigate the heat transfer rate from the heated region to the cold region. PCM is placed along with the three different types of building materials like plaster which is well know building material in urban areas and wood and straw which are commonly used in rural areas for roofing as well as wall panel material and investigated the heat transfer rate. An experimental setup was constructed with number of rectangular shape aluminum detachable casing (as cavity) and placed side by side. Series of rectangular cavity filled with convent ional building materials and PCM and these were placed in between two chambers filled with water at different temperature. Building materials and PCM were placed in different cavities with different combinations and investigated the heat transfer rate. The results show that using the PCM along with other building materials can be used to maintain lower temperature at the inner wall and chamber of the cold region. Moreover, the placement or orientation of the building materials and PCM make significant contribution to heat transfer rate from the heated zone to the cold zone.

  4. MDCT of acute pancreatitis: Intraindividual comparison of single-phase versus dual-phase MDCT for initial assessment of acute pancreatitis using different CT scoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Weinrich, Julius M.; Kraus, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Yamamura, Jin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Karul, Murat [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the additional value of dual-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols over a single-phase protocol on initial MDCT in patients with acute pancreatitis using three CT-based pancreatitis severity scores with regard to radiation dose. Methods: In this retrospective, IRB approved study MDCT was performed in 102 consecutive patients (73 males; 55years, IQR48–64) with acute pancreatitis. Inclusion criteria were CT findings of interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IP) or necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) and a contrast-enhanced dual-phase (arterial phase and portal-venous phase) abdominal CT performed at ≥72 h after onset of symptoms. The severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes was independently assessed by 2 observers using 3 validated CT-based scoring systems (CTSI, mCTSI, EPIC). All scores were applied to arterial phase and portal venous phase scans and compared to score results of portal venous phase scans, assessed ≥14 days after initial evaluation. For effective dose estimation, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded in all examinations. Results: In neither of the CT severity scores a significant difference was observed after application of a dual-phase protocol compared with a single-phase protocol (IP: CTSI: 2.7 vs. 2.5, p = 0.25; mCTSI: 4.0 vs. 4.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 2.0 vs. 2.0, p = 0.41; NP: CTSI: 8.0 vs. 7.0, p = 0.64; mCTSI: 8.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.10; EPIC: 3.0 vs. 3.0, p = 0.06). The application of a single-phase CT protocol was associated with a median effective dose reduction of 36% (mean dose reduction 31%) compared to a dual-phase CT scan. Conclusions: An initial dual-phase abdominal CT after ≥72 h after onset of symptoms of acute pancreatitis was not superior to a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the severity of pancreatic and extrapancreatic changes. However, the effective radiation dose may be reduced by 36% using a

  5. Phase relations in the SiC-Al2O3-Pr2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wu, L.; Jiang, Y.; Huang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Phase relations in the Si-Al-Pr-O-C system, including the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 , the Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 and the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 subsystems, were determined by means of XRD phase analysis of solid-state-reacted samples fabricated by using SiC, Al 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 powders as the starting materials. Subsolidus phase diagrams of the systems were presented. Two Pr-aluminates, namely PrAlO 3 (PrAP) and PrAl 11 O 18 (β(Pr) β-Al 2 O 3 type) were formed in the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 system. SiC was compatible with both of them. Pr-silicates of Pr 2 SiO 5 , Pr 2 Si 2 O 7 and Pr 9.33 Si 6 O 26 (H(Pr) apatite type) were formed owing to presence of SiO 2 impurity in the SiC powder. The presence of the SiO 2 extended the ternary system of SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 into a quaternary system of SiC-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -Pr 2 O 3 (Si-Al-Pr-O-C). SiC was compatible with Al 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 3 and the Pr-silicates. The effect of SiO 2 on the phase relations and liquid phase sintering of SiC ceramics was discussed.

  6. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.

  7. Treatment and Response to Statins: Gender-related Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raparelli, Valeria; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Todisco, Tommaso; Toriello, Filippo; Napoleone, Laura; Manfredini, Roberto; Basili, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings. Specifically, benefits outweigh disadvantages of statin therapy in women with a high CVD risk, while several doubts exist for the primary prevention of women at low-intermediate CVD risk. Furthermore, disparities between women and men in medication adherence may influence statin efficacy in CVD prevention. The sex-dependent impact of adverse side effects is one of the reasons advocated for explaining the gender gap, but it is not evidence-proved. The present review summarizes the sex and gender differences in the use of statins, pointing out new perspectives and opening issues in sex-tailored CVD prevention strategy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Soil radon pulses related to the initial phase of volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Mena, M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil radon behaviour related to the initial phase of volcanic eruptions is analysed from reported values related to the explosivity of four American stratovolcaneos: El Chicon (1982) and Popocatepetl (1994) in Mexico, Poas (1987-1990) in Costa Rica and Cerro Negro (1982) in Nicaragua. The measurements in the field were performed with solid-state nuclear track detectors and electrets. The ratio between the magnitudes of the radon in soil peaks generated when the eruptive period started and the average radon values corresponding to quiescence periods indicate a dependence on the volcanic eruptive index for each one of the eruptive periods

  9. Uncertainty propagation for flood forecasting in the Alps: different views and impacts from MAP D-PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Rotach

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available D-PHASE was a Forecast Demonstration Project of the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP related to the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP. Its goal was to demonstrate the reliability and quality of operational forecasting of orographically influenced (determined precipitation in the Alps and its consequences on the distribution of run-off characteristics. A special focus was, of course, on heavy-precipitation events.

    The D-PHASE Operations Period (DOP ran from June to November~2007, during which an end-to-end forecasting system was operated covering many individual catchments in the Alps, with their water authorities, civil protection organizations or other end users. The forecasting system's core piece was a Visualization Platform where precipitation and flood warnings from some 30 atmospheric and 7 hydrological models (both deterministic and probabilistic and corresponding model fields were displayed in uniform and comparable formats. Also, meteograms, nowcasting information and end user communication was made available to all the forecasters, users and end users. D-PHASE information was assessed and used by some 50 different groups ranging from atmospheric forecasters to civil protection authorities or water management bodies.

    In the present contribution, D-PHASE is briefly presented along with its outstanding scientific results and, in particular, the lessons learnt with respect to uncertainty propagation. A focus is thereby on the transfer of ensemble prediction information into the hydrological community and its use with respect to other aspects of societal impact. Objective verification of forecast quality is contrasted to subjective quality assessments during the project (end user workshops, questionnaires and some general conclusions concerning forecast demonstration projects are drawn.

  10. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  11. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, B.; Teng, I. L.; Muhammad samudi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (Malaysia), and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y -1 permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77 x 10 -3 risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19 x 10 -3 risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain 4.0718 at Different Growth Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth process of Bacillus thuringiensis Bt4.0718 strain was studied using proteomic technologies. The proteins of Bt whole cells at three phases—middle vegetative, early sporulation, and late sporulation—were extracted with lysis buffer, followed with separation by 2-DE and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Bioactive factors such as insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs including Cry1Ac(3, Cry2Aa, and BTRX28, immune inhibitor (InhA, and InhA precursor were identified. InhA started to express at the middle vegetative phase, suggesting its contribution to the survival of Bt in the host body. At the early sporulation phase, ICPs started their expression. CotJC, OppA, ORF1, and SpoIVA related to the formation of crystals and spores were identified, the expression characteristics of which ensured the stable formation of crystals and spores. This study provides an important foundation for further exploration of the stable expression of ICPs, the smooth formation of crystals, and the construction of recombinant strains.

  13. Phase II trial of epidermal growth factor ointment for patients with Erlotinib-related skin effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Gyu; Kang, Jung Hun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Song, Ki-Hoon; Son, Choonhee; Park, Min Jae; Kang, Myung Hee; Kim, Hoon Gu; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Young Suk; Sun, Jong Mu; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jang, Joung-Soon; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been demonstrated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer (PC). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ointment on erlotinib-related skin effects (ERSEs). This was an open-label, non-comparative, multicenter, phase II trial. The patients included those diagnosed with NSCLC or PC who were treated with erlotinib. The effectiveness of the ointment was defined as follows: (1) grade 2, 3, or 4 ERSEs downgraded to ≤ grade 1 or (2) grade 3 or 4 ERSEs downgraded to grade 2 and persisted for at least 2 weeks. Fifty-two patients from seven institutes in Korea were enrolled with informed consent. The final assessment included 46 patients (30 males, 16 females). According to the definition of effectiveness, the EGF ointment was effective in 36 (69.2%) intention to treat patients. There were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of the EGF ointment by gender (p = 0.465), age (p = 0.547), tumor type (p = 0.085), erlotinib dosage (p = 0.117), and number of prior chemotherapy sessions (p = 0.547). The grading for the average National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) rating of rash/acne and itching improved from 2.02 ± 0.83 to 1.13 ± 0.89 and 1.52 ± 0.84 to 0.67 ± 0.90, respectively (p reason for discontinuing the study was progression of cancer (37%). Based on the results, the EGF ointment is effective for ERSEs, regardless of gender, age, type of tumor, and dosage of erlotinib. The EGF ointment evenly improved all kinds of symptoms of ERSEs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01593995.

  14. Antibacterial photocatalytic activity of different crystalline TiO2 phases in oral multispecies biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaroto, Heloisa N; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio P; Bertolini, Martinna M; Dias da Silva, José Humberto; Azevedo Neto, Nilton F; Sukotjo, Cortino; Rangel, Elidiane C; Barão, Valentim A R

    2018-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) incorporation in biomaterials is a promising technology due to its photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. However, the antibacterial potential of different TiO 2 crystalline structures on a multispecies oral biofilm remains unknown. We hypothesized that the different crystalline TiO 2 phases present different photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. Three crystalline TiO 2 films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on commercially pure titanium (cpTi), in order to obtain four groups: (1) machined cpTi (control); (2) A-TiO 2 (anatase); (3) M-TiO 2 (mixture of anatase and rutile); (4) R-TiO 2 (rutile). The morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition, hardness, elastic modulus and surface free energy of the surfaces were evaluated. The photocatalytic potential was assessed by methylene blue degradation assay. The antibacterial activity was evaluated on relevant oral bacteria, by using a multispecies biofilm (Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii and Fusobacterium nucleatum) formed on the treated titanium surfaces (16.5h) followed by UV-A light exposure (1h) to generate reactive oxygen species production. All TiO 2 films presented around 300nm thickness and improved the hardness and elastic modulus of cpTi surfaces (p0.05 vs. control). This study brings new insights on the development of extra oral protocols for the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 in oral biofilm-associated disease. Anatase and mixture-TiO 2 showed antibacterial activity on this oral bacterial biofilm, being promising surface coatings for dental implant components. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  15. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  16. Subsolidus phase relations of Bi2O3-Nd2O3-CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yezhou

    1997-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the Bi 2 O 3 -Nd 2 O 3 -CuO ternary system and its binary systems along with crystallographic parameters of the compounds were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The room temperature section of the phase diagram of the Bi 2 O 3 -Nd 2 O 3 -CuO system can be divided into two diphase regions and six triphase regions. No ternary compound was found. There exist two solid solutions (α, β) and a compound Bi 0.55 Nd 0.45 O 1.5 in the (Bi 2 O 2 ) 1-x (Nd 2 O 3 ) x system. Both solid solution α (0.05≤x≤0.30) and β (0.53≤x≤0.73) belong to the rhombohedral system (R3m). The lattice parameters represented by a hexagonal cell are a=3.9832(4), c=27.536(5) A for Bi 0.8 Nd 0.2 O 1.5 (α phase) and a=3.8826(3), c=9.727(1) A for Bi 0.4 Nd 0.8 O 1.5 (β phase). The Bi 0.55 Nd 0.45 O 1.5 compound crystallizes in a face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) lattice with a=5.5480(2) A. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of microstructure and phase relations in a powder processed Ti-44Al-12Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.G.; Reddy, R.G.; Wu, J.; Holthus, J.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium aluminides based on the ordered face-centered tetragonal γTiAl phase possess attractive properties, such as low density, high melting point, good elevated temperature strength, modulus retention, and oxidation resistance, making these alloys potential high-temperature structural materials. These alloys can be processed by both ingot metallurgy and powder metallurgy routes. In the present study, three variations of the powder metallurgy route were studied to process a Ti-44Al-12Nb (at.%) alloy: (a) cold pressing followed by reaction sintering (CP process); (b) cold pressing, vacuum hot pressing, and then sintering (HP process); and (c) arc melting, hydride-dehydride process to make the alloy powder, cold isostatic pressing, and then sintering (AM process). Microstructural and phase relations were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The phases identified were Ti 3 Al and TiAl; an additional Nb 2 Al phase was observed in the HP sample. The microstructures of CP and HP processed samples are porous and chemically inhomogeneous whereas the AM processed sample revealed fine equiaxed microstructure. This refinement of the microstructure is attributed to the fine, homogeneous powder produced by the hydride-dehydride process and the high compaction pressures

  18. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the CoOx-CuO-SrO System  

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the CoOx-CuO-SrO system were investigated in air. The samples were equilibrated at 900 °C. The pseudo-ternary section contains three stoichiometric binary oxide phases (Sr2CuO3, SrCuO2 and Sr14Cu24O41−δ) and a binary oxide solid solution: Sr6+xCo5O15+δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.......36). Two binary phases extend into the ternary system forming solid solutions, i.e., Sr14Cu24−xCoxO41−δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 5) and Sr6+xCo5−yCuyO15+δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.36, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1.0). The Sr6+xCo5O15+δ solid solution was found to undergo a phase separation into a mixture of Sr6Co5O15−δ and Sr14Co11O33 upon annealing...

  19. Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Martin; Kaes, Matthias; Albert, Andreas; Wuttig, Matthias; Salinga, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Memory based on phase change materials is currently the most promising candidate for bridging the gap in access time between memory and storage in traditional memory hierarchy. However, multilevel storage is still hindered by the so-called resistance drift commonly related to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase. Here, we present the temporal evolution of infrared spectra measured on amorphous thin films of the three phase change materials Ag4In3Sb67Te26, GeTe and the most popular Ge2Sb2Te5. A widening of the bandgap upon annealing accompanied by a decrease of the optical dielectric constant ε∞ is observed for all three materials. Quantitative comparison with experimental data for the apparent activation energy of conduction reveals that the temporal evolution of bandgap and activation energy can be decoupled. The case of Ag4In3Sb67Te26, where the increase of activation energy is significantly smaller than the bandgap widening, demonstrates the possibility to identify new phase change materials with reduced resistance drift.

  20. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oester-Joergensen, E.; Quist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); and others

    1996-05-01

    No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteristics and whether different hormone secretion patterns are associated with specific alteration in emptying rate. 12 healthy men were examined on two occasion: one with meal ingestion in phase I and the other with meal ingestion in phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with {sup 99m}Tc followed by 150 ml water labelled with {sup 111}In. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin, motilin, and peptide YY were measured in the fasting state, immediately after food ingestion, and at 15 min-min intervals in the postprandial period. New findings from the present study include a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II, and a linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I. Furthermore, in phase I a linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated. The findings from the present investigation have to be considered in the future design of studies that focus on postprandial release of gastrointestinal hormones. The transition from phase III to phase I is a reproducible and easily recognized pressure event. Therefore, the authors recommend the use of food ingestion immediately after termination of duodenal phase III. 14 refs.

  2. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Krishna R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Degraded synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) anaerobically in controlled bench-scale reactors. → Performed laboratory tests to determine geotechnical properties of MSW at different phases of degradation. → Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. → Compression ratio reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. → Friction angle reduced, but cohesion increased with degradation. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35 o for fresh MSW to 28 o for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1 o to 9 o , respectively, while the effective strength parameters, cohesion

  3. Late-phase MSCT in the different stages of myocardial infarction: animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Bruners, Philipp; Kinzel, Sylvia; Katoh, Marcus; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to intraindividually evaluate myocardial late enhancement on multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for the assessment of the different stages of myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Reperfused MI was successfully induced in seven pigs. Delayed enhancement MR imaging and late-phase MSCT were performed on day 0 as well as 7, 28 and 90 days after the procedure. The pigs were sacrificed, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolin-chloride (TTC) staining was acquired. MI size was compared between the different imaging techniques and over time applying Bland-Altman plots and multivariate analysis with repeated measures. On day 0 the mean MI size was 23.7 ± 11.8% of the left ventricular area on MSCT and 24.5 ± 10.6% on MR imaging. On day 90 infarct sizes decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 8.4% and 18.9 ± 8.0%, respectively (P 0.0019). On TTC staining the size of MI was 16.8 ± 8.2%. Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between MSCT and MR imaging with mean deviations ranging from -3.4% to -1.9%. No significant difference between MSCT and MR imaging was found. Myocardial late enhancement on MSCT correlates well with delayed enhancement MR imaging during the different stages of MI and allows for reliable assessment of reperfused MI during acute, subacute and chronic stages. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis of a mixed-model stationary phase derived from glutamine for HPLC separation of structurally different biologically active compounds: HILIC and reversed-phase applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Tarık; Aral, Hayriye; Ziyadanoğulları, Berrin; Ziyadanoğulları, Recep

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed-mode stationary phase was synthesised starting from N-Boc-glutamine, aniline and spherical silica gel (4 µm, 60 Å). The prepared stationary phase was characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The new stationary phase bears an embedded amide group into phenyl ring, highly polar a terminal amide group and non-polar groups (phenyl and alkyl groups). At first, this new mixed-mode stationary phase was used for HILIC separation of four nucleotides and five nucleosides. The effects of different separation conditions, such as pH value, mobile phase and temperature, on the separation process were investigated. The optimum separation for nucleotides was achieved using HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature. Under these conditions, the four nucleotides could be separated and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Five nucleosides were separated under HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=3.25 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Chromatographic parameters as retention factor, selectivity, theoretical plate number and peak asymmetry factor were calculated for the effect of temperature and water content in mobile phase on the separation process. The new column was also tested for nucleotides and nucleosides mixture and six analytes were separated in 10min. The chromatographic behaviours of these polar analytes on the new mixed-model stationary phase were compared with those of HILIC columns under similar conditions. Further, phytohormones and phenolic compounds were separated in order to see influence of the new stationary phase in reverse phase conditions. Eleven plant phytohormones were separated within 13 min using RP-HPLC gradient elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=2.5 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 230 or 278 nm. The best separation

  5. Bifurcation and phase diagram of turbulence constituted from three different scale-length modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Kitazawa, A.; Yagi, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Cases where three kinds of fluctuations having the different typical scale-lengths coexist are analyzed, and the statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed. Statistical nonlinear interactions between fluctuations are kept in the analysis as the renormalized drag, statistical noise and the averaged drive. The nonlinear interplay through them induces a quenching or suppressing effect, even if all the modes are unstable when they are analyzed independently. Variety in mode appearance takes place: one mode quenches the other two modes, or one mode is quenched by the other two modes, etc. The bifurcation of turbulence is analyzed and a phase diagram is drawn. Phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe and butterfly type catastrophe are obtained. The subcritical bifurcation is possible to occur through the nonlinear interplay, even though each one is supercritical turbulence when analyzed independently. Analysis reveals that the nonlinear stability boundary (marginal point) and the amplitude of each mode may substantially shift from the conventional results of independent analyses. (author)

  6. High pressure study of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound in two different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Electronic and structural properties of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound are calculated at hydrostatic pressure using the full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method in both cubic and tetragonal phases. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof, GGA96 (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3865). Also, the Engel and Vosko GGA formalism, EV-GGA (Engel and Vosko 1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 13164), is used to improve the band-gap results. Internal parameters are optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The lattice constants, internal parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and band structures have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. The structural calculations predict that the stable phase is tetragonal. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band-gap, valence bandwidths and internal gaps (the energy gap between different parts of the valence bands) are studied using both GGA96 and EV-GGA.

  7. High pressure study of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound in two different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Ali [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, PB 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mokhtari@sci.sku.ac.ir

    2009-07-08

    Electronic and structural properties of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound are calculated at hydrostatic pressure using the full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method in both cubic and tetragonal phases. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof, GGA96 (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3865). Also, the Engel and Vosko GGA formalism, EV-GGA (Engel and Vosko 1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 13164), is used to improve the band-gap results. Internal parameters are optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The lattice constants, internal parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and band structures have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. The structural calculations predict that the stable phase is tetragonal. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band-gap, valence bandwidths and internal gaps (the energy gap between different parts of the valence bands) are studied using both GGA96 and EV-GGA.

  8. A generalized volumetric dispersion model for a class of two-phase separation/reaction: finite difference solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripatana, Chairat; Thongpan, Hathaikarn; Promraksa, Arwut

    2017-03-01

    This article explores a volumetric approach in formulating differential equations for a class of engineering flow problems involving component transfer within or between two phases. In contrast to conventional formulation which is based on linear velocities, this work proposed a slightly different approach based on volumetric flow-rate which is essentially constant in many industrial processes. In effect, many multi-dimensional flow problems found industrially can be simplified into multi-component or multi-phase but one-dimensional flow problems. The formulation is largely generic, covering counter-current, concurrent or batch, fixed and fluidized bed arrangement. It was also intended to use for start-up, shut-down, control and steady state simulation. Since many realistic and industrial operation are dynamic with variable velocity and porosity in relation to position, analytical solutions are rare and limited to only very simple cases. Thus we also provide a numerical solution using Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme. This solution is inherently stable as tested against a few cases published in the literature. However, it is anticipated that, for unconfined flow or non-constant flow-rate, traditional formulation should be applied.

  9. Phase relations study on the melting and crystallization regions of the Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Polasek

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The melting and solidification behavior of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3 O10 (Bi-2223 precursors has been studied. Nominal compositions corresponding to excess of liquid, Ca2CuO3 and CuO have been investigated. Each sample was made by packing a precursor powder into a silver crucible, in order to approximately simulate the situation found in 2223 silver-sheathed tapes. The samples were partially melted and then slow-cooled, being quenched from different temperatures and analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. The precursors decomposed peritectically during melting, forming liquid and solid phases. Very long plates with compositions falling in the vicinity of the 2223 primary phase field formed upon slow-cooling. The 2223 phase may have been formed and the results suggest that long grains of this phase might be obtained by melting and crystallization if the exact peritectic region and the optimum processing conditions are found.

  10. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and

  11. Evolution of the East Philippine Arc: experimental constraints on magmatic phase relations and adakitic melt formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, B.; Adam, J.; Rushmer, T.; MacPherson, C. G.

    2011-10-01

    Piston-cylinder experiments on a Pleistocene adakite from Mindanao in the Philippines have been used to establish near-liquidus and sub-liquidus phase relationships relevant to conditions in the East Philippines subduction zone. The experimental starting material belongs to a consanguineous suite of adakitic andesites. Experiments were conducted at pressures from 0.5 to 2 GPa and temperatures from 950 to 1,150°C. With 5 wt. % of dissolved H2O in the starting mix, garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are liquidus phases at pressures above 1.5 GPa, whereas clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are liquidus (or near-liquidus) phases at pressures 1.5 GPa) and subsequently involved the lower pressure fractionation of amphibole, plagioclase and subordinate clinopyroxene. Thus, the distinctive Y and HREE depletions of the andesitic adakites (which distinguish them from associated non-adakitic andesites) must be established relatively early in the fractionation process. Our experiments show that this early fractionation must have occurred at pressures >1.5 GPa and, thus, deeper than the Mindanao Moho. Published thermal models of the Philippine Sea Plate preclude a direct origin by melting of the subducting ocean crust. Thus, our results favour a model whereby basaltic arc melt underwent high-pressure crystal fractionation while stalled beneath immature arc lithosphere. This produced residual magma of adakitic character which underwent further fractionation at relatively low (i.e. crustal) pressures before being erupted.

  12. Effect of the relative phase of the driving sources on heating of dual frequency capacitive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Dennis; Trieschmann, Jan; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2009-10-01

    The influence of the relative phase of the driving voltages on heating in asymmetric dual frequency capacitive discharges is investigated. Basis of the analysis is a recently published global model [1] extended by the possibility to freely adjust the phase angles between the driving voltages. In recent publications it was reported that nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH) drastically enhances dissipation at moments of sheath collapse due to plasma series resonance (PSR) excitation [2]. This work shows that depending on the relative phase of the driving voltages, the total number and exact moments of sheath collapse can be influenced. In case of a collapse directly being followed by a second collapse ("double collapse") a substantial increase in dissipated power, well above the reported growth due to a single PSR excitation event per period, can be observed.[4pt] [1] D.,iegler, T.,ussenbrock, and R.,. Brinkmann, Phys. Plasmas 16, 023503 (2009)[0pt] [2] T.,ussenbrock, R.,. Brinkmann, M.,. Lieberman, A.,. Lichtenberg, and E. Kawamura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 085004 (2008)

  13. Differences in vaping topography in relation to adherence to exclusive electronic cigarette use in veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Kira; Holt, Gregory; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Calderon-Candelario, Rafael; Whitney, Philip; Salathe, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Background Understanding vaping patterns of electronic cigarette (EC) use is important to understand the real-life exposure to EC vapor. Long term information on vaping topography in relation to tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking cessation success has not been explored. Methods Observational non-blinded study where active TC smokers were asked to replace TC with EC over 4 weeks (replacement phase, RP) followed by exclusive EC use for an additional 12 weeks (maintenance phase, MP). TC use and EC compliance was monitored weekly. Subjects were classified as success or failure whether or not they completed the protocol. Vaping information was stored and downloaded directly from the EC device and averaged per calendar day for analysis. Results From 25 subjects that followed the protocol, sixteen succeeded in completing the RP and 8 the MP (32%). No significant differences in baseline characteristics were noted between subjects in the success and failure groups including markers of nicotine addiction, plasma cotinine levels or smoking history. Success subjects showed significantly longer puff duration (seconds per vape) and total overall vapor exposure (number of vapes x average vape duration or vape-seconds) in both study phases. Furthermore, subjects in the success group continued to increase the number of vapes, device voltage and wattage significantly as they transitioned into the MP. After an initial drop, subjects in the success group were able to regain plasma cotinine levels comparable to their TC use while subjects in the failure group could not. Cotinine levels significantly correlated with the average number of daily vapes and vapes-seconds, but not with other vaping parameters. Conclusion The topography of smokers who adhere to exclusive EC use reflects a progressive and dynamic device adaptation over weeks to maintain baseline cotinine levels. The higher inhaled volume over time should be considered when addressing the potential toxic effects of EC and the

  14. Differences in vaping topography in relation to adherence to exclusive electronic cigarette use in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Cignarella, Andrea; Luna Diaz, Landy V; Balestrini, Kira; Holt, Gregory; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Calderon-Candelario, Rafael; Whitney, Philip; Salathe, Matthias; Campos, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Understanding vaping patterns of electronic cigarette (EC) use is important to understand the real-life exposure to EC vapor. Long term information on vaping topography in relation to tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking cessation success has not been explored. Observational non-blinded study where active TC smokers were asked to replace TC with EC over 4 weeks (replacement phase, RP) followed by exclusive EC use for an additional 12 weeks (maintenance phase, MP). TC use and EC compliance was monitored weekly. Subjects were classified as success or failure whether or not they completed the protocol. Vaping information was stored and downloaded directly from the EC device and averaged per calendar day for analysis. From 25 subjects that followed the protocol, sixteen succeeded in completing the RP and 8 the MP (32%). No significant differences in baseline characteristics were noted between subjects in the success and failure groups including markers of nicotine addiction, plasma cotinine levels or smoking history. Success subjects showed significantly longer puff duration (seconds per vape) and total overall vapor exposure (number of vapes x average vape duration or vape-seconds) in both study phases. Furthermore, subjects in the success group continued to increase the number of vapes, device voltage and wattage significantly as they transitioned into the MP. After an initial drop, subjects in the success group were able to regain plasma cotinine levels comparable to their TC use while subjects in the failure group could not. Cotinine levels significantly correlated with the average number of daily vapes and vapes-seconds, but not with other vaping parameters. The topography of smokers who adhere to exclusive EC use reflects a progressive and dynamic device adaptation over weeks to maintain baseline cotinine levels. The higher inhaled volume over time should be considered when addressing the potential toxic effects of EC and the variable EC adherence when addressing

  15. Influence of the current-phase relation on the critical-current-applied-magnetic-flux dependence in parallel-connected Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, W.; Van Duzer, T.

    1976-01-01

    The form of the current-phase relations for the Josephson junctions is shown to have a significant influence on the relation I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) between critical current and applied flux for two junctions connected in parallel in a superconducting circuit. The observed one-flux-quantum periodicity and inversion symmetry of the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) relation are shown to result from the fact that the current-phase, i-phi, relations of the junctions satisfy i (phi+2mπ) =i (phi) and i (-phi) =-i (phi), respectively. It is also shown that if the current-phase relations for the two junctions are different, an asymmetry appears in the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/)

  16. Motor activity changes induced by sub-encephalopathic lead exposure during different developmental phases in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooyen, J.M.; Offermeier, J.; Brand, L.; Botha, F.; Rossouw, J.; Lategan, A.J.; Botes, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of rats were exposed to lead (0,2% lead acetate in drinking water) for periods of 21 days during different developmental phases. Lead exposure was initiated on day 1 and day 22 after birth, for rats in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Measurements of locomotor activity (LA) and [ 3 H]spiperone binding assays were performed on day 50 after birth. Lead exposure resulted in the potentiation of the LA effects of 5 mg/kg apomorphine without altering the LA effects of 50 mg/kg piribedil in group 1. Lead exposure resulted in an attenuation of the LA effects of apomorphine and piribedil in group 2. Lead exposure did not alter the K D and B max values of [ 3 H]spiperone in membranes prepared from the rat striatum or nucleus accumbens

  17. Synthesis of polymer membranes of different porosity and their application for phenol removal from liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman-Bieniek, Magdalena; Jasiewicz, Katarzyna; Pietrzak, Robert [Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poznan (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    Preparation of polymeric membranes based on polyethersulfone (PES) modified by adding different amounts of a pore-forming agent (PVP) is presented, and potential application of the membranes obtained for removal of phenol from the liquid phase is examined. The addition of various amounts of PVP has been shown to bring about changes in the content of the surface oxygen groups, but has no significant effect on the chemical character of the groups and acidic groups dominate. Filtration by phenol solution leads to significant changes in the total content of surface oxides; however, the acidic groups remain dominant. Membranes characterized by higher porosity exhibited more stable and higher rejection ratio for phenol removal. Although all the membranes were characterized by similar rejection ratios for phenol removal, the cake resistance (Rc) and pore resistance (Rp) values were found to depend significantly on the structure and porosity of the membrane applied for filtration.

  18. Synthesis of polymer membranes of different porosity and their application for phenol removal from liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman-Bieniek, Magdalena; Jasiewicz, Katarzyna; Pietrzak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of polymeric membranes based on polyethersulfone (PES) modified by adding different amounts of a pore-forming agent (PVP) is presented, and potential application of the membranes obtained for removal of phenol from the liquid phase is examined. The addition of various amounts of PVP has been shown to bring about changes in the content of the surface oxygen groups, but has no significant effect on the chemical character of the groups and acidic groups dominate. Filtration by phenol solution leads to significant changes in the total content of surface oxides; however, the acidic groups remain dominant. Membranes characterized by higher porosity exhibited more stable and higher rejection ratio for phenol removal. Although all the membranes were characterized by similar rejection ratios for phenol removal, the cake resistance (Rc) and pore resistance (Rp) values were found to depend significantly on the structure and porosity of the membrane applied for filtration

  19. Control of magnetic vortex polarity by the phase difference between voltage signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanqing; Cai, Li; Yang, Xiaokuo; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Mingliang; Li, Cheng; Feng, Chaowen

    2018-02-01

    Using micromagnetic simulations, we investigate the voltage control of magnetic vortex polarity based on a designed multiferroic heterostructure that contains two separate piezoelectric films beneath a magnetostrictive nanodisk. The results show that controllable switching of vortex polarity can be achieved by proper modulation of the phase difference between two sinusoidal voltage pulses V1 and V2, which are applied to the two separate piezoelectric films, respectively. The frequencies of V1 and V2 are set at the gyrotropic eigenfrequency fG of the nanodisk, and the vortex polarity switching is completed via the nucleation-annihilation process of the vortex-antivortex pair. Our findings provide an additional effective means for ultralow power switching of the magnetic vortex, which lays the foundation for voltage-controlled vortex random access memory.

  20. Motor activity changes induced by sub-encephalopathic lead exposure during different developmental phases in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooyen, J M; Offermeier, J; Brand, L; Botha, F; Rossouw, J; Lategan, A J; Botes, M S

    1988-05-01

    Two groups of rats were exposed to lead (0,2% lead acetate in drinking water) for periods of 21 days during different developmental phases. Lead exposure was initiated on day 1 and day 22 after birth, for rats in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Measurements of locomotor activity (LA) and (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding assays were performed on day 50 after birth. Lead exposure resulted in the potentiation of the LA effects of 5 mg/kg apomorphine without altering the LA effects of 50 mg/kg piribedil in group 1. Lead exposure resulted in an attenuation of the LA effects of apomorphine and piribedil in group 2. Lead exposure did not alter the K/sub D/ and B/sub max/ values of (/sup 3/H)spiperone in membranes prepared from the rat striatum or nucleus accumbens.

  1. Influence of salinity stress on the height and productivity features of durum wheat samples in different phases of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sikhmuradov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of salinity stress on the morphological features of durum wheat in different phases of vegetation is studied in the work. It is revealed that in earlier phases the samples have weak stability, but further salt-stability increases.

  2. Using Real-Worldness and Cultural Difference to Enhance Student Learning in a Foundation Phase Life Skills Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Mariette; Ebrahim, Hasina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore how real-world experience, inclusive of engagement with cultural differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module in pre-service Foundation Phase teacher education. The study was conducted with 147 students in their final year of the Bachelor of Education (Foundation Phase specialisation), at…

  3. Interaction of fibrinogen and albumin with titanium dioxide nanoparticles of different crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, Arianna; Fenoglio, Ivana; Turci, Francesco; Fubini, Bice

    2013-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) are contained in different kinds of industrial products including paints, self-cleaning glasses, sunscreens. TiO 2 is also employed in photocatalysis and it has been proposed for waste water treatment. Micrometric TiO 2 is generally considered a safe material, while there is concern on the possible health effects of nanometric titania. Due to their small size NPs may migrate within the human body possibly entering in the blood stream. Therefore studies on the interaction of NPs with plasma proteins are needed. In fact, the interaction with proteins is believed to ultimately influences the NPs biological fate. Fibrinogen and albumin are two of the most abundant plasma proteins. They are involved in several important physiological functions. Furthermore, fibrinogen is known to trigger platelet adhesion and inflammation. For these reasons the study of the interaction between these protein and nanoparticles is an important step toward the understanding of the behavior of NPs in the body. In this study we investigated the interaction of albumin and fibrinogen with TiO 2 nanoparticles of different crystal phases (rutile and anatase) using an integrated set of techniques. The amount of adsorbed fibrinogen and albumin for each TiO 2 surface was investigated by using the bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA). The variation of the surface charge of the NP-protein conjugates respect to the naked NPs was used to indirectly estimate both surface coverage and reversibility of the adsorption upon dilution. Surface charge was monitored by measuring the ζ potential with a conventional electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) system. The extent of protein deformation was evaluated by Raman Spectroscopy. We found that both proteins adsorb irreversibly against electrostatic repulsion, likely undergoing conformational changes or selective orientation upon adsorption. The size of primary particles and the particles aggregation rather than the crystal phase modulate the

  4. Measuring Pancharatnam's relative phase for SO(3) evolutions using spin polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Peter; Sjoeqvist, Erik

    2003-01-01

    In polarimetry, a superposition of internal quantal states is exposed to a single Hamiltonian and information about the evolution of the quantal states is inferred from projection measurements on the final superposition. In this framework, we here extend the polarimetric test of Pancharatnam's relative phase for spin-(1/2) proposed by Wagh and Rakhecha [Phys. Lett. A 197, 112 (1995)] to spin j≥1 undergoing noncyclic SO(3) evolution. We demonstrate that the output intensity for higher spin values is a polynomial function of the corresponding spin-(1/2) intensity. We further propose a general method to extract the noncyclic SO(3) phase and visibility by rigid translation of two π/2 spin flippers. Polarimetry on higher spin states may in practice be done with spin polarized atomic beams

  5. Phase change Materials (PCM) microcapsules with different shell compositions: Preparation, characterization and thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes-Garcia, L.; Ventola, L.; Cordobilla, R.; Benages, R.; Calvet, T.; Cuevas-Diarte, M.A. [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, phase change materials (Rubitherm registered RT 27) microcapsules were successfully obtained by two different methods. The main difference between them remains on the shell composition, as they are composed of different coacervates (Sterilized Gelatine/Arabic Gum for the SG/AG method and Agar-Agar/Arabic Gum for the AA/AG method). Microcapsules were thermally characterized by thermo-optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Using scanning electron microscopy, their spherical morphology (sphericity factor of 0.94-0.95) and their particle size distribution were determined, obtaining an average diameter of 12 {mu}m for the SG/AG method and lower values for the AA/AG method, where nanocapsules were also observed (average diameter of 4.3 {mu}m for the microcapsules and 104 nm for the nanocapsules). The thermal stability determination was carried out by Thermogravimetric analyses (TG) and the results show a high decomposition temperature, although the process takes places in four steps for the two mentioned methods. Moreover, the microcapsules obtained by the AA/AG method decompose in a more gradual way, as in the TG results a double step, instead of one, is appreciable. On the whole, the prepared microencapsulated PCM are totally capable of developing their role in thermal energy storage. (author)

  6. Partitioning of metals in different binding phases of tropical estuarine sediments: importance of metal chemistry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Chakraborty, S.; Vudamala, K.; Sarkar, Arindam; Nath, B.N.

    association with Fe/Mn oxide phases followed by Ni and Cu. Faster k-w of Cu (II) (1×109 s-1) increased the rate of complex formation of Cu2+ ion with ligand in the organic phases. The Cu–ligand (from organic phase...

  7. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  8. How Do Pre-Service Teachers' Reflective Processes Differ in Relation to Different Contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasila, Raimo; Lauriala, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice represents a central theme in teacher education. The focus of this study is to look at pre-service teachers' reflection processes and their breadth and depth in four different contexts. Our research data consist of 53 pre-service teachers' mathematics portfolios, from which three were selected for closer scrutiny. The chosen…

  9. Disruption in neural phase synchrony is related to identification of inattentional deafness in real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Daniel E; Gateau, Thibault; Durantin, Gautier; Gonthier, Nicolas; Dehais, Frédéric

    2018-06-01

    Individuals often have reduced ability to hear alarms in real world situations (e.g., anesthesia monitoring, flying airplanes) when attention is focused on another task, sometimes with devastating consequences. This phenomenon is called inattentional deafness and usually occurs under critical high workload conditions. It is difficult to simulate the critical nature of these tasks in the laboratory. In this study, dry electroencephalography is used to investigate inattentional deafness in real flight while piloting an airplane. The pilots participating in the experiment responded to audio alarms while experiencing critical high workload situations. It was found that missed relative to detected alarms were marked by reduced stimulus evoked phase synchrony in theta and alpha frequencies (6-14 Hz) from 120 to 230 ms poststimulus onset. Correlation of alarm detection performance with intertrial coherence measures of neural phase synchrony showed different frequency and time ranges for detected and missed alarms. These results are consistent with selective attentional processes actively disrupting oscillatory coherence in sensory networks not involved with the primary task (piloting in this case) under critical high load conditions. This hypothesis is corroborated by analyses of flight parameters showing greater maneuvering associated with difficult phases of flight occurring during missed alarms. Our results suggest modulation of neural oscillation is a general mechanism of attention utilizing enhancement of phase synchrony to sharpen alarm perception during successful divided attention, and disruption of phase synchrony in brain networks when attentional demands of the primary task are great, such as in the case of inattentional deafness. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Measuring the phase difference in network and residual voltages under the GTsN-195M pump self-starting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druba, V.V.; Druba, T.A.; Reznik, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determination of time dependence of phase difference of residual voltage on motor windings of the main circulation pumps (MCP) and voltage of power supply section under MCP self-starting under conditions of short-time breaks in electric power supply is one of the main problems to which reliability and safety of NPP operation is related. A method to measure this dependence in real conditions in case of MCP free run-out and run-out in generating mode is suggested. The method considered is used for tests of the Kalinin NPP-2 MCP-195M self-starting. Analysis of run-out curves in the case of a break in MCP power supply for 1.8 s shows that the most favourable conditions for MCP self-starting are 0.63±0.03 s after de-energizing. 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Room Volume Estimation Based on Ambiguity of Short-Term Interaural Phase Differences Using Humanoid Robot Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Shimoyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans can recognize approximate room size using only binaural audition. However, sound reverberation is not negligible in most environments. The reverberation causes temporal fluctuations in the short-term interaural phase differences (IPDs of sound pressure. This study proposes a novel method for a binaural humanoid robot head to estimate room volume. The method is based on the statistical properties of the short-term IPDs of sound pressure. The humanoid robot turns its head toward a sound source, recognizes the sound source, and then estimates the ego-centric distance by its stereovision. By interpolating the relations between room volume, average standard deviation, and ego-centric distance experimentally obtained for various rooms in a prepared database, the room volume was estimated by the binaural audition of the robot from the average standard deviation of the short-term IPDs at the estimated distance.

  12. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteri......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p...... linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  13. REUSING STOCKS SOLUTIONS WITH DIFFERENT FORMULATED FOR ORCHID FERTILIZER ACCLIMATIZATION PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. C. Issa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are ornamental plants that stand out by their colors, types, shapes, size, beauty. Additionally, some species have aromas. This diversity of orchids makes it be greatly appreciated as potted plants, landscaping, with high commercial value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of orchids at different levels of fertilization by reusing nutrients added to the culture medium for cultivation in vitro is also analyzing the different times of acclimatization. The micropropagated orchids removed from the growth chamber, were transported to greenhouse composing the different treatments for acclimatization (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days. To be transplanted were placed in pine bark substrate and Sphagnum being placed in trays. After 30 days the seedlings were transplanted to styrofoam trays was initiated plant fertilization weekly with different formulated by administering 5 ml each (1 humic acid, 2nd potassium nitrate (KNO3, 3rd humic acid + Nitrate potassium (KNO3, 4th calcium chloride (CaCl2, 5 ° control. Six months after withdrawal of the growth room the plants was carried out the evaluation of the experiment where the plant survival was evaluated by the number of shoots, number of leaves, the length of the largest leaf and root presence. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 6x5, with the time of acclimatization (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days the first factor and the second, the type of fertilizer used (4 formulated and the witness with 8 replicates per treatment. The data were submitted to deviance analysis in the software R. In this study, the need to fertilize with nutrient rich formulations for orchids in the acclimatization phase was contacted and that these should remain for a few days inside the jars in a greenhouse environment.

  14. Differences in the Chemical Composition of the Particulate Phase of Inhaled and Exhaled Cigarette Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison between the chemical composition of the particulate-phase of exhaled smoke and that of smoke generated with a smoking machine has been performed. For this purpose, eight human subjects smoked a common Lights (10.6 mg ‘tar’/cig commercial cigarette and the exhaled particulate-phase smoke from three cigarettes was collected on Cambridge pads for each smoker. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The machine smoking was performed with a Borgwaldt RM20 CSR smoking machine working under conditions recommended by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to normalize the level of exhaled smoke condensate to that of the FTC smoking conditions. The smoke condensates from exhaled smoke as well as that from the machine smoking were analyzed by a gas chromatographic technique with mass spectral peak identification. The retention efficiency for 160 compounds was calculated from the ratio of the compound peak areas in the exhaled smoke (normalized by the corresponding butt nicotine level vs. the areas of the corresponding peaks from the chromatogram of the smoke generated by the smoking machine. In the calculation of the results, it was assumed that the composition of mainstream smoke remains practically constant at different smoking regimes. All compounds found in the machine-generated smoke were also present in the exhaled smoke, but at different levels. About one third of the compounds were retained more than 66% by the smoker. Another third of the compounds were retained between 33% and 66%, and the rest of the compounds were retained very little from the mainstream particulate-phase of the cigarette smoke. The compounds retained more than 66% were in general compounds with lower molecular weight and with higher water solubility, which eluted first

  15. PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school, located near the industrial area, showed significant deviation compared to other schools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health

  16. Phenotypic diversity of diploid and haploid Emiliania huxleyi cells and of cells in different growth phases revealed by comparative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Michaela A; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In phytoplankton a high species diversity of microalgae co-exists at a given time. But diversity is not only reflected by the species composition. Within these species different life phases as well as different metabolic states can cause additional diversity. One important example is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Diploid cells play an important role in marine ecosystems since they can form massively abundant algal blooms but in addition the less abundant haploid life phase of E. huxleyi occurs in lower quantities. Both life phases may fulfill different functions in the plankton. We hypothesize that in addition to the functional diversity caused by this life phase transition the growth stage of cells can also influence the metabolic composition and thus the ecological impact of E. huxleyi. Here we introduce a metabolomic survey in dependence of life phases as well as different growth phases to reveal such changes. The comparative metabolomic approach is based on the extraction of intracellular metabolites from intact microalgae, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Automated data processing and statistical analysis using canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed unique metabolic profiles for each life phase. Concerning the correlations of metabolites to growth phases, complex patterns were observed. As for example the saccharide mannitol showed its highest concentration in the exponential phase, whereas fatty acids were correlated to stationary and sterols to declining phase. These results are indicative for specific ecological roles of these stages of E. huxleyi and are discussed in the context of previous physiological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Different impacts of mega-ENSO and conventional ENSO on the Indian summer rainfall: developing phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yefan

    2016-04-01

    Mega-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a boarder version of conventional ENSO, is found to be a main driving force of Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon rainfall including the Indian summer rainfall (ISR). The simultaneous impacts of "pure" mega-ENSO and "pure" conventional ENSO events on the ISR in its developing summer remains unclear. This study examines the different linkages between mega-ENSO-ISR and conventional ENSO-ISR. During the developing summer of mega-El Niño, negative rainfall anomalies are seen over the northeastern Indian subcontinent, while the anomalous rainfall pattern is almost the opposite for mega-La Niña; as for the conventional ENSO, the approximate "linear opposite" phenomenon vanishes. Furthermore, the global zonal wave trains anomalous are found at mid-latitude zones, with a local triple circulation pattern over the central-east Eurasia during mega-ENSO events, which might be an explanation of corresponding rainfall response over the Indian Peninsula. Among 106-year historical run (1900-2005) of 9 state-of-the-art models from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), HadGEM2-ES performs a promising skill in simulating the anomalous circulation pattern over mid-latitude and central-east Eurasia while CanESM2 cannot. Probably, it is the models' ability of capturing the mega-ENSO-ISR linkage and the characteristic of mega-ENSO that make the difference.

  18. Association between different phases of menstrual cycle and body image measures of perceived size, ideal size, and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André Luiz S; Dias, Marcelo Ricardo C; Damasceno, Vinícius O; Lamounier, Joel A; Gardner, Rick M

    2013-12-01

    The association between phases of the menstrual cycle and body image was investigated. 44 university women (M age = 23.3 yr., SD = 4.7) judged their perceived and ideal body size, and body dissatisfaction was calculated at each phase of the menstrual cycle, including premenstrual, menstrual, and intermenstrual. Participants selected one of nine figural drawings ranging from very thin to obese that represented their perceived size and ideal size. Body dissatisfaction was measured as the absolute difference between scores on perceived and ideal figural drawings. During each menstrual phase, anthropometric measures of weight, height, body mass index, circumference of waist and abdomen, and body composition were taken. There were no significant differences in any anthropometric measures between the three menstrual cycle phases. Perceived body size and body dissatisfaction were significantly different between menstrual phases, with the largest perceived body size and highest body dissatisfaction occurring during the menstrual phase. Ideal body size did not differ between menstrual phases, although participants desired a significantly smaller ideal size as compared to the perceived size.

  19. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10"3 mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K_s_p_(_M_e_S_)/K_s_p_(_p_y_r_)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r"2 = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  20. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  1. The Implications Related to Different IC, Different Projects and Different Thinking Addressing the Common Core of IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    challenge the development of IC: - The IC at the organizational level seems to diminish when innovation gets highly dispersed and is operated outside the core of the organization - The attractiveness of the organization to different ICA, which is one fundament to sustainable and successful innovation, seems...... to fall when the IC at the organizational core level diminishes The objective of this paper is therefore to understand 1) How the IC at the organizational core level may continue to be developed, when at the same time innovation is taking place in dispersed groups and projects. 2) How to motivate...... the different ICA´s to bring learning and knowledge back to the core with the purpose to develop IC at the organizational core level....

  2. Eggs and hatchlings variations in desert locusts: phase related characteristics and starvation tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutaro Ould Maeno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Locusts are grasshopper species that express phase polyphenism: modifying their behavior, morphology, coloration, life history and physiology in response to crowding. Desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, epigenetically modify progeny quality and quantity in response to crowding. Gregarious (crowded females produce larger but fewer progeny than do solitarious (isolated ones. The variability of progeny quality within single egg pod and the reasons why gregarious progeny have a better survival than solitarious ones remains unclear. This study investigated 1 the effects of rearing density on the variation in egg size within single egg pods 2 the starvation tolerance of hatchlings from mothers with different phases and 3 the physiological differences in hatchling energy reserve. Isolated females produced smaller but more eggs than did crowded ones. The variation in egg size within egg pods was greater in the latter than in the former. A negative relationship between egg size and number of eggs per egg pod was observed for both groups. Under starvation conditions, gregarious hatchlings survived significantly longer than solitarious ones. Among the solitarious hatchlings, the survival time was longer as hatchling body size increased. However, small individuals survived as long as large ones among the gregarious hatchlings. The percentage of water content per fresh body weight was almost equal between the two phases, before and after starvation. In contrast, the percentage of lipid content per dry body weight was significantly higher in gregarious hatchlings than in solitarious ones before starvation, but became almost equal after starvation. These results demonstrated that female locusts not only trade-off to modify their progeny size and number, but also vary progenies’ energy reserves. We hypothesized that gregarious females enhance their fitness by producing progeny differently adapted to high environmental variability and particularly to

  3. The effect of relativity on stability of Copernicium phases, their electronic structure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčariková, Hana; Legut, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    The phase stability of the various crystalline structures of the super-heavy element Copernicium was determined based on the first-principles calculations with different levels of the relativistic effects. We utilized the Darwin term, mass-velocity, and spin-orbit interaction with the single electron framework of the density functional theory while treating the exchange and correlation effects using local density approximations. It is found that the spin-orbit coupling is the key component to stabilize the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure over the hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure, which is in accord with Sol. Stat. Comm. 152 (2012) 530, but in contrast to Atta-Fynn and Ray (2015) [11], Gaston et al. (2007) [10], Papaconstantopoulos (2015) [9]. It seems that the main role here is the correct description of the semi-core relativistic 6p1/2 orbitals. The all other investigated structures, i.e. face-centered cubic (fcc) , simple cubic (sc) as well as rhombohedral (rh) structures are higher in energy. The criteria of mechanical stability were investigated based on the calculated elastic constants, identifying the phase instability of fcc and rh structures, but surprisingly confirm the stability of the energetically higher sc structure. In addition, the pressure-induced structural transition between two stable sc and bcc phases has been detected. The ground-state bcc structure exhibits the highest elastic anisotropy from single elements of the Periodic table. At last, we support the experimental findings that Copernicium is a metal.

  4. Force systems in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment -- a comparison of different leveling arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Drescher, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The determination of orthodontically-effective forces and moments places great demands on the technical equipment. Many patients report severe pain after fixed appliance insertion. Since it is assumed that pain from orthodontic appliances is associated with the force and moment levels applied to the teeth and since the occurrence of root resorption is a common therapeutic side effect, it would seem important to know the actual magnitudes of the components of the active orthodontic force systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure initial force systems produced by different leveling arch-wires in a complete multi-bracket appliance and to assess whether force and moment levels can be regarded as biologically acceptable or not. The actual bracket position in 42 patients was transferred onto a measurement model. Forces and moments produced by a super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire, a 6-strand stainless steel archwire, and a 7-strand super-elastic NiTi archwire were determined experimentally on different teeth. Average forces and moments produced by the super-elastic NiTi arch wires were found to be the highest. In spite if their larger diameter, the stranded arch wires' average force and moment levels were lower, especially that of the stranded super-elastic archwire. Nevertheless, maximum force levels sometimes exceeded recommended values in the literature and must be considered as too high. The measured arch wires' initial force systems differed significantly depending on the type of archwire and its material structure. Stranded arch wires produced lower force and moment levels, and we recommend their use in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.

  5. Comparison of the N+2 photochemistry at different phases of the solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, M.R.; Torr, D.G.; Ong, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Over the increasing phase of solar activity from 1974 to 1978 the F/sub 10.7/ index increased from approx.70 to approx.180. Earlier studies of the N + 2 ion based on the Atmosphere Explorer satellite measurements used data gathereed in 1974. A study of N + 2 using 1978 measurements made during significantly higher solar EUV fluxes reveals a change in the relative importance of the major chemical processes. Photoionization of N 2 is found to be the major source of N + 2 in the F 2 layer, by contrast with the charge exchange reaction of O + ( 2 D) with N 2 , which was dominant for the lower solar activity. The increased electron concentrations enhance the importance of reactions involving electrons, thus permitting good determinations of the relevant reaction rate coefficients, which could not be done in the earlier studies. As such, the 1978 data provide a useful opportunity to confirm the photochemical scheme established earlier and to improve the accuracy of the determination of the rate coefficients for certain processes. Specifically, we determine the rate coefficients for dissociative recombination of N + 2 with electrons, confirming laboratory measurements; we refine an earlier determination of the charge exchange rate coefficient for O + ( 2 D) with N 2 to (7 +- 3) x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ; and we determine the rate coefficient for quenching of O + ( 2 D) by electrons, confirming a theoretical calculation

  6. Age-Related Differences in Quality of Standing Balance Using a Composite Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; van der Bij, M.D.W.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure

  7. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  8. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the SrO-In2O3-CuO System in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2013-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the SrO-In2O3-CuO system were investigated at 900 °C in air. Under these conditions, five binary oxide phases are stable: Sr2CuO3, SrCuO2, Sr14Cu24O41, In2Cu2O5 and SrIn2O4. The pseudo-ternary section is characterised by six three-phase regions and is dominated...

  9. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Application of an advanced cost model in the different design phases of an offshore wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, H.B.; Lindenburg, C.; Kooijman, H.J.T.; Bulder, B.H. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands); Bozelie, J.; Madsen, J.B. [NEG Micon Holland, Rhenen (Netherlands); Halfschepel, R. [Van Oord ACZ, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Molenaar, W. [Ballast Nedam, Amstelveen (Netherlands); Van den Berg, R. [LM Glasfiber Holland, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands); Zaaijer, M. [TU-Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    The goal of the Dutch Offshore Wind Energy Converter (DOWEC) consortium is to develop concepts and technology in order to make large scale offshore wind energy economically feasible. The overall DOWEC development comprises of the design, the construction, and the prototype testing. Onshore testing of a 3 MW research and development prototype is scheduled for the end of 2002. The DOWEC Concept Study aims at the choice of the optimal wind turbine concept. The wind turbine will not be treated as an isolated system. Designs of different wind turbine concepts will be evaluated as an integral part of the complete large-scale offshore wind farm. All significant properties like the structural loads, the power performance, the system reliability, the costs of the electric infrastructure, maintenance costs and installation costs is determined for the optimised designs. A quantitative ranking is then based on the cost of energy generated. Furthermore qualitative criteria like development risk and market potential will be taken into consideration when finalising the choice of concept. An advanced cost model is being developed to facilitate the above evaluation on basis of estimated energy generating costs for each concept. The same methodology will also be used in the system and detail design phase. This paper describes the DOWEC project in general, focusing at the cost modelling aspects including some preliminary results. 4 refs.

  11. Difference in quick phases induced by horizontal and vertical vestibular stimulations: role of the otolithic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A

    1997-01-01

    Quick phases (QPs) induced by horizontal and vertical sinusoidal vestibular stimulations were studied in rabbits, cats, and humans. In all the animals, large and frequent horizontal QPs were observed following yaw stimulation in prone position. By contrast, QPs were almost absent during roll stimulation in rabbits, and they were small and oblique during pitch stimulation in cats and humans. As a result of these differences, the range of gaze displacement induced by vestibular stimulations was greater in the horizontal plane than in the vertical one. We also found that the trajectory of the QPs in rabbits was kept horizontal even when the yaw rotation was off vertical axis of +/- 45 degrees in the sagittal plane. Moreover, in the rabbit, the rare horizontal QPs induced by roll stimulation did not change their orientation at various pitch angles of roll stimulation axis. The QPs were also analyzed following roll stimulation of the rabbit in supine position. In this condition, in which the otolithic receptors were activated in the opposite way compared to prone position, large vertical QPs were elicited. We concluded that these results provide evidence that the otolithic signal plays a role in controlling occurrence and trajectory orientation of the QPs.

  12. Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

    2014-08-08

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four...

  14. Comparison of single distance phase retrieval algorithms by considering different object composition and the effect of statistical and structural noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R C; Rigon, L; Longo, R

    2013-03-25

    Phase retrieval is a technique for extracting quantitative phase information from X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PPCT). In this paper, the performance of different single distance phase retrieval algorithms will be investigated. The algorithms are herein called phase-attenuation duality Born Algorithm (PAD-BA), phase-attenuation duality Rytov Algorithm (PAD-RA), phase-attenuation duality Modified Bronnikov Algorithm (PAD-MBA), phase-attenuation duality Paganin algorithm (PAD-PA) and phase-attenuation duality Wu Algorithm (PAD-WA), respectively. They are all based on phase-attenuation duality property and on weak absorption of the sample and they employ only a single distance PPCT data. In this paper, they are investigated via simulated noise-free PPCT data considering the fulfillment of PAD property and weakly absorbing conditions, and with experimental PPCT data of a mixture sample containing absorbing and weakly absorbing materials, and of a polymer sample considering different degrees of statistical and structural noise. The simulation shows all algorithms can quantitatively reconstruct the 3D refractive index of a quasi-homogeneous weakly absorbing object from noise-free PPCT data. When the weakly absorbing condition is violated, the PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA obtain better result than PAD-BA and PAD-MBA that are shown in both simulation and mixture sample results. When considering the statistical noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio values decreases as the photon number is reduced. The structural noise study shows that the result is progressively corrupted by ring-like artifacts with the increase of structural noise (i.e. phantom thickness). The PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA gain better density resolution than the PAD-BA and PAD-MBA in both statistical and structural noise study.

  15. Reduced sediment melting at 7.5-12 GPa: phase relations, geochemical signals and diamond nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, G. P.; Girnis, A. V.; Bulatov, V. K.; Höfer, H. E.; Gerdes, A.; Woodland, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    Melting of carbonated sediment in the presence of graphite or diamond was experimentally investigated at 7.5-12 GPa and 800-1600 °C in a multianvil apparatus. Two starting materials similar to GLOSS of Plank and Langmuir (Chem Geol 145:325-394, 1998) were prepared from oxides, carbonates, hydroxides and graphite. One mixture (Na-gloss) was identical in major element composition to GLOSS, and the other was poorer in Na and richer in K (K-gloss). Both starting mixtures contained ~6 wt% CO2 and 7 wt% H2O and were doped at a ~100 ppm level with a number of trace elements, including REE, LILE and HFSE. The near-solidus mineral assemblage contained a silica polymorph (coesite or stishovite), garnet, kyanite, clinopyroxene, carbonates (aragonite and magnesite-siderite solid solution), zircon, rutile, bearthite and hydrous phases (phengite and lawsonite at 10 GPa). Hydrous phases disappear at ~900 °C, and carbonates persist up to 1000-1100 °C. At temperatures >1200 °C, the mineral assemblage consists of coesite or stishovite, kyanite and garnet. Clinopyroxene stability depends strongly on the Na content in the starting mixture; it remains in the Na-gloss composition up to 1600 °C at 12 GPa, but was not observed in K-gloss experiments above 1200 °C. The composition of melt or fluid changes gradually with increasing temperature from hydrous carbonate-rich ( 1). Aragonite and Fe-Mg carbonate have very different REE partition coefficients ( D Mst-Sd/L ~ 0.01 and D Arg/L ~ 1). Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf are strongly incompatible in both carbonates. The bearthite/melt partition coefficients are very high for LREE (>10) and decrease to ~1 for HREE. All HFSE are strongly incompatible in bearthite. In contrast, Ta, Nb, Zr and Hf are moderately to strongly compatible in ZrSiO4 and TiO2 phases. Based on the obtained partition coefficients, the composition of a mobile phase derived by sediment melting in deep subduction zones was calculated. This phase is strongly enriched in

  16. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  17. Two-phase strategy of neural control for planar reaching movements: II--relation to spatiotemporal characteristics of movement trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Yury P

    2013-09-01

    In the companion paper utilizing a quantitative model of optimal motor coordination (Part I, Rand and Shimansky, in Exp Brain Res 225:55-73, 2013), we examined coordination between X and Y movement directions (XYC) during reaching movements performed under three prescribed speeds, two movement amplitudes, and two target sizes. The obtained results indicated that the central nervous system (CNS) utilizes a two-phase strategy, where the initial and the final phases correspond to lower and higher precision of information processing, respectively, for controlling goal-directed reach-type movements to optimize the total cost of task performance including the cost of neural computations. The present study investigates how two different well-known concepts used for describing movement performance relate to the concepts of optimal XYC and two-phase control strategy. First, it is examined to what extent XYC is equivalent to movement trajectory straightness. The data analysis results show that the variability, the movement trajectory's deviation from the straight line, increases with an increase in prescribed movement speed. In contrast, the dependence of XYC strength on movement speed is opposite (in total agreement with an assumption of task performance optimality), suggesting that XYC is a feature of much higher level of generality than trajectory straightness. Second, it is tested how well the ballistic and the corrective components described in the traditional concept of two-component model of movement performance match with the initial and the final phase of the two-phase control strategy, respectively. In fast reaching movements, the percentage of trials with secondary corrective submovement was smaller under larger-target shorter-distance conditions. In slower reaching movements, meaningful parsing was impossible due to massive fluctuations in the kinematic profile throughout the movement. Thus, the parsing points determined by the conventional submovement analysis

  18. Operational intervention levels and related requirements on radiation monitoring during pre-release / release phase of an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Cabanekova, H

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors discusses required outputs of emergency radiological monitoring in various phases of an accident and rationale of these requirements. In various phases of an accident various intervention levels are important and consequently various radiological quantities should be preferably measured. Distinguished tasks or aims of monitoring in different phases of accident have strong influence on methods of monitoring, instrumentation and capabilities of monitoring groups. Required tasks and outputs of monitoring are discussed

  19. Spatial correlations and probability density function of the phase difference in a developed speckle-field: numerical and natural experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysina, N Yu; Maksimova, L A; Ryabukho, V P; Gorbatenko, B B

    2015-01-01

    Investigated are statistical properties of the phase difference of oscillations in speckle-fields at two points in the far-field diffraction region, with different shapes of the scatterer aperture. Statistical and spatial nonuniformity of the probability density function of the field phase difference is established. Numerical experiments show that, for the speckle-fields with an oscillating alternating-sign transverse correlation function, a significant nonuniformity of the probability density function of the phase difference in the correlation region of the field complex amplitude, with the most probable values 0 and p, is observed. A natural statistical interference experiment using Young diagrams has confirmed the results of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  1. A comparison of different algorithms for phasing haplotypes using Holstein cattle genotypes and pedigree data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miar, Younes; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S

    2017-04-01

    Phasing genotypes to haplotypes is becoming increasingly important due to its applications in the study of diseases, population and evolutionary genetics, imputation, and so on. Several studies have focused on the development of computational methods that infer haplotype phase from population genotype data. The aim of this study was to compare phasing algorithms implemented in Beagle, Findhap, FImpute, Impute2, and ShapeIt2 software using 50k and 777k (HD) genotyping data. Six scenarios were considered: no-parents, sire-progeny pairs, sire-dam-progeny trios, each with and without pedigree information in Holstein cattle. Algorithms were compared with respect to their phasing accuracy and computational efficiency. In the studied population, Beagle and FImpute were more accurate than other phasing algorithms. Across scenarios, phasing accuracies for Beagle and FImpute were 99.49-99.90% and 99.44-99.99% for 50k, respectively, and 99.90-99.99% and 99.87-99.99% for HD, respectively. Generally, FImpute resulted in higher accuracy when genotypic information of at least one parent was available. In the absence of parental genotypes and pedigree information, Beagle and Impute2 (with double the default number of states) were slightly more accurate than FImpute. Findhap gave high phasing accuracy when parents' genotypes and pedigree information were available. In terms of computing time, Findhap was the fastest algorithm followed by FImpute. FImpute was 30 to 131, 87 to 786, and 353 to 1,400 times faster across scenarios than Beagle, ShapeIt2, and Impute2, respectively. In summary, FImpute and Beagle were the most accurate phasing algorithms. Moreover, the low computational requirement of FImpute makes it an attractive algorithm for phasing genotypes of large livestock populations. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of different factors on phase transformations in Fe-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balychev, Yu.M.; Tkachenko, F.K.

    1983-01-01

    Phase transformations proceeding under Fe-Mn alloy heating are studied and the effect of previous working conditions, particularly, cooling rate on these transformations is investigated. Investigations have been conducted on pure Fe-Mn alloys with 2-15% Mn. Phase transformations are shown to proceed according to α → #betta# and epsilon → #betta# reaction in Fe-Mn alloys containing 2-15% Mn under heating. Cooling rate in the range of approximately 5-1000 deg/min in preliminary working essentially affects phase transformations under subsequent heating

  3. Phase distortions in sum- and difference-frequency mixing in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.V.; Bowers, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    We show that if two waves are incident on a quadratically nonlinear crystal, with the third wave generated entirely within the crystal, a phase-velocity mismatch (Δk ≠ 0) leads to intensity-dependent phase shifts of the generated wave only if there is walk-off, linear absorption, or significant diffraction of at least one of the waves as well as significant energy exchange among the waves. The result is frequency broadening and wave-front distortion of the generated wave. Although the induced phase distortions are usually quite small, they may be significant in applications that require high spectral resolution or pointing accuracy

  4. Age and gender differences in the relation between self-concept facets and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in self-concept-self-esteem relations might provide valuable knowledge for designing effective self-esteem enhancement interventions. We investigated grade and...

  5. Effects of Phase Difference Between Axial and Contact loads on Fretting Fatigue Behavior of Titanium Alloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almajali, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    .... Most of the previous works were accomplished under a constant applied normal load and a little effort was done under a variable contact load, while none of these studies have considered the phase...

  6. Effect of normal and tumor factors on different phases of cell populations cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, A M; García, A L; Errecalde, A L; Badrán, A F

    1999-12-01

    In the present experiments we studied the effect of extracts from intact liver (LE), ES2 tumor extract (TE), plasmas from intact mice (PI), and from tumor bearing animals (PT) on different phases of hepatocytes and renocytes cell cycles. C3HS 28-day-old male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis, were injected at 16:00 hours and killed every 4 hours during a circadian cycle at 20:00/04; 00:00/08; 04:00/12; 08:00/16; 12:00/20 and 16:00/24 (time of day/hours post treatment). Colchicine (2 microg/g) was injected 4 hours before killing them. Samples of livers and kidneys were processed for histology and mitotic index determinations. The results were expressed as colchicine arrested metaphases per 1000 nuclei. The TE, LE and PI had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of hepatocytes during the first 12 hours post treatment. During the subsequent 12 hours, not only these treatments but also the PI had an inhibiting effect on the mitotic activity of the same cell population. Also the TE and the PT had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of the renocytes during the first 12 hours while the effect of all treatments showed a clear inhibition of the mitotic activity studied during the last 12 hours. Taking into account the time elapsed between the injections and the measurements made in these light-dark synchronized animals, we conclude that the increase in mitotic index observed in those tissues stemmed from a reinitiation of cell-cycle traverse in a subpopulation of G2-arrested, noncycling cells.

  7. An Approach to Preparing Ni-P with Different Phases for Use as Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Kong, Ling-Bin; Liu, Mao-Cheng; Luo, Yong-Chun; Kang, Long

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we describe a simple two-step approach to prepare nickel phosphide with different phases, such as Ni2 P and Ni5 P4 , to explain the influence of material microstructure and electrical conductivity on electrochemical performance. In this approach, we first prepared a Ni-P precursor through a ball milling process, then controlled the synthesis of either Ni2 P or Ni5 P4 by the annealing method. The as-prepared Ni2 P and Ni5 P4 are investigated as supercapacitor electrode materials for potential energy storage applications. The Ni2 P exhibits a high specific capacitance of 843.25 F g(-1) , whereas the specific capacitance of Ni5 P4 is 801.5 F g(-1) . Ni2 P possesses better cycle stability and rate capability than Ni5 P4 . In addition, the Fe2 O3 //Ni2 P supercapacitor displays a high energy density of 35.5 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 400 W kg(-1) and long cycle stability with a specific capacitance retention rate of 96 % after 1000 cycles, whereas the Fe2 O3 //Ni5 P4 supercapacitor exhibits a high energy density of 29.8 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 400 W kg(-1) and a specific capacitance retention rate of 86 % after 1000 cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Optimized determination of the radiological inventory during different phases of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillberg, Matthias; Beltz, Detlef; Karschnick, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities comprises a lot of activities such as decontamination, dismantling and demolition of equipment and structures. For these activities the aspects of health and safety of the operational personnel and of the general public as well as the minimization of radioactive waste have to be taken into account. An optimized, comprehensible and verifiable determination of the radiological inventory is essential for the decommissioning management with respect to safety, time, and costs. For example: right from the start of the post operational phase, the radiological characterization has to enable the decision whether to perform a system decontamination or not. Furthermore it is necessary, e.g. to determine the relevant nuclides and their composition (nuclide vector) for the release of material and for sustaining the radiological health and safety at work (e. g. minimizing the risk of incorporation). Our contribution will focus on the optimization of the radiological characterization with respect to the requisite extent and the best instant of time during the decommissioning process. For example: which additional information, besides the history of operation, is essential for an adequate amount of sampling and measurements needed in order to determine the relevant nuclides and their compositions? Furthermore, the characterization of buildings requires a kind of a graded approach during the decommissioning process. At the beginning of decommissioning, only a rough estimate of the expected radioactive waste due to the necessary decontamination of the building structures is sufficient. With ongoing decommissioning, a more precise radiological characterization of buildings is needed in order to guarantee an optimized, comprehensible and verifiable decontamination, dismantling and trouble-free clearance. These and other examples will be discussed on the background of and with reference to different decommissioning projects involving direct

  9. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Nishihara, H.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor, there is a possibility of boiling of the fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the possibility of re-criticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although it is anticipated that the large density ratio may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography and image processing techniques. Then, the effect of large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified

  10. Influence of Urbanization Factors on Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity: A Comparison of Countries at Different Developmental Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoping Cui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a global problem with demographic trends. The urban heat island plays a dominant role in local climate systems. Despite existing efforts to understand the impacts of multiple urbanization factors on the urban heat island globally, very little is known about the attribution of urban heat island magnitude to urbanization in different locations or developmental phases. In this study, based on global land surface temperature data, urban spatial domain data, gross domestic product (GDP, and population data, we analyzed the influence of multiple urbanization factors on global surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII. We also tentatively compared the abovementioned factors between different regions across the globe, especially between China and the USA, the largest countries that are experiencing or have experienced rapid urbanization in recent decades. The results showed that global SUHII had remarkable spatial heterogeneity due to the geographical and socioeconomic variation between cities. There was a significant correlation between SUHII and population as well as GDP in global cities. Moreover, this study suggested that the impacts of population on SUHII might be stronger in the early stages of urbanization, and the GDP factor would become a critical factor at a certain development level. The urban area also had non-ignorable impacts on SUHII, while the correlation between SUHII and urban shape was relatively weak. All these may imply that the best approach to slow down SUHII is to find other solutions, e.g., optimize the spatial configuration of urban internal landscapes, when the urbanization reaches a high level.

  11. Relating large-scale subsidence to convection development in Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gillian; Connolly, Paul J.; Dearden, Christopher; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale subsidence, associated with high-pressure systems, is often imposed in large-eddy simulation (LES) models to maintain the height of boundary layer (BL) clouds. Previous studies have considered the influence of subsidence on warm liquid clouds in subtropical regions; however, the relationship between subsidence and mixed-phase cloud microphysics has not specifically been studied. For the first time, we investigate how widespread subsidence associated with synoptic-scale meteorological features can affect the microphysics of Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus (Sc) clouds. Modelled with LES, four idealised scenarios - a stable Sc, varied droplet (Ndrop) or ice (Nice) number concentrations, and a warming surface (representing motion southwards) - were subjected to different levels of subsidence to investigate the cloud microphysical response. We find strong sensitivities to large-scale subsidence, indicating that high-pressure systems in the ocean-exposed Arctic regions have the potential to generate turbulence and changes in cloud microphysics in any resident BL mixed-phase clouds.Increased cloud convection is modelled with increased subsidence, driven by longwave radiative cooling at cloud top and rain evaporative cooling and latent heating from snow growth below cloud. Subsidence strengthens the BL temperature inversion, thus reducing entrainment and allowing the liquid- and ice-water paths (LWPs, IWPs) to increase. Through increased cloud-top radiative cooling and subsequent convective overturning, precipitation production is enhanced: rain particle number concentrations (Nrain), in-cloud rain mass production rates, and below-cloud evaporation rates increase with increased subsidence.Ice number concentrations (Nice) play an important role, as greater concentrations suppress the liquid phase; therefore, Nice acts to mediate the strength of turbulent overturning promoted by increased subsidence. With a warming surface, a lack of - or low - subsidence

  12. The influence of fluorine on phase relations and REE enrichment in alkaline magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, C. D.; van Hinsberg, V.; Stix, J.; Wilke, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorine is a minor element in most magmas, but higher concentrations to wt% levels have been reported in alkaline systems, including those which host economic deposits of REE + HFSE1. Despite low abundance in most natural melts, fluorine has received great attention from the experimental community because it has a strong influence on melt structure, lowering melting points and drastically reducing viscosity. The effect of fluorine on element speciation has important implications for phase relations and the partitioning of trace elements between minerals and melts, thus metal enrichment processes in alkaline magmas. We have experimentally investigated the impact of fluorine on phase relations and partitioning of rare metals, the REE in particular, in evolved alkaline melts. Synthetic glasses of tephriphonolite to phonolite composition were doped with a wide range of elements at trace levels, and fluorine contents were varied from fluorine-free to 2.5 wt%. Experiments were performed water-saturated in an internally heated pressure vessel at 200 MPa with log fO2 at ca. QFM+1, which represents the intrinsic redox conditions of the setup. Charges were heated to super-liquidus conditions for 16 hours, cooled slowly (1˚C/min) to run temperature and subsequently equilibrated for at least 40 hours. Run products were analysed by EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. The experiments produce an equilibrium assemblage of sodic pyroxene, biotite, Fe-oxide, melt, fluid, ±K-feldspar, ±titanite, ±fluorite. Addition of fluorine markedly increases the mode of biotite, which initially buffers melt F content at low levels (< 0.2 wt%). Only in experiments with more than 0.6 wt% F do we observe a significant increase in the melt F-content. Here, fluorine decreases pyroxene/melt partitioning coefficients equally for all REE where pyroxene composition and P-T conditions are equivalent (ca. 1/2 with 0.6% F). We suggest that the formation of REE-F complexes in the melt2 lowers the availability of metals

  13. Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

  14. Tracheal sound parameters of respiratory cycle phases show differences between flow-limited and normal breathing during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Huupponen, E; Virkkala, J; Saastamoinen, A; Rauhala, E; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new computational parameters to examine the characteristics of respiratory cycle phases from the tracheal breathing sound signal during sleep. Tracheal sound data from 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were examined. From each patient, a 10 min long section of normal and a 10 min section of flow-limited breathing during sleep were analysed. The computationally determined proportional durations of the respiratory phases were first investigated. Moreover, the phase durations and breathing sound amplitude levels were used to calculate the area under the breathing sound envelope signal during inspiration and expiration phases. An inspiratory sound index was then developed to provide the percentage of this type of area during the inspiratory phase with respect to the combined area of inspiratory and expiratory phases. The proportional duration of the inspiratory phase showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing and inspiratory pause displayed an opposite difference. The inspiratory sound index showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing. The presented novel computational parameters could contribute to the examination of sleep-disordered breathing or as a screening tool

  15. Electrical system using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchko, Brian A; Campbell, Jeremy B

    2012-09-18

    An automotive drive system and methods for making the same are provided. The system includes a three-phase motor and an inverter module. The three-phase motor includes a first set of windings each having a first magnetic polarity; and a second set of windings each having a second magnetic polarity that is opposite the first magnetic polarity. The first set of windings being electrically isolated from the second set of windings. The inverter module includes a first set of phase legs and a second set of phase legs. Each one of the first set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the first set of windings, and each one of the second set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the second set of windings.

  16. Influence of bodybuilding classes on physical qualities of the qualified sportswomen in different phases of the specific biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Mulik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to conduct researches of influence of classes of the sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini on manifestation of physical qualities in different phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. Material & Methods: researches were conducted in sports fitness-clubs of Kharkov "Feromon", "Gorod", “King” with the qualified sportswomen who are going in for bodybuilding and fitness-bikini within 3 months of the preparatory period in number of 14 people. We used as methods of the research: the analysis of references and testing of level of motive qualities in separate phases of OMC. Results: the theoretical analysis of features of the accounting of phases of OMC at sportswomen is submitted and the testing of the level of development of physical qualities in different phases of the specific biological cycle at the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is held. Conclusions: the received results demonstrate that physical efficiency of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding, is not identical in phases of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. It is revealed that the best conditions for performance of considerable exercise stresses in post-ovulatory and post-menstrual phases of OMC, therefore it is expedient to plan them in the preparatory periods of the qualified sportswomen, who are going in for bodybuilding.

  17. The Use of Smartphones in Different Phases of Medical School and its Relationship to Internet Addiction and Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo E Silva, Mathias Paulo; de Souza Matos, Brenda Dutra; da Silva Ezequiel, Oscarina; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2018-04-26

    The use of smartphones is revolutionizing the way information is acquired, leading to profound modifications in teaching medicine. Nevertheless, inadvertent use can negatively affect student learning. The present study aims to evaluate smartphone use in the educational context as well as Internet addiction and its repercussions on surface and deep learning and to compare them during the different phases of medical students' education. This is a cross-sectional study involving medical students in all phases of education. Sociodemographic data, type and frequency of smartphone use, degree of digital addiction (Internet Addiction Test - IAT), and surface and deep approaches to learning (Biggs) were analyzed. A total of 710 students were included. Almost all students had a smartphone and a total of 96.8% used it during lectures, classes, and meetings. Less than half of the students (47.3%) reported using a smartphone for more than 10 min for educational purposes, a usage that is higher among clerkship students. At least 95% reported using a smartphone in the classroom for activities not related to medicine (social media and searching for general information) and 68.2% were considered problematic Internet users according to the IAT. The most common reasons for noneducational use were that the class was uninteresting, students needed to receive or make an important call, and the educational strategy was not stimulating. The "frequency of smartphone use" and higher "internet addiction" were correlated to both higher levels of surface learning and lower levels of deep learning. Educators should advise and educate their students about conscientious use of this tool to avoid detrimental impact on the learning process.

  18. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267

  19. Gibbs free energy difference between the undercooled liquid and the beta phase of a Ti-Cr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Holzer, J. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    The heat of fusion and the specific heats of the solid and liquid have been experimentally determined for a Ti60Cr40 alloy. The data are used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy difference, delta-G, between the liquid and the beta phase as a function of temperature to verify a reported spontaneous vitrification (SV) of the beta phase in Ti-Cr alloys. The results show that SV of an undistorted beta phase in the Ti60Cr40 alloy at 873 K is not feasible because delta-G is positive at the temperature. However, delta-G may become negative with additional excess free energy to the beta phase in the form of defects.

  20. Directly relating gas-phase cluster measurements to solution-phase hydrolysis, the absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential, and the absolute proton solvation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Williams, Evan R

    2009-06-08

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->M(H(2)O)(24)(+)(g) and 2) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) + H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e(-)(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of -265 kcal mol(-1) are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution.

  1. Behavior of bowhead whales of the Davis Strait and Bering/Beaufort stocks versus regional differences in human activities. Final report on Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.W.; Davis, R.A.; Richardson, W.J.

    1991-07-01

    The objectives were to determine (1) whether there are differences in behavior between the Bering/Chukchi/Beaufort and the Davis Strait/Baffin Bay populations and (2), if so, whether the differences might be attributable to the long-term cumulative effects of exposure to the presumed greater amount of human activity in the former area. Phase 1 showed that there are some differences in behavior. The Phase 2 report documents the relative amounts of human activity in the two areas in 1974-86, and evaluates whether regional differences in whale behavior and in human activities may be related. Activities considered include bowhead hunting and other subsistence activities, commercial fishing and shipping, marine seismic exploration, offshore oil exploration, and low-level aircraft flights. Bering/Beaufort bowheads were subjected to at least 3-5 times as much human activity in 1974-86. Most differences in behavior between the two stocks were better explained by environmental or biological factors than by disturbance. However, for bowheads migrating in autumn, regional differences in behavior may be related to the whaling that occurs in the Beaufort Sea in autumn

  2. The Coordination Dynamics of Observational Learning: Relative Motion Direction and Relative Phase as Informational Content Linking Action-Perception to Action-Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this chapter is to merge together the visual perception perspective of observational learning and the coordination dynamics theory of pattern formation in perception and action. Emphasis is placed on identifying movement features that constrain and inform action-perception and action-production processes. Two sources of visual information are examined, relative motion direction and relative phase. The visual perception perspective states that the topological features of relative motion between limbs and joints remains invariant across an actor's motion and therefore are available for pickup by an observer. Relative phase has been put forth as an informational variable that links perception to action within the coordination dynamics theory. A primary assumption of the coordination dynamics approach is that environmental information is meaningful only in terms of the behavior it modifies. Across a series of single limb tasks and bimanual tasks it is shown that the relative motion and relative phase between limbs and joints is picked up through visual processes and supports observational learning of motor skills. Moreover, internal estimations of motor skill proficiency and competency are linked to the informational content found in relative motion and relative phase. Thus, the chapter links action to perception and vice versa and also links cognitive evaluations to the coordination dynamics that support action-perception and action-production processes.

  3. Use of solid phase microextraction to identify volatile organic compounds in brazilian wines from different grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian wine industry has shown significant growth in recent years and the insertion of new concepts, such as geographical indications as signs of quality, has placed Brazil in tune with the tendencies of world wine production. The aim of this work was to apply the Solid Phase Microextraction technique in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to study Brazilian wines made from different grape varieties, in order to separate and identify their volatile organic compounds. These substances were identified by comparisons between the spectra obtained with those presented in the NIST library database, and by comparisons with linear retention indices and literature data. The amounts of the compounds were calculated based on the total peak areas of the chromatograms. Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and grouped into alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones and terpenes. Most of them belonged to the ester function, conferring a fruity aroma on the wines. The alcohols may have originated from the yeast metabolism, contributing to the alcoholic and floral aromas. Ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol and diethyl maleate were identified in all the varieties, except Merlot. Decanal, methyl citronellate, (E-2-hexenyl-3-methylbutyrate were only found in Merlot, while 2,3-butanediol was only present in the Tannat wines. 2-Phenylethanol was present in all varieties and is recognized as giving pleasant rose and honey attributes to wines. This study showed that the volatile profile of red wines is mainly characterized by esters and higher alcohols. The statistical analysis of the comparison of averages showed a greater amount of averages significantly different in the relative areas of Merlot wine. The Principal Component Analysis showed one grouping composed only of the Merlot wine samples, and this was probably related to the existence of the volatile organic compounds that were specifically identified in

  4. THE HCN/HNC ABUNDANCE RATIO TOWARD DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mihwa; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee-Tae, E-mail: mihwajin.sf@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ktkim@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    Using the H{sup 13}CN and HN{sup 13}C J = 1–0 line observations, the abundance ratio of HCN/HNC has been estimated for different evolutionary stages of massive star formation: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), and ultracompact H ii regions (UCH iis). IRDCs were divided into “quiescent IRDC cores (qIRDCc)” and “active IRDC cores (aIRDCc),” depending on star formation activity. The HCN/HNC ratio is known to be higher at active and high temperature regions related to ongoing star formation, compared to cold and quiescent regions. Our observations toward 8 qIRDCc, 16 aIRDCc, 23 HMPOs, and 31 UCH iis show consistent results; the ratio is 0.97 (±0.10), 2.65 (±0.88), 4.17 (±1.03), and 8.96 (±3.32) in these respective evolutionary stages, increasing from qIRDCc to UCH iis. The change of the HCN/HNC abundance ratio, therefore, seems directly associated with the evolutionary stages of star formation, which have different temperatures. One suggested explanation for this trend is the conversion of HNC to HCN, which occurs effectively at higher temperatures. To test the explanation, we performed a simple chemical model calculation. In order to fit the observed results, the energy barrier of the conversion must be much lower than the value provided by theoretical calculations.

  5. Different event-related patterns of gamma-band power in brain waves of fast- and slow-reacting subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Makeig, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast- and slow-reacting subjects exhibit different patterns of gamma-band electroencephalogram (EEG) activity when responding as quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects produce speeded reactions in different ways and demonstrates that analysis of event-related changes in the amplitude of EEG activity recorded from the human scalp can reveal information about event-related brain processes unavailable using event-related potential measures. Time-varying spectral power in a selected (35- to 43-Hz) gamma frequency band was averaged across trials in two experimental conditions: passive listening and speeded reacting to binaural clicks, forming 40-Hz event-related spectral responses. Factor analysis of between-subject event-related spectral response differences split subjects into two near-equal groups composed of faster- and slower-reacting subjects. In faster-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power peaked near 200 ms and 400 ms poststimulus in the react condition, whereas in slower-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power just before stimulus delivery was larger in the react condition. These group differences were preserved in separate averages of relatively long and short reaction-time epochs for each group. gamma-band (20-60 Hz)-filtered event-related potential response averages did not differ between the two groups or conditions. Because of this and because gamma-band power in the auditory event-related potential is small compared with the EEG, the observed event-related spectral response features must represent gamma-band EEG activity reliably induced by, but not phase-locked to, experimental stimuli or events. PMID:8022783

  6. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the structural relations between the bcc and omega phases of Ti, Zr, Hf and other transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, G.; Guillermet, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The name omega (Ω) phase refers to a high-pressure structural modification of the transition metals (TMs) Ti, Zr, and Hf. In alloys of Ti, Zr and Hf with other TMs, the Ω phase can be formed and retained metastably at room temperature by quenching the bcc structure, which is usually the stable high-temperature phase in these alloy systems. As a part of a systematic investigation of the structural and bonding properties of the bcc and Ω phases, and of the bcc → Ω phase transformation in TMs and alloys, we present in this paper a detailed analysis of the structural relations between these phases in Ti, Zr, Hf and in other TMs. The approach is as follows. First, we establish the most general geometrical relations connecting the lattice parameters and interatomic distances (IDs) of the bcc and Ω structures. Next, we focus on the ratio between the relevant IDs of these phases, which are assessed on the basis of an extensive database with experimental and theoretical information. Both stable and metastable structures are considered, and various remarkable regularities in ID ratios are discussed. Finally, in the light of the systematics of ID ratios established in the present work, a discussion is made of the probable lattice parameters for the Ω phase of Hf, which are not yet accurately known from direct measurements. (orig.)

  8. Differing results of direct and indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBsAg in acute hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, W.D.; Legler, K.; Gerlich, W.; Stamm, B.; Zimmer, S.; Biotest-Serum-Institut G.m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main; Goettingen Univ.

    1978-01-01

    In 54 patients suffering from active viral hepatitis the indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ind-SPRIA) for HBsAg was positive in 9 cases the direct solid phase radioimmunoassay (d-SPRIA) being negative. In 2 further cases ind-SPRIA was positive during several weeks but d-SPRIA only once. AntiHBc could be detected in 9 of these patients. In 7 patients the usual decrease of the transaminase activity was followed by a second elavation with prolongation of the disease. The unknown factor detected by ind-SPRIA suggests a special of acute hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  9. Performance Evaluation of Eleven-Phase Induction Machine with Different PWM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Masoud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase induction machines are used extensively in low and medium voltage (MV drives. In MV drives, power switches have a limitation associated with switching frequency. This paper is a comparative study of the eleven-phase induction machine’s performance when used as a prototype and fed sinusoidal pulse-width-modulation (SPWM with a low switching frequency, selective harmonic elimination (SHE, and single pulse modulation (SPM techniques. The comparison depends on voltage/frequency controls for the same phase of voltage applied on the machine terminals for all previous techniques. The comparative study covers torque ripple, stator and harmonic currents, and motor efficiency.

  10. Differing results of direct and indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBsAg in acute hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohm, W D; Legler, K; Gerlich, W; Stamm, B; Zimmer, S [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Gastroenterologie; Biotest-Serum-Institut G.m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.); Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Hygiene-Institut)

    1978-09-01

    In 54 patients suffering from active viral hepatitis the indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (ind-SPRIA) for HBsAg was positive in 9 cases the direct solid phase radioimmunoassay (d-SPRIA) being negative. In 2 further cases ind-SPRIA was positive during several weeks but d-SPRIA only once. AntiHBc could be detected in 9 of these patients. In 7 patients the usual decrease of the transaminase activity was followed by a second elavation with prolongation of the disease. The unknown factor detected by ind-SPRIA suggests a special of acute hepatitis.

  11. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahayni, Malek A.

    2011-01-01

    developed to solve the optimal paths problem with different kinds of graphs. An algorithm that solves the problem of paths’ optimization in directed graphs relative to different cost functions is described in [1]. It follows an approach extended from

  13. Relatively Different? How Do Gender Differences in Well-Being Depend on Paid and Unpaid Work in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Absolute as well as relative hours of paid and unpaid work may influence well-being. This study investigates whether absolute hours spent on paid work and housework account for the lower well-being among women as compared to men in Europe, and whether the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework differ by gender…

  14. Measurement of the phase difference between short- and long-distance amplitudes in the [Formula: see text] decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the phase difference between the short- and long-distance contributions to the [Formula: see text] decay is performed by analysing the dimuon mass distribution. The analysis is based on pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3[Formula: see text] collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012. The long-distance contribution to the [Formula: see text] decay is modelled as a sum of relativistic Breit-Wigner amplitudes representing different vector meson resonances decaying to muon pairs, each with their own magnitude and phase. The measured phases of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] resonances are such that the interference with the short-distance component in dimuon mass regions far from their pole masses is small. In addition, constraints are placed on the Wilson coefficients, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the branching fraction of the short-distance component is measured.

  15. Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments

  16. Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments

  17. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  18. Crystal Analysis of Multi Phase Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Containing Different amount of Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalian, Afsaneh; Behnamghader, Ali Asghar; Moshkforoush, Arash

    In this study, Mg doped hydroxyapatite [(Ca, Mg)10(PO4)6(OH)2] and β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized via sol gel method. Triethyl phosphite, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate were used as P, Ca and Mg precursors. The ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P and the amount of magnesium (x) were kept constant at 1.67 and ranging x = 0 up to 3 in molecular formula of Ca10-xMgx (PO4)6(OH)2, respectively. Phase composition and chemical structure were performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Phase percentages, crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters were investigated. The presence of magnesium led to form the Mg doped tricalcium phosphate (β-TCMP) and Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA). Based on the results of this study, lattice parameters, degree of crystallinity and crystallite size decreased with magnesium content. In addition, with increasing magnesium content, the amount of CaO phase decreased whereas the amount of MgO phase increased significantly. Obtained results can be used for new biomaterials design.

  19. Composition of essential oil of costmary [Balsamita major (L.) Desf.] at different growth phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.; Venskutonis, R.; Roozen, J.P.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and flowers of costmary, Balsamita major (L.) Desf. (syn. Chrysanthemum balsamita L.), were analyzed at various phases of plant growth. The highest contents of oil both in leaves and in flowers were determined before full blooming, 1.15 and 1.34øw/w), respectively.

  20. Study of inter-modal four wave mixing in two few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmigiani, F.; Jung, Y.; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study inter-modal four-wave mixing (FWM) in few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties. The possibility of transmitting two spatial modes without intermodal FWM cross-talk in the C-band is presented....

  1. Effect of Different Training Methods on Stride Parameters in Speed Maintenance Phase of 100-m Sprint Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Emel; Hindistan, I Ethem; Ozkaya, Y Gul

    2018-05-01

    Cetin, E, Hindistan, IE, Ozkaya, YG. Effect of different training methods on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1263-1272, 2018-This study examined the effects of 2 different training methods relevant to sloping surface on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. Twenty recreationally active students were assigned into one of 3 groups: combined training (Com), horizontal training (H), and control (C) group. Com group performed uphill and downhill training on a sloping surface with an angle of 4°, whereas H group trained on a horizontal surface, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Speed maintenance and deceleration phases were divided into distances with 10-m intervals, and running time (t), running velocity (RV), step frequency (SF), and step length (SL) were measured at preexercise, and postexercise period. After 8 weeks of training program, t was shortened by 3.97% in Com group, and 2.37% in H group. Running velocity also increased for totally 100 m of running distance by 4.13 and 2.35% in Com, and H groups, respectively. At the speed maintenance phase, although t and maximal RV (RVmax) found to be statistically unaltered during overall phase, t was found to be decreased, and RVmax was preceded by 10 m in distance in both training groups. Step length was increased at 60-70 m, and SF was decreased at 70-80 m in H group. Step length was increased with concomitant decrease in SF at 80-90 m in Com group. Both training groups maintained the RVmax with a great percentage at the speed maintenance phase. In conclusion, although both training methods resulted in an increase in running time and RV, Com training method was more prominently effective method in improving RV, and this improvement was originated from the positive changes in SL during the speed maintaining phase.

  2. Ambiguity resolving based on cosine property of phase differences for 3D source localization with uniform circular array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Shuhong; Liu, Zhen; Wei, Xizhang

    2017-07-01

    Localization of a source whose half-wavelength is smaller than the array aperture would suffer from serious phase ambiguity problem, which also appears in recently proposed phase-based algorithms. In this paper, by using the centro-symmetry of fixed uniform circular array (UCA) with even number of sensors, the source's angles and range can be decoupled and a novel ambiguity resolving approach is addressed for phase-based algorithms of source's 3-D localization (azimuth angle, elevation angle, and range). In the proposed method, by using the cosine property of unambiguous phase differences, ambiguity searching and actual-value matching are first employed to obtain actual phase differences and corresponding source's angles. Then, the unambiguous angles are utilized to estimate the source's range based on a one dimension multiple signal classification (1-D MUSIC) estimator. Finally, simulation experiments investigate the influence of step size in search and SNR on performance of ambiguity resolution and demonstrate the satisfactory estimation performance of the proposed method.

  3. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I Kati; Watson, David G; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1), days 7-20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  4. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth – Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I. Kati; Watson, David G.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1–6 (Phase 1), days 7–20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  5. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Ursids (bears in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1, days 7-20 (Phase 2, and beyond day 20 (Phase 3. While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  6. Investigation of B2 and related phases in the Ti-Al-Nb ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendersky, L.A.; Boettinger, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Alloy compositions around Ti 2 AlNb were studied to establish phase equilibria and transformations during cooling from 1100 degrees C and 1400 degrees C. In addition to general results obtained on a wide range of compositions, which include evidence for a broad B2 phase field, transformation of BCC Ti 4 Al 3 Nb to a phase with an omega-type structure is reported. Detailed analysis indicates that this phase has the B8 2 structure after annealing at 700 degrees C

  7. Red Guava Leaf Harvesting Impact on Flavonoid Optimation in Different Growth Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNIF GHULAMAHDI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting process is a critical time to identify the quality of raw material for traditional medicine. The time and harvesting techniques, drying process after harvesting, and processing to make the simplicia, are the crucial role to make the good quality of the natural product. On the other hand, there is a lack of general understanding and appreciation about the processes involved in governing shoot and tree growth and development, i.e. red guava. The research objective was to evaluate the influence of leaf harvesting and growth phases on red guava for flavonoid production as antioxidant. Randomized factorial block design in time were laid out with two factors and followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. The treatments were the amount of leaf harvested on tertiary branches (0, 25, 50, and 100% and growth phases of the plant (vegetative and generative. Leaf harvesting 25% on tertiary branches significantly increased the leaf number (766.3 tree-1 and the number of new quarternary branches, decreasing leaf area index (LAI and leaf dry weight at the end of the experiment (22 weeks of observation/WO. The highest leaf dry weight (156.94 g tree-1 and LAI (0.47 was found in harvesting 25% tertiary branches. Harvesting 100% leaf on tertiary branches in vegetative phase significantly produced the lowest flavonoid production (7.82 g tree-1. The result suggested that flavonoid production from red guava leaves should be done by harvesting 50% leaf on tertiary branches in generative phase can be used to produce the highest flavonoid (89.90 g tree-1.

  8. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ATHER HASSAN; YASEEN IQBAL; SYED ZAFAR ILYAS

    2017-01-01

    The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar) industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite o...

  9. Liquid-phase synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials on preheated alloy substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanocarbons were selectively synthesized on commercially available alloy substrates by a simple liquid-phase technique. Fe- and Ni-rich stainless-steel (JIS SUS316L and Inconel®600, respectively) and Ni-Cu alloy (Monel®400) substrates were used for the synthesis, and each substrate was preheated in air to promote the self-formation of catalyst nanolayers on the surface. The substrates were resistance heated in ethanol without any addition of catalysts to grow CNTs. The yield of the CNTs effectively increased when the preheating process was employed. Highly aligned CNT arrays grew on the SUS316L substrate, while non-aligned CNTs and distinctive twisted fibers were observed on the other substrates. An Fe oxide layer was selectively formed on the preheated SUS316L substrate promoting the growth of the CNT arrays. Characterizations including cyclic voltammetry for the arrays revealed that the CNTs possess a comparatively defect-rich surface, which is a desirable characteristic for its application such as electrode materials for capacitors.

  10. A trans-phase granular continuum relation and its use in simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Dunatunga, Sachith; Askari, Hesam

    The ability to model a large granular system as a continuum would offer tremendous benefits in computation time compared to discrete particle methods. However, two infamous problems arise in the pursuit of this vision: (i) the constitutive relation for granular materials is still unclear and hotly debated, and (ii) a model and corresponding numerical method must wear ``many hats'' as, in general circumstances, it must be able to capture and accurately represent the material as it crosses through its collisional, dense-flowing, and solid-like states. Here we present a minimal trans-phase model, merging an elastic response beneath a fictional yield criterion, a mu(I) rheology for liquid-like flow above the static yield criterion, and a disconnection rule to model separation of the grains into a low-temperature gas. We simulate our model with a meshless method (in high strain/mixing cases) and the finite-element method. It is able to match experimental data in many geometries, including collapsing columns, impact on granular beds, draining silos, and granular drag problems.

  11. Selective Interareal Synchronization through Gamma Frequency Differences and Slower-Rhythm Gamma Phase Reset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwick, Thomas; Bouras, Alexandros

    2017-03-01

    The communication-through-coherence (CTC) hypothesis states that a sending group of neurons will have a particularly strong effect on a receiving group if both groups oscillate in a phase-locked ("coherent") manner (Fries, 2005 , 2015 ). Here, we consider a situation with two visual stimuli, one in the focus of attention and the other distracting, resulting in two sites of excitation at an early cortical area that project to a common site in a next area. Taking a modeler's perspective, we confirm the workings of a mechanism that was proposed by Bosman et al. ( 2012 ) in the context of providing experimental evidence for the CTC hypothesis: a slightly higher gamma frequency of the attended sending site compared to the distracting site may cause selective interareal synchronization with the receiving site if combined with a slow-rhythm gamma phase reset. We also demonstrate the relevance of a slightly lower intrinsic frequency of the receiving site for this scenario. Moreover, we discuss conditions for a transition from bottom-up to top-down driven phase locking.

  12. Selectivity of calixarene-bonded silica-phases in HPLC: description of special characteristics with a multiple term linear equation at two different pH-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Meyer, Rüdiger; Jira, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Six different calixarene-bonded phases were characterized by analyzing 36 and 26 solutes at pH 3 and 7, respectively. Dolan and Snyder's multiple term linear equation was used to correlate retention factors k' to parameters of the solutes and columns. The column parameters have been related to molecular properties of the stationary phases and new suggestions were made for the interpretation of steric selectivity. Ionic and polar interactions have been found dependent on pH value, while steric interactions are less dependent and hydrophobic interactions remain unchanged. Distinct differences of the supported interactions were confirmed between the calixarene-bonded and the common alkyl-bonded silicas. By use of the parameters, values of k' can be estimated with an average deviation of 2.50 and 7.92% at low and neutral pH-value, respectively.

  13. Relative entropy differences in bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and genomic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, Jon; van Passel, Mark W. J.; Snipen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    with the strongest association being in phages. Relative entropy was also found to be lower in the obligate intracellular Mycobacterium leprae than in the related M. tuberculosis when measured on a shared set of highly conserved genes. Conclusions: We argue that relative entropy differences reflect how plasmids...

  14. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R.; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.’s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation. PMID:26858621

  15. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  16. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  17. Relative sensitivity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) for vegetation and desertification monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Francois; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple equation relating the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is proposed which represents well data obtained from Nimbus 7/SMMR at 37 GHz and NOAA/AVHRR Channels 1 and 2. It is found that there is a limit which is characteristic of a particular type of cover for which both indices are equally sensitive to the variation of vegetation, and below which MPDI is more efficient than NDVI. The results provide insight into the relationship between water content and chlorophyll absorption at pixel size scales.

  18. Polymorphisms in phase I and phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Eiberg, Hans; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that chemicals belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are risk factors in Breast Cancer (BC) development in Greenlandic Inuit women. The present case-control study...... on BC risk in Greenlandic Inuit women. METHODS: The study population consisted of 31 BC cases and 115 matched controls, with information on serum levels of POPs. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1> A2; rs743572...... aimed to investigate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and estrogen biosynthesis, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT and CYP17, CYP19 and the BRCA1 founder mutation in relation to BC risk and to explore possible interactions between the gene polymorphisms and serum POP levels...

  19. Generalized nonequilibrium capillary relations for two-phase flow through heterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaziane, Brahim; Milišić, Josipa Pina; Panfilov, Mikhail; Pankratov, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    For two-phase flow in porous media, the natural medium heterogeneity necessarily gives rise to capillary nonequilibrium effects. The relaxation to the equilibrium is a slow process which should be introduced in macroscopic flow models. Many nonequilibrium models are based on a phenomenological approach. At the same time there exists a rigorous mathematical way to develop the nonequilibrium equations. Its formalism, developed by Bourgeat and Panfilov [Computational Geosciences 2, 191 (1998)], is based on the homogenization of the microscale flow equations over medium heterogeneities. In contrast with the mentioned paper, in which the case of a sufficiently fast relaxation was analyzed, we consider the case of long relaxation, which leads to the appearance of long-term memory on the macroscale. Due to coupling between the nonlinearity and nonlocality in time, the macroscopic model remains, however, incompletely homogenized, in the general case. At the same time, frequently only the relationship for the nonequilibrium capillary pressure is of interest for applications. In the present paper, we obtain such an exact relationship in two different independent forms for the case of long-term memory. This relationship is more general than that obtained by Bourgeat and Panfilov. In addition, we prove the comparison theorem which determines the upper and lower bounds for the macroscopic model. These bounds represent linear flow models, which are completely homogenized. The results obtained are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  20. Precortical phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related tau cytoskeletal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T.; Bohl, Jürgen; Wharton, Stephen B; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rüb, Udo

    2015-01-01

    coeruleus, and parabrachial nuclei) in the Braak and Braak AD stage 0 individuals and in all of these subcortical nuclei in the Braak and Braak AD stage I individuals. The widespread affection of the subcortical nuclei in our Braak and Braak AD stage I individuals shows that the extent of the subcortical tau cytoskeletal pathology in this AD stage has been considerably underestimated during the last decades. In addition, our novel findings in the Braak and Braak AD stage 0 individuals support the concept that subcortical nuclei become already affected during an early ‘pre-cortical’ evolutional phase before the first AD-related cytoskeletal changes occur in the well-known cortical predilection sites of the mediobasal temporal lobe (i.e. transentorhinal and entorhinal regions). In addition, our new findings indicate that the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology by no means is confined to single subcortical nuclei of Braak and Braak AD stage 0 individuals, but may develop in a large variety of their subcortical nuclei interconnected with the allocortical entorhinal and transentorhinal regions. Accordingly, these very early involved subcortical brain regions may represent the origin of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology, from where the neuronal cytoskeletal pathology takes an ascending course towards the secondarily affected allocortex and spreads transneuronally along anatomical pathways and interconnectivities in predictable and stereotypical sequences PMID:26193084

  1. Assimilation and water relations of dryland castor at different intensities of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Venkateswarlu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Primary racemes of dryland castor develop during later part of rainy season and secondaries and tertiaries develop during post-rainy season. The reproductive phase is therefore subjected to variation in soil moisture availability and solar radiation intensity. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of fluctuation in solar radiation intensity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transpiration efficiency, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential during early and late reproductive phase of castor. When photosynthetically active radiation was less than 1000 mu-mol m-2s-1, transpiration efficiency decreased because reduction in photosynthesis rate was more than that in transpiration rate. Transpiration efficiency also decreased, when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1 because of increase only in transpiration rate. Leaf water potential was higher during early than during late reproductive phase at similar radiation intensity. Transpiration rate was lower and transpiration efficiency was more during early phase when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1. Photosynthetically active radiation and leaf water potential were inversely related

  2. Phase relations in the hydrous CMAS pyrolite in presence of KCl at 2 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, O.

    2012-04-01

    In the upper mantle, chlorides are constituents of concentrated aqueous solutions (brines), as well as chloride-carbonate and carbonatite melts. Mineral assemblages coming from diverse depth levels show that mobile (K, Na)Cl-bearing fluids are able to provoke intensive metasomatism of the peridotitic mantle accompanied by melting. Scarce experimental studies on influence of brines on mineral equilibria in the peridotitic mantle (Stalder et al., 2008; Chu et al., 2011) indicate that influence of chlorides on water activity in a fluid equilibrated with forsterite enstatite at pressures above 2 GPa is very similar to their effect at lower "crustal" pressures (e.g. Aranovich, Newton, 1997): decrease of the H2O activity with an increase of the salt content results in an increase of the melting temperature of silicates. Nevertheless, these experiments were performed in the Al-free systems. Presence of Al would provoke an active interaction of alkali chlorides, namely KCl, with silicates with formation of new K-Al-bearing phases, such as phlogopite (in presence of H2O), which would influence on the melting of complex assemblages. In order to investigate an effect of KCl on phase relations in the Al2O3, CaO, Na2O-rich hydrous peridotite and on stability of garnet, pyroxenes, and amphiboles, in particular, experiments on interaction of the model CMAS pyrolite Fo57En17Prp14Di12 (+0.3 wt. % of Na2O) with the H2O-KCl fluid were performed at 2 GPa in the temperature interval 900-1200. Mixtures of synthetic forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope in the above weight ratio were mixed with 14 wt. % of Mg(OH)2 corresponding to 4.4 wt. % of H2O in the system. 2.4, 3.7, 5 and 10 wt. % of KCl were added to silicate-H2O mixture. Experiments were performed using a piston-cylinder apparatus with ½-inch talc high-pressure cells calibrated via brucite = periclase + H2O and albite = jadeite + quartz equilibria curves. Temperature was controlled with accuracy ?1 with the W95Re5/W80Re20

  3. Role of relativity in high-pressure phase transitions of thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotmool, Komsilp; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bovornratanaraks, Thiti; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2017-02-20

    We demonstrate the relativistic effects in high-pressure phase transitions of heavy element thallium. The known first phase transition from h.c.p. to f.c.c. is initially investigated by various relativistic levels and exchange-correlation functionals as implemented in FPLO method, as well as scalar relativistic scheme within PAW formalism. The electronic structure calculations are interpreted from the perspective of energetic stability and electronic density of states. The full relativistic scheme (FR) within L(S)DA performs to be the scheme that resembles mostly with experimental results with a transition pressure of 3 GPa. The s-p hybridization and the valence-core overlapping of 6s and 5d states are the primary reasons behind the f.c.c. phase occurrence. A recent proposed phase, i.e., a body-centered tetragonal (b.c.t.) phase, is confirmed with a small distortion from the f.c.c. phase. We have also predicted a reversible b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at 800 GPa. This finding has been suggested that almost all the III-A elements (Ga, In and Tl) exhibit the b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at extremely high pressure.

  4. Binary and ternary carbides and nitrides of the transition metals and their phase relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrance and the structure of the binary and ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides are described. Phase diagrams are assessed for most of the binary and ternary systems. Many ternary phase diagrams are published in this report for the first time. (orig.) [de

  5. Wellness coaching and health-related quality of life: a case-control difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Jyothi; Paulet, Mindy; Thomas, Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Association between wellness coaching and changes in health-related quality of life over 1 year and 2 years was assessed. Difference-in-differences analysis of covariance assessed association between coaching and change in 8-item short-form health survey (SF-8) summary scores. Ordered logistic models assessed coaching and change in SF-8 individual domain scores. This was a case-control study. Participants in at least one coaching program were more likely to have increases in social functioning after 1 year and less likely to have increases in role physical after 2 years. Participants in nutrition coaching had more positive change in mental component summary scores after 1 year. Participants in stress management had more negative change in mental component summary scores after 1 year and after 2 years and had more negative change in physical component summary scores after 2 years. Findings were mixed regarding association between coaching and change in health-related quality of life.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of different fluid phase in samples of glass beads by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Leonardo C.; Nagata, Rodrigo; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Moreira, Anderson C.; Fernanades, Celso P.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray microtomography has showed to be a useful tool for studies of inner structure of reservoir rocks. Moreover recent works have used this methodology to visualize different fluid phases present in these microstructures. In this paper X-ray microtomography has been applied to visualize three fluid phases, separately or simultaneously, in addition to a solid phase (glass beads). Two glass beads samples were manufactured and scanned, one with 0.8 mm (GB1) and other with 0.6 mm (GB2) diameter, respectively. The three fluid phases used were air, oil and a water-salt-potassium iodine solution. Two Skyscan scanners were used, both a 1172 model, which employs X-ray tube with W anode and cone beam. This laboratory based equipment is able to provide images of until 1 μm spatial resolution. One microtomograph is located at CENPES/PETROBRAS and has a CCD camera of 10 mega pixels resolution. It was used to measure the GB1 sample at 4.84 μm spatial resolution. The other one is located at LAMIR/UFPR and has a CCD camera of 11 mega pixels resolution. It was used to measure the GB2 sample at 4.99 μm spatial resolution. GB1 sample was set up with three fluid phases and presented 38.0 (2.7) % of total porosity before fluid presence and 3.5 % and 19.8 %, as lower and higher average porosity values, respectively, after to be filled with them. GB2 sample was set up with oil and water-salt-potassium iodine solution separated. It presented 36.7 (1.9) % of total porosity when dried, 18.7 (2.0) % when filled with oil and 0 % when filled with the solution. The 2D images clearly show the presence of the solution in addition to the air and solid phases. They also show that the presence of oil phase is less clear than the solution. When all the phases are present together in the sample it is possible to differentiate all of them. Individual 3D images are shown for each phase present in the sample. The 3D image containing all the phases is also shown. (author)

  7. Detection of cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits by time-difference magnetic inductive phase shift spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Pan

    Full Text Available Cerebral hemorrhage, a difficult issue in clinical practice, is often detected and studied with computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET. However, these expensive devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions, and hence are unable to provide bedside and emergency on-site monitoring. The magnetic inductive phase shift (MIPS is an emerging technology that may become a new tool to detect cerebral hemorrhage and to serve as an inexpensive partial substitute to medical imaging. In order to study a wider band of cerebral hemorrhage MIPS and to provide more useful information for measuring cerebral hemorrhage, we established a cerebral hemorrhage magnetic induction phase shift spectroscopy (MIPSS detection system. Thirteen rabbits with five cerebral hemorrhage states were studied using a single coil-coil within a 1 MHz-200 MHz frequency range in linear sweep. A feature band (FB with the highest detection sensitivity and the greatest stability was selected for further analysis and processing. In addition, a maximum conductivity cerebrospinal fluid (CSF MRI was performed to verify and interpret the MIPSS result. The average phase shift change induced by a 3 ml injection of autologous blood under FB was -7.7503° ± 1.4204°, which was considerably larger than our previous work. Data analysis with a non-parametric statistical Friedman M test showed that in the FB, MIPSS could distinguish the five states of cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits, with a statistical significance of p<0.05. A B-F distribution profile was designed according to the MIPSS under FB that can provide instantaneous diagnostic information about the cerebral hemorrhage severity from a single set of measurements. The results illustrate that the MIPSS detection method is able to provide a new possibility for real-time monitoring and diagnosis of the severity of cerebral hemorrhage.

  8. Detection of Cerebral Hemorrhage in Rabbits by Time-Difference Magnetic Inductive Phase Shift Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wencai; Yan, Qingguang; Qin, Mingxin; Jin, Gui; Sun, Jian; Ning, Xu; Zhuang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Li, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage, a difficult issue in clinical practice, is often detected and studied with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). However, these expensive devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions, and hence are unable to provide bedside and emergency on-site monitoring. The magnetic inductive phase shift (MIPS) is an emerging technology that may become a new tool to detect cerebral hemorrhage and to serve as an inexpensive partial substitute to medical imaging. In order to study a wider band of cerebral hemorrhage MIPS and to provide more useful information for measuring cerebral hemorrhage, we established a cerebral hemorrhage magnetic induction phase shift spectroscopy (MIPSS) detection system. Thirteen rabbits with five cerebral hemorrhage states were studied using a single coil-coil within a 1 MHz-200 MHz frequency range in linear sweep. A feature band (FB) with the highest detection sensitivity and the greatest stability was selected for further analysis and processing. In addition, a maximum conductivity cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI was performed to verify and interpret the MIPSS result. The average phase shift change induced by a 3 ml injection of autologous blood under FB was -7.7503° ± 1.4204°, which was considerably larger than our previous work. Data analysis with a non-parametric statistical Friedman M test showed that in the FB, MIPSS could distinguish the five states of cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits, with a statistical significance of phemorrhage severity from a single set of measurements. The results illustrate that the MIPSS detection method is able to provide a new possibility for real-time monitoring and diagnosis of the severity of cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:26001112

  9. Microglia are involve in pain related behaviors during the acute and chronic phase of arthritis inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Nasseri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Pain is one of the main protests of inflammatory diseases, hence, understanding the mechanisms which involved in the induction and persistence of pain is essential. Microglia is a contributing factor in the onset and maintenance of inflammation. Increased microglial   activation increases the level of central pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of central sensitization following inflammation. The aim of this study was evaluate the relation of spinal microglia activity with pain related behaviors during Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced inflammation.Materials and Methods: Inflammation caused by subcutaneous injection of Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA in a single dose to the animals right hind paw. The edema and hyperalgesia caused by inflammation, respectively are measured by Plethysmometer and Radiant Heat, on days 0,7,14 and 21. Spinal Iba-1 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Minocycline hydrochloride (Sigma, U.S.A was administered i.p. at a dose of 40mg/kg daily.Results: Our study findings indicated that CFA injection to right hindpaw of rats increased paw volume and hyperalgesia significantly during different stages of study, while Minocycline treatment significantly reduced paw volume and hyperalgesia. CFA injection into the right hindpaw of the rat increases the expression of molecules Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule -1 (Iba-1 on different days of study, while Minocycline administration reduced spinal Iba-1 expression significantly compared to the CFA group.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated the significant roles of microglia activation in deterioration of pain related behaviors during different stages of CFA-induced inflammation. The steady injection of Minocycline (as a microglia inhibitor could reduce the inflammatory symptoms.Keywords: Inflammation, pain, microglia, minocycline

  10. The role of the entry-and-stretch phase at the different paces of race in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Mathias; Monnet, Tony; Bernard, Anthony; Lacouture, Patrick; David, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role played by the entry-and-stretch phase in the coordination of swimming, at the different paces of race. Three national level swimmers (two men and one woman) were recorded, in lateral and bottom views, in three swimming paces: sprint (50 m and 100 m), middle-distance (200 m and 400 m) and long-distance (800 m and 1500 m). Anatomical landmark positions were obtained by manual digitalisation of the videos. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental studies (with a strain gauge balance and particle image velocimetry method) were used to measure and to calculate the external forces applied to the hand and to the forearm and to visualise the flow around the profile. Entry-and-stretch is the phase which varies the most according to the swimming pace. This phase can be decomposed into two sub-phases: one, the extension forward coordinated with the insweep of the opposite arm, and another one, the rotation downward coordinated with the upsweep. Results show that, at the three paces, this phase is not propulsive and could contribute essentially to maintain the horizontal balance of the body.

  11. Density-space potential phase difference in a Kelvin--Helmholtz instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowienka, J.C.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    The low-frequency instability found in a hollow cathode discharge in helium was studied using an ion beam probe as a primary diagnostic tool. Three aspects of the instability are discussed: the location and amplitude of the oscillation and its correlation with the shape of the space potential; the phase angle between density and space potential oscillations; and the comparison of the data with three known instability models: Kelvin--Helmholtz, Rayleigh--Taylor, and drift waves--for mode identification. (U.S.)

  12. Sex-related differences in patients treated surgically for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Sex-related differences were examined in the clinical course of patients treated surgically for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Retrospective analyses were carried out to evaluate sex-related differences in aneurysm location, aneurysm size, preoperative neurological condition, preoperative computed tomography findings, and outcome among 2577 patients who underwent surgical repair of ruptured aneurysms. The internal carotid artery was most frequently affected in women and the anterior cerebral artery in men. Intracerebral or intraventricular hematoma was more common in men than in women. Some differences may be related to the location of the aneurysm. Sex-related differences were prominent in the 5th decade of life. These findings might be related to the menopause. Sex hormones may be involved in aneurysm formation. (author)

  13. Sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Zald, D H; Pardo, J V; Cahill, L F

    2006-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have established a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala involvement in memory for emotionally arousing material. Here, we examine the possibility that sex-related differences in amygdala involvement in memory for emotional material develop from differential patterns of amygdala functional connectivity evident in the resting brain. Seed voxel partial least square analyses of regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions. The right amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in men than in women. In contrast, the left amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in women than in men. Furthermore, the regions displaying stronger functional connectivity with the right amygdala in males (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, pulvinar) differed from those displaying stronger functional connectivity with the left amygdala in females (subgenual cortex, hypothalamus). These differences in functional connectivity at rest may link to sex-related differences in medical and psychiatric disorders.

  14. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects.

  15. Investigation of the effect of different parameters on the phase inversion temperature O/W nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kaviani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanoemulsions are a kind of emulsions that can be transparent, translucent (size range 50-200 nm or “milky” (up to 500 nm. Nanoemulsions are adequatly effective for transfer of active component through skin which facilitate the entrance of the active component . The transparent nature of the system and lack of the thickener and fluidity are among advantages of nanoemulsion. Materials and Methods: In this study, a nanoemulsion of lemon oil in water was prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT emulsification method in which the tween 40 was used as surfactant. The effect of concentration of NaCl in aqueous phase, pH and weight percent of surfactant and aqueous on the PIT and droplet size were investigated. Results: The results showed that with increasing of concentration of NaCl from 0.05 M to 1 M, PIT decrease from 72 to 50. The average droplet sizes, for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 M of NaCl in 25 ºC are 497.3, 308.1 and 189.9 nm, respectively and the polydispersity indexes are 0.348, 0.334 and 0.307, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the characteristics of nanoemulsions such as being transparent, endurance of solution and droplet size can provide suitable reaction environment for polymerization process used in making hygienic and medical materials.

  16. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects

  17. A dynamical systems approach for estimating phase interactions between rhythms of different frequencies from experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojima, Takayuki; Goto, Takahiro; Mizuhara, Hiroaki; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization of neural oscillations as a mechanism of brain function is attracting increasing attention. Neural oscillation is a rhythmic neural activity that can be easily observed by noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG). Neural oscillations show the same frequency and cross-frequency synchronization for various cognitive and perceptual functions. However, it is unclear how this neural synchronization is achieved by a dynamical system. If neural oscillations are weakly coupled oscillators, the dynamics of neural synchronization can be described theoretically using a phase oscillator model. We propose an estimation method to identify the phase oscillator model from real data of cross-frequency synchronized activities. The proposed method can estimate the coupling function governing the properties of synchronization. Furthermore, we examine the reliability of the proposed method using time-series data obtained from numerical simulation and an electronic circuit experiment, and show that our method can estimate the coupling function correctly. Finally, we estimate the coupling function between EEG oscillation and the speech sound envelope, and discuss the validity of these results.

  18. Phase Partitioning of GM1 and Its Bodipy-Labeled Analog Determine Their Different Binding to Cholera Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Rissanen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Driven by interactions between lipids and proteins, biological membranes display lateral heterogeneity that manifests itself in a mosaic of liquid-ordered (Lo or raft, and liquid-disordered (Ld or non-raft domains with a wide range of different properties and compositions. In giant plasma membrane vesicles and giant unilamellar vesicles, specific binding of Cholera Toxin (CTxB to GM1 glycolipids is a commonly used strategy to label raft domains or Lo membrane environments. However, these studies often use acyl-chain labeled bodipy-GM1 (bdGM1, whose headgroup accessibility and membrane order or phase partitioning may differ from those of GM1, rendering the interpretation of CTxB binding data quite problematic. To unravel the molecular basis of CTxB binding to GM1 and bdGM1, we explored the partitioning and the headgroup presentation of these gangliosides in the Lo and Ld phases using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations complemented by CTxB binding experiments. The conformation of both GM1 and bdGM1 was shown to be largely similar in the Lo and Ld phases. However, bdGM1 showed reduction in receptor availability when reconstituted into synthetic bilayer mixtures, highlighting that membrane phase partitioning of the gangliosides plays a considerable role in CTxB binding. Our results suggest that the CTxB binding is predominately modulated by the partitioning of the receptor to an appropriate membrane phase. Further, given that the Lo and Ld partitioning of bdGM1 differs from those of GM1, usage of bdGM1 for studying GM1 behavior in cells can lead to invalid interpretation of experimental data.

  19. Morphology and distribution of martensite in dual phase (DP980) steel and its relation to the multiscale mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan, E-mail: fan.zhang@wsu.edu [School of Mechanical and Material Eng., Washington State University (United States); Ruimi, Annie [Department of Mechanical Eng., Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Wo, Pui Ching; Field, David P. [School of Mechanical and Material Eng., Washington State University (United States)

    2016-04-06

    Among generations of advanced high-strength steel alloys, dual-phase steels exhibit a unique combination of strength and formability making them excellent candidates for use in the automotive industry. In this study, we seek to establish a relation between mechanical properties and microstructure of DP980. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)and nanoindentation are used to identify and characterize martensite and ferrite phases. Spatial distributions of martensite and ferrite phases of subjected to various annealing treatments are found using a 2-point correlation function. Micro- and macro-mechanical properties are measured with nanoindentation, Vickers hardness and tensile tests and the results are used to determine the relation between martensite and ferrite phases and the strength of the metal. During the annealing/recovery process, the strength of the martensite phase decreases, the dislocation structure relaxes in the phase boundary region of the ferrite, and the martensite alignment along the rolling direction decreases resulting in the observed metal strength reduction. It is also shown that the higher the annealing temperature, the more homogeneous and equiaxed the distribution of martensite.

  20. Morphology and distribution of martensite in dual phase (DP980) steel and its relation to the multiscale mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Ruimi, Annie; Wo, Pui Ching; Field, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Among generations of advanced high-strength steel alloys, dual-phase steels exhibit a unique combination of strength and formability making them excellent candidates for use in the automotive industry. In this study, we seek to establish a relation between mechanical properties and microstructure of DP980. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)and nanoindentation are used to identify and characterize martensite and ferrite phases. Spatial distributions of martensite and ferrite phases of subjected to various annealing treatments are found using a 2-point correlation function. Micro- and macro-mechanical properties are measured with nanoindentation, Vickers hardness and tensile tests and the results are used to determine the relation between martensite and ferrite phases and the strength of the metal. During the annealing/recovery process, the strength of the martensite phase decreases, the dislocation structure relaxes in the phase boundary region of the ferrite, and the martensite alignment along the rolling direction decreases resulting in the observed metal strength reduction. It is also shown that the higher the annealing temperature, the more homogeneous and equiaxed the distribution of martensite.

  1. A novel drag force coefficient model for gas–water two-phase flows under different flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Zhi, E-mail: shangzhi@tsinghua.org.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel drag force coefficient model was established. • This model realized to cover different flow patterns for CFD. • Numerical simulations were performed under wide range flow regimes. • Validations were carried out through comparisons to experiments. - Abstract: A novel drag force coefficient model has been developed to study gas–water two-phase flows. In this drag force coefficient model, the terminal velocities were calculated through the revised drift flux model. The revised drift flux is different from the traditional drift flux model because the natural curve movement of the bubble was revised through considering the centrifugal force. Owing to the revisions, the revised drift flux model was to extend to 3D. Therefore it is suitable for CFD applications. In the revised drift flux model, the different flow patterns of the gas–water two-phase flows were able to be considered. This model innovatively realizes the drag force being able to cover different flow patterns of gas–water two-phase flows on bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, annular flow and mist flow. Through the comparisons of the numerical simulations to the experiments in vertical upward and downward pipe flows, this model was validated.

  2. Comparison of different target material options for the European Spallation Source based on certain aspects related to the final disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kókai, Zsófia; Török, Szabina; Zagyvai, Péter; Kiselev, Daniela; Moormann, Rainer; Börcsök, Endre; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan; Muhrer, Günter; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Janik, József

    2018-02-01

    Different target options have been examined for the European Spallation Source, which is under construction in Lund, Sweden. During the design update phase, parameters and characteristics for the target design have been optimized not only for neutronics but also with respect to the waste characteristics related to the final disposal of the target. A rotating, solid tungsten target was eventually selected as baseline concept; the other options considered included mercury and lead-bismuth (LBE) targets suitable for a pulsed source. Since the licensee is obliged to present a decommissioning plan even before the construction phase starts, the radioactive waste category of the target after full operation time is of crucial importance. The results obtained from a small survey among project partners of 7th Framework Program granted by EU 202247 contract have been used. Waste characteristics of different potential spallation target materials were compared. Based on waste index, the tungsten target is the best alternative and the second one is the mercury target. However, all alternatives have HLW category after a 10 year cooling. Based on heat generation alone all of the options would be below the HLW limit after this cooling period. The LBE is the least advantageous alternative based on waste index and heat generation comparison. These results can be useful in compiling the licensing documents of the ESS facility as the target alternatives can be compared from various aspects related to their disposal.

  3. Phase-change related epigenetic and physiological changes in Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2002-08-01

    DNA methylation and polyamine levels were analysed before and after Pinus radiata D. Don. phase change in order to identify possible molecular and physiological phase markers. Juvenile individuals (without reproductive ability) were characterised by a degree of DNA methylation of 30-35% and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates greater than 1, while mature trees (with reproductive ability) had 60% 5-methylcytosine and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates of less than 1. Results obtained with trees that attained reproductive capacity during the experimental period confirmed that changes in the degree of DNA methylation and polyamine concentrations found among juvenile and mature states come about immediately after the phase change. We suggest that both indicators may be associated with the loss of morphogenic ability during ageing, particularly after phase change, through a number of molecular interactions, which are subsequently discussed.

  4. Relation between quantum phase transitions and classical instability points in the pairing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Mauricio; Terra Cunha, M.O.; Oliveira, Adelcio C.; Nemes, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum phase transition, characterized by an accumulation of energy levels in the espectrum of the model, is associated with a qualitative change in the corresponding classical dynamic obtained upon generalized coherent states of angular momentum

  5. Phase and structural transformations in annealed copper coatings in relation to oxide whisker growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorogov, M.V.; Priezzheva, A.N. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Vlassov, S., E-mail: vlassovs@ut.ee [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Kink, I.; Shulga, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dorogin, L.M. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverkskiy 49, 197101 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lõhmus, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Tyurkov, M.N.; Vikarchuk, A.A. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Romanov, A.E. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverkskiy 49, 197101 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Coatings prepared by Cu microparticle electrodeposition. • Structural and phase transformation in Cu coatings annealed at 400 °C. • Annealing is accompanied by intensive growth of CuO whiskers. • Layered oxide phases (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) in the coating are characterized. • Formation of volumetric defects in the coating is demonstrated. - Abstract: We describe structural and phase transformation in copper coatings made of microparticles during heating and annealing in air in the temperature range up to 400 °C. Such thermal treatment is accompanied by intensive CuO nanowhisker growth on the coating surface and the formation of the layered oxide phases (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) in the coating interior. X-ray diffraction and focused ion beam (FIB) are employed to characterize the multilayer structure of annealed copper coatings. Formation of volumetric defects such as voids and cracks in the coating is demonstrated.

  6. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, R N; Mohanty, S K; Patnaik, S [Central Rice Research Inst., Cuttack (India)

    1977-12-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using /sup 32/P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil.

  7. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, R.N.; Mohanty, S.K.; Patnaik, S.

    1977-01-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using 32 P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil. (M.G.B.)

  8. Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude cloud and their relation to temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, C. M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Turner, David D.; Lo, Chaomei; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2010-06-03

    Winter cloud phase and temperature profiles derived from ground-based lidar depolarization and radiosonde measurements are analyzed for two midlatitude locations: the United States Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA) in France. Because lidars are attenuated in optically thick clouds, the dataset only includes optically thin clouds (optical thickness < 3). At SGP, 57% of the clouds observed with the lidar in the temperature range 233-273 K are either completely liquid or completely glaciated, while at SIRTA only 42% of the observed clouds are single phase, based on a depolarization ratio threshold of 11% for differentiating liquid from ice. Most optically thin mixed phase clouds show an ice layer at cloud top, and clouds with liquid at cloud top are less frequent. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud base and top. At both sites liquid is more prevalent at colder temperatures than has been found previously in aircraft flights through frontal clouds of greater optical thicknesses. Liquid in clouds persists to colder temperatures at SGP than SIRTA. This information on the average temperatures of mixed phase clouds at both locations complements earlier passive satellite remote sensing measurements that sample cloud phase near cloud top and for a wider range of cloud optical thicknesses.

  9. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullin, Christian; Larsson, Emanuel; Tromba, Giuliana; Markus, Andrea M.; Alves, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron inline phase-contrast computed tomography in combination with single-distance phase retrieval enables quantification of morphological alterations in lungs of mice with mild and severe experimental allergic airways disease in comparison with healthy controls. Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intrinsic high soft-tissue contrast provides the necessary sensitivity and spatial resolution to analyse the mouse lung structure in great detail. Here, this technique has been applied in combination with single-distance phase retrieval to quantify alterations of the lung structure in experimental asthma mouse models of different severity. In order to mimic an in vivo situation as close as possible, the lungs were inflated with air at a constant physiological pressure. Entire mice were embedded in agarose gel and imaged using inline free-propagation phase-contrast CT at the SYRMEP beamline (Synchrotron Light Source, ‘Elettra’, Trieste, Italy). The quantification of the obtained phase-contrast CT data sets revealed an increasing lung soft-tissue content in mice correlating with the degree of the severity of experimental allergic airways disease. In this way, it was possible to successfully discriminate between healthy controls and mice with either mild or severe allergic airway disease. It is believed that this approach may have the potential to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies that target airway remodelling processes in asthma

  10. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullin, Christian, E-mail: christian.dullin@med.uni-goettingen.de [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Larsson, Emanuel [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza (Trieste) 34149 (Italy); University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Tromba, Giuliana [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza (Trieste) 34149 (Italy); Markus, Andrea M. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Alves, Frauke [University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany); Max Planck Institut for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, Goettingen, Lower Saxony 37075 (Germany)

    2015-06-17

    Synchrotron inline phase-contrast computed tomography in combination with single-distance phase retrieval enables quantification of morphological alterations in lungs of mice with mild and severe experimental allergic airways disease in comparison with healthy controls. Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intri