WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative peak intensities

  1. Relating Solar Energetic Particle Event Fluences to Peak Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; Ling, Alan G.

    2018-02-01

    Recently we (Kahler and Ling, Solar Phys. 292, 59, 2017: KL) have shown that time-intensity profiles [I(t)] of 14 large solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be fitted with a simple two-parameter fit, the modified Weibull function, which is characterized by shape and scaling parameters [α and β]. We now look for a simple correlation between an event peak energy intensity [Ip] and the time integral of I(t) over the event duration: the fluence [F]. We first ask how the ratio of F/Ip varies for the fits of the 14 KL events and then examine that ratio for three separate published statistical studies of SEP events in which both F and Ip were measured for comparisons of those parameters with various solar-flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters. The three studies included SEP energies from a 4 - 13 MeV band to E > 100 MeV. Within each group of SEP events, we find a very robust correlation (CC > 0.90) in log-log plots of F versus Ip over four decades of Ip. The ratio increases from western to eastern longitudes. From the value of Ip for a given event, F can be estimated to within a standard deviation of a factor of {≤} 2. Log-log plots of two studies are consistent with slopes of unity, but the third study shows plot slopes of { 10 MeV to {>} 100 MeV. This difference is not explained.

  2. Peak Running Intensity of International Rugby: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Pryor, John F; Stewart, Andrew M; Dascombe, Ben J; Duthie, Grant M

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies. Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from 2 nations across 33 international matches. A moving-average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m/min), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m/s 2 ), and average metabolic power (P met ) for a range of durations (1-10 min). Differences between positions and durations were described using a magnitude-based network. Peak running intensity increased as the length of the moving average decreased. There were likely small to moderate increases in relative distance and AveAcc for outside backs, halfbacks, and loose forwards compared with the tight 5 group across all moving-average durations (effect size [ES] = 0.27-1.00). P met demands were at least likely greater for outside backs and halfbacks than for the tight 5 (ES = 0.86-0.99). Halfbacks demonstrated the greatest relative distance and P met outputs but were similar to outside backs and loose forwards in AveAcc demands. The current study has presented a framework to describe the peak running intensities achieved during international rugby competition by position, which are considerably higher than previously reported whole-period averages. These data provide further knowledge of the peak activity profiles of international rugby competition, and this information can be used to assist coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

  3. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Disha, E-mail: sawant@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: amati@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  4. National surveillance of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection-related admissions to intensive care units during the 2009-10 winter peak in Denmark: two complementary approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubbels, S; Perner, A; Valentiner-Branth, Palle

    2010-01-01

    close contact with a laboratory-confirmed case. Aggregate numbers of cases were reported weekly: during weeks 48-51 (the peak), reporting was daily. The case-based reports contained demographic and clinical information. The aggregate surveillance registered 93 new cases, the case-based surveillance 61......Surveillance of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in Denmark was enhanced during the 2009–10 winter season with a system monitoring the burden of the pandemic on intensive care units (ICUs), in order to inform policymakers and detect shortages in ICUs in a timely manner. Between week 46 of 2009...... and week 11 of 2010, all 36 relevant Danish ICUs reported in two ways: aggregate data were reported online and case-based data on paper. Cases to be reported were defined as patients admitted to an ICU with laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection or clinically suspected illness after...

  5. Focused ultrasound transducer spatial peak intensity estimation: a comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civale, John; Rivens, Ian; Shaw, Adam; ter Haar, Gail

    2018-03-01

    Characterisation of the spatial peak intensity at the focus of high intensity focused ultrasound transducers is difficult because of the risk of damage to hydrophone sensors at the high focal pressures generated. Hill et al (1994 Ultrasound Med. Biol. 20 259-69) provided a simple equation for estimating spatial-peak intensity for solid spherical bowl transducers using measured acoustic power and focal beamwidth. This paper demonstrates theoretically and experimentally that this expression is only strictly valid for spherical bowl transducers without a central (imaging) aperture. A hole in the centre of the transducer results in over-estimation of the peak intensity. Improved strategies for determining focal peak intensity from a measurement of total acoustic power are proposed. Four methods are compared: (i) a solid spherical bowl approximation (after Hill et al 1994 Ultrasound Med. Biol. 20 259-69), (ii) a numerical method derived from theory, (iii) a method using measured sidelobe to focal peak pressure ratio, and (iv) a method for measuring the focal power fraction (FPF) experimentally. Spatial-peak intensities were estimated for 8 transducers at three drive powers levels: low (approximately 1 W), moderate (~10 W) and high (20-70 W). The calculated intensities were compared with those derived from focal peak pressure measurements made using a calibrated hydrophone. The FPF measurement method was found to provide focal peak intensity estimates that agreed most closely (within 15%) with the hydrophone measurements, followed by the pressure ratio method (within 20%). The numerical method was found to consistently over-estimate focal peak intensity (+40% on average), however, for transducers with a central hole it was more accurate than using the solid bowl assumption (+70% over-estimation). In conclusion, the ability to make use of an automated beam plotting system, and a hydrophone with good spatial resolution, greatly facilitates characterisation of the FPF, and

  6. How would peak rainfall intensity affect runoff predictions using conceptual water balance models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models use continuous daily precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for streamflow estimation. With the projected increase in mean surface temperature, hydrological processes are set to intensify irrespective of the underlying changes to the mean precipitation. The effect of an increase in rainfall intensity on the long-term water balance is, however, not adequately accounted for in the commonly used hydrological models. This study follows from a previous comparative analysis of a non-stationary daily series of stream flow of a forested watershed (River Rimbaud in the French Alps (area = 1.478 km2 (1966–2006. Non-stationarity in the recorded stream flow occurred as a result of a severe wild fire in 1990. Two daily models (AWBM and SimHyd were initially calibrated for each of three distinct phases in relation to the well documented land disturbance. At the daily and monthly time scales, both models performed satisfactorily with the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE varying from 0.77 to 0.92. When aggregated to the annual time scale, both models underestimated the flow by about 22% with a reduced NSE at about 0.71. Exploratory data analysis was undertaken to relate daily peak hourly rainfall intensity to the discrepancy between the observed and modelled daily runoff amount. Preliminary results show that the effect of peak hourly rainfall intensity on runoff prediction is insignificant, and model performance is unlikely to improve when peak daily precipitation is included. Trend analysis indicated that the large decrease of precipitation when daily precipitation amount exceeded 10–20 mm may have contributed greatly to the decrease in stream flow of this forested watershed.

  7. Wavelet transform for the evaluation of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Hoogendam, E.

    1992-01-01

    The application of the wavelet transform in the determination of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis was studied with regard to its properties of minimizing the effects of noise and baseline drift. The results indicate that for white noise and a favourable peak shape a signal-to-noise ratio

  8. Wavelett transform for the evaluation of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Hoogendam, E.; Hoogendam, E.

    1992-01-01

    The application of the wavelet transform in the determination of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis was studied with regard to its properties of minimizing the effects of noise and baseline drift. The results indicate that for white noise and a favourable peak shape a signal-to-noise ratio

  9. Sound-Intensity Feedback During Running Reduces Loading Rates and Impact Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jeremiah J; Milner, Clare E

    2017-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, within-session design. Background Gait retraining has been proposed as an effective intervention to reduce impact loading in runners at risk of stress fractures. Interventions that can be easily implemented in the clinic are needed. Objective To assess the immediate effects of sound-intensity feedback related to impact during running on vertical impact peak, peak vertical instantaneous loading rate, and vertical average loading rate. Methods Fourteen healthy, college-aged runners who ran at least 9.7 km/wk participated (4 male, 10 female; mean ± SD age, 23.7 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.67 ± 0.08 m; mass, 60.9 ± 8.7 kg). A decibel meter provided real-time sound-intensity feedback of treadmill running via an iPad application. Participants were asked to reduce the sound intensity of running while receiving continuous feedback for 15 minutes, while running at their self-selected preferred speed. Baseline and follow-up ground reaction force data were collected during overground running at participants' self-selected preferred running speed. Results Dependent t tests indicated a statistically significant reduction in vertical impact peak (1.56 BW to 1.13 BW, P≤.001), vertical instantaneous loading rate (95.48 BW/s to 62.79 BW/s, P = .001), and vertical average loading rate (69.09 BW/s to 43.91 BW/s, P≤.001) after gait retraining, compared to baseline. Conclusion The results of the current study support the use of sound-intensity feedback during treadmill running to immediately reduce loading rate and impact force. The transfer of within-session reductions in impact peak and loading rates to overground running was demonstrated. Decreases in loading were of comparable magnitude to those observed in other gait retraining methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(8):565-569. Epub 6 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7275.

  10. Enhancement of peak intensity in a filament core with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Bin; Chu Wei; Li Guihua; Zhang Haisu; Ni Jielei [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Gao Hui; Liu Weiwei [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Photonics and Laser (COPL) and Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    We demonstrate that the peak intensity in the filament core, which is inherently limited by the intensity clamping effect during femtosecond laser filamentation, can be significantly enhanced using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses. In addition, the filament length obtained by spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses is {approx}25 times shorter than that obtained by a conventional focusing scheme, resulting in improved high spatial resolution.

  11. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    ;Pure shift; NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording.

  12. Regression analysis of MCS Intensity and peak ground motion data in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, L.; Michelini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Intensity scales are historically important because no instrumentation is necessary, and useful measurements of earthquake shaking can be made by an unequipped observer. The use of macroseismics data are essential for the revision of historical seismicity and of great importance for seismic hazard assessment of vulnerable areas. The procedure ShakeMap (Wald et al., Earthquake Spectra., 15, 1999) provides instrumentally based estimates of intensity maps. In Italy, intensities have been hitherto reported through the use of the MCS (Mercalli, Cancani Sieberg) intensity scale. The DBMI2004 (and the most recent DBMI08) report intensities for earthquakes in Italy that date back to Roman age. In order to exploit fully the potential of such a long intensity catalogue for past large events and with the aim of presenting ShakeMaps using an intensity scale consistent with that of the past, we have ri-calibrated the relationships between MCS intensity and observed peak ground motion (PGM) values in terms of both peak-ground acceleration and peak-ground velocities. To this end, we have used the two most updataed and complete dataset available for Italy - the strong motion Itaca database and the DBMI08 macroseismic database. In this work we have first assembled a data set consisting of PGM-intensity pairs and we have then determined the most suitable regressions parameters. Many tests have been made to quantify the accuracy and robustness of the results. The new instrumental intensity scale is going to be adopted for mapping the level of shaking resulting from earthquakes in Italy replacing the instrumental Modified Mercalli scale currently in use (Michelini et al., SRL, 79, 2008) and to determine shakemaps for historical events.

  13. Bragg peak and relative biological efficiency of different ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček st., Miloš; Judas, Libor; Kundrát, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. 1 (2002), S309-S309 ISSN 0167-8140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK4055109 Keywords : Bragg peak * relative biological efficisncy * radiological mechanism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2002

  14. Quantification of Protein Biomarker Using SERS Nano-Stress Sensing with Peak Intensity Ratiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Douglas; Kong, Kien Voon; Jayakumar, Perumal; Gong, Tianxun; Dinish, U. S.; Olivo, Malini

    We report a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) ratiometry method based on peak intensity coupled in a nano-stress sensing platform to detect and quantify biological molecules. Herein, we employed an antibody-conjugated p-aminothiophenol (ATP) functionalized on a bimetallic-film-over-nanosphere (BMFON) substrate as a sensitive SERS platform to detect human haptoglobin (Hp) protein, which is an acute phase protein and a biomarker for various cancers. Correlation between change in the ATP spectral characteristics and concentration of Hp protein was established by examining the peak intensity ratio at 1572cm-1 and 1592cm-1 that reflects the degree of stress experienced by the aromatic ring of ATP during Hp protein-antibody interaction. Development of this platform shows the potential in developing a low-cost and sensitive SERS sensor for the pre-screening of various biomarkers.

  15. Relationship between SEP Peak intensity and CME Acceleration, Speed and Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; St Cyr, O. C.; Makela, P. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2017-12-01

    We study the large solar energetic particle (SEP) events that were detected by GOES in the >10 MeV energy channel during December 2006 to January 2016. Data used in this study includes the Solar Electron Proton Telescope (SEPT) and High Energy Telescopes (HET) on STEREO A and B, the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on ACE, and the Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron instrument (ERNE) on SOHO. By choosing the smallest connection angles between SEP solar locations and magnetic foot-points of each spacecraft, we divide SEP events as SOHO SEPs or STEREO SEPs. We then compute the SEP peak intensity I0 at the center of the Gausssian using the Gausssian expression from Richardson et al. (2014) and study the relationship between SEP electron and proton peak intensity and CME acceleration, speed and width. By using I0 derived from multi-spacecraft observations we found that the correlations between SEP peak intensity and CME acceleration and speed improved. We also found that this correlation can be further improved by taking into account the effects of CME width and its solar source latitude. The implication for the SEP forecast of our obtained results will be discussed.

  16. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  17. Derivation from first principles of the statistical distribution of the mass peak intensities of MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, Andreas

    2015-02-03

    Despite the widespread use of mass spectrometry (MS) in a broad range of disciplines, the nature of MS data remains very poorly understood, and this places important constraints on the quality of MS data analysis as well as on the effectiveness of MS instrument design. In the following, a procedure for calculating the statistical distribution of the mass peak intensity for MS instruments that use analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and electron multipliers is presented. It is demonstrated that the physical processes underlying the data-generation process, from the generation of the ions to the signal induced at the detector, and on to the digitization of the resulting voltage pulse, result in data that can be well-approximated by a Gaussian distribution whose mean and variance are determined by physically meaningful instrumental parameters. This allows for a very precise understanding of the signal-to-noise ratio of mass peak intensities and suggests novel ways of improving it. Moreover, it is a prerequisite for being able to address virtually all data analytical problems in downstream analyses in a statistically rigorous manner. The model is validated with experimental data.

  18. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches. PMID:26212024

  19. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

  20. Photodissociation of H2+ by intense chirped pulses - beyond the effect of pulse duration and peak power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, U; Prabhudesai, V; Natan, A; Bruner, B; Diner, A; Heber, O; Strasser, D; Schwalm, D; Silberberg, Y; Zajfman, D; Ben-Itzhak, I; Hua, J J; Esry, B D

    2009-01-01

    H 2 + photodissociation, induced by intense short laser pulses, was measured by a full 3D imaging system. We have conducted a series of experiments, in which we systematically changed the linear chirp, using a pulse shaper, and observed the kinetic energy release spectra(KER). Distinct differences in the KER spectra are observed both in peak positions and angular distribution for laser pulses with similar duration and intensity but opposite chirp sign.

  1. Photodissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +} by intense chirped pulses - beyond the effect of pulse duration and peak power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lev, U; Prabhudesai, V; Natan, A; Bruner, B; Diner, A; Heber, O; Strasser, D; Schwalm, D; Silberberg, Y; Zajfman, D [Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Ben-Itzhak, I; Hua, J J; Esry, B D, E-mail: uri.lev@Weizmann.ac.i [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    H{sub 2}{sup +} photodissociation, induced by intense short laser pulses, was measured by a full 3D imaging system. We have conducted a series of experiments, in which we systematically changed the linear chirp, using a pulse shaper, and observed the kinetic energy release spectra(KER). Distinct differences in the KER spectra are observed both in peak positions and angular distribution for laser pulses with similar duration and intensity but opposite chirp sign.

  2. Dispersion relation and relative intensity for double-plasmon satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.S.; Shiv Singh; Harsh, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dispersion relation and the relative intensity of double-plasmon oscillations and satellites has been derived by extending the dispersion relation and the extended Bohm and Pines Hamiltonian to second order. The calculated value of the relative intensity of the double-plasmon satellite for Be agrees fairly well with the value observed experimentally by other workers. (orig.)

  3. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can detect, generally a few tens of hertz. Audi- ... paper, audible thunder signals have been obtained and analysed. Thunder ... thunder data when the optical spectrum of light- ning could .... finally a relatively weak sound of long duration and.

  4. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Aran, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  5. Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles in Three-dimensional Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: Radial Dependence of Peak Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.-Q.; Zhou, G.; Wan, W.

    2017-06-01

    A functional form {I}\\max (R)={{kR}}-α , where R is the radial distance of a spacecraft, was usually used to model the radial dependence of peak intensities {I}\\max (R) of solar energetic particles (SEPs). In this work, the five-dimensional Fokker-Planck transport equation incorporating perpendicular diffusion is numerically solved to investigate the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. We consider two different scenarios for the distribution of a spacecraft fleet: (1) along the radial direction line and (2) along the Parker magnetic field line. We find that the index α in the above expression varies in a wide range, primarily depending on the properties (e.g., location and coverage) of SEP sources and on the longitudinal and latitudinal separations between the sources and the magnetic foot points of the observers. Particularly, whether the magnetic foot point of the observer is located inside or outside the SEP source is a crucial factor determining the values of index α. A two-phase phenomenon is found in the radial dependence of peak intensities. The “position” of the break point (transition point/critical point) is determined by the magnetic connection status of the observers. This finding suggests that a very careful examination of the magnetic connection between the SEP source and each spacecraft should be taken in the observational studies. We obtain a lower limit of {R}-1.7+/- 0.1 for empirically modeling the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. Our findings in this work can be used to explain the majority of the previous multispacecraft survey results, and especially to reconcile the different or conflicting empirical values of the index α in the literature.

  6. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ – (φ – φ 0 ) 2 /2σ 2 ], where φ is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, φ 0 is the distribution centroid, and σ determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R –α with α 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  7. Interpretation of the peak areas in gamma-ray spectra that have a large relative uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.; Maver Modec, P.; Vodenik, B.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence is provided that the areas of peaks having a relative uncertainty in excess of 30% are overestimated. This systematic influence is of a statistical nature and originates in way the peak-analyzing routine recognizes the small peaks. It is not easy to detect this influence since it is smaller than the peak-area uncertainty. However, the systematic influence can be revealed in repeated measurements under the same experimental conditions, e.g., in background measurements. To evaluate the systematic influence, background measurements were analyzed with the peak-analyzing procedure described by Korun et al. (2008). The magnitude of the influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the peak area and may amount, in the conditions used in the peak analysis, to a factor of 5 at relative uncertainties exceeding 60%. From the measurements, the probability for type-II errors, as a function of the relative uncertainty of the peak area, was extracted. This probability is near zero below an uncertainty of 30% and rises to 90% at uncertainties exceeding 50%. - Highlights: ► A systematic influence affecting small peak areas in gamma-ray spectra is described. ► The influence originates in the peak locating procedure, using a pre-determined sensitivity. ► The predetermined sensitivity makes peak areas with large uncertainties to be overestimated. ► The influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the number of counts in the peak. ► Corrections exceeding a factor of 3 are attained at peak area uncertainties exceeding 60%.

  8. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.

    1968-01-01

    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose

  9. Binomial probability distribution model-based protein identification algorithm for tandem mass spectrometry utilizing peak intensity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chuan-Le; Chen, Xiao-Zhou; Du, Yang-Li; Sun, Xuesong; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-04

    Mass spectrometry has become one of the most important technologies in proteomic analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a major tool for the analysis of peptide mixtures from protein samples. The key step of MS data processing is the identification of peptides from experimental spectra by searching public sequence databases. Although a number of algorithms to identify peptides from MS/MS data have been already proposed, e.g. Sequest, OMSSA, X!Tandem, Mascot, etc., they are mainly based on statistical models considering only peak-matches between experimental and theoretical spectra, but not peak intensity information. Moreover, different algorithms gave different results from the same MS data, implying their probable incompleteness and questionable reproducibility. We developed a novel peptide identification algorithm, ProVerB, based on a binomial probability distribution model of protein tandem mass spectrometry combined with a new scoring function, making full use of peak intensity information and, thus, enhancing the ability of identification. Compared with Mascot, Sequest, and SQID, ProVerB identified significantly more peptides from LC-MS/MS data sets than the current algorithms at 1% False Discovery Rate (FDR) and provided more confident peptide identifications. ProVerB is also compatible with various platforms and experimental data sets, showing its robustness and versatility. The open-source program ProVerB is available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/software/proverb/ .

  10. Low-intensity training increases peak arm VO2 by enhancing both convective and diffusive O2 delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Ara, I; Gnaiger, E

    2014-01-01

    in prolonged low-intensity training of a small muscle group when the cardiac output capacity is not directly limiting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of circulatory and muscle metabolic mechanisms by which prolonged low-intensity exercise training alters regional muscle VO2 ....

  11. Effect of high-intensity training versus moderate training on peak oxygen uptake and chronotropic response in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, C H; Snoer, M; Christensen, S

    2014-01-01

    In heart transplant (HTx) recipients, there has been reluctance to recommend high-intensity interval training (HIIT) due to denervation and chronotropic impairment of the heart. We compared the effects of 12 weeks' HIIT versus continued moderate exercise (CON) on exercise capacity and chronotropic...... response in stable HTx recipients >12 months after transplantation in a randomized crossover trial. The study was completed by 16 HTx recipients (mean age 52 years, 75% males). Baseline peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) was 22.9 mL/kg/min. HIIT increased VO2peak by 4.9 ± 2.7 mL/min/kg (17%) and CON by 2.6 ± 2.......2 mL/kg/min (10%) (significantly higher in HIIT; p HIIT, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p = 0.037) with no significant change in CON (p = 0.241; between group difference p = 0.027). Peak heart rate (HRpeak ) increased significantly by 4.3 beats per minute (p = 0...

  12. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  13. Soliton-induced nonlocal resonances observed through high-intensity tunable spectrally compressed second-harmonic peaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data of femtosecond thick-crystal second-harmonic generation show that when tuning away from phase matching, a dominating narrow spectral peak appears in the second harmonic that can be tuned over hundreds of nanometers by changing the phase-mismatch parameter. Traditional theory...... and the nonlocal theory indirectly proves that we have observed a soliton-induced nonlocal resonance. The soliton exists in the self-defocusing regime of the cascaded nonlinear interaction and in the normal dispersion regime of the crystal, and needs high input intensities to become excited....

  14. Estimated Prestroke Peak VO2 Is Related to Circulating IGF-1 Levels During Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattlage, Anna E; Rippee, Michael A; Abraham, Michael G; Sandt, Janice; Billinger, Sandra A

    2017-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective after stroke and is regulated by insulin-like binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In healthy individuals, exercise and improved aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake; peak VO 2 ) increases IGF-1 in circulation. Understanding the relationship between estimated prestroke aerobic fitness and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 after stroke may provide insight into the benefits of exercise and aerobic fitness on stroke recovery. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 to estimated prestroke peak VO 2 in individuals with acute stroke. We hypothesized that (1) estimated prestroke peak VO 2 would be related to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and (2) individuals with higher than median IGF-1 levels will have higher estimated prestroke peak VO 2 compared to those with lower than median levels. Methods Fifteen individuals with acute stroke had blood sampled within 72 hours of hospital admission. Prestroke peak VO 2 was estimated using a nonexercise prediction equation. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results Estimated prestroke peak VO 2 was significantly related to circulating IGF-1 levels (r = .60; P = .02) but not IGFBP-3. Individuals with higher than median IGF-1 (117.9 ng/mL) had significantly better estimated aerobic fitness (32.4 ± 6.9 mL kg -1 min -1 ) than those with lower than median IGF-1 (20.7 ± 7.8 mL kg -1 min -1 ; P = .03). Conclusions Improving aerobic fitness prior to stroke may be beneficial by increasing baseline IGF-1 levels. These results set the groundwork for future clinical trials to determine whether high IGF-1 and aerobic fitness are beneficial to stroke recovery by providing neuroprotection and improving function. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20–25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  16. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20-25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  17. Prediction of SEP Peak Proton Intensity Based on CME Speed, Direction and Observations of Associated Solar Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Mays, M. L.; Thompson, B. J.; Kwon, R.; Frechette, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    We assess whether a formula obtained by Richardson et al. (Solar Phys., 289, 3059, 2014; DOI 10.1007/s11207-014-0524-8) relating the intensity of 14-24 MeV protons in a solar energetic particle event at 1 AU to the solar event location and the speed of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME), may be used to "predict" the intensity of a solar energetic particle event. Starting with a subset of several hundred CMEs in the CCMC/SWRC DONKI real-time database (http://kauai.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/DONKI/) selected without consideration of whether they were associated with SEP events, we first use the CME speed and direction to predict the proton intensity at Earth or the STEREO spacecraft using this formula. Since most of these CMEs were not in fact associated with SEP events, many "false alarms" result. We then examine whether considering other phenomena which may accompany the CMEs, such as the X-ray flare intensity and the properties of type II and type III radio emissions, may help to reduce the false alarm rate. We also use CME parameters calculated from an ellipsoidal shell fit to multi-spacecraft CME shock observations for a smaller number of events to predict the SEP intensity. We calculate skill scores for each case and assess whether the Richardson et al. (2014) formula, using additional observations to reduce the false alarm rate, has any potential as a SEP prediction tool, assuming that the required observations could be acquired sufficiently rapidly following the onset of the related solar event/CME.

  18. Sex Comparisons for Relative Peak Torque and Electromyographic Mean Frequency during Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S.; Beck, Travis W.; DeFreitas, Jason M.; Ye, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the relative peak torque and normalized electromyographic (EMG) mean frequency (MNF) responses during fatiguing isokinetic muscle actions for men versus women. Method: Twenty men M[subscript age] ± SD = 22 ± 2 years) and 20 women M[subscript age] ± SD = 22 ± 1 years) performed 50 maximal concentric isokinetic muscle…

  19. A one-parametric formula relating the frequencies of twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Gabriel; Goluchová, Kateřina; Šrámková, Eva; Horák, Jiří; Bakala, Pavel; Urbanec, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Timing analysis of X-ray flux in more than a dozen low-mass X-ray binary systems containing a neutron star reveals remarkable correlations between frequencies of two characteristic peaks present in the power-density spectra. We find a simple analytic relation that well reproduces all these individual correlations. We link this relation to a physical model which involves accretion rate modulation caused by an oscillating torus.

  20. Relation between Peak Power Output in Sprint Cycling and Maximum Voluntary Isometric Torque Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Mehdi; Goodall, Stuart; Barratt, Paul; Rowley, Nicola; Leeder, Jonathan; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-08-01

    From a cycling paradigm, little has been done to understand the relationships between maximal isometric strength of different single joint lower body muscle groups and their relation with, and ability to predict PPO and how they compare to an isometric cycling specific task. The aim of this study was to establish relationships between maximal voluntary torque production from isometric single-joint and cycling specific tasks and assess their ability to predict PPO. Twenty male trained cyclists participated in this study. Peak torque was measured by performing maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsi flexors and hip extensors whilst instrumented cranks measured isometric peak torque from MVC when participants were in their cycling specific position (ISOCYC). A stepwise regression showed that peak torque of the knee extensors was the only significant predictor of PPO when using SJD and accounted for 47% of the variance. However, when compared to ISOCYC, the only significant predictor of PPO was ISOCYC, which accounted for 77% of the variance. This suggests that peak torque of the knee extensors was the best single-joint predictor of PPO in sprint cycling. Furthermore, a stronger prediction can be made from a task specific isometric task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On one-parametric formula relating the frequencies of twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Gabriel; Goluchová, Kateřina; Šrámková, Eva; Horák, Jiří; Bakala, Pavel; Urbanec, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are observed in several low-mass X-ray binary systems containing neutron stars. Timing the analysis of X-ray fluxes of more than dozen of such systems reveals remarkable correlations between the frequencies of two characteristic peaks present in the power density spectra. The individual correlations clearly differ, but they roughly follow a common individual pattern. High values of measured QPO frequencies and strong modulation of the X-ray flux both suggest that the observed correlations are connected to orbital motion in the innermost part of an accretion disc. Several attempts to model these correlations with simple geodesic orbital models or phenomenological relations have failed in the past. We find and explore a surprisingly simple analytic relation that reproduces individual correlations for a group of several sources through a single parameter. When an additional free parameter is considered within our relation, it well reproduces the data of a large group of 14 sources. The very existence and form of this simple relation support the hypothesis of the orbital origin of QPOs and provide the key for further development of QPO models. We discuss a possible physical interpretation of our relation's parameters and their links to concrete QPO models.

  2. Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.

    2012-12-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.

  3. Climate change is projected to have severe impacts on the frequency and intensity of peak electricity demand across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Baylis, Patrick; Hausman, Catherine H

    2017-02-21

    It has been suggested that climate change impacts on the electric sector will account for the majority of global economic damages by the end of the current century and beyond [Rose S, et al. (2014) Understanding the Social Cost of Carbon: A Technical Assessment ]. The empirical literature has shown significant increases in climate-driven impacts on overall consumption, yet has not focused on the cost implications of the increased intensity and frequency of extreme events driving peak demand, which is the highest load observed in a period. We use comprehensive, high-frequency data at the level of load balancing authorities to parameterize the relationship between average or peak electricity demand and temperature for a major economy. Using statistical models, we analyze multiyear data from 166 load balancing authorities in the United States. We couple the estimated temperature response functions for total daily consumption and daily peak load with 18 downscaled global climate models (GCMs) to simulate climate change-driven impacts on both outcomes. We show moderate and heterogeneous changes in consumption, with an average increase of 2.8% by end of century. The results of our peak load simulations, however, suggest significant increases in the intensity and frequency of peak events throughout the United States, assuming today's technology and electricity market fundamentals. As the electricity grid is built to endure maximum load, our findings have significant implications for the construction of costly peak generating capacity, suggesting additional peak capacity costs of up to 180 billion dollars by the end of the century under business-as-usual.

  4. Price-related sensitivities of greenhouse gas intensity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Benito; Muller-Furstenberger, Georg

    2003-12-01

    Greenhouse gas intensities are an appealing tool to foster abatement without imposing constraints on economic growth. This paper shows, however, that the computation of intensities is subject to some significant statistical and conceptual problems which relate to the inflation proofing of GDP growth. It is shown that the choice of price-index, the updating of quantity weights and the choice of base year prices can have a significant impact upon the commitment of intensity targets

  5. Relative role of bed roughness change and bed erosion on peak discharge increase in hyperconcentrated floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, W.; Wang, Z.B.; Van Maren, D.S.; De Vriend, H.J.; Wu, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    River floods are usually featured by a downstream flattening discharge peak whereas a downstream increasing discharge peak is observed at a rate exceeding the tributary discharge during highly silt-laden floods (hyperconcentrated floods) in China’s Yellow River. It entails a great challenge in the

  6. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  7. Cluster-assisted multiple ionization of methyl iodide by a nanosecond laser: Influence of laser intensity on the kinetic energy and peak profile of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lihua; Li Haiyang; Luo Xiaolin; Niu Dongmei; Xiao Xue; Wang Bin; Liang Feng; Hou Keyong; Shao Shiyong

    2006-01-01

    The dependences of kinetic energies and peak profiles of multicharged ions of I q+ (q = 2-3) and C 2+ on the laser intensity have been studied in detail by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, those multicharged ions are produced by irradiation of methyl iodide cluster beam with a nanosecond 532 nm Nd-YAG laser. Our experiments show that the kinetic energies released of multicharged ions increase linearly with the laser intensity in the range of 3 x 10 9 -2 x 10 11 W/cm 2 . The peaks of multicharged ions are split to forward ions and backward ions, and the ratio of the backward ions to forward ions decreases exponentially with laser intensity. The decreasing of backward ions is probably due to Coulomb scattering by the heavier I + ions when they turn around through the laser focus point. The linear dependence of kinetic energy of multicharged ions on laser intensity is interpreted by the ionization mechanism, in which the laser induced inverse bremsstrahlung heating of electron is the rate-limiting step

  8. He atom scattering from ZnO surfaces: calculation of diffraction peak intensities using the close-coupling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez-Casado, R [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Meyer, B [Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Molekulare Materialien ICMM and Computer-Chemie-Centrum CCC, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Naegelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Traeger, F [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Woell, Ch, E-mail: r.martinezcasado@imperial.ac.u [Institut fuer Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-08-04

    Diffraction intensities of a molecular He beam scattered off the clean and water-covered ZnO(101-bar0) surface have been simulated using a new potential model in conjunction with the close-coupling formalism. The effective corrugation functions for the systems He-ZnO(101-bar0) and He-H{sub 2}O/ZnO(101-bar0) have been obtained from density functional theory calculations within the Esbjerg-Noerskov approximation. Using these data a potential model is constructed consisting of a corrugated Morse potential at small He-surface distances and a semiempiric attractive part at larger distances. The diffraction patterns obtained from close-coupling calculations agree with the experimental data within about 10%, which opens the possibility to simulate He diffraction from surfaces of any structural complexity and to verify surface and adsorbate structures proposed theoretically by employing this kind of analysis.

  9. Views on peak oil and its relation to climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Al Marchohi, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Definitions of fossil fuel reserves and resources and assessed stock data are reviewed and clarified. Semantics explain a large stake of conflict between advocate and critical voices on peak oil. From a holistic sources-sinks perspective, limited carrying capacity of atmospheric sinks, not absolute scarcity in oil resources, will impose tight constraints on oil use. Eventually observed peaks in oil production in nearby years will result from politically imposed limits on carbon emissions, and not be caused by physical lack of oil resources. Peak-oil belief induces passive climate policy attitudes when suggesting carbon dioxide emissions will peak naturally linked to dwindling oil supplies. Active policies for reducing emissions and use of fossil fuels will also encompass higher energy end-use prices. Revenues obtained from higher levies on oil use can support financing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. But when oil producers charge the higher prices they can pump new oil for many decades, postponing peak oil to occur while extending carbon lock-in.

  10. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (Circuit HIIT ) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuit combined ) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either Circuit HIIT ( n = 11), or Circuit combined ( n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent ( p body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, Circuit HIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuit combined results in better perception of general health.

  11. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of peaks of high temperature in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the applications of ion beams in radiotherapy treatments has generated interest in the study of the thermoluminescent materials (TL) that allow to determine the applied doses. A way to quantify the TL response from these materials to ions is by means of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency. In the group of Thermoluminescent dosimetry of the Institute of Physics of the UNAM (IFUNAM) the thermoluminescent response of the TLD-100 dosemeters has been studied, which present a glow curve characteristic with several peaks that correspond to traps and luminescent centers in the material. The stable peaks know each other as 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The efficiencies should be measured using the response so much to the radiation of interest (in this case protons and helium ions) as the response to gamma radiation. In previous works with ions of low energy taken place in the Pelletron accelerator of the IFUNAM was only measured the TL efficiency for the peak 5 and the total signal. It had not been possible to measure the efficiency of the peaks of high temperature (6a-10) because, for the gamma radiation, the peaks of high temperature show very small signals; however, recently Massillon carries out measures of efficiency TL of peaks of high temperature for ions of intermediate energy using a protocol special of reading and of deconvolution that allows to measure the signals coming from the peaks of high temperature. In this work is implemented this same protocol to complete the study of TL efficiencies at low energy of protons and helium and to determine if the values of efficiency depend on the used reading protocol. For it is reported it measures of the relative efficiency of the peaks of high temperature from the TLD-100 exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and nuclei of helium of 3 and 7.5 MeV. (Author)

  12. Fatigue in Intensive Care Nurses and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sevim; Taşdemir, Nurten; Kurt, Aylin; İlgezdi, Ebru; Kubalas, Özge

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue negatively affects the performance of intensive care nurses. Factors contributing to the fatigue experienced by nurses include lifestyle, psychological status, work organization and sleep problems. To determine the level of fatigue among nurses working in intensive care units and the related factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 102 nurses working in intensive care units in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey. Data were collected between February and May 2014 using a personal information form, the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. The intensive care nurses in the study were found to be experiencing fatigue. Significant correlations were observed between scores on the VAS-F Fatigue and anxiety (p=0.01), depression (p=0.002), and sleep quality (pnurses' levels of fatigue. These results can be of benefit in taking measures which may be used to reduce fatigue in nurses, especially the fatigue related to work organization and social life.

  13. Hydrogen related peaks in Cu-LaNi4.7Al0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuscueta, D.J.; Salva, H.R.; Ghilarducci, A.A.; Ruiz, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effect of Ni substitution by Cu in the LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 hydride-forming alloy was studied in order to apply it to the negative electrodes of Ni-MH batteries. SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to analyze the microstructure, composition and crystalline structure of the samples. A maximum electrochemical discharge capacity of 130 mAh/g was obtained. Internal friction (IF) and shear modulus (G) were measured by means of low frequency mechanical spectroscopy, between 100 and 450 K. In the electrochemical activated sample, two main IF peaks and typical relaxation steps in G showed up at 200 and 280 K. The first is ascribed to interactions between hydrides and H atoms in solid solution and dislocations, while the last one is attributed to the β ↔ α hydride phase transformation.

  14. High intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate production, time trial and competition performance in 9-11 year old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Helleman, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, H. C.; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Open Access - This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present s...

  15. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of high temperature peaks in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.; Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M.; Massillon, J.L.G.; Buenfil A, E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa De Buen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of those high temperature peaks of TLD-100 dosemeters exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and to helium nuclei of 3 and 7.5 MeV. A rigorous reading and of deconvolution protocol was used for the calculation of the TL efficiencies. Additionally an Excel program that facilitated the deconvolution adjustment process of the glow curves was elaborated. (Author)

  16. Urinary catheter related nosocomial infections in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. The objective was to determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms responsible for urinary catheter related infections (UCRI. Colonization and/or bacteriuria was labelled as urinary catheter related infection (UCRI. Forty-four patients with 51 urinary catheters were studied. Incidence of UCRI was 47.06%. Age, female sex and immunocompromised status did not increase the risk of UCRI. Duration of catheter in-situ and duration of stay in the PICU were associated with higher risk of UCRI. The mortality was not increased by UCRI. Commonest organism isolated in UCRI was E. coli, which had maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin.

  17. Relation between peak period of microtremor spectral ratio (horizontal and vertical components) and basement depth; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi no peak to kiso shindo tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Mizutani, K; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The peak period of the horizontal/vertical spectral ratio of microtremors was referred to the underground structure for the purpose of finding out if it was possible to estimate the ground structure by use of the peak period of the spectral ratio. The observation was carried in the areas of Morioka City and Hachinohe City using seismographs for measuring east-west, north-south, and up-down motions. As for the relationship between the peak period of the spectral ratio distribution involving 490 observation sites and the known gravity anomalies in the Morioka City area, it was found that the peak period of the spectral ratio tended to be shorter from west toward east while the gravity anomalies were greater from west toward east. Again, as for the relations with the underground geology, the period was longer when the distance to the granite basement was greater, and shorter when smaller. In the Hachinohe City area, relations not only of the first period peak but also of the second period peak to the basement were disclosed, which indicates the possibility that the peak period of the spectral ratio will be used as a means for estimating the basement structure. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, reduces post-peak age-related regression of rooster reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad Abdulgabbar; Zhandi, Mahdi; Towhidi, Armin; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Ansari, Mahdi; Najafi, Mojtaba; Deldar, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate orally administrated Letrozole (Lz) on reproductive performance, plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations and relative abundance of mRNA of GnRH, FSH and LH in roosters. Ross 308 roosters (n=32) that were 40-weeks of age were individually housed and received a basal standard diet supplemented different amounts of capsulated Lz [0 (Lz-0), 0.5 (Lz-0.5), 1 (Lz-1) or 1.5 (Lz-1.5), mg Lz/bird/day] for 12 weeks. Sperm quality variables and plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations were assessed from the first to the tenth week of the treatment period. Semen samples from the 11th to 12th week were used for artificial insemination and eggs were collected and allotted to assess fertility and hatchability rates. Relative abundance of hypothalamic and pituitary GnRH, LH and FSH mRNA was evaluated at the end of 12th week. The results indicated that total and forward sperm motility as well as egg hatchability rate were greater in the Lz-0.5 group. Greater sperm concentrations, ejaculate volume, sperm plasma membrane integrity, testis index and fertility rates were recorded for both Lz-0.5 and Lz-1 groups compared with the Lz-0 group (Proosters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL MI for a Mixed Fill Pattern: Dependence on Peak SEY and Pulse Intensity During the Ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density n e in three regions of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) for a beam fill pattern made up of 5 double booster batches followed by a 6th single batch. We vary the pulse intensity in the range N t = (2-5) x 10 13 , and the beam kinetic energy in the range E k = 8-120 GeV. We assume a secondary electron emission model qualitatively corresponding to TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta) max vary as a free parameter in a fairly broad range. Our main conclusions are: (1) At fixed N t there is a clear threshold behavior of n e as a function of (delta) max in the range ∼ 1.1-1.3. (2) At fixed (delta) max , there is a threshold behavior of n e as a function of N t provided (delta) max is sufficiently high; the threshold value of N t is a function of the characteristics of the region being simulated. (3) The dependence on E k is weak except possibly at transition energy. Most of these results were informally presented to the relevant MI personnel in April 2010.

  20. Ecloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL MI for a Mixed Fill Pattern: Dependence on Peak SEY and Pulse Intensity During the Ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-11

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density n{sub e} in three regions of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) for a beam fill pattern made up of 5 double booster batches followed by a 6th single batch. We vary the pulse intensity in the range N{sub t} = (2-5) x 10{sup 13}, and the beam kinetic energy in the range E{sub k} = 8-120 GeV. We assume a secondary electron emission model qualitatively corresponding to TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max} vary as a free parameter in a fairly broad range. Our main conclusions are: (1) At fixed N{sub t} there is a clear threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of {delta}{sub max} in the range {approx} 1.1-1.3. (2) At fixed {delta}{sub max}, there is a threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of N{sub t} provided {delta}{sub max} is sufficiently high; the threshold value of N{sub t} is a function of the characteristics of the region being simulated. (3) The dependence on E{sub k} is weak except possibly at transition energy. Most of these results were informally presented to the relevant MI personnel in April 2010.

  1. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Supplement 26 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several licensing issues that relate to Unit 1, which have been resolved since Supplement 25 was issued

  2. Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Gomez, A., E-mail: aherrera@qro.cinvestav.mx [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); Mani-Gonzalez, P.G.; Vazquez-Lepe, M.; Sanchez-Martinez, A.; Ceballos-Sanchez, O. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Wallace, R.M. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Conti, G.; Uritsky, Y. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Instrument geometrical-factors affecting the XPS angular dependence are described. {yields} The geometrical factors in XPS instruments are transferable to other systems. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of analysis area and volume. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of the X-ray beam spot. {yields} Practical protocols are described for assessing the manipulator's axis of rotation. - Abstract: The angular dependence of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) signal is influenced not only by the electron take-off angle, but also by instrument-related geometrical factors. The XPS signal is, in fact, integrated over the overlap between the X-ray beam, the spectrometer analysis volume, and the sample surface. This overlap depends on the size and shape of the spectrometer analysis volume and X-ray beam, as well as on their relative orientation. In this paper it is described the models and protocols for the characterization of the parameters defining the geometry of an XPS instrument. The protocols include practical methods for assessing the spectrometer analysis area and the X-ray beam spot dimension. Simple systems consisting of flat and 'thick' gold films on silicon wafers were employed. The parameters found with those samples are transferable to other more complex systems since they are geometrical in nature. The method allows for the prediction of the actual intensity of XPS peaks, hence removing the need of normalizing the peak areas to the area of a determined substrate peak. The associated reduction of the uncertainty in half is of special importance since the quantitative analysis of angle-resolved XPS data could be very sensitive to noise. Two rotating and one non-rotating XPS instruments are described. Some examples of the applications of the method are also provided.

  3. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document supplement 25 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, and 24 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several Unit 1 licensing items resolved since Supplement 24 was issued

  4. Mean Velocity vs. Mean Propulsive Velocity vs. Peak Velocity: Which Variable Determines Bench Press Relative Load With Higher Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco L; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Rojas, Francisco J; Gregory Haff, G

    2018-05-01

    García-Ramos, A, Pestaña-Melero, FL, Pérez-Castilla, A, Rojas, FJ, and Haff, GG. Mean velocity vs. mean propulsive velocity vs. peak velocity: which variable determines bench press relative load with higher reliability? J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1273-1279, 2018-This study aimed to compare between 3 velocity variables (mean velocity [MV], mean propulsive velocity [MPV], and peak velocity [PV]): (a) the linearity of the load-velocity relationship, (b) the accuracy of general regression equations to predict relative load (%1RM), and (c) the between-session reliability of the velocity attained at each percentage of the 1-repetition maximum (%1RM). The full load-velocity relationship of 30 men was evaluated by means of linear regression models in the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press throw (BPT) variants performed with a Smith machine. The 2 sessions of each BPT variant were performed within the same week separated by 48-72 hours. The main findings were as follows: (a) the MV showed the strongest linearity of the load-velocity relationship (median r = 0.989 for concentric-only BPT and 0.993 for eccentric-concentric BPT), followed by MPV (median r = 0.983 for concentric-only BPT and 0.980 for eccentric-concentric BPT), and finally PV (median r = 0.974 for concentric-only BPT and 0.969 for eccentric-concentric BPT); (b) the accuracy of the general regression equations to predict relative load (%1RM) from movement velocity was higher for MV (SEE = 3.80-4.76%1RM) than for MPV (SEE = 4.91-5.56%1RM) and PV (SEE = 5.36-5.77%1RM); and (c) the PV showed the lowest within-subjects coefficient of variation (3.50%-3.87%), followed by MV (4.05%-4.93%), and finally MPV (5.11%-6.03%). Taken together, these results suggest that the MV could be the most appropriate variable for monitoring the relative load (%1RM) in the BPT exercise performed in a Smith machine.

  5. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...

  6. Relative Contribution of Odour Intensity and Valence to Moral Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Parma, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analytic evidence showed that the chemical senses affect moral decisions. However, how odours impact on morality is currently unclear. Through a set of three studies, we assess whether and how odour intensity biases moral choices (Study 1a), its psychophysiological responses (Study 1b), as well as the behavioural and psychophysiological effects of odour valence on moral choices (Study 2). Study 1a suggests that the presence of an odour plays a role in shaping moral choice. Study 1b reveals that of two iso-pleasant versions of the same neutral odour, only the one presented sub-threshold (vs. supra-threshold) favours deontological moral choices, those based on the principle of not harming others even when such harm provides benefits. As expected, this odour intensity effect is tracked by skin conductance responses, whereas no difference in cardiac activity - proxy for the valence dimension - is revealed. Study 2 suggests that the same neutral odour presented sub-threshold increases deontological choices even when compared to iso-intense ambiguous odour, perceived as pleasant or unpleasant by half of the participants, respectively. Skin conductance responses, as expected, track odour pleasantness, but cardiac activity fails to do so. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms alternative to disgust induction underlying moral choices.

  7. The relation between rumination and temporal features of emotion intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Verleysen, Gregory; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe; Verduyn, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2). In addition, trait (Study 1 & 2), and state (Study 2) usage of a set of emotion regulation strategies was assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that trait rumination (especially the brooding component) was positively associated with emotion accumulation (Study 1 & 2). State rumination was also positively associated with emotion accumulation and, to a lesser extent, with emotion explosiveness (Study 2). These results provide support for emotion regulation theories, which hypothesise that rumination is a central mechanism underlying the maintenance of negative emotions.

  8. 'Peak oil' or 'peak demand'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Bruno; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Rolland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a workshop which addressed several energy issues like the objectives and constraints of energy mix scenarios, the differences between the approaches in different countries, the cost of new technologies implemented for this purposes, how these technologies will be developed and marketed, which will be the environmental and societal acceptability of these technical choices. Different aspects and issues have been more precisely presented and discussed: the peak oil, development of shale gases and their cost (will non conventional hydrocarbons modify the peak oil and be socially accepted?), energy efficiency (its benefits, its reality in France and other countries, its position in front of the challenge of energy transition), and strategies in the transport sector (challenges for mobility, evolution towards a model of sustainable mobility)

  9. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms. Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area. For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. We would like to emphasize the need to include in the "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (as defined in Directive 91/676/CEE [1]), all areas where there are intensive farming of fish with open-system type of water use. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater.

  10. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...... observation period. Side effects were evaluated clinically. No tumors appeared in untreated control mice or in just IPL-treated mice. Skin tumors developed in UV-exposed mice independently of IPL treatments. The time it took for 50% of the mice to first develop skin tumor ranged from 47 to 49 weeks...... in preoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.94) and from 22 to 23 weeks in pre- and postoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.11). IPL rejuvenation of lightly pigmented skin did not induce pigmentary changes (p=1.00). IPL rejuvenation of UV-pigmented skin resulted in an immediate increased skin pigmentation and a subsequent...

  11. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00172 The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (CircuitHIIT) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuitcombined) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk−1) of either Ci...

  12. Factors Related to Burnout in the Neonatal Intensive Care Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    stages of psychosocial development , intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus...1983) eluded can be related to one’s attempt to master the psychosocial stages of development utilizing Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development ...early adulthood one must work through Erikson’s stage of 9 intimacy versus isolation. It is during this stage that one develops "the capacity

  13. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the

  14. Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.

    2011-12-01

    Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=134). The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last

  15. Testing the E(sub peak)-E(sub iso) Relation for GRBs Detected by Swift and Suzaku-WAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Yamaoka, K.; Sugita, S.; Ohno, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Hara, R.; Onda, K.; Sato, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    One of the most prominent, yet controversial associations derived from the ensemble of prompt-phase observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the apparent correlation in the source frame between the peak energy (E(sub peak)) of the nuF(nu) spectrum and the isotropic radiated energy, E(sub iso). Since most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have E(sub peak) above the energy range (15-150 keV) of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift, determining accurate E(sub peak) values for large numbers of Swift bursts has been difficult. However, by combining data from Swift/BAT and the Suzaku Wide-band All-Sky Monitor (WAM), which covers the energy range from 50-5000 keV, for bursts which are simultaneously detected ; one can accurately fit E(sub peak) and E(sub iso) and test the relationship between them for the Swift sample. Between the launch of Suzaku in July 2005 and the end of March 2009, there were 45 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which triggered both Swift/BAT and WAM and an additional 47 bursts which triggered Swift and were detected by WAM, but did not trigger. A BAT-WAM team has cross-calibrated the two instruments using GRBs, and we are now able to perform joint fits on these bursts to determine spectral parameters. For those bursts with spectroscopic redshifts.. we can also calculate the isotropic energy. Here we present the results of joint Swift/BAT-Suzaku/WAM spectral fits for 86 of the bursts detected by the two instruments. We show that the distribution of spectral fit parameters is consistent with distributions from earlier missions and confirm that Swift, bursts are consistent with earlier reported relationships between Epeak and isotropic energy. We show through time-resolved spectroscopy that individual burst pulses are also consistent with this relationship.

  16. Pareto optimality between width of central lobe and peak sidelobe intensity in the far-field pattern of lossless phase-only filters for enhancement of transverse resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somparna; Hazra, Lakshminarayan

    2015-11-01

    Resolution capability of an optical imaging system can be enhanced by reducing the width of the central lobe of the point spread function. Attempts to achieve the same by pupil plane filtering give rise to a concomitant increase in sidelobe intensity. The mutual exclusivity between these two objectives may be considered as a multiobjective optimization problem that does not have a unique solution; rather, a class of trade-off solutions called Pareto optimal solutions may be generated. Pareto fronts in the synthesis of lossless phase-only pupil plane filters to achieve superresolution with prespecified lower limits for the Strehl ratio are explored by using the particle swarm optimization technique.

  17. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Annemieke M; Krenning, Eric P; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F

    2011-01-01

    The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, total body and femoral neck (FN) and body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Volumetric BMD, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), of the lumbar spine and FN was calculated. In females, 25OHD level was positively associated with FN BMD and BMAD (both ppercentage body fat (pbody BMD and lean body mass (p=0.03 and p=0.01). 25OHD level is a determinant of peak BMD in both sexes. Vitamin D status was associated with body fat in females and with lean body mass in males.

  18. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...... (IPT) and reproductive hormone concentrations (RHC). A possible effect of oral contraceptives (OCON's) is taken into consideration....

  19. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  20. Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based nois in LC-MS data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyangoma, S.O.; Van Kampen, A.A.; Reijmers, T.H.; Govorukhina, N.I; van der Zee, A.G.; Billingham, I.J; Bischoff, Rainer; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based noise in LC-MS data sets.Nyangoma SO, van Kampen AA, Reijmers TH, Govorukhina NI, van der Zee AG, Billingham LJ, Bischoff R, Jansen RC. University of Birmingham.

  1. Model Related Estimates of time dependent quantiles of peak flows - case study for selected catchments in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupczewski, Witold G.; Bogdanowich, Ewa; Debele, Sisay

    2016-04-01

    Under Polish climate conditions the series of Annual Maxima (AM) flows are usually a mixture of peak flows of thaw- and rainfall- originated floods. The northern, lowland regions are dominated by snowmelt floods whilst in mountainous regions the proportion of rainfall floods is predominant. In many stations the majority of AM can be of snowmelt origin, but the greatest peak flows come from rainfall floods or vice versa. In a warming climate, precipitation is less likely to occur as snowfall. A shift from a snow- towards a rain-dominated regime results in a decreasing trend in mean and standard deviations of winter peak flows whilst rainfall floods do not exhibit any trace of non-stationarity. That is why a simple form of trends (i.e. linear trends) are more difficult to identify in AM time-series than in Seasonal Maxima (SM), usually winter season time-series. Hence it is recommended to analyse trends in SM, where a trend in standard deviation strongly influences the time -dependent upper quantiles. The uncertainty associated with the extrapolation of the trend makes it necessary to apply a relationship for trend which has time derivative tending to zero, e.g. we can assume a new climate equilibrium epoch approaching, or a time horizon is limited by the validity of the trend model. For both winter and summer SM time series, at least three distributions functions with trend model in the location, scale and shape parameters are estimated by means of the GAMLSS package using the ML-techniques. The resulting trend estimates in mean and standard deviation are mutually compared to the observed trends. Then, using AIC measures as weights, a multi-model distribution is constructed for each of two seasons separately. Further, assuming a mutual independence of the seasonal maxima, an AM model with time-dependent parameters can be obtained. The use of a multi-model approach can alleviate the effects of different and often contradictory trends obtained by using and identifying

  2. Simultaneous reconstruction, segmentation, and edge enhancement of relatively piecewise continuous images with intensity-level information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.; Johnson, V.

    1991-01-01

    A multinomial image model is proposed which uses intensity-level information for reconstruction of contiguous image regions. The intensity-level information assumes that image intensities are relatively constant within contiguous regions over the image-pixel array and that intensity levels of these regions are determined either empirically or theoretically by information criteria. These conditions may be valid, for example, for cardiac blood-pool imaging, where the intensity levels (or radionuclide activities) of myocardium, blood-pool, and background regions are distinct and the activities within each region of muscle, blood, or background are relatively uniform. To test the model, a mathematical phantom over a 64x64 array was constructed. The phantom had three contiguous regions. Each region had a different intensity level. Measurements from the phantom were simulated using an emission-tomography geometry. Fifty projections were generated over 180 degree, with 64 equally spaced parallel rays per projection. Projection data were randomized to contain Poisson noise. Image reconstructions were performed using an iterative maximum a posteriori probability procedure. The contiguous regions corresponding to the three intensity levels were automatically segmented. Simultaneously, the edges of the regions were sharpened. Noise in the reconstructed images was significantly suppressed. Convergence of the iterative procedure to the phantom was observed. Compared with maximum likelihood and filtered-backprojection approaches, the results obtained using the maximum a posteriori probability with the intensity-level information demonstrated qualitative and quantitative improvement in localizing the regions of varying intensities

  3. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  4. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    In September 1981, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued its Final Environmental Statement (NUREG-0775) related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446), located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. The NRC has prepared this supplement to NUREG-0775 to present its evaluation of the alternative of operating Comanche Peak with the installation of further severe-accident-mitigation design features. The NRC has discovered no substantial changes in the proposed action as previously evaluated in the Final Environmental Statement that are relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the licensing of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2. 6 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  6. Funding intensive care - approaches in systems using diagnosis-related groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Ettelt, S; Nolte, E

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews approaches to funding intensive care in health systems that use activitybased payment mechanisms based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to reimburse hospital care. The report aims to inform the current debate about options for funding intensive care services for adults, children and newborns in England. Funding mechanisms reviewed here include those in Australia (Victoria), Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United States (Medicare). Approaches to org...

  7. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-09-01

    To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors.

  8. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  9. Relative biological effectiveness in a proton spread-out Bragg peak formed by pencil beam scanning mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michaelidesová, Anna; Vachelová, Jana; Puchalská, M.; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Vondráček, V.; Sihver, L.; Davídková, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2017), s. 359-368 ISSN 0158-9938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Relative biological effectiveness * Proton therapy * Clonogennic assay * Micronuclei assay * Monte Carlo simulations * Scanning beam Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2016

  10. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Baiget

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2. Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy. Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25% was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in zone 2 (20 ± 21% and zone 3 (3 ± 5%. Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75, as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75. Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game.

  11. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  12. Clinical Competence and Its Related Factors of Nurses in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Mirlashari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical competence of nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units together with advancements in medical science and technology increased the survival rate of newborns that need specialized care. To ensure the quality of care and provide the safety of patients, evaluating the clinical competence of nurses seems necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical competence of nurses in the neonatal intensive care units. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 117 nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by census method. The research tool was Development of Competency Inventory for Registered Nurses questionnaire which completed by self-assessment. The mean clinical competence scores of participants categorized into 3 levels: weak: 273. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using the Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The highest levels of competence were related to critical thinking and research attitude and interpersonal relationships, and the lowest level was related to training and mentoring. There was a direct statistically significant relationship between marital status, employment status, level of interest in working in the neonatal intensive-care units and the clinical competence of nurses. Conclusion: Since the clinical competence of nurses in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units is vital, some variables such as interest in the nursing profession, employment status, the neonatal intensive theoretical and practical training courses and the amount of overtime working hours should be taken into consideration.

  13. No association of the polymorphisms of the frizzled-related protein gene with peak bone mineral density in Chinese nuclear families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in skeletal development. Polymorphisms of frizzled-related protein (FRZB, an antagonist of this pathway, may generate variations in bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, we analyzed the association between FRZB genotypes and peak BMD variation in the spines and hips of two relatively large samples of Chinese female-offspring and male-offspring nuclear families. Methods We recruited 1,260 subjects from 401 female-offspring nuclear families and 1,296 subjects from 427 male-offspring nuclear families and genotyped four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs (rs6433993, rs409238, rs288324, and rs4666865 spanning the entire FRZB gene. The SNPs rs288326 and rs7775, which are associated with hip osteoarthritis, were not selected in this study because of their low minor allele frequencies (MAFs in Chinese people. The quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT was used to analyze the association between each SNP and haplotype with peak BMD in female- and male-offspring nuclear families. Results In the female-offspring nuclear families, we found no evidence of an association between either single SNPs or haplotypes and peak BMD in the spine or hip. In the male-offspring nuclear families, no within-family association was observed for either SNPs or haplotypes, although a significant total association was found between rs4666865 and spine BMD (P = 0.0299. Conclusion Our results suggest that natural variation in FRZB is not a major contributor to the observed variability in peak BMD in either Chinese females or males. Because ethnic differences in the FRZB genotypes may exist, other studies in different population are required to confirm such results.

  14. Ionization rates and harmonic generation for H interacting with laser pulses of λ = 1064 nm and peak intensities in the range 2 x 1013-2 x 1014 W cm-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionissopoulou, S.; Mercouris, Th.; Nicolaides, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    We applied the state-specific expansion approach (SSEA) to the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing the interaction of H with laser pulses of λ = 1064 nm and peak intensities I 0 = 2 x 10 13 , 6 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 14 and 2 x 10 14 W cm -2 , and computed ionization rates and high-order harmonic spectra. For the first three cases, our results are compared with those of Krause and co-workers (Krause J L, Schafer K J and Kulander K C 1992 Phys. Rev. A45 3998) who employed the grid method. Whereas for I 0 = 1 x 10 14 W cm -2 convergence difficulties were reported for the grid method, no such difficulties were found for the SSEA. Given this fact, we tackled the problem of computing the harmonic spectrum for I 0 = 2 x 10 14 W cm -2 . This spectrum shows a cut-off at the 65th harmonic (3.17 U p + I p ) and an extended plateau containing low-intensity harmonics up to the 181st. The ionization rate is 1.7 x 10 13 s -1 while at the end of the pulse 19.5% of the system is in the 1s ground state and 2.6% in the bound states up to n = 20, l 19. (author)

  15. Issues of work intensity, pace, and sustainability in relation to work context and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which

  16. The relation of double peaks, observed in quartz hydride atomizers, to the fate of free analyte atoms in the determination of arsenic and selenium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Dedina, Jiri

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism at the origin of double peaks formation in quartz hydride atomizers were investigated by continuous flow hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic and selenium were used as model analytes. The effect of atomization mode (flame-in-gas-shield (FIGS), miniature diffusion flame and double flame (DF)) and some experimental parameters as oxygen supply rate for microflame and the distance from atomization to free atoms detection point, were investigated on the shape of both analytical signals and calibration graphs. Rollover of calibration graphs and double peak formation are strictly related each to the other and could be observed only in FIGS atomizer mode under some particular conditions. A mechanism based on incomplete atomization of hydrides cannot explain the collected experimental evidences because the microflame of FIGS is able to produce quantitative atomization of large amount of hydrides even at supply rate of oxygen close to extinction threshold of microflame. The heterogeneous gas-solid reactions between finely dispersed particles, formed by free atom recombination, and the free atoms in the gaseous phase are at the origin of double peak formation

  17. Alexithymia Is Related to the Need for More Emotional Intensity to Identify Static Fearful Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Starita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of alexithymia, a personality trait marked by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented style of thinking, appear to require more time to accurately recognize intense emotional facial expressions (EFEs. However, in everyday life, EFEs are displayed at different levels of intensity and individuals with high alexithymia may also need more emotional intensity to identify EFEs. Nevertheless, the impact of alexithymia on the identification of EFEs, which vary in emotional intensity, has largely been neglected. To address this, two experiments were conducted in which participants with low (LA and high (HA levels of alexithymia were assessed in their ability to identify static (Experiment 1 and dynamic (Experiment 2 morphed faces ranging from neutral to intense EFEs. Results showed that HA needed more emotional intensity than LA to identify static fearful – but not happy or disgusted – faces. On the contrary, no evidence was found that alexithymia affected the identification of dynamic EFEs. These results extend current literature suggesting that alexithymia is related to the need for more perceptual information to identify static fearful EFEs.

  18. Exponential Increase in Relative Biological Effectiveness Along Distal Edge of a Proton Bragg Peak as Measured by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-Strand Breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuaron, John J., E-mail: cuaronj@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Chang, Chang [Texas Center for Proton Therapy, Irving, Texas (United States); Lovelock, Michael; Higginson, Daniel S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mah, Dennis [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Cahlon, Oren; Powell, Simon [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To quantify the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the distal edge of the proton Bragg peak, using an in vitro assay of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: U2OS cells were irradiated within the plateau of a spread-out Bragg peak and at each millimeter position along the distal edge using a custom slide holder, allowing for simultaneous measurement of physical dose. A reference radiation signal was generated using photons. The DNA DSBs at 3 hours (to assess for early damage) and at 24 hours (to assess for residual damage and repair) after irradiation were measured using the γH2AX assay and quantified via flow cytometry. Results were confirmed with clonogenic survival assays. A detailed map of the RBE as a function of depth along the Bragg peak was generated using γH2AX measurements as a biological endpoint. Results: At 3 hours after irradiation, DNA DSBs were higher with protons at every point along the distal edge compared with samples irradiated with photons to similar doses. This effect was even more pronounced after 24 hours, indicating that the impact of DNA repair is less after proton irradiation relative to photons. The RBE demonstrated an exponential increase as a function of depth and was measured to be as high as 4.0 after 3 hours and as high as 6.0 after 24 hours. When the RBE-corrected dose was plotted as a function of depth, the peak effective dose was extended 2-3 mm beyond what would be expected with physical measurement. Conclusions: We generated a highly comprehensive map of the RBE of the distal edge of the Bragg peak, using a direct assay of DNA DSBs in vitro. Our data show that the RBE of the distal edge increases with depth and is significantly higher than previously reported estimates.

  19. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    Supplement 19 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Special Projects of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement presents the staff's evaluation of the Texas Utilities Electric Company's (lead applicant's) corrective action program (CAP) related to equipment qualification. The scope and methodology for the CAP workscope, as summarized in Revision 0 to the Equipment Qualification Project Status Report and as detailed in related documents, were developed to resolve various issues raised by the Comanche Peak Response Team (CPRT) and the NRC staff to ensure that plant equipment is appropriately environmentally and/or seismically and dynamically qualified and documented in accordance with the validated plant design resulting from other CAP scopes of work for Unit 1 and areas common to Units 1 and 2. The staff concludes that the CAP workscope for equipment qualification provides a comprehensive program for resolving the concerns identified by the CPRT and the NRC staff, including issues raised in the Comanche Peak Safety Evaluation Report and its supplements, and its implementation will ensure that the environmental and/or seismic and dynamic qualification of equipment at CPSES satisfies the validated plant design and the applicable requirements of 10 CFR Part 50. As is routine staff practice, the NRC staff will verify the adequacy of implementation of the environmental and seismic and dynamic equipment qualification program at CPSES during inspections that will take place before fuel loading. 97 refs

  20. The intensity-pitch relation revisited: monopolar versus bipolar cochlear stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldner, Christoph; Riss, Dominik; Kaider, Alexandra; Mair, Alois; Wagenblast, Jens; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstöttner, Wolfgang; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan

    2008-09-01

    The very high speech perception scores now being achieved with cochlear implants have led to demands for similar levels of achievement in music perception and perception in noisy environments. One of the crucial factors in these fields is pitch perception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which pitch perception is influenced by the intensity of the stimulus, through the use of different stimulation modes (monopolar, bipolar) and different electrodes (lateral and perimodiolar). Sixteen postlingually deafened patients with an average implant use of 3.1 years were included in this study. All patients were using a Cochlear (CI24M, CI24R, CI24RE) cochlear implant. Subjects were asked to compare the pitch of an intensity-constant reference tone with the pitch of a test tone of varying intensity. The test was repeated for apical, mediocochlear, and basal channel locations, and also for monopolar and bipolar stimulation. It was found that in monopolar stimulation 87.5% and in bipolar stimulation 85.7% of the patients perceived a clear pitch change with changing intensity of the stimulus (Spearman correlation coefficients r 0.3, respectively). A total of 73.1% of these patients perceived lower pitches with increasing intensity, 26.9% reported the opposite effect. No statistically significant difference in the intensity-pitch correlation could be found between mono- and bipolar stimulation. Neither the mean dynamic range nor the type of electrode used was found to be related to the correlation coefficient. Although the majority of today's cochlear implant recipients perform well and the intensity-pitch relation in cochlear implant recipients is still poorly understood, rising demands on speech-coding strategies may soon make a compensation of the pitch shifts desirable. Although the results of our study tend to argue against a peripheral mechanism, the exact origin of this phenomenon remains unclear.

  1. Accounting for adaptation and intensity in projecting heat wave-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Nordio, Francesco; Nairn, John; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D

    2018-02-01

    How adaptation and intensity of heat waves affect heat wave-related mortality is unclear, making health projections difficult. We estimated the effect of heat waves, the effect of the intensity of heat waves, and adaptation on mortality in 209 U.S. cities with 168 million people during 1962-2006. We improved the standard time-series models by incorporating the intensity of heat waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and estimating adaptation empirically using interactions with yearly mean summer temperature (MST). We combined the epidemiological estimates for heat wave, intensity, and adaptation with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model dataset to project heat wave-related mortality by 2050. The effect of heat waves increased with its intensity. Adaptation to heat waves occurred, which was shown by the decreasing effect of heat waves with MST. However, adaptation was lessened as MST increased. Ignoring adaptation in projections would result in a substantial overestimate of the projected heat wave-related mortality (by 277-747% in 2050). Incorporating the empirically estimated adaptation into projections would result in little change in the projected heat wave-related mortality between 2006 and 2050. This differs regionally, however, with increasing mortality over time for cities in the southern and western U.S. but decreasing mortality over time for the north. Accounting for adaptation is important to reduce bias in the projections of heat wave-related mortality. The finding that the southern and western U.S. are the areas that face increasing heat-related deaths is novel, and indicates that more regional adaptation strategies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  3. Causal relations between knowledge-intensive business services and regional employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, T.; Capasso, M.; Duschl, M.; Frenken, K.; Treibich, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the causal relations between regional employment growth in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and overall regional employment growth using German labour-market data for the period 1999-2012. Adopting a recently developed technique, we are able to estimate a structural

  4. Intensity, but not duration, of physical activities is related to cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Vanhees, Luc; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Aufdernkarnpe, Geert; Aleman, Andrie; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  5. Intensity, but not duration of physical activities is related to cognitive function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Aleman; Geert Aufdemkampe; H.J. Verhaar; W. Wendel-Vos; Drs. Maaike Angevaren; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; W.M. Verschuren

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  6. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2: Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Supplement 15 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Special Projects of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement presents the staff's evaluation of the applicant's Corrective Action Program (CAP) related to the design of cable trays and cable tray hangers. The scope and methodologies for the CAP workscope as summarized in Revision O to the cable tray and cable tray hanger project status report and as detailed in related documents referenced in this evaluation were developed to resolve various design issues raised by the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB) the intervenor, Citizens Association for Sound Energy (CASE); the Comanche Peak Response Team (CPRT); CYGNA Energy Services (CYGNA); and the NRC staff. The NRC staff concludes that the CAP workscope for cable trays and cable tray hangers provides a comprehensive program for resolving the associated technical concerns identified by the ASLB, CASE, CPRT, CYGNA, and the NRC staff and its implementation ensures that the design of cable trays and cable tray hangers at CPSES satisfies the applicable requirements of 10 CFR Part 50

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Supplement 14 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Stam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Special Projects of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somerville County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement presents the staff's evaluation of the applicants' Corrective Action Program (CAP0 related to large ans small bore piping and pipe supports. The scope and methodologies for CAP workshop as summarized in revision O to the large and small bore piping project status reports and as detailed in related documents referenced in this evaluation were developed to resolve various design issues raised by the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB);the intervenor, Citizens Association for Sound Energy (CASE);the Camanche Peak Response Team (CPRT);SYGNA Energy Services (CYGNA);and the NRC staff. The NRC staff concludes that the CAP workscopes for large and small bore piping provide a comprehensive program for resolving the associated technical concerns identified by the ASLB, CASE, CPRT, CYGNA, and the NRC staff and their implementation ensures that the design of large and small bore piping and pipe supports at CPSES satisfies the applicable requirements of 10 CFR 50

  8. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  9. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  10. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  11. Neurofeedback training for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D

    2014-01-01

    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  12. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals......Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had...

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2: Docket No. 50-445 and 50-446

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    Supplement 20 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Special Projects of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement presents the staff's evaluation of CPRT implementation of the Comanche Peak Response Team (CPRT) Program Plan and the issue-specific action plans (ISAPs), as well as the CPRT's investigations to determine the adequacy of various types of programs and hardware at CPSES. The results and conclusions of the CPRT activities are documented in a results report for each ISAP, a Collective Evaluation Report (CER), and a Collective Significance Report (CSR). This supplement also presents the staff's safety evaluation of TU Electric's root cause assessment of past CPSES design deficiencies and weaknesses. The NRC staff concludes that the CPRT has adequately implemented its investigative activities related to the design, construction, construction quality assurance/quality control, and testing at CPSES. The NRC staff further concludes that the CPRT evaluation of the results of its investigation is thorough and complete and its recommendations for corrective actions are sufficient to resolve identified deficiencies

  14. Increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Twining

    Full Text Available Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo. We found the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga had highest, albeit variable, occupancy in areas of low land use intensity and the Southeast Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator macromaculatus had highest occupancy in areas of high land use intensity. Land use had no effect on the combined occupancy of the two species. In high land use intensity sites, individual water monitors were larger and had better body condition, but at population level had a highly biased sex ratio with more males than females and increased signs of intraspecific conflict. We did not assess scavenging rate or efficiency as a process, but the high occupancy rates and apparent health of the scavengers in high land use intensity landscapes suggests this ecological process is robust to land use change.

  15. Accessing the public MIMIC-II intensive care relational database for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Silva, Ikaro; Park, Shinhyuk; Moody, George B; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2013-01-10

    The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database is a free, public resource for intensive care research. The database was officially released in 2006, and has attracted a growing number of researchers in academia and industry. We present the two major software tools that facilitate accessing the relational database: the web-based QueryBuilder and a downloadable virtual machine (VM) image. QueryBuilder and the MIMIC-II VM have been developed successfully and are freely available to MIMIC-II users. Simple example SQL queries and the resulting data are presented. Clinical studies pertaining to acute kidney injury and prediction of fluid requirements in the intensive care unit are shown as typical examples of research performed with MIMIC-II. In addition, MIMIC-II has also provided data for annual PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenges, including the 2012 Challenge "Predicting mortality of ICU Patients". QueryBuilder is a web-based tool that provides easy access to MIMIC-II. For more computationally intensive queries, one can locally install a complete copy of MIMIC-II in a VM. Both publicly available tools provide the MIMIC-II research community with convenient querying interfaces and complement the value of the MIMIC-II relational database.

  16. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    Supplement 23 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, and 22 to that report were published. This supplement also includes the evaluations for licensing items resolved since Supplement 22 was issued. Supplement 5 has not been issued. Supplements 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were limited to the staff evaluation of allegations investigated by the NRC Technical Review Team. Supplement 13 presented the staff's evaluation of the Comanche Peak Response Team (CPRT) Program Plan, which was formulated by the applicant to resolve various construction and design issues raised by sources external to TU Electric. Supplements 14 through 19 presented the staff's evaluation of the CPSES Corrective Action Program: large- and small-bore piping and pipe supports (Supplement 14); cable trays and cable tray hangers (Supplement 15); conduit supports (Supplement 16); mechanical, civil/structural, electrical, instrumentation and controls, and systems portions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system workscopes (Supplement 17); HVAC structural design (Supplement 18); and equipment qualification (Supplement 19). Supplement 20 presented the staff's evaluation of the Comanche Peak Response Team implementation of the CPRT Program

  17. Electron-related nonlinearities in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells under the effects of intense laser field and applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque_echeverri@yahoo.es [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Soekmen, I. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    The combined effects of intense laser radiation and applied electric fields on the intersubband-related linear and nonlinear optical properties in GaAs-based quantum wells are discussed. It is shown that for asymmetric double quantum well, the increasing laser field intensity causes progressive redshifts in the peak positions of the second and third harmonic coefficients. However, the resonant peaks of the nonlinear optical rectification can suffer a blueshift or a redshift, depending on the laser strengths. The same feature appears in the case of the resonant peaks corresponding to the total coefficients of optical absorption and relative change in the refractive index. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nonlinear optical properties in double quantum wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing laser field intensity causes redshifts in the peak positions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resonant peak of second order nonlinearities can be blue-shifted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relative change in refractive index depends of the applied electric field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The energy position depends of the laser field parameter.

  18. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Supplement 22 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, and 21 to that report. This supplement also includes the evaluations for licensing items resolved since Supplement 21 was issued. Supplement 5 has been cancelled. Supplements 7 through 11 were limited to the staff evaluation of allegations investigated by the NRC Technical Review Team. Supplement 13 presented the staff's evaluation of the Comanche Peak Response Team (CPRT) Program Plan, which was formulated by the applicant to resolve various construction and design issues raised by sources external to the applicant. Supplements 14 through 20 presented the staff's evaluation of the applicant's Corrective Action Program and CPRT activities. Items identified in Supplements 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, and 15 through 20 are not included in this supplement, except to the extent that they affect the applicant's Final Safety Analysis Report. 154 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  20. A prospective window into medical device-related pressure ulcers in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, Fiona M; Stotts, Nancy A; Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, location, aetiology, treatment and healing of medical device-related pressure ulcers (PUs) in intensive care patients for up to 7 days. A prospective repeated measures study design was used. Patients in six intensive care units of two major medical centres, one each in Australia and the USA, were screened 1 day per month for 6 months. Those with device-related ulcers were followed daily for up to 7 days. The outcome measures were device-related ulcer prevalence, pain, infection, treatment and healing. Fifteen of 483 patients had device-related ulcers and 9 of 15 with 11 ulcers were followed beyond screening. Their mean age was 60·5 years, and most were men, overweight and at increased risk of PU. Endotracheal (ET) and nasogastric (NG) tubes were the cause of most device-related ulcers. Repositioning was the most frequent treatment. Four of 11 ulcers healed within the 7-day observation period. In conclusion, device-related ulcer prevalence was 3·1%, similar to that reported in the limited literature available, indicating an ongoing problem. Systematic assessment and repositioning of devices are the mainstays of care. We recommend continued prevalence determination and that nurses remain vigilant to prevent device-related ulcers, especially in patients with NG and ET tubes. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Numerical modelling of the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An accurate numerical model to investigate the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer in two-pump fibre optical parametric amplifiers (2-P FOPAs) for low modulation frequencies is presented. Compared to other models in the field, this model takes into account the fibre loss, pump depletion as well as the gain ...

  2. Obstetric patients' health-related quality of life before and after intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Seppänen; Reijo, Sund; Tero, Ala-Kokko; Mervi, Roos; Jukka, Uotila; Mika, Helminen; Tarja, Suominen

    2018-03-23

    Intensive care admissions during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period are relatively well investigated. However, very little is known about these obstetric patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) before and after critical care. The objective of this study was to assess obstetric patients' HRQoL before intensive care admission (baseline) and at 6 months after discharge (follow-up) DESIGN: This was a retrospective database study. In a 5-year period, the data of all women admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during pregnancy, delivery, or up to 42 days postpartum were analysed. Four multidisciplinary ICUs of Finnish University hospitals participated. The HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) instrument with utility score (EQsum) and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). A total of 283 obstetric patients were identified from the clinical information system. Of these, 99 (35%) completed the EQ-5D questionnaires both at baseline and follow-up, and 65 of them (23%) completed EQ-VAS. The comparison of patients' EQsum scores before intensive care admission and after discharge showed that patients' HRQoL remained good (0.970 vs 0.972) (max 1.0) or increased (0.788 vs 0.982) in 80.8% of the patients. Patients reported improved overall health on the EQ-VAS at 6 months follow-up (EQ-VAS mean, 71.86 vs 88.20; p ≤ 0.001) (max 100). However, 19.2% of the patients had lower HRQoL (EQsum mean 0.987 vs 0.798) at follow-up. Following intensive care, 15% of the patients had more pain/discomfort, and 11% expressed more depression/anxiety. Multiparous patients were more likely to suffer from worsened depression/anxiety (p = 0.024). In the majority of the obstetric patients, HRQoL at 6 months follow-up remained good or had increased from baseline. However, nearly one-fifth of the patients had impaired HRQoL after discharge. Thus, intensive care management should take in to consideration follow-up program after intensive care of ICU-admitted obstetric

  3. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam electric Station, Units 1 and 2, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. the facility is located in Somervell County, Texas. Subject to favorable resolution of the items identified in this supplement, the staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicatn without endangering the health and safety of the public. This document provides the NRC staff's evaluation of the outstanding and confirmatory issues that have been resolved since Supplement No. 2 was issued in January 1982, and addresses changes to the SER and its earlier supplements which have resulted from the receipt of additonal information from the applicant during the period of January throught October 1982

  4. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  5. Age-related changes in physical and perceptual markers of recovery following high-intensity interval cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2018-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4.5 min rest between efforts. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 10 s sprint (10SST), 30-min time trial (30TT) performance, creatine kinase concentration (CK) and perceptual measures of motivation, total recovery, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected at baseline and at standardised time points across the 48 h recovery period. No significant group-time interactions were observed for performance of MVC, 10SST, 30TT and CK (P > 0.05). A significant reduction in 10SST peak power was found in both masters (P = 0.002) and young (P = 0.003) cyclists at 1 h post exercise, however, both groups physically recovered at similar rates. Neither group showed significant (P > 0.05) or practically meaningful increases in CK (%∆ < 10%). A significant age-related difference was found for perceptual fatigue (P = 0.01) and analysis of effect size (ES) showed that perceptual recovery was delayed with masters cyclists reporting lower motivation (ES ±90%CI = 0.69 ± 0.77, moderate), greater fatigue (ES = 0.75 ± 0.93, moderate) and muscle soreness (ES = 0.61 ± 0.70, moderate) after 48 h of recovery. The delay in perceived recovery may have negative effects on long-term participation to systematic training.

  6. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain – relation to pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke BM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenAims: To investigate pain intensity, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction in patients with injury-related chronic pain and to analyze differences in these variables regarding gender.Methods: Questionnaires addressing pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS], anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression [HAD] scale, posttraumatic stress (impact of event scale, disability (disability rating index, and life satisfaction [LiSat-11] were answered by 160 patients at assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden.Results: High level of pain intensity was scored on the VAS (mean value 64.5 ± 21.1 mm together with high levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Activity limitations in everyday life and decreased life satisfaction were reported, especially on the items physical health and psychological health. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant association between low scores on the overall life satisfaction on LiSat-11 and high scores on HAD-depression (odds ratio = 1.141, confidence interval 1.014–1.285. Few gender differences were found.Conclusion: These findings highlight the value of a broad screening in patients with injury-related chronic pain with respect to the relationship of life satisfaction with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and disability. In addition, these findings support the biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat these patients optimally.Keywords: whiplash injuries, depression, quality of life

  7. Temporal and Latitudinal Variations of the Length-Scales and Relative Intensities of the Chromospheric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K. P.

    2018-05-01

    The Calcium K spectroheliograms of the Sun from Kodaikanal have a data span of about 100 years and covers over 9 solar cycles. The Ca line is a strong chromospheric line dominated by chromospheric network and plages which are good indicators of solar activity. Length-scales and relative intensities of the chromospheric network have been obtained in the solar latitudes from 50 degree N to 50 degree S from the spectroheliograms. The length-scale was obtained from the half-width of the two-dimensional autocorrelation of the latitude strip which gives a measure of the width of the network boundary. As reported earlier for the transition region extreme ultraviolet (EUV) network, relative intensity and width of the chromospheric network boundary are found to be dependent on the solar cycle. A varying phase difference has been noticed in the quantities in different solar latitudes. A cross-correlation analysis of the quantities from other latitudes with ±30 degree latitude revealed an interesting phase difference pattern indicating flux transfer. Evidence of equatorward flux transfer has been observed. The average equatorward flux transfer was estimated to be 5.8 ms-1. The possible reasons of the drift could be meridional circulation, torsional oscillations, or the bright point migration. Cross-correlation of intensity and length-scale from the same latitude showed increasing phase difference with increasing latitude. We have also obtained the cross correlation of the quantities across the equator to see the possible phase lags in the two hemispheres. Signatures of lags are seen in the length scales of southern hemisphere near the equatorial latitudes, but no such lags in the intensity are observed. The results have important implications on the flux transfer over the solar surface and hence on the solar activity and dynamo.

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    Supplement 18 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Special Projects of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement presents the staff's evaluation of the applicant's Corrective Action Program (CAP) related to the structural design of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The scope and methodologies for the CAP workscope as summarized in Revision 0 to the HVAC project status report and as detailed in related documents referenced in this evaluation were developed to resolve the technical concerns identified in the HVAC area. The NRC staff concludes that the CAP workscope for the HVAC structural design provides a comprehensive program for resolving the associated technical concerns and its implementation ensures that the structural design of the HVAC systems at CPSES satisfies the applicable requirements of 10 CFR Part 50. 32 refs

  9. Peak-bone-mass development in young adults: effects of study program related levels of occupational and leisure time physical activity and exercise. A prospective 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Bebenek, M; von Stengel, S; Bauer, J

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is characterized by profound life-style changes. This study suggests that reduction of sport or exercise, induced by alteration of the occupational situation, negatively impacts generation/maintenance of peak bone mass. In order to compensate occupational-related reductions of physical activity, workplace exercise programs will be helpful. Only few studies have determined the effect of physical activity or physical exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) in the period of late skeletal maturation, i.e. around peak bone mass. The aim of this article was to determine the long-term effect of different levels of physical activity and exercise directly and indirectly derived by occupation during young adulthood. Sixty-one male and female dental students (DES) and 53 male and female sport students (SPS) 21±2 years old were accompanied over the course (4.8±0.5 years) of their study program. BMD at the lumbar spine (LS), hip, and whole body (WB) were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Parameters of physical activity increased non-significantly in both groups with no relevant differences between the groups. Indices of exercise, however, increased significantly in the SPS group while a significant decrease was assessed for the DES group. Independent of gender, BMD of the SPS increased significantly (p≤0.007) at all skeletal sites (LS, 2.4±3.9%; hip, 1.6±3.5%; WB, 1.8±2.8%) while BMD of the DES remained unchanged at LS (-0.6±4.4%, p=0.432) and WB (0.5±1.9%, p=0.092) but decreased significantly at the hip (-1.9±4.3%, p=0.010). BMD-changes at LS, hip, and WB differ significantly between SPS and DES (p≤0.017). Results remained unchanged after adjusting for baseline BMD-values that differed (p=0.030 to p=0.082) in favor of the SPS group. Changes of exercise levels directly or indirectly caused by occupational factors during young adulthood significantly affected generation and/or maintenance of peak bone mass. Compensatory exercise is

  10. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C; Simpson, Ben M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h(-1) (D>14.4 km·h(-1)) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen's d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h(-1) (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h(-1) was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h(-1) increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in 'fitness' do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key pointsWhen playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a 'tolerable' relative exercise intensity.While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008).In the context of

  11. Statistical analysis of uncertainties of gamma-peak identification and area calculation in particulate air-filter environment radionuclide measurements using the results of a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) organized intercomparison, Part I: Assessment of reliability and uncertainties of isotope detection and energy precision using artificial spiked test spectra, Part II: Assessment of the true type I error rate and the quality of peak area estimators in relation to type II errors using large numbers of natural spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Zaehringer, M.; Ungar, K.; Hoffman, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the uncertainties of gamma-ray small peak analysis have been examined. As the intensity of a gamma-ray peak approaches its detection decision limit, derived parameters such as centroid channel energy, peak area, peak area uncertainty, baseline determination, and peak significance are statistically sensitive. The intercomparison exercise organized by the CTBTO provided an excellent opportunity for this to be studied. Near background levels, the false-positive and false-negative peak identification frequencies in artificial test spectra have been compared to statistically predictable limiting values. In addition, naturally occurring radon progeny were used to compare observed variance against nominal uncertainties. The results infer that the applied fit algorithms do not always represent the best estimator. Understanding the statistically predicted peak-finding limit is important for data evaluation and analysis assessment. Furthermore, these results are useful to optimize analytical procedures to achieve the best results

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Supplement 24 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, and 23 to that report were published. This supplement also includes the evaluations for licensing items resolved since Supplement 23 was issued. Supplement 5 has not been issued. Supplements 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were limited to the staff evaluation of allegations investigated by the NRC Technical Review Team. Supplement 13 represented the staff's evaluation of the Comanche Peak Response Team (CPRT) Program Plan, which was formulated by the applicant to resolve various construction and design issues raised by sources external to TU Electric. Supplements 14 through 19 presented the staff's evaluation of the CPSES Corrective Action Program: large- and small-bore piping and pipe supports (Supplement 14); cable trays and cable tray hangers (Supplement 15); conduit supports (Supplement 16); mechanical, civil/structural, electrical, instrumentation and controls, and systems portions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system workscopes (Supplement 17); HVAC structural design (Supplement 18); and equipment qualification (Supplement 19). Supplement 20 presented the staff's evaluation of the CPRT implementation of its Program Plan and the issue-specific action plans, as well as the CPRT's investigations to determine the adequacy of various types of programs and hardware at CPSES

  13. Perceptions and behaviors related to hand hygiene for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission among Korean university students during the peak pandemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seon-Ung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to better assess the perceptions, motivating factors, and behaviors associated with the use of hand washing to prevent H1N1 influenza transmission during the peak pandemic period in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was completed by 942 students at a university campus in Suwon, Korea, between December 1 and 8, 2009. The survey included questions regarding individual perceptions, motivating factors, and behaviors associated with hand washing for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission. Results Compared to one year prior, 30.3% of participants reported increasing their hand washing frequency. Female students were more likely to practice more frequent hand washing. Women also perceived the effectiveness of hand washing to be lower, and illness severity and personal susceptibility to H1N1 infection to be higher. Study participants who were female (OR: 1.79-3.90 who perceived of hand washing to be effective (OR: 1.34-12.15 and illness severity to be greater (OR: 1.00-3.12 washed their hands more frequently. Conclusions Korean students increased their frequency of hand hygiene practices during the pandemic, with significant gender differences existing in the attitudes and behaviors related to the use of hand hygiene as a means of disease prevention. Here, the factors that affected hand washing behavior were similar to those identified at the beginning of the H1N1 or SARS pandemics, suggesting that public education campaigns regarding hand hygiene are effective in altering individual hand hygiene habits during the peak periods of influenza transmission.

  14. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth: The International Children's Accelerometry Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Corder

    2016-12-01

    Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5.0–5.9 y and larger negative annual differences.

  15. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  16. Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Mutapi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal experimental models, parasitic helminth infections can protect the host from auto-immune diseases. We conducted a population-scale human study investigating the relationship between helminth parasitism and auto-reactive antibodies and the subsequent effect of anti-helminthic treatment on this relationship. Levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA and plasma IL-10 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 613 Zimbabweans (aged 2-86 years naturally exposed to the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium. ANA levels were related to schistosome infection intensity and systemic IL-10 levels. All participants were offered treatment with the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel and 102 treated schoolchildren (5-16 years were followed up 6 months post-antihelminthic treatment. ANA levels were inversely associated with current infection intensity but were independent of host age, sex and HIV status. Furthermore, after allowing for the confounding effects of schistosome infection intensity, ANA levels were inversely associated with systemic levels of IL-10. ANA levels increased significantly 6 months after anti-helminthic treatment. Our study shows that ANA levels are attenuated in helminth-infected humans and that anti-helminthic treatment of helminth-infected people can significantly increase ANA levels. The implications of these findings are relevant for understanding both the aetiology of immune disorders mediated by auto-reactive antibodies and in predicting the long-term consequences of large-scale schistosomiasis control programs.

  17. Assimilation and water relations of dryland castor at different intensities of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Venkateswarlu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Primary racemes of dryland castor develop during later part of rainy season and secondaries and tertiaries develop during post-rainy season. The reproductive phase is therefore subjected to variation in soil moisture availability and solar radiation intensity. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of fluctuation in solar radiation intensity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transpiration efficiency, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential during early and late reproductive phase of castor. When photosynthetically active radiation was less than 1000 mu-mol m-2s-1, transpiration efficiency decreased because reduction in photosynthesis rate was more than that in transpiration rate. Transpiration efficiency also decreased, when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1 because of increase only in transpiration rate. Leaf water potential was higher during early than during late reproductive phase at similar radiation intensity. Transpiration rate was lower and transpiration efficiency was more during early phase when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1. Photosynthetically active radiation and leaf water potential were inversely related

  18. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Liat; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2018-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD), and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187) self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy), stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78) reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming), emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in dissociation and

  19. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Aviram

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucid dreaming (LD is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD, and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187 self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy, stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78 reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming, emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in

  20. Consistency of neutron and proton capture intensity standards new relative intensities for 56Co, 66Ga decay and 35Cl(n,γ) reaction gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Z.; Belgya, T.

    2000-01-01

    The equivalence of efficiency determination procedures based on neutron and proton capture lines has been verified and the deviation of high-energy efficiency from linearity confirmed. The new, accurate relative intensities for 56 Co and 66 Ga extend the range of secondary radioactive standards up to 4.8 MeV. Extreme care has to be taken with any high-energy intensity value obtained in the past with the help of 56 Co and 66 Ga calibration sources, and corrections have to be made using the present data of high accuracy. Relative intensities have also been improved for the 35 Cl(n,γ) reaction, a useful secondary standard in a wide energy range, between 0.3-8.5 MeV. The new data are supported by other most recent measurements of a slightly lower precision

  1. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Graczyk; Maria Pąchalska; Artur Ziółkowski; Grzegorz Mańko; Beata Łukaszewska; Kazimierz Kochanowicz; Andrzej Mirski; Iurii D. Kropotov

    2014-01-01

    [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneou...

  2. Patellar tendon properties distinguish elite from non-elite soccer players and are related to peak horizontal but not vertical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Conall F; Stubbs, Michael; Vanrenterghem, Jos; O'Boyle, Andrew; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Erskine, Robert M

    2018-06-02

    To investigate potential differences in patellar tendon properties between elite and non-elite soccer players, and to establish whether tendon properties were related to power assessed during unilateral jumps performed in different directions. Elite (n = 16; age 18.1 ± 1.0 years) and non-elite (n = 13; age 22.3 ± 2.7 years) soccer players performed vertical, horizontal-forward and medial unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs) on a force plate. Patellar tendon (PT) cross-sectional area, elongation, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus (measured at the highest common force interval) were assessed with ultrasonography and isokinetic dynamometry. Elite demonstrated greater PT elongation (6.83 ± 1.87 vs. 4.92 ± 1.88 mm, P = 0.011) and strain (11.73 ± 3.25 vs. 8.38 ± 3.06%, P = 0.009) than non-elite soccer players. Projectile range and peak horizontal power during horizontal-forward CMJ correlated positively with tendon elongation (r = 0.657 and 0.693, P < 0.001) but inversely with Young's modulus (r = - 0.376 and - 0.402; P = 0.044 and 0.031). Peak medial power during medial CMJ correlated positively with tendon elongation (r = 0.658, P < 0.001) but inversely with tendon stiffness (r = - 0.368, P = 0.050). Not only does a more compliant patellar tendon appear to be an indicator of elite soccer playing status but it may also facilitate unilateral horizontal-forward and medial, but not vertical CMJ performance. These findings should be considered when prescribing talent selection and development protocols related to direction-specific power in elite soccer players.

  3. CGRO/BATSE Data Support the New Paradigm For GRB Prompt Emission and the New L-i(nTh)-E-peak,i(nTh,rest) Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiriec, S.; Gonzalez, M.M.; Sacahui, J.R.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm for gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission is changing. Since early in the Compton Gamma RayObservatory (CGRO) era, the empirical Band function has been considered a good description of the keV-MeV-gamma-ray prompt emission spectra despite the fact that its shape was very often inconsistent with the theoretical predictions, especially those expected in pure synchrotron emission scenarios. We have recently established a new observational model analyzing data of the NASA Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In this model, GRB prompt emission would be a combination of three main emission components: (i) a thermal-like component that we have interpreted so far as emission from the jet photosphere, (ii) a non-thermal component that we have interpreted so far as either synchrotron radiation from the propagating and accelerated charged particles within the jet or reprocessed jet photospheric emission, and (iii) an additional non-thermal (cutoff) power law (PL) extending from low to high energies in gamma-rays and most likely of inverse Compton origin. In this article we reanalyze some of the bright GRBs, namely GRBs 941017, 970111, and 990123, observed with the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board CGRO with the new model. We conclude that BATSE data for these three GRBs are fully consistent with the recent results obtained with Fermi: some bright BATSE GRBs exhibit three separate components during the prompt phase with similar spectral parameters as those reported from Fermi data. In addition, the analysis of the BATSE GRBs with the new prompt emission model results in a relation between the time-resolved energy flux of the non-thermal component, F(in)(Th), and its corresponding nuFnu spectral peak energy,Epeak,inTh (i.e., FinThEpeak,inTh ), which has a similar index when fitted to a PL as the one initially derived from Fermi data. For GRBs with known redshifts (z) this results in a possible universal relation between the luminosity of the non

  4. Role of soil biology and soil functions in relation to land use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Giulia; Wall, David; Bacher, Matthias; Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Graça, Jessica; Marongiu, Irene; Creamer, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The delivery of the ecosystem's functions is predominantly controlled by soil biology. The biology found in a gram of soil contains more than ten thousand individual species of bacteria and fungi (Torsvik et al., 1990). Understanding the role and the requirements of these organisms is essential for the protection and the sustainable use of soils. Soil biology represents the engine of all the processes occurring in the soil and it supports the ecosystem services such as: 1) nutrient mineralisation 2) plant production 3) water purification and regulation and 4) carbon cycling and storage. During the last years land management type and intensity have been identified as major drivers for microbial performance in soil. For this reason land management needs to be appropriately studied to understand the role of soil biology within this complex interplay of functions. We aimed to study whether and how land management drives soil biological processes and related functions. To reach this objective we built a land use intensity index (LUI) able to quantify the impact of the common farming practices carried out in Irish grassland soils. The LUI is derived from a detailed farmer questionnaire on grassland management practices at 38 farms distributed in the five major agro-climatic regions of Ireland defined by Holden and Brereton (2004). Soils were classified based on their drainage status according to the Irish Soil Information System by Creamer et al. (2014). This detailed questionnaire is then summarised into 3 management intensity components: (i) intensity of Fertilisation (Fi), (ii) frequency of Mowing (Mi) and (iii) intensity of Livestock Grazing (Gi). Sites were sampled to assess the impact of land management intensity on microbial community structure and enzyme behaviour in relation to nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycling. Preliminary results for enzymes linked to C and N cycles showed higher activity in relation to low grazing pressure (low Gi). Enzymes linked to P

  5. The communication between patient relatives and physicians in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicekci, Faruk; Duran, Numan; Ayhan, Bunyamin; Arican, Sule; Ilban, Omur; Kara, Iskender; Turkoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Fatma; Hasirci, Ismail; Karaibrahimoglu, Adnan; Kara, Inci

    2017-07-17

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians. The questionnaire included three sub-dimensions: informing, empathy and trust. The study included 181 patient relatives and 103 ICU physicians from three different cities and six hospitals. Based on the results of the questionnaire, identification of the mutual expectations and substance of the messages involved in the communication process between the ICU patients' relatives and physicians was made. The gender and various disciplines of the physicians and the time of the conversation with the patients' relatives were found to affect the communication attitude towards the patient. Moreover, the age of the patient's relatives, the level of education, the physician's perception, and the contact frequency with the patient when he/she was healthy were also proven to have an impact on the communication attitude of the physician. This study demonstrates the mutual expectations and substance of messages in the informing, empathy and trust sub-dimensions of the communication process between patient relatives and physicians in the ICU. The communication between patient relatives and physicians can be strengthened through a variety of training programs to improve communication skills.

  6. Competitive state anxiety and self-confidence: intensity and direction as relative predictors of performance on a golf putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sean T; Hale, Bruce D

    2007-06-01

    This study considered relationships between the intensity and directional aspects of competitive state anxiety as measured by the modified Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory-2(D) (Jones & Swain, 1992) in a sample of 12 experienced male golfers. Anxiety and performance scores from identical putting tasks performed under three different anxiety-manipulated competitive conditions were used to assess both the predictions of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens et al., 1990) and the relative value of intensity and direction in explaining performance variance. A within-subjects regression analysis of the intra-individual data showed partial support for the three MAT hypotheses. Cognitive anxiety intensity demonstrated a negative linear relationship with performance, somatic anxiety intensity showed a curvilinear relationship with performance, and self-confidence intensity revealed a positive linear relation. Cognitive directional anxiety illustrated a positive linear relationship with putting performance. Multiple regression analyses indicated that direction (42% of variance) was a better predictor of performance than intensity (22%).

  7. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  8. Karoshi Related to Labor Intensity and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning-guo; Wang, Tao; Huang, Pingf; Qing, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Jian-hua; Chen, Yi-jiu

    2015-10-01

    Karoshi remains one of the most troublesome issues in forensic identification. It is rather a social medicine than a clinical disease. Japanese scholars pioneered examining the relation between sud- den cardiac death (SCD) and chronic fatigue from long time and/or high-tension work. In the current case, a 55-year-old man, whose job was loading and carrying heavy cement bags, was found dead after 11 days of continuous hard work. His family members sued the cement factory for his death and claimed for compensation. The problem was the difficulty of identifying the causative relation without the precedent or the relevant regulations. However, the forensic problems were finally acknowledged after autopsy and calculation of labor intensity. The lawsuit was won as the first case pertaining to Karoshi in the Chinese court.

  9. The meaning and importance of vigilant attendance for the relatives of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Sotirios; Taket, Ann; Cant, Bob; Fouka, Georgia; Vardaki, Zambia

    2014-09-01

    To explore the meaning of vigilant attendance for relatives of critically ill patients in Greece. A plethora of international research has identified proximity to the patient to be a major concern for relatives of critically ill patients. Greece however follows a strict visiting policy in intensive care units (ICUs) so Greek relatives spend great amounts of time just outside the ICUs. This qualitative study adopted the social constructionist version of grounded theory. Data were collected from three ICUs in Athens through in depth interviews with 25 informants and approximately 10 h of observations outside the ICUs on 159 relatives. Vigilant attendance was one of the main coping mechanisms identified for relatives. Four subcategories were found to comprise vigilant attendance: (1) being as close as possible to feel relief, (2) being there to find out what is going on, (3) monitoring changes in the loved one and making own diagnosis and (4) interacting with the ICU professionals. Vigilant attendance describes the way in which relatives in Greece stayed outside the ICUs. Relatives felt satisfaction from being close as the best alternative for not actually being inside the ICU and they tried to learn what was going on by alternative methods. By seeing the patients, relatives were also able to make their own diagnoses and could therefore avoid relying solely on information given to them. However, a prerequisite for successful vigilant attendance was to get on well with doctors and nurses. Changes in visiting policies in Greece are needed to meet the needs of relatives adequately. Recommendations for changes with minimal investment of time and funding are made. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  10. Characterization of a multilayer ionization chamber prototype for fast verification of relative depth ionization curves and spread-out-Bragg-peaks in light ion beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Alfredo; Magro, Giuseppe; Lavagno, Marco; Mairani, Andrea; Molinelli, Silvia; Russo, Stefania; Mastella, Edoardo; Vai, Alessandro; Maestri, Davide; La Rosa, Vanessa; Ciocca, Mario

    2018-05-01

    To dosimetrically characterize a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) prototype for quality assurance (QA) of pristine integral ionization curves (ICs) and spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs) for scanning light ion beams. QUBE (De.Tec.Tor., Torino, Italy) is a modular detector designed for QA in particle therapy (PT). Its main module is a MLIC detector, able to evaluate particle beam relative depth ionization distributions at different beam energies and modulations. The charge collecting electrodes are made of aluminum, for a nominal water equivalent thickness (WET) of ~75 mm. The detector prototype was calibrated by acquiring the signals in the initial plateau region of a pristine BP and in terms of WET. Successively, it was characterized in terms of repeatability response, linearity, short-term stability and dose rate dependence. Beam-induced measurements of activation in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate were also performed. To increase the detector coarse native spatial resolution (~2.3 mm), several consecutive acquisitions with a set of certified 0.175-mm-thick PMMA sheets (Goodfellow, Cambridge Limited, UK), placed in front of the QUBE mylar entrance window, were performed. The ICs/SOBPs were achieved as the result of the sum of the set of measurements, made up of a one-by-one PMMA layer acquisition. The newly obtained detector spatial resolution allowed the experimental measurements to be properly comparable against the reference curves acquired in water with the PTW Peakfinder. Furthermore, QUBE detector was modeled in the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code following the technical design details and ICs/SOBPs were calculated. Measurements showed a high repeatability: mean relative standard deviation within ±0.5% for all channels and both particle types. Moreover, the detector response was linear with dose (R 2  > 0.998) and independent on the dose rate. The mean deviation over the channel-by-channel readout respect to the reference beam flux (100%) was equal

  11. Validation of sleep-2-Peak: A smartphone application that can detect fatigue-related changes in reaction times during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jean-François; Dagenais, Dominique; Therrien, Marc; Gartenberg, Daniel; Forest, Geneviève

    2017-08-01

    Despite its high sensitivity and validity in the context of sleep loss, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) could be improved. The aim of the present study was to validate a new smartphone PVT-type application called sleep-2-Peak (s2P) by determining its ability to assess fatigue-related changes in alertness in a context of extended wakefulness. Short 3-min versions of s2P and of the classic PVT were administered at every even hour during a 35-h total sleep deprivation protocol. In addition, subjective measures of sleepiness were collected. The outcomes on these tests were then compared using Pearson product-moment correlations, t tests, and repeated measures within-groups analyses of variance. The results showed that both tests significantly correlated on all outcome variables, that both significantly distinguished between the alert and sleepy states in the same individual, and that both varied similarly through the sleep deprivation protocol as sleep loss accumulated. All outcome variables on both tests also correlated significantly with the subjective measures of sleepiness. These results suggest that a 3-min version of s2P is a valid tool for differentiating alert from sleepy states and is as sensitive as the PVT for tracking fatigue-related changes during extended wakefulness and sleep loss. Unlike the PVT, s2P does not provide feedback to subjects on each trial. We discuss how this feature of s2P raises the possibility that the performance results measured by s2P could be less impacted by motivational confounds, giving this tool added value in particular clinical and/or research settings.

  12. Problematic issues of air protection during thermal processes related to the energetic uses of sewage sludge and other waste. Case study: Co-combustion in peaking power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj; Musil, Juraj

    2018-03-01

    Currently, it is necessary to deal with issues related to the emissions as there is a constantly increasing interest in combusting sludge from sewage treatment plants in the boilers for wood. An analysis of the energetic importance of the combustion of sewage sludge has already been carried out, but the effects of various treatments of the sludge are not always clear, e.g. composting and subsequent combustion to the air pollution. Investments in other thermal processes of energetic utilisation of sewage sludge and organic waste are not always successfully implemented. The objective of this paper is to point out some problematic cases for acceptance of thermal processes related to energetic use of waste in terms of the air protection. The other aim is to mention the experience with solutions of such issues in Slovakia. There are mentioned first results of the operational validation experiments during the energy generation in circulating fluidized bed boiler in peaking power plant (Power 110MW) with the addition of the so-called alternative fuel based on wood and sewage sludge to the main fuel - black coal (anthracite). And there has already been achieved the highest share of 12.4%w. (dry matter) of sewage sludge in form of compost in blend with black coal, which is technologically viable. Moreover analyzed the problems of the authorization and operation of the co-combustion of sewage sludge and of combustion of products of various kinds of pyrolysis waste - pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis oil are analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2018-04-03

    The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm extension movements were associated with predictable and unpredictable electrocutaneous pain or its absence. During a subsequent test phase non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli with a high or low intensity were presented during movement execution. We used hierarchical drift diffusion modeling to examine the influence of expecting pain on the perceptual decision-making process underlying intensity perception of non-painful sensations. In the first experiment (n=36), the pain stimulus was never presented during the test phase after conditioning. In the second experiment (n=39), partial reinforcement was adopted to prevent extinction of pain expectations. In both experiments, movements that were associated with (un)predictable pain led to higher pain-expectancy, self-reported fear, unpleasantness and arousal, as compared to movements that were never paired with pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .119 - .557; all p-values threat of the pain US remained present - we found that the expectation of pain affected decision-making. Compared to the no pain condition, an a priori decision-making bias towards the high intensity decision threshold was found with the strongest bias during unpredictable pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .469 - .504; all p-values affects inferential processes for subsequent painful but also for non-painful bodily stimuli, with unpredictability moderating these effects, and only when the threat of pain remains present due to partial reinforcement.

  14. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  15. Barbara's story: a thematic analysis of a relative's reflection of being in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Probst, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this reflective account is to provide a view of the intensive care unit (ICU) relative's experiences of supporting and being supported in the ICU. Understanding the relatives' experiences of ICU is important especially because a recent work has identified the potential for this group to develop post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition that is normally equated with the ICU survivor. A thematic analysis was used in identifying emerging themes that would be significant in an ICU nursing context. The incident took place in two 8-bedded ICUs (Private and National Health Service) in October. Two emergent themes were identified from the reflective story - fear of the technological environment and feeling hopeless and helpless. The use of relative stories as an insight into the live experiences of ICU relatives may give a deeper understanding of their life-world. The loneliness, anguish and pain of the ICU relative extends beyond the walls of the ICU, and this is often negated as the focus of the ICU team is the patient. Developing strategies to support relatives might include the use of relative diaries used concurrently with patient diaries to support this groups recovery or at the very least a gaining a sense of understanding for their ICU experience. Relative follow-up clinics designed specifically to meet their needs where support and advice can be given by the ICU team, in addition to making timely and appropriate referrals to counselling services and perhaps involving spiritual leaders where appropriate. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  16. The relative-intensity method of X-ray fluorescence analysis and its application to soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, C.W.; Furkert, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative-intensity X-ray fluorescence method of analysis of rock and soil samples has been investigated and compared with the net-intensity method. Strong, coherently scattered radiation originating from the X-ray tube is shown to be preferable to background radiation as an internal standard, and scattered radiation measured at one wavelength can usefully be applied in the determination of several elements. When the concentrations of an element in two soil samples of different composition (for example concretions and the soil adjacent to them) are compared, the ratio of the relative intensities may be different from the ratio of net intensities by a factor of about two. The concentrations of manganese in thirteen standard rock samples determined by the relative-intensity method are within or very close to the ranges of values reported previously

  17. Coping With Staff Burnout and Work-Related Posttraumatic Stress in Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville, Gillian A; Smith, Jared G; Brierley, Joe; Citron, Kim; Nguru, Noreen M; Shaunak, Priyanka D; Tam, Olivia; Perkins-Porras, Linda

    2017-07-01

    To examine the associations with symptoms of 1) burnout and 2) work-related posttraumatic stress, in adult and pediatric intensive care staff, focusing on the particular contributions of resilience and coping strategies. Point prevalence cross-sectional study. Three adult ICUs and four PICUs. Three hundred seventy-seven ICU staff. None. Brief Resilience Scale, abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, Trauma Screening Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Prevalence of burnout (defined as high emotional exhaustion or high depersonalization) was 37%. Prevalence of clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms was 13%. There was a degree of overlap between burnout and other measures of distress, most notably for anxiety (odds ratio, 10.56; 95% CI, 4.12-27.02; p work-related distress (burnout: odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36-0.74; p stress: odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.46; p stress were less if staff used talking to seniors (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.92; p = 0.029) or hobbies (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23-0.93; p = 0.030) to cope with stress at work. Venting emotion (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.12-3.31; p = 0.018) and using alcohol (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.26-4.20; p = 0.006) were associated with a doubling in risk of reporting burnout. The use of particular coping strategies was systematically associated with symptoms of burnout and work-related posttraumatic stress in this group of intensive care staff, even after controlling for resilience and other factors. More research on how best to promote adaptive coping is needed in these challenging settings.

  18. Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Satomi; Takeda, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi; Carrara, Fernanda Souza Angotti; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; Zanei, Suely Sueko Viski; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium. Of the total 149 patients in the sample, 69 (46.3%) presented delirium during ICU stay, whose mean age, severity of illness and length of ICU stay were statistically higher. The factors related to delirium were: age, midazolam, morphine and propofol. Results showed high incidence of ICU delirium associated with older age, use of sedatives and analgesics, emphasizing the need for relevant nursing care to prevent and identify early, patients presenting these characteristics. Identificar a incidência de delirium, comparar as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes com e sem delirium e verificar os fatores relacionados ao delirium em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Coorte prospectiva, cuja amostra foi constituída de pacientes internados em UTI de um hospital universitário. Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e da avaliação com o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit para identificação de delirium foram processadas para análise univariada, e regressão logística para identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência do delirium. Do total de 149 pacientes da amostra, 69 (46,3%) apresentaram delirium durante a internação na UTI, observando-se que a média da idade, o índice de gravidade e o tempo de permanência nas UTI foram estatisticamente maiores. Os fatores relacionados ao delirium foram: idade, midazolam, morfina e propofol. Os

  19. Retention predictors related to intensive outpatient programs for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, L J; Remley, T P; Kippers, S M; Sorg, J D

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to expand knowledge in the current literature regarding treatment retention in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. The sample in this study participated in a hospital-based program accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation for Health Organizations (JCAHO) that utilized the Minnesota model. Specifically, this inquiry investigated whether treatment retention would be predicted by gender, age, employment status, number of problems on the treatment plan, whether the referral was related to driving while intoxicated (DWI), marital status, race, and whether each of the following substance problems was listed as the client's primary DSM-IV diagnosis: alcohol dependence, cocaine dependence, polysubstance dependence, opioid dependence, sedative/hypnotic dependence, cannabis dependence, other (or unknown) dependence, alcohol abuse, cannabis abuse, amphetamine abuse, and caffeine intoxication. Findings indicated that those retained in treatment, when compared to those who dropped out, had significantly more problems on their treatment plans, were more likely to be alcoholics, were less often cocaine addicts, and were more likely to be employed. The results of this study suggest that clients with this profile have increased likelihood of being retained in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

  20. Health-related quality of life after prolonged pediatric intensive care unit stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Niamh P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for patients requiring at least 28 days of pediatric intensive care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: A 21-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-three patients who spent 28 days or longer in the PICU between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds QL 4.0) parent-proxy version at 2 to 10 yrs after discharge. The PedsQL 4.0 is a modular measure of HRQOL, which is reliable in children aged 2 to 18 yrs. It generates a total score and physical, emotional, social, school, and psychosocial subscores. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 41 died during their PICU admission and 27 died between PICU discharge and follow-up. Quality of life questionnaires were posted to parents of 108 of the 125 survivors and 70 were returned completed. Forty children (57.1%) had scores indicating a normal quality of life, whereas 30 (42.9%) had scores indicating impaired HRQOL. Of these, 14 (20%) had scores indicating poor quality of life with ongoing disabling health problems requiring hospitalization or the equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while long PICU stay is associated with significant mortality, the long-term HRQOL is normal for the majority of surviving children.

  1. The Attachment Imperative: Parental Experiences of Relation-making in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navne, Laura E; Svendsen, Mette N; Gammeltoft, Tine M

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we explore how parents establish relations with extremely premature infants whose lives and futures are uncertain. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), we engage recent discussions of the limits of conventional anthropological thinking on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment. Such "cuts" in parent-infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as "maybe-lives" by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for "maybe-parents." © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  2. Relative Biological Effectiveness Variation Along Monoenergetic and Modulated Bragg Peaks of a 62-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beam: A Preclinical Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Marshall, Thomas I.; Perozziello, Francesca M.; Manti, Lorenzo; Currell, Frederick J.; Hanton, Fiona; McMahon, Stephen J.; Kavanagh, Joy N.; Cirrone, Giuseppe Antonio Pablo; Romano, Francesco; Prise, Kevin M.; Schettino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The biological optimization of proton therapy can be achieved only through a detailed evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) variations along the full range of the Bragg curve. The clinically used RBE value of 1.1 represents a broad average, which disregards the steep rise of linear energy transfer (LET) at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). With particular attention to the key endpoint of cell survival, our work presents a comparative investigation of cell killing RBE variations along monoenergetic (pristine) and modulated (SOBP) beams using human normal and radioresistant cells with the aim to investigate the RBE dependence on LET and intrinsic radiosensitvity. Methods and Materials: Human fibroblasts (AG01522) and glioma (U87) cells were irradiated at 6 depth positions along pristine and modulated 62-MeV proton beams at the INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy). Cell killing RBE variations were measured using standard clonogenic assays and were further validated using Monte Carlo simulations and the local effect model (LEM). Results: We observed significant cell killing RBE variations along the proton beam path, particularly in the distal region showing strong dose dependence. Experimental RBE values were in excellent agreement with the LEM predicted values, indicating dose-averaged LET as a suitable predictor of proton biological effectiveness. Data were also used to validate a parameterized RBE model. Conclusions: The predicted biological dose delivered to a tumor region, based on the variable RBE inferred from the data, varies significantly with respect to the clinically used constant RBE of 1.1. The significant RBE increase at the distal end suggests also a potential to enhance optimization of treatment modalities such as LET painting of hypoxic tumors. The study highlights the limitation of adoption of a constant RBE for proton therapy and suggests approaches for fast implementation of RBE models in treatment planning

  3. Long-term Modulation of Cosmic Ray Intensity in relation to Sunspot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it should be more closely connected with cosmic ray modulation than with other solar characteristics (sunspot numbers or coronal emission intensity). The intensity of galactic cosmic rays varies inversely with sunspot numbers, having their maximum intensity at the minimum of the 11-year sunspot cycle (Forbush 1954, 1958) ...

  4. Open intensive care units: a global challenge for patients, relatives, and critical care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Elena; Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Milanesio, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the current status of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours policies internationally and to explore the influence of ICUs' open visiting policies on patients', visitors', and staff perceptions, as well as on patients' outcomes. A review of the literature was done through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. The following keywords were searched: "visiting," "hours," "ICU," "policy," and "intensive care unit." Inclusion criteria for the review were original research paper, adult ICU, articles published in the last 10 years, English or Italian language, and available abstract. Twenty-nine original articles, mainly descriptive studies, were selected and retrieved. In international literature, there is a wide variability about open visiting policies in ICUs. The highest percentage of open ICUs is reported in Sweden (70%), whereas in Italy there is the lowest rate (1%). Visiting hours policies and number of allowed relatives are variable, from limits of short precise segments to 24 hours and usually 2 visitors. Open ICUs policy/guidelines acknowledge concerns with visitor hand washing to prevent the risk of infection transmission to patients. Patients, visitors, and staff seem to be inclined to support open ICU programs, although physicians are more inclined to the enhancement of visiting hours than nurses. The percentages of open ICUs are very different among countries. It can be due to local factors, cultural differences, and lack of legislation or hospital policy. There is a need for more studies about the impact of open ICUs programs on patients' mortality, length of stay, infections' risk, and the mental health of patients and their relatives.

  5. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  6. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Definition of dose intensity (DI), average relative DI and effective DI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, P.

    1995-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of cancer chemotherapy is related to the dose and to the amount of drug delivered per time unit. the significance of time in the effectiveness of a treatment program is frequently overlooked. The term of dose intensity (DI) is used to define the drug dose delivered per time unit and is expressed as mg/m 2 per week. A delay in the sequence of treatment cycles decreases the DI in the DI in the same proportion as a reduction of dose. Average relative DI corresponds to the mean DI of combined agents and is expressed as a fraction of a similar combination selected as a standard. Di is useful to compare the dose actually received with the prescribed dose. The relation of DI with tumor response or survival has not been fully demonstrated. A threshold DI level for therapeutic activity is evident. Above this threshold, a linear relationship of DI and effectiveness is not obvious, particularly regarding high-dose chemotherapy. The term of DI is more useful in its principle than in the significance of its calculated value. (authors). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  9. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  10. Counterbalancing work-related stress? Work engagement among intensive care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2018-07-01

    Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need

  11. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author)

  12. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K. (Ghana Univ., Legon (Ghana). Dept. of Physics)

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author).

  13. The peak in neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laar, B. van; Yelon, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    For the application of Rietveld profile analysis to neutron powder diffraction data a precise knowledge of the peak profile, in both shape and position, is required. The method now in use employs a Gaussian shaped profile with a semi-empirical asymmetry correction for low-angle peaks. The integrated intensity is taken to be proportional to the classical Lorentz factor calculated for the X-ray case. In this paper an exact expression is given for the peak profile based upon the geometrical dimensions of the diffractometer. It is shown that the asymmetry of observed peaks is well reproduced by this expression. The angular displacement of the experimental profile with respect to the nominal Bragg angle value is larger than expected. Values for the correction to the classical Lorentz factor for the integrated intensity are given. The exact peak profile expression has been incorporated into a Rietveld profile analysis refinement program. (Auth.)

  14. Relative signal intensity changes of frontal and occipital white matters on T 2 weighted axial MR image : correlation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Me; Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess relative signal intensity changes in frontal and occipital white matter with age, as seen on T 2 weighted axial MR images. Thirty eight normal adults (20-29 years old) and 114 children (0-11 years old) were investigated. All had nonspecific neurologic symptoms and their MR images, obtained using a 1.5 T system (Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.), appeared to be normal. The signal intensities of frontal and occipital white matter were evaluated on T2 weighted axial images at the level of the foramen of Monro. When the signal intensity of white matter was higher than that of gray matter, grade 0 was assigned; when the opposite situation pertained, this was graded I - III. Grade I indicated that the signal intensity of occipital white matter was lower than that of frontal white matter; grade II, that the signal intensity of white matter of both lobes was similar. When the signal intensity of frontal white matter was lower than that of occipital age, and by one year after 2 years of age, and then determined grade according to age, age distribution according to grade, and the ages at which signal intensities were similar to those of adults. On T2-weighted MR images, the signal intensity of frontal white matter ultimately shows a lower signal intensity than that of occipital white matter. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  15. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  16. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  17. The intermediate polar GK Persei: An unstable relation of the X-ray and the optical intensities in a series of outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2015-03-01

    Context. GK Per is an intermediate polar that has been displaying dwarf nova outbursts since the middle of the twentieth century. Aims: I analyzed a series of such outbursts in the optical and X-ray bands. I pay attention to the relation of intensities of the optical and X-ray emissions, and its reproducibility in a series of these consecutive outbursts. Methods: This analysis uses the data from the BAT/Swift, ASM/RXTE, AAVSO, and AFOEV databases. It investigates the relation of the time evolution of the profiles of outbursts in the individual bands (hard X-ray, medium/hard X-ray, and optical). Results: This analysis shows that the X-ray intensity steeply rises only in the start of the optical outburst and steeply declines only when the optical outburst comes to its end. However, the 1.5-50 keV band intensity saturates and balances on a plateau during the outburst. (The longer the outburst, the longer its plateau.) The peak X-ray intensities of this series display a significantly narrower range than the optical ones (a factor of about two versus a factor of about eight). This implies a discrepancy between the mass flow through the disk and the production of the X-ray emission via bremsstrahlung at the polar caps of the white dwarf. This discrepancy is the largest in the time of the peak optical intensity when the whole disk (or at least its inner part) is in the hot state and the flow of matter through the disk is the greatest. This study shows that a series of outbursts constitutes more general properties of this discrepancy. I argue that the saturation of the X-ray luminosity in outburst cannot be caused by a dominant increase in X-ray absorption. In the interpretation, large structural changes of the accreting regions at the magnetic poles of the white dwarf occur during the outburst. A buried shock proposed by some authors for polars is also promising for explaining the X-ray light curves of outbursts of GK Per. This research made use of the BAT/Swift, ASM

  18. Virtual water flows related to land use in an intensive agriculture in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, A.; Schneider, K.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to low annual precipitation, agricultural production in Uzbekistan is depending on irrigation from the Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers to a great deal. One of the most important cash crops of the country is cotton. Current irrigation management leads to elevated groundwater levels, salinization of soils and to a degradation of soil and water resources. Through export of cotton and other crops, the problems related to water consumption and water management are transported beyond the producing country. The amount of water transported through production and export is referred to as virtual water. To distinguish between productive and unproductive partitioning of water flows, the terms green and blue water have been introduced. Information on virtual water flows due to crop production usually only exist on country level. To reduce uncertainties related to generalization, the effect of land management and environmental factors on the partitioning of water flows needs to be studied on smaller scales. The presented study analyzes water fluxes in an intensively used agricultural area in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. The study aims to a) quantify crop specific water consumption in agricultural production under current management and b) analyze water use efficiency as subject to land use and irrigation management. Based on crop production, irrigation management and environmental conditions in the study area, virtual water flows will be calculated on the level of agricultural collectives (Water Users Associations). In a further step, the partitioning of green and blue water fluxes will be quantified. Alternative scenarios for improved water management will be analyzed in a model study.

  19. Lower extremity injury in female basketball players is related to a large difference in peak eversion torque between barefoot and shod conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Yentes

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: It is possible that a large discrepancy between strength in barefoot and shod conditions can predispose an athlete to injury. Narrowing the difference in peak eversion torque between barefoot and shod could decrease propensity to injury. Future work should investigate the effect of restoration of muscular strength during barefoot and shod exercise on injury rates.

  20. A high-resolution peak fractionation approach for streamlined screening of nuclear-factor-E2-related factor-2 activators in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Luo, Li-Ping; Song, Hui-Peng; Hao, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-24

    Generation of a high-purity fraction library for efficiently screening active compounds from natural products is challenging because of their chemical diversity and complex matrices. In this work, a strategy combining high-resolution peak fractionation (HRPF) with a cell-based assay was proposed for target screening of bioactive constituents from natural products. In this approach, peak fractionation was conducted under chromatographic conditions optimized for high-resolution separation of the natural product extract. The HRPF approach was automatically performed according to the predefinition of certain peaks based on their retention times from a reference chromatographic profile. The corresponding HRPF database was collected with a parallel mass spectrometer to ensure purity and characterize the structures of compounds in the various fractions. Using this approach, a set of 75 peak fractions on the microgram scale was generated from 4mg of the extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza. After screening by an ARE-luciferase reporter gene assay, 20 diterpene quinones were selected and identified, and 16 of these compounds were reported to possess novel Nrf2 activation activity. Compared with conventional fixed-time interval fractionation, the HRPF approach could significantly improve the efficiency of bioactive compound discovery and facilitate the uncovering of minor active components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...... fokuspersonen ønsker at tage op (nye mål eller nye processer). Nærværende workingpaper beskriver, hvad der menes med et peak-interview, peakinterviwets teoretiske fundament samt metodikken til at foretage et tillidsfuldt og effektiv peak-interview....

  2. [Post-traumatic stress disorder-related to intensive care stay: influence of sedation practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerheim, Nadège; Masseret, Elodie; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dequin, Pierre-François; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-03-01

    The stay in intensive care unit can be potentially traumatic at the origin of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms is linked to the intensity and the type of traumatic memories of the intensive care stay. Sedatives and analgesics given to ventilated patients in intensive care influence the traumatic memory. The level, the duration and the type of sedation-analgesia protocol are risk factors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Links between sedation, dissociative symptoms, delirium and post-traumatic stress symptoms are documented. Environmental and pharmacological measures are to be considered to reduce the traumatic potential risk of the intensive care. Intensive care caregivers, liaison-psychiatrist and general practitioner have each a specific role to play in the screening of the post-traumatic stress symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of high-intensity statin therapy on atherosclerosis in non-infarct-related coronary arteries (IBIS-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Taniwaki, Masanori; Zaugg, Serge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition, and phen......AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition......-infarct-related epicardial coronary arteries (non-IRA) after successful primary PCI. Patients were treated with high-intensity rosuvastatin (40 mg/day) throughout 13 months and serial intracoronary imaging with the analysis of matched segments was available for 82 patients with 146 non-IRA. The primary IVUS end...

  4. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  5. Prospective study of device-related complications in intensive care unit detected by virtual autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, D; Heinemann, A; Zähler, S; Vogel, H; Höpker, W; Püschel, K; Kluge, S

    2018-06-01

    There has been increasing use of invasive techniques, such as extracorporeal organ support, in intensive care units (ICU), and declining autopsy rates. Thus, new measures are needed to maintain high-quality standards. We investigated the potential of computed tomography (CT)-based virtual autopsy to substitute for medical autopsy in this setting. We investigated the potential of virtual autopsy by post-mortem CT to identify complications associated with medical devices in a prospective study of patients who had died in the ICU. Clinical records were reviewed to determine the number and types of medical devices used, and findings from medical and virtual autopsies, related and unrelated to the medical devices, were compared. Medical and virtual autopsies could be performed in 61 patients (Group M/V), and virtual autopsy only in 101 patients (Group V). In Group M/V, 41 device-related complications and 30 device malpositions were identified, but only with a low inter-method agreement. Major findings unrelated to a device were identified in about 25% of patients with a high level of agreement between methods. In Group V, 8 device complications and 36 device malpositions were identified. Device-related complications are frequent in ICU patients. Virtual and medical autopsies showed clear differences in the detection of complications and device malpositions. Both methods should supplement each other rather than one alone for quality control of medical devices in the ICU. Further studies should focus on the identification of special patient populations in which virtual autopsy might be of particular benefit. NCT01541982. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of peaks of high temperature in TLD-100 dosemeters; Eficiencias termoluminiscentes relativas proton/gamma y helio/gamma de picos de alta temperatura en dosimetros TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores M, E. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The increase of the applications of ion beams in radiotherapy treatments has generated interest in the study of the thermoluminescent materials (TL) that allow to determine the applied doses. A way to quantify the TL response from these materials to ions is by means of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency. In the group of Thermoluminescent dosimetry of the Institute of Physics of the UNAM (IFUNAM) the thermoluminescent response of the TLD-100 dosemeters has been studied, which present a glow curve characteristic with several peaks that correspond to traps and luminescent centers in the material. The stable peaks know each other as 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The efficiencies should be measured using the response so much to the radiation of interest (in this case protons and helium ions) as the response to gamma radiation. In previous works with ions of low energy taken place in the Pelletron accelerator of the IFUNAM was only measured the TL efficiency for the peak 5 and the total signal. It had not been possible to measure the efficiency of the peaks of high temperature (6a-10) because, for the gamma radiation, the peaks of high temperature show very small signals; however, recently Massillon carries out measures of efficiency TL of peaks of high temperature for ions of intermediate energy using a protocol special of reading and of deconvolution that allows to measure the signals coming from the peaks of high temperature. In this work is implemented this same protocol to complete the study of TL efficiencies at low energy of protons and helium and to determine if the values of efficiency depend on the used reading protocol. For it is reported it measures of the relative efficiency of the peaks of high temperature from the TLD-100 exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and nuclei of helium of 3 and 7.5 MeV. (Author)

  7. Peak tree: a new tool for multiscale hierarchical representation and peak detection of mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Houqiang; Wang, Honghui; Wong, Stephen T C; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Peak detection is one of the most important steps in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. However, the detection result is greatly affected by severe spectrum variations. Unfortunately, most current peak detection methods are neither flexible enough to revise false detection results nor robust enough to resist spectrum variations. To improve flexibility, we introduce peak tree to represent the peak information in MS spectra. Each tree node is a peak judgment on a range of scales, and each tree decomposition, as a set of nodes, is a candidate peak detection result. To improve robustness, we combine peak detection and common peak alignment into a closed-loop framework, which finds the optimal decomposition via both peak intensity and common peak information. The common peak information is derived and loopily refined from the density clustering of the latest peak detection result. Finally, we present an improved ant colony optimization biomarker selection method to build a whole MS analysis system. Experiment shows that our peak detection method can better resist spectrum variations and provide higher sensitivity and lower false detection rates than conventional methods. The benefits from our peak-tree-based system for MS disease analysis are also proved on real SELDI data.

  8. Automated Peak Picking and Peak Integration in Macromolecular NMR Spectra Using AUTOPSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradi, Reto; Billeter, Martin; Engeli, Max; Güntert, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    1998-12-01

    A new approach for automated peak picking of multidimensional protein NMR spectra with strong overlap is introduced, which makes use of the program AUTOPSY (automatedpeak picking for NMRspectroscopy). The main elements of this program are a novel function for local noise level calculation, the use of symmetry considerations, and the use of lineshapes extracted from well-separated peaks for resolving groups of strongly overlapping peaks. The algorithm generates peak lists with precise chemical shift and integral intensities, and a reliability measure for the recognition of each peak. The results of automated peak picking of NOESY spectra with AUTOPSY were tested in combination with the combined automated NOESY cross peak assignment and structure calculation routine NOAH implemented in the program DYANA. The quality of the resulting structures was found to be comparable with those from corresponding data obtained with manual peak picking.

  9. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  10. Correction factors for {gamma}-ray relative intensities in the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Chasteler, R.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Laymon, C.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Weller, H.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Moore, E.F. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Bybee, C.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Drake, J.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Tilley, D.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Vavrina, G. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Wallace, P.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-16

    We present here strong evidence that recently published values for the relative intensities of {gamma}-ray lines in the {sup 66}Ga({beta}{sup +}+EC){sup 66}Zn decay are incorrect at the higher energies ({proportional_to}30% too low at 4.8 MeV). In particular, we find that our current results are consistent with a set of correction factors which were first suggested 20 years ago, but have gone largely ignored until now. Our validation of these little known correction factors will have bearing on experiments which use the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope to extrapolate absolute detector efficiencies to higher energies. In particular, we discuss the conclusions of a recent D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment which will be strongly affected by our current results. The astrophysical S-factor data derived from this D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment are now seen to be systematically too low by {proportional_to}30%. (orig.).

  11. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of operating licenses to the Texas Utilities Generating Company for the startup and operation of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station located on Squaw Creek Reservoir in Somervell County, Texas, about 7 km north-northeast of Glen Rose, Texas, and about 65 km southwest of Fort Worth in north-central Texas. The information in this environmental statement represents the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 of the Commission's Regulations. After receiving an application to construct this station, the staff carried out a review of impact that would occur during its construction and operation. This evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement -- Construction Phase. After this environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and public hearings in Glen Rose, Texas, the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) issued construction permits for the construction of Units 1 and 2 of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. 16 figs., 34 tabs

  12. Burnout in the neonatal intensive care unit and its relation to healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, D S; Sexton, J B; Kan, P; Sharek, P J; Nisbet, C C; Rigdon, J; Lee, H C; Profit, J

    2017-03-01

    To examine burnout prevalence among California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to test the relation between burnout and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Retrospective observational study of provider perceptions of burnout from 2073 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses and respiratory therapists, using a validated four-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relation between burnout and HAI rates among VLBW (<1500 g) neonates from each NICU was evaluated using multi-level logistic regression analysis with patient-level factors as fixed effects. We found variable prevalence of burnout across the NICUs surveyed (mean 25.2±10.1%). Healthcare-associated infection rates were 8.3±5.1% during the study period. Highest burnout prevalence was found among nurses, nurse practitioners and respiratory therapists (non-physicians, 28±11% vs 17±19% physicians), day shift workers (30±3% vs 25±4% night shift) and workers with 5 or more years of service (29±2% vs 16±6% in fewer than 3 years group). Overall burnout rates showed no correlation with risk-adjusted rates of HAIs (r=-0.133). Item-level analysis showed positive association between HAIs and perceptions of working too hard (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.28). Sensitivity analysis of high-volume NICUs suggested a moderate correlation between burnout prevalence and HAIs (r=0.34). Burnout is most prevalent among non-physicians, daytime workers and experienced workers. Perceptions of working too hard associate with increased HAIs in this cohort of VLBW infants, but overall burnout prevalence is not predictive.

  13. Nutritional decline in cystic fibrosis related diabetes: the effect of intensive nutritional intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, H

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that nutritional and respiratory decline occur up to four years prior to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Our aim was to establish whether intensive nutritional intervention prevents pre-diabetic nutritional decline in an adult population with CFRD. METHODS: 48 adult patients with CFRD were matched to 48 controls with CF, for age, gender and lung pathogen status. Nutritional and other clinical indices were recorded at annual intervals from six years before until two years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed to examine the impact of early and late acquisition of CFRD. RESULTS: No important differences in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lung function or intravenous treatment were found between groups in the six years prior to diagnosis, nor any significant deviation over time. In those who developed diabetes, use of overnight enteral tube feeding (ETF) was four times as likely at the time of diagnosis, compared to controls [ETF 43.8% (CFRD) v 18.8% (CF Controls), OR 4.0, CI 1.3 to 16.4, p=0.01]. Age at onset of CFRD played a significant role in determining the pre-diabetic clinical course. Younger diabetics with continued growth at study onset (n=17) had a lower BMI from 2 years prior to diagnosis compared to controls [BMI 18.9 kg\\/m(2) (CFRD) v 20.8 kg\\/m(2) (CF Controls), diff=1.9, CI -0.1 to 3.7 p=0.04]. The BMI of older diabetics (completed growth at study onset) was equal to that of controls throughout. CONCLUSION: Pre-diabetic nutritional decline is not inevitable in adults with CFRD, but is influenced by age of onset. In the group overall, those with CFRD are more likely to require ETF from 2 years prior to diagnosis. Despite intensive nutritional intervention, patients who continue to grow throughout the pre-diabetic years, show a level of nutritional decline absent in older adults.

  14. Avidity of anti-malarial antibodies inversely related to transmission intensity at three sites in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewanyana, Isaac; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Yeka, Adoke; Sullivan, Richard; Kamya, Moses R; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Drakeley, Chris; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tetteh, Kevin K A

    2017-02-10

    People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was added to measure the relative avidity of antibody responses by ELISA. Within a site, there were no significant differences in median antibody levels between the three age groups. Between sites, median antibody levels were generally higher in the higher transmission sites, with differences more apparent for AMA-1 and in ≥5 year group. Similarly, median avidity index (proportion of high avidity antibodies) showed no significant increase with increasing age but was significantly lower at sites of higher transmission amongst participants ≥5 years of age. Using 5 M GuHCl, the median avidity indices in the ≥5 year group at the highest and lowest transmission sites were 19.9 and 26.8, respectively (p = 0.0002) for MSP1-19 and 12.2 and 17.2 (p = 0.0007) for AMA1. Avidity to two different P. falciparum antigens was lower in areas of high transmission intensity compared to areas with lower transmission. Appreciation of the mechanisms behind these findings as

  15. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  16. Age-Related Changes in Associations Between Reasons for Alcohol Use and High-Intensity Drinking Across Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Evans-Polce, Rebecca; Kloska, Deborah D; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2017-07-01

    Analyses focus on whether self-reported reasons for drinking alcohol change in their associations with high-intensity drinking across the transition to adulthood. Self-report data on high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) collected from the national Monitoring the Future study in 2005 to 2014 from those ages 18-26 were used (N = 2,664 [60% women] for all drinkers and 1,377 for heavy episodic [5+] drinkers; up to 6,541 person-waves). Time-varying effect modeling examined changes in the direction and magnitude of associations between eight reasons for drinking and high-intensity alcohol use across continuous age. Four reasons to drink showed quite stable associations with high-intensity drinking across age: drinking to get away from problems, to get high, to relax, and to sleep. Associations between two reasons and high-intensity drinking decreased with age: anger/frustration and to have a good time. The association between drinking because of boredom and high-intensity drinking increased with age. Drinking because it tastes good had a weak association with high-intensity drinking. Among heavy episodic drinkers, reasons for use also differentiated high-intensity drinking, with two exceptions: drinking to have a good time and to relax did not distinguish drinking 10+ drinks from drinking 5-9 drinks. Reasons for drinking are differentially associated with high-intensity drinking, compared with any other drinking and compared with lower intensity heavy drinking, across age during the transition to adulthood. Intervention programs seeking to mitigate alcohol-related harms should focus on reasons for use when they are the most developmentally salient.

  17. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  18. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  19. Relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation in Singapore during 1980-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    Observed studies on inter-annual variation of precipitation provide insight into the response of precipitation to anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability. Inter-annual variation of precipitation results from the concurrent variations of precipitation frequency and intensity, understanding of the relative importance of frequency and intensity in the variability of precipitation can help fathom its changing properties. Investigation of the long-term changes of precipitation schemes has been extensively carried out in many regions across the world, however, detailed studies of the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation are still limited, especially in the tropics. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive framework to investigate the inter-annual variation of precipitation and the dominance of precipitation frequency and intensity in a tropical urban city-state, Singapore, based on long-term (1980-2013) daily precipitation series from 22 rain gauges. First, an iterative Mann-Kendall trend test method is applied to detect long-term trends in precipitation total, frequency and intensity at both annual and seasonal time scales. Then, the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inducing the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation total is analyzed using a dominance analysis method based on linear regression. The results show statistically significant upward trends in wet-day precipitation total, frequency and intensity at annual time scale, however, these trends are not evident during the monsoon seasons. The inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation intensity for most of the stations at annual time scale and during the Northeast monsoon season. However, during the Southwest monsoon season, the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation frequency. These results have

  20. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montellano, Andres Garcia Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themessl, N.

    2018-01-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However......, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible...... of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler....

  1. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Kotwicki: Relative light intensity collected during bottom trawl surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Assessing the effect of light intensity and light penetration on the distributionand behavior of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the eastern Bering Sea and...

  2. Memory in relation to depth of sedation in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Karin; Lundberg, Dag; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between memory and intensive care sedation. Design and setting: Prospective cohort study over 18 months in two general intensive care units (ICUs) in district university hospitals. Patients: 313 intubated mechanically ventilated adults admitted for more than 24 h, 250 of whom completed the study. Measurements: Patients (n = 250) were interviewed in the ward 5 days after discharge from the ICU using the ICU Memory Tool. Patient characteristics, doses ...

  3. Decreased waterborne pathogenic bacteria in an urban aquifer related to intense shallow geothermal exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Gasco-Cavero, Samanta; Garrido, Eduardo; Mejías, Miguel; Epting, Jannis; Navarro-Elipe, Mercedes; Alejandre, Carmen; Sevilla-Alcaine, Elena

    2018-08-15

    The implications of intensive use of shallow geothermal energy resources in shallow urban aquifers are still not known for waterborne pathogens relevant to human health. Firstly, we hypothesized that waterborne enteric pathogens would be relatively increased in heated groundwater plumes. To prove this, microbiological sampling of 31 piezometers covering the domain of an urban groundwater body affected by microbiological contamination and energetically exploited by 70 groundwater heat pump systems was performed. Mean differences of pathogenic bacteria contents between impacted and non-impacted monitoring points were assessed with a two-tailed independent Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Surprisingly, the results obtained revealed a significant and generalized decrease in waterborne pathogen contents in thermally impacted piezometers compared to that of non-impacted piezometers. This decrease is hypothesized to be caused by a heat shock to bacteria within the heat exchangers. The statistically significant negative correlations obtained between waterborne pathogen counts and temperature could be explained by the spatial distribution of the bacteria, finding that bacteria start to recover with increasing distance from the injection point. Also, different behavior groups fitting exponential regression models were found for the bacteria species studied, justified by the different presence and influence of several aquifer parameters and major, minor and trace elements studied, as well as the coexistence with other bacteria species. The results obtained from this work reinforce the concept of shallow geothermal resources as a clean energy source, as they could also provide the basis to control the pathogenic bacteria contents in groundwater bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensive care delirium - effect on memories and health-related quality of life - a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Tønnesen, Else K; Videbech, Poul

    2013-01-01

    after intensive care unit. Interviews were repeated after two and six months and supplemented with Short Form-36 and the Barthel Index. RESULTS: Delirium was detected in 60% of the patients in our study, and delirious patients had significantly fewer factual memories and more memories of delusion than...... than half of the patients in intensive care unit experience delirium, which is associated with fewer factual memories and more memories of delusions. Short Form-36 might not be sensitive to delirium-related outcomes. Future research should include the development of better assessment tools to determine...... the long-term consequences of intensive care unit delirium. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: We recommend regular assessment to prevent, detect and treat delirium. We also recommend an intensive care unit follow-up programme providing an opportunity for postintensive care unit patients, particularly...

  5. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Saravia Ortiz de Montellano, Andrés; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.

    2018-05-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection that is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak-detection algorithm especially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterizes the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterize the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  6. Quantum Mechanical Calculations of Vibrational Sum-Frequency-Generation (SFG) Spectra of Cellulose: Dependence of the CH and OH Peak Intensity on the Polarity of Cellulose Chains within the SFG Coherence Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Chen, Xing; Weiss, Philip A; Jensen, Lasse; Kim, Seong H

    2017-01-05

    Vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy is capable of selectively detecting crystalline biopolymers interspersed in amorphous polymer matrices. However, the spectral interpretation is difficult due to the lack of knowledge on how spatial arrangements of crystalline segments influence SFG spectra features. Here we report time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of cellulose crystallites in intimate contact with two different polarities: parallel versus antiparallel. TD-DFT calculations reveal that the CH/OH intensity ratio is very sensitive to the polarity of the crystallite packing. Theoretical calculations of hyperpolarizability tensors (β abc ) clearly show the dependence of SFG intensities on the polarity of crystallite packing within the SFG coherence length, which provides the basis for interpretation of the empirically observed SFG features of native cellulose in biological systems.

  7. Reduction of peak plantar pressure in people with diabetes-related peripheral neuropathy: an evaluation of the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspovic Anita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offloading plantar pressure is a key strategy for the prevention or healing of neuropathic plantar ulcers in diabetes. Non-removable walking casts, such as total contact casts, are currently considered the gold-standard for offloading this type of wound. However, alternative methods for offloading that are more cost effective and easier to use are continually being sought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ to offload high pressure areas under the neuropathic foot in diabetes. Methods A within-subjects, repeated measures design was used. Sixteen participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were recruited and three footwear conditions were evaluated in a randomised order: a canvas shoe (the control, the participants’ own standard shoe, and the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™. The primary outcome was peak plantar pressure, measured using the pedar-X® mobile in-shoe system between the three conditions. Results Data analysis was conducted on 14 out of the 16 participants because two participants could not complete data collection. The mean peak pressure values in kPa (±SD for each condition were: control shoe 315.9 (±140.7, participants’ standard shoe 273.0 (±127.1 and DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ 155.4 (±89.9. There was a statistically significant difference in peak plantar pressure between the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ compared to both the control shoe (p = 0.002 and participants’ standard shoe (p = 0.001. The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ decreased plantar pressures by 51% compared to the control shoe and by 43% compared to participants’ standard shoe. Importantly, for a couple of study participants, the DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ appeared unsuitable for day-to-day wearing. Conclusions The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ reduced plantar pressures more than the other two shoe conditions. The DH Pressure Relief Shoe™ may be a useful alternative to current offloading

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  9. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446). Supplement No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Supplement 8 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the Texas Utilities Electric Company application for a license to operate Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445, 50-446), located in Somervell County, Texas, has been jointly prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and the Comanche Peak Technical Review Team of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This Supplement provides the results of the staff's evaluation and resolution of approximately 80 technical concerns and allegations relating to civil and structural and miscellaneous issues regarding construction and plant readiness testing practices at the Comanche Peak facility. Issues raised during recent Atomic Safety and Licensing Board hearings will be dealt with in future supplements to the Safety Evaluation Report

  10. Evaluation of concurrent peak responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.C.; Curreri, J.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of combining two or more concurrent responses which are induced by dynamic loads acting on nuclear power plant structures. Specifically, the acceptability of using the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) value of peak values as the combined response is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a simplified criterion that is convenient and relatively easy to use by design engineers

  11. Tritium solid targets for intense D-T neutron production and its related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    This review paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, to attain an intense neutron production rate, the construction of a design with a higher tritium-containing surface and an effective cooling system like a rotating target device are discussed. The maximum attainable intensity based on tritium solid targets shall be estimated regarding planning for future D-T sources. Secondly, on the way to carry out some experiments, an absolute intensity calibration and an angular dependent neutron energy spectrum of the neutron source are essential parameters to analyse the results of the experiments. Sometimes the space dependent neutron spectrum is required as well as the space dependent neutron flux near the targets and irradiation samples. The measurement methods and their examples are reviewed for tritium solid targets. The third part is devoted to discuss the protection to tritium contamination problems due to unavoidable release of tritium gas from targets. Performance and effectiveness of tritium collection systems for intense D-T neutron sources shall be discussed in some examples. Tritium contamination incidents due to the faulted film powder of target surface are also reported in some real incident cases. (author). Abstract only

  12. Suppression of Helicobacter pylori infection during intensive care stay: related to stress ulcer bleeding incidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, P. H.; van der Hulst, R. W.; Zandstra, D. F.; Geraedts, A. A.; van der Ende, A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of active Helicobacter pylori infection in patients admitted to the intensive care unit, to determine the effect of selective gut decontamination on the persistence of this organism, and to explore the possible relationship between H. pylori infection and stress

  13. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Eglington

    Full Text Available Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

  14. 20 CFR 652.208 - How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described in § 652.207(b)(2)? 652.208 Section 652.208 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND...

  15. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  16. The Impact of Intensive Vocation-Related Course Taking on Employment Outcomes for Individuals Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Wendel, Erica M.; Bond, Mark P.; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who are deaf have historically faced significant obstacles to equity in employment. This secondary analysis of data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2) examined (a) intensive vocation-related courses taken by students who are deaf and (b) their impact on long-term employment outcomes. Deaf students in general…

  17. Electronic diary assessment of pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Peters, M.L.; Patijn, J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vlaeyen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in daily life in patients with chronic low back pain. An experience sampling methodology was used in which electronic diary data were collected by means of palmtop computers from 40

  18. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Anne Sofie Bøgh; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2016-01-01

    , the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive...... antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development...

  19. Study related to the generation of the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oklah, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will answer on the following question: Are there any conditions on the chemical potential and temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when generating the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas, and will the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas be a Gibbs-process. The study shows that there should be no conditions on the chemical potential and thermodynamical temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when we generate the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas except that the fundamental conditions, the chemical potential is negative and the inverse temperature is positive. Thus the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas may only be a Gibbs-process, in the special case when the thermodynamical temperature of the ideal BOSE gas tends to the absolute zero. (author)

  20. Relative contributions of local wind and topography to the coastal upwelling intensity in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Hu, Jianyu; Chen, Ju; Zhuang, Wei; Zu, TingTing; Xu, Jindian

    2014-04-01

    Topographically induced upwelling caused by the interaction between large-scale currents and topography was observed during four cruises in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) when the upwelling favorable wind retreated. Using a high-resolution version of the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigate relative contributions of local wind and topography to the upwelling intensity in the NSCS. The results show that the topographically induced upwelling is sensitive to alongshore large-scale currents, which have an important contribution to the upwelling intensity. The topographically induced upwelling is comparable with the wind-driven upwelling at surface and has a stronger contribution to the upwelling intensity than the local wind does at bottom in the near-shore shelf region. The widened shelf to the southwest of Shanwei and west of the Taiwan Banks intensifies the bottom friction, especially off Shantou, which is a key factor for topographically induced upwelling in terms of bottom Ekman transport and Ekman pumping. The local upwelling favorable wind enhances the bottom friction as well as net onshore transport along the 50 m isobath, whereas it has less influence along the 30 m isobath. This implies the local wind is more important in upwelling intensity in the offshore region than in the nearshore region. The contribution of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity is comparable with that of topography along the 50 m isobath. The effects of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity are twofold: on one hand, the wind transports surface warm water offshore, and as a compensation of mass the bottom current transports cold water onshore; on the other hand, the wind enhances the coastal current, and the bottom friction in turn increases the topographically induced upwelling intensity.

  1. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  2. Nano-regime Length Scales Extracted from the First Sharp Diffraction Peak in Non-crystalline SiO2 and Related Materials: Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper distinguishes between two different scales of medium range order, MRO, in non-crystalline SiO2: (1 the first is ~0.4 to 0.5 nm and is obtained from the position of the first sharp diffraction peak, FSDP, in the X-ray diffraction structure factor, S(Q, and (2 the second is ~1 nm and is calculated from the FSDP full-width-at-half-maximum FWHM. Many-electron calculations yield Si–O third- and O–O fourth-nearest-neighbor bonding distances in the same 0.4–0.5 nm MRO regime. These derive from the availability of empty Si dπ orbitals for back-donation from occupied O pπ orbitals yielding narrow symmetry determined distributions of third neighbor Si–O, and fourth neighbor O–O distances. These are segments of six member rings contributing to connected six-member rings with ~1 nm length scale within the MRO regime. The unique properties of non-crystalline SiO2 are explained by the encapsulation of six-member ring clusters by five- and seven-member rings on average in a compliant hard-soft nano-scaled inhomogeneous network. This network structure minimizes macroscopic strain, reducing intrinsic bonding defects as well as defect precursors. This inhomogeneous CRN is enabling for applications including thermally grown ~1.5 nm SiO2 layers for Si field effect transistor devices to optical components with centimeter dimensions. There are qualitatively similar length scales in nano-crystalline HfO2 and phase separated Hf silicates based on the primitive unit cell, rather than a ring structure. Hf oxide dielectrics have recently been used as replacement dielectrics for a new generation of Si and Si/Ge devices heralding a transition into nano-scale circuits and systems on a Si chip.

  3. The relation between intensity and complexity of coronary artery lesion and oxidative stress in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Turhan; Menteşe, Ümit; Ağaç, Mustafa Tarık; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Kul, Selim; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Bektaş, Hüseyin; Korkmaz, Levent; Öztaş Menteşe, Seda; Dursun, İhsan; Çelik, Şükrü

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between oxidative stress and complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease is less clear. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between oxidative stress markers and the complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty-seven consecutive patients with an early phase of ACS (=22). Likewise patients were divided into two CAD severity groups according to the median Gensini score of 64: less intensive CAD with Gensini score (=64. Blood samples were taken in 1 hour within administration in order to measure total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by Erel method. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by TOS /TAC. There was no significant difference between the two SYNTAX groups for oxidative stress markers. Median TOS and OSI values were significantly high in the intensive CAD group (p=0.005, p=0.04, respectively). The Gensini score was positively correlated with TOS and OSI (p=0.003, p=0.02, respectively). Oxidative stress markers may be considered supportive laboratory parameters related to CAD intensity but not complexity in ACS patients.

  4. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  5. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446). Supplement No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    Supplement 11 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the Texas Utilities Electric Company application for a license to operate Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445, 50-446), located in Somervell County, Texas, has been jointly prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and the Comanche Peak Technical Review Team (TRT) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and is in two parts. Part 1 (Appendix 0) of this supplement provides the results of the TRT's evaluation of approximately 124 concerns and allegations relating specifically to quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) issues regarding construction proctices at the Comanche Peak facility. Part 2 (Appendix P) contains an overall summary and conclusion of the QA/QC aspects of the NRC Technical Review Team efforts as reported in supplemental Safety Evaluation Report SERs 7, 8, 9, and 10. Since QA/QC issues are also contained in each of the other supplements, the TRT considered that such a summary and conclusion from all supplements was necessary for a complete TRT description of QA/QC activities at Comanche Peak

  6. Become Related: FIAS, an Intensive Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Kievit, Esther; Spiegel, René; Dima, Diana; Goth, Kirstin; Schmeck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), impairments in fundamental social abilities and a lack of interest in social stimuli become apparent early in life. These impairments are thought to negatively affect further brain and behavioural development. Early intensive interventions can help to attenuate social-development and other risk factors and, thus, to ameliorate the deficits associated with ASDs. We present FIAS, an intensive early intervention approach for young children with ASD, which aims at developing children's social motivation. During 18 days, therapists work continuously for 6 h a day with the affected child, involving the whole family in a day care setting. Follow-up care at home over 1 year as well as fresh-up interventions and inclusion in kindergarten or a play group should stabilise the effects and help to respond to further challenges. Here, we present observations from the first 12 patients (25-48 months of age) treated according to the FIAS approach. We evaluated changes in core autistic symptoms and level of functioning after the 18 days of intensive intervention. Beyond standardised assessment, two innovative video-based instruments (Autism Behaviour Coding System and Evaluationsfragebogen) have been developed to assess autistic symptoms and interaction parameters during intervention. Improvements were noted in most core autistic symptom domains, with the highest effect sizes in domains like eye contact, communication, repetitive behaviour, imitation, motivation and reciprocity. In addition, the level of functioning significantly improved. The first evaluation of the FIAS approach shows promising results, as the FIAS intervention appears to improve core autistic symptom domains as well as the level of everyday functioning. Limitations of this study are the small sample size and the lack of a control group. A more comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation is in progress; this will focus on the stability of the observed effects and will attempt to

  7. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of high temperature peaks in TLD-100 dosemeters; Eficiencias termoluminiscentes relativas proton/gamma y helio/gamma de picos de alta temperatura en dosimetros TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores M, E.; Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Massillon, J.L.G.; Buenfil A, E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E. [IFUNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gamboa De Buen, I. [ICN-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of those high temperature peaks of TLD-100 dosemeters exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and to helium nuclei of 3 and 7.5 MeV. A rigorous reading and of deconvolution protocol was used for the calculation of the TL efficiencies. Additionally an Excel program that facilitated the deconvolution adjustment process of the glow curves was elaborated. (Author)

  8. Effects of competition on great and blue tit reproduction: intensity and importance in relation to habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, André A

    2010-01-01

    1. In studies on the effect of competition in plant communities two terms are used to describe its effects: the absolute reduction in growth of an individual as a consequence of the presence of another one is called intensity, while the relative impact of competition on an individual as a proportion of the impact of the whole environment is called importance. One school of thought is that the role of competition remains constant across productivity gradients, while the other is that it decreases with increasing severity. J.B. Grace (1991. A clarification of the debate between grime and tilman. Functional Ecology, 5, 583-587.) suggested that the apparent contradiction might be solved if we acknowledge that the two schools are discussing different aspects of competition: the intensity of competition might remain constant while its importance declines with increasing severity. 2. There are no studies that compare intensity and importance of competition in bird populations between areas that differ in quality or productivity and hence it is not possible to make predictions how intensity or importance of competition would vary between them. 3. I compared variation in intensity and importance of competition of three demographic variables between five plots that differ strongly in quality for great Parus major L. and blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.). 4. Both intensity and importance of competition are larger in great than in blue tit populations meaning that the effect of competition on demographic variables is stronger in great than in blue tits and that the contribution of competition to variation in these variables is relatively higher in great than in blue tits. 5. Intensity of competition is higher in low quality than in high quality plots for both species, a result not expected from studies in plant communities. 6. Importance of competition varies strongly between plots. It is larger in oak-dominated plots than in mixed deciduous plots. 7. In birds breeding density

  9. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  10. High-intensity interval training for improving health-related fitness in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Lubans, D R

    2015-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a feasible and efficacious strategy for improving health-related fitness in young people. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the utility of HIIT to improve health-related fitness in adolescents and to identify potential moderators of training effects. Studies were considered eligible if they: (1) examined adolescents (13-18 years); (2) examined health-related fitness outcomes; (3) involved an intervention of ≥4 weeks in duration; (4) included a control or moderate intensity comparison group; and (5) prescribed high-intensity activity for the HIIT condition. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of HIIT on health-related fitness components using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software and potential moderators were explored (ie, study duration, risk of bias and type of comparison group). The effects of HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition were large, and medium, respectively. Study duration was a moderator for the effect of HIIT on body fat percentage. Intervention effects for waist circumference and muscular fitness were not statistically significant. HIIT is a feasible and time-efficient approach for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in adolescent populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Usefulness of creep work-time relation for determining stress intensity limit of high-temperature components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Ryu, Woo Seog; Lee, Kyung Yong

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine creep stress intensity limit of high-temperature components, the usefulness of the creep work and time equation, defined as W c t p = B (where W c = σ ε is the total creep work done during creep, and p and B are constants), was investigated using the experimental data. For this purpose, the creep tests for generating 1.0% strain for commercial type 316 stainless steel were conducted with different stresses; 160 MPa, 150 MPa, 145 MPa, 140 MPa and 135 MPa at 593 .deg. C. The plots of log W c - log t showed a good linear relation up to 10 5 hr, and the results of the creep work-time relation for p, B and stress intensity values showed good agreement to those of Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves (ISSC) presented in ASME BPV NH. The relation can be simply obtained with only several short-term 1% strain data without ISSC which can be obtained by long-term creep data. Particularly, this relation is useful in estimating stress intensity limit for new and emerging class of high-temperature creeping materials

  12. Measurement of relative L X-ray intensity ratio following radioactive decay and photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, P. [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University, 24030 Erzincan (Turkey)], E-mail: pasayalcin@hotmail.com; Porikli, S.; Kurucu, Y.; Sahin, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-22

    The measurements of the L X-ray intensity ratio I(L{alpha})/I(L{beta}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{gamma}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{iota}), I(L{beta})/I(L{gamma}) and I(L{iota})/I(L{gamma}) for elements Dy, Ho, Yb, W, Hg, Tl and Pb were experimentally determined both by photon excitation, in which 59.5 keV {gamma}-rays from a filtered radioisotope {sup 241}Am was used, and by the radioactive decay of {sup 160}Tb, {sup 160}Er, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 182}Re, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 207}Bi. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Obtained values were compared with the calculated theoretical values. Theoretical values of the I(L{alpha}/L{beta}), I(L{alpha}/L{gamma}), I(L{alpha}/L{iota}), I(L{beta}/L{gamma}) and I(L{iota}/L{gamma}) intensity ratios were calculated using theoretically tabulated values of subshell photoionization cross-section, fluorescence yield, fractional X-ray emission rates, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. It was observed that present values agree with previous theoretical and other available experimental results.

  13. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koboroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development. We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  14. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboroff, A; Kaplan, G; Rogers, Lj

    2013-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian) known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development). We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping) were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  15. Memory in relation to depth of sedation in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Karin; Lundberg, Dag; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between memory and intensive care sedation. Prospective cohort study over 18[Symbol: see text]months in two general intensive care units (ICUs) in district university hospitals. 313 intubated mechanically ventilated adults admitted for more than 24 h, 250 of whom completed the study. Patients (n=250) were interviewed in the ward 5 days after discharge from the ICU using the ICU Memory Tool. Patient characteristics, doses of sedative and analgesic agents, and sedation scores as measured by the Motor Activity Assessment Scale (MAAS) were collected from hospital records after the interview. Patients with no recall (18%) were significantly older, had higher baseline severity of illness, and experienced fewer periods of wakefulness (median proportion of MAAS score 3; 0.37 vs. 0.70) than those who had memories of the ICU (82%). Multivariate analyses showed that increasing proportion of MAAS 0-2 and older age were significantly associated with having no recall. Patients with delusional memories (34%) had significantly longer ICU stay (median 6.6 vs. 2.2 days), higher baseline severity of illness, higher proportions of MAAS scores 4-6, and more administration of midazolam than those with recall of the ICU without delusional memories. Heavy sedation increases the risk of having no recall, and longer ICU stay increases the risk of delusional memories. The depth of sedation during total ICU stay as recorded with the MAAS may predict the probability of having memories of the ICU.

  16. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment ( N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment ( N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment ( p competitive races.

  17. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  18. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  19. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity is related to Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Van Biesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ≤75 and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N= 36 and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N= 39, of which 47 were 400m runners (all male and 28 were 1500m-runners (15 male and 13 female. Pacing was analysed by means of 100m split times (for 400m races and 200m split times (for 1500m races. Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p<.05. Maximal velocity of elite 400m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ±0.2 m/s, and their overall pace was slower (F=120.7, p<.05. In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500m races. Whereas male 1500m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100m (7.2±0.1 m/s, slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6±0.1 m/s, and finished with an end sprint (+0.9±0.1 m/s; the 1500m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1±0.3 m/s, accelerated in the second segment (+ 0.2±0

  20. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Ah Lee; Sungkyu Lee; Hong-Jun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an exper...

  1. Avian species richness in relation to intensive forest management practices in early seral tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D; Ellis, Tana M; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with

  2. Cocaine-related admissions to an intensive care unit: a five-year study of incidence and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, S

    2010-02-01

    Cocaine misuse is increasing and it is evidently considered a relatively safe drug of abuse in Ireland. To address this perception, we reviewed the database of an 18-bed Dublin intensive care unit, covering all admissions from 2003 to 2007. We identified cocaine-related cases, measuring hospital mortality and long-term survival in early 2009. Cocaine-related admissions increased from around one annually in 2003-05 to 10 in 2007. Their median (IQR [range]) age was 25 (21-35 [17-47]) years and 78% were male. The median (IQR [range]) APACHE II score was 16 (11-27 [5-36]) and length of intensive care stay was 5 (3-9 [1-16]) days. Ten patients died during their hospital stay. A further five had died by the time of follow-up, a median of 24 months later. One was untraceable. Cocaine toxicity necessitating intensive care is increasingly common in Dublin. Hospital mortality in this series was 52%. These findings may help to inform public attitudes to cocaine.

  3. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilov, Gil; Schiel, David R

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat). Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs) is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  4. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rilov

    Full Text Available Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat. Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  5. Pierce-type dispersion relation for an intense relativistic electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Pierce-type dispersion relation is derived for the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a cylindrical slow-wave structure of arbitrary corrugation depth. It is shown that near a resonance, the Pierce parameter can be expressed in terms of the vacuum dispersion function and the beam current. The dispersion relation is valid in both the low-current (Compton) regime and the high-current (Raman) regime. The dispersion characteristics of the interaction, such as the linear instability growth rate and bandwidth, are analyzed for both regimes

  6. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell x-rays in some high-Z elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Mittal, R; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1982-10-14

    The L-shell x-ray relative intensities I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(l)),I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(..beta..)) and I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(..gamma..)) for U, Th, Pb and ratios I(Lsub(..cap alpha..+l))/I(Lsub(..beta..)) and I(Lsub(..cap alpha..+l))/I(Lsub(..gamma..)) for W have been measured. The L-shell electrons are excited by 59.57 keV gamma rays from /sup 241/Am and the fluorescent L-shell x-ray intensities are measured with a Si(Li) detector. The experimental results are found to agree well with theory.

  7. How Nurse Work Environments Relate to the Presence of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-09-25

    Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is essential for families to participate in infant care and prepare them to transition from hospital to home. Nurses are the principal caregivers in the NICU. The nurse work environment may influence whether parents spend time with their hospitalized infants. To examine the relationship between the NICU work environment and parental presence in the NICU using a national data set. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of a national sample of 104 NICUs, where 6060 nurses reported on 15,233 infants cared for. Secondary analysis was used to examine associations between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) (subscale items and with a composite measure) and the proportion of parents who were present during the nurses' shift. Parents of 60% (SD = 9.7%) of infants were present during the nurses' shift. The PES-NWI composite score and 2 domains-Nurse Participation in Hospital Affairs and Manager Leadership and Support-were significant predictors of parental presence. A 1 SD higher score in the composite or either subscale was associated with 2.5% more parents being present. Parental presence in the NICU is significantly associated with better nurse work environments. NICU practices may be enhanced through enhanced leadership and professional opportunities for nurse managers and staff. Future work may benefit from qualitative work with parents to illuminate their experiences with nursing leaders and nurse-led interventions in the NICU and design and testing of interventions to improve the NICU work environment.

  8. Validation of a 10-item care-related regret intensity scale (RIS-10) for health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine S; Cullati, Stéphane; Haller, Chiara S; Schmidt, Ralph E; Haller, Guy; Agoritsas, Thomas; Perneger, Thomas V

    2013-03-01

    Regret after one of the many decisions and interventions that health care professionals make every day can have an impact on their own health and quality of life, and on their patient care practices. To validate a new care-related regret intensity scale (RIS) for health care professionals. Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study with a 1-month follow-up (test-retest) in a French-speaking University Hospital. A total of 469 nurses and physicians responded to the survey, and 175 answered the retest. RIS, self-report questions on the context of the regret-inducing event, its consequences for the patient, involvement of the health care professionals, and changes in patient care practices after the event. We measured the impact of regret intensity on health care professionals with the satisfaction with life scale, the SF-36 first question (self-reported health), and a question on self-esteem. On the basis of factor analysis and item response analysis, the initial 19-item scale was shortened to 10 items. The resulting scale (RIS-10) was unidimensional and had high internal consistency (α=0.87) and acceptable test-retest reliability (0.70). Higher regret intensity was associated with (a) more consequences for the patient; (b) lower life satisfaction and poorer self-reported health in health care professionals; and (c) changes in patient care practices. Nurses reported analyzing the event and apologizing, whereas physicians reported talking preferentially to colleagues, rather than to their supervisor, about changing practices. The RIS is a valid and reliable measure of care-related regret intensity for hospital-based physicians and nurses.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Peak Electricity Consumption: US vs. Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffhammer, M.

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change impacts on the electric sector will account for the majority of global economic damages by the end of the current century and beyond. This finding is at odds with the relatively modest increase in climate driven impacts on consumption. Comprehensive high frequency load balancing authority level data have not been used previously to parameterize the relationship between electric demand and temperature for any major economy. Using statistical models we analyze multi-year data from load balancing authorities in the United States of America and the European Union, which are responsible for more than 90% of the electricity delivered to residential, industrial, commercial and agricultural customers. We couple the estimated response functions between total daily consumption and daily peak load with an ensemble of downscaled GCMs from the CMIP5 archive to simulate climate change driven impacts on both outcomes. We show moderate and highly spatially heterogeneous changes in consumption. The results of our peak load simulations, however, suggest significant changes in the intensity and frequency of peak events throughout the United States and Europe. As the electricity grid is built to endure maximum load, which usually occurs on the hottest day of the year, our findings have significant implications for the construction of costly peak generating and transmission capacity.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  11. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation ... The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes (Ms ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the ... city and attenuation of strong seismic ground motion. ... Seismologists have benefitted from the development .... In that case, we inferred.

  12. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. METHODS: In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm

  13. Intensive care staff, the donation request and relatives' satisfaction with the decision: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vries, A. de; Hoedemaekers, C.W.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of the donation request is generally measured by consent rates, rather than by relatives' satisfaction with their decision. Our aim was to elicit Dutch ICU staffs' views and experiences with the donation request, to investigate their awareness of (dis)satisfaction with

  14. fMRI activation in relation to sound intensity and loudness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.; van Dijk, Pirn; Schoemaker, Esther S.; Backes, Walter H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this fMRI study was to relate cortical fMRI responses to both physical and perceptual sound level characteristics. Besides subjects with normal hearing, subjects with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss were included, as distortion of loudness perception is a characteristic of such

  15. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  16. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  17. Self-focusing and its related interactions at very high laser intensities for fast ignition at Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.A.; Kodama, R.; Izumi, N.; Takahashi, K.; Heya, M.; Fujita, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Norimatsu, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Sunahara, A.; Takabe, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Koase, T.; Iwatani, T.; Ohtani, F.; Miyakoshi, T.; Habara, H.; Tanpo, M.; Tohyama, S.; Weber, F.A.; Barbee, T.W.; Dasilva, L.B.; Dasilva, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    At the Institute of Laser Engineering, various type of experiments related to fast ignition were performed with the 12-beam laser system GEKKO XII and the newly added 100 TW beams line. Using both X-ray and UV laser probes, drilling via ponderomotive laser light self-focusing was studied to show drilling well into the overdense plasma over a distance of 100 μm at a self-focused laser intensity of 10 18 W/cm 2 . This type of self-focusing accelerated electrons up to 0.1 to 1 MeV and was also applied to an imploding shell. (authors)

  18. Diffuse Intense {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake at PET in Unilateral Breast Related to Breastfeeding Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hye Kyoung [Department of Radiololgy, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Joo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    We present an interesting case of incidental diffuse fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at PET in her left breast, related to atypical breastfeeding practice. Clinically, differential diagnoses of diffuse intense FDG uptake in unilateral breast include advanced breast cancer, breast lymphoma and inflammatory condition. However, normal physiologic lactation may also show increased FDG uptake in the breasts. Therefore, if we encounter that finding in daily practice, we should question the patient regarding unilateral breastfeeding. In addition, mammography and ultrasound would be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.

  19. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions

  20. Relative Intensity Influences the Degree of Correspondence of Jump Squats and Push Jerks to Countermovement Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Emily J; Goodwin, Jon E; Cleather, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical similarity between push jerk (PJ) and jump squat (JS) to countermovement jump (CMJ) and further understand the effect increasing external load may have on this relationship. Eight physically trained men (age 22 ± 3; height 176 ± 7 kg; weight 83 ± 8 kg) performed an unloaded CMJ followed by JS under a range of loads (10, 25, 35, and 50% 1RM back squat) and PJ (30, 50, 65, and 75% 1RM push jerk). A portable force platform and high-speed camera both collecting at 250 Hz were used to establish joint moments and impulse during the propulsive phase of the movements. A standard inverse dynamics model was used to determine joint moment and impulse at the hip, knee, and ankle. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) were shown between CMJ knee joint moment and JS knee joint moment at 25% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 50% load. Significant correlations were also observed between CMJ knee joint impulse and JS knee joint impulse at 10% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 65% load. Significant correlation was also observed between CMJ hip joint impulse and PJ hip joint impulse at 30% load. No significant joint × load interaction was shown as load increased for either PJ or JS. Results from the study suggest partial correspondence between PJ and JS to CMJ, where a greater mechanical similarity was observed between the PJ and CMJ. This interaction is load and joint dependent where lower relative loads showed greatest mechanical similarity. Therefore using lower relative loads when programming may provide a greater transfer of training effect.

  1. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  2. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  3. Signal intensity in T2' magnetic resonance imaging is related to brain glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio; Heese, Oliver; Westphal, Manfred; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Goebell, Einar; Matschke, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    T2' values reflect the presence of deoxyhaemoglobin related to high local oxygen extraction. We assessed the feasibility of T2' imaging to display regions with high metabolic activity in brain gliomas. MRI was performed in 25 patients (12 female; median age 46 years; range 2-69) with brain gliomas with additional T2 and T2* sequences. T2' maps were derived from T2 and T2*. Dynamic susceptibility weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion was performed in 12/25 patients. Images were visually assessed by two readers and five ROIs were evaluated for each patient. Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied for statistical analysis. Three patients were not further evaluated because of artefacts. Mean values of high-grade (III-IV) gliomas showed significantly lower T2' values than low-grade (II) gliomas (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between rCBV and sqr (T2') (r = -0.463, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between T2' and rCBV for grade II tumours (r = 0.038; p = 0.875). High-grade tumours revealed lower T2' values, presumably because of higher oxygen consumption in proliferating tissue. Our results indicate that T2' imaging can be used as an alternative to DSC perfusion in the detection of subtle deviations in tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  4. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  5. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Tomimoto, Hidekazu [Kyoto University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Junya [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  6. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Konishi, Junya

    2005-01-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  7. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-07

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at .

  8. Effect of venous dexamethasone, oral caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of postdural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudifar, Mehrdad; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Adib, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication after regional anesthesia, especially in younger people, bothersome to patients and needs prophylaxis to prevent this complication. This study was conducted aiming to determine the preventive effect of dexamethasone plus caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of PDPH after spinal anesthesia. In a clinical trial study, 90 candidates for the lower extremities orthopedic elective operation were divided into two groups of 45 individuals each. Intervention group received the compound of 500 mg acetaminophen +65 mg oral caffeine +8 mg venous dexamethasone an hour before spinal blocking, and the control group received placebo tablets + a dexamethasone equivalent volume of venous normal saline. The level of postoperative headache at the time of entrance to recovery and discharge, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively were measured based on Visual Analog Scale criterion in the two groups and then compared with each other. During the study, 24 patients in the control group and 17 patients in the intervention group were afflicted with headache; however, with no significant difference (P = 0.14). Total frequency of headache incidence was 35 times in the control group and 27 times in the intervention group (P = 0.32). Though the taking of acetaminophen + caffeine + dexamethasone is associated with a decrease in headache intensity and duration and decrease in PDPH incidence, compared with placebo, however, no essentially and statistically significant effect was produced.

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors for Intensive Care Unit–related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans and Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627

  10. Relation between parental psychopathology and posttraumatic growth after a child's admission to intensive care: Two faces of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Rocío; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Confronted with the potentially traumatic experience of a child's admission to a paediatric intensive care unit, parents may experience psychopathological post-trauma symptoms as well as posttraumatic growth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relation between psychopathology symptoms, namely, posttraumatic stress disorder), anxiety and depression, as well as post traumatic growth in parents following their child's hospitalisation in a paediatric intensive care unit. Six months after their child's discharge, 143 parents completed the questionnaire, which assessed post traumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), post traumatic stress disorder (Davidson Trauma Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Of the 143 parents, 23.1% reported symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder, 21% reported symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety, 9.1% reported symptoms of moderate to severe depression and 37.1% reported at least a medium degree of post traumatic growth. There was a moderate, direct association between post traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety with post traumatic growth. Higher scores in anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder were associated with higher levels of post traumatic growth, contradicting the notion of an inverted U-shaped relationship between psychopathology symptoms and post traumatic growth. Given that positive and negative outcomes after a child's critical admission tend to co-occur, it is surmised that parents who indicate post traumatic growth do not deny the difficulties. While not negating the negative impact on the mental health of a parent with a child admitted to intensive care, including the assessment of post traumatic growth as an outcome following this event has important implications for research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The clonic phase of seizures in patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy is related to age and stimulus intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh eTseng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in patients who are drug-naïve or less-receptive to antipsychotic drugs. Several studies have discussed the correlation between patient characteristics, input current volume and seizure duration. According to the present principle of ECT guidelines, the therapeutic effect of ECT mostly correlates with seizure duration. As the tonic phase is different from the clonic phase with respect to brain function and activity, it is informative to analyse both the tonic and clonic phases. Thus, this study sought to clarify the relationship between the features of the two phases, and to re-examine and refine guidelines regarding ECT treatment.Method: ECT-course data from 44 schizophrenia patients were recollected, including the number of treatments that they had received, their gender, age, and the association of these characteristics with motor seizure duration was analysed. A two-factor correlation was employed to test the relationship between each of the two factors.Result: The meta-analysis results indicate that seizure duration and age are significantly correlated. Older patients had relatively short seizure durations after ECT-treatment. Notably, a negative correlation was only found between age and the clonic phase of the seizure, not between age and the tonic phase. Furthermore, this study also found an inverse relationship between ECT-intensity and the clonic phase, but not between ECT-intensity and the tonic phase.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that age and ECT-intensity are negatively correlated with seizure duration, particularly in the clonic phase. The present observations are not fully consistent with the basic guidelines of the APA-ECT practical manual. Accordingly, the predictions regarding the therapeutic effect of ECT can be based on both the seizure duration and the clonic phase.

  12. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446). Supplement No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Supplement 13 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement presents the staff's evaluation of the Comanche Peak Response Team (CPRT) Program Plan which was formulated by the applicant to resolve various construction and design issues raised by the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, allegers, intervenor Citizens Association for Sound Energy (CASE), NRC inspections of various types, and Cygna Energy Services while conducting its independent design assessment. The NRC staff concludes that the CPRT Program Plan provides an overall structure for addressing all existing issues and any future issues which may be identified from further evaluations, and if properly implemented will provide important evidence of the design and construction quality of CPSES, and will identify any needed corrective action. The report identifies items to be addressed by the NRC staff during the implementation phase

  13. Children's moral judgments and moral emotions following exclusion of children with disabilities: relations with inclusive education, age, and contact intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-03-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  15. Echo 2: observations at Fort Churchill of a 4-keV peak in low-level electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldy, R.L.; Hendrickson, R.A.; Winckler, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The Echo 2 rocket flight launched from Fort Churchill, Manitoba, offered the opportunity to observe high-latitude low-level electron precipitation during quiet magnetic conditions. Although no visual aurora was evident at the time of the flight, an auroral spectrum sharply peaked at a few keV was observed to have intensities from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than peaked spectra typically assoicated with bright auroral forms. There is a growing body of evidence that relates peaked electron spectra to discrete aurora. The Echo 2 observations show that whatever the mechanism for peaking the electron spectrum in and above discrete forms, it operates over a range of precipitation intensities covering nearly 3 orders of magnitude down to subvisual or near subvisual events

  16. Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miki Mei-Chi; Yeh, Yun; Shih, Yu-En; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Mei-Chi Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations. Keywords: 5-Galloylquinic acid, Aging, Baking, Gallic acid, Oolong tea

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Pruritus: An Analysis Related to Disease Etiology, Clinical Skin Conditions and Itch Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlich, Benjamin; Fritz, Fleur; Osada, Nani; Bruland, Philipp; Stumpf, Astrid; Schneider, Gudrun; Dugas, Martin; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Ständer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differs between diseases associated with chronic pruritus (CP). To analyze HRQoL in relation to age, gender, skin lesions (primary vs. scratch-induced secondary) and itch intensity. Consecutive patients of our itch clinic were assessed with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). In 510 CP patients (282 females; median age, 61.4 years), DLQI scores and VAS values were highly correlated, irrespective of the type of skin lesion. Overall, women had a lower HRQoL compared to men (females: 10.7 ± 6.7, males: 8.9 ± 6.7), but female gender was only associated with worse quality of life in patients skin lesion or underlying cause. With limitations to item bias, DLQI is a suitable instrument for estimating quality of life impairment by CP. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 using the MAX-DOAS method combined with relative intensity measurements for aerosol correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Levelt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS is a technique to measure trace gas amounts in the lower troposphere from ground-based scattered sunlight observations. MAX-DOAS observations are especially suitable for validation of tropospheric trace gas observations from satellite, since they have a representative range of several kilometers, both in the horizontal and in the vertical dimension. A two-step retrieval scheme is presented here, to derive aerosol corrected tropospheric NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS observations. In a first step, boundary layer aerosols, characterized in terms of aerosol optical thickness (AOT, are estimated from relative intensity observations, which are defined as the ratio of the sky radiance at elevation α and the sky radiance in the zenith. Relative intensity measurements have the advantage of a strong dependence on boundary layer AOT and almost no dependence on boundary layer height. In a second step, tropospheric NO2 columns are derived from differential slant columns, based on AOT-dependent air mass factors. This two-step retrieval scheme was applied to cloud free periods in a twelve month data set of observations in De Bilt, The Netherlands. In a comparison with AERONET (Cabauw site a mean difference in AOT (AERONET minus MAX-DOAS of −0.01±0.08 was found, and a correlation of 0.85. Tropospheric-NO2 columns were compared with OMI-satellite tropospheric NO2. For ground-based observations restricted to uncertainties below 10%, no significant difference was found, and a correlation of 0.88.

  20. Emission line relative intensity variations in the symbiotic stars: CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliversen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution spectra (lambda 3800 to lambda 5900) are presented of the symbiotic stars CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni, which were obtained with the Washburn Observatory Boller and Chivens cassegrain spectrograph and intensified Reticon. The spectra were obtained as part of a monitoring program covering 36 months since November 1978. The nebular electron temperature and density are derived from the [O III] lambda 5007 and lambda 4363 emission lines and the uv intercombination lines of lambda 1661 and lambda 1667. Relative emission line intensity variations were observed in all four stars. The relative emission line changes correlated with photometric minima for CI Cyg, AX Per and possibly BF Cyg. These changes are interpreted as due to a red giant eclipsing a nebula surrounding the exciting source. Based on the [O III] line ratio change, the nebular density of V1016 Cyg has continued to decline since 1978. The thesis also contains a discussion of the use of the emision lines of [Ne III] lambda 3869, [O III] lambda 5007, lambda 4363 and He lambda 5876 to derive nebular electron temperature and density. A decline in the intensity ratios of I(lambda 3869)/(lambda 5007) and I(lambda 5876)/I(lambda 5007) were observed during the 1980 minimum of CI Cyg. The observed I(lambda 3869)/I(lambda 5007) decline was too large to be explained by temperature or density changes. The [Ne III] and He II regions in CI Cyg are therefore closer to the hot source than the more extended (o III] emission region. Contained within the appendix is a discussion of a graphical method of solution ot the nebular temperature and density, which is based on the emission lines of [Ne III], [O III] and He I

  1. The processing of infrequently-presented low-intensity stimuli during natural sleep: An event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muller-Gass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs provide an exquisite means to measure the extent of processing of external stimuli during the sleep period. This study examines ERPs elicited by stimuli with physical characteristics akin to environmental noise encountered during sleep. Brief duration 40, 60 or 80 dB sound pressure level (SPL tones were presented either rapidly (on average every two seconds or slowly (on average every 10 seconds. The rates of presentation and intensity of the stimuli were similar to those observed in environmental studies of noise. ERPs were recorded from nine young adults during sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the amplitude of an early negative ERP, N1, systematically increased as intensity level increased. A later positivity, the P3a, was apparent following the loudest 80 dB stimulus regardless of the rate of stimulus presentation; it was also apparent following the 60 dB stimulus, when stimuli were presented slowly. The appearance of the N1-P3a deflections suggests that operations of the central executive controlling ongoing cognitive activity was interrupted, forcing subjects to become aware of the obtrusive task-irrelevant stimuli. The auditory stimuli elicited very different ERP patterns during sleep. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the ERP was characterized by an enhanced (relative to wakefulness early positivity, P2, followed by a very prominent negativity, the N350. Both deflections systematically varied in amplitude with stimulus intensity level; in addition, N350 was much larger when stimuli were presented at slow rates. The N350, a sleep-specific ERP, is thought to reflect the inhibition of processing of potentially sleep-disrupting stimulus input. During rapid eye movement (REM sleep, a small amplitude N1 was apparent in the ERP, but only for the loudest, 80 dB stimulus. A small (nonsignificant P3a-like deflection was also visible following the 80 dB stimulus, but only when stimuli were presented

  2. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446): Supplement No. 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Supplement 21 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Units 1 and 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 to that report were published. This supplement also lists the new issues that have been identified since Supplement 12 was issued and includes the evaluations for licensing items resolved in this interim period. 21 refs

  3. Can Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Preserve Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pow, Edmond H.N.; Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Lee, Victor H.F.; Ng, Sherry C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in salivary function and oral health-related quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 57 patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma received IMRT. The parotid and whole saliva flow was measured, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire 35-item head-and-neck module, and Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires were completed at baseline and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after IMRT. Results: Parotid saliva flow recovered fully after 1 year and maintained. Whole saliva flow recovered partially to 40% of baseline. A general trend of deterioration in most quality of life scales was observed after IMRT, followed by gradual recovery. Persistent oral-related symptoms were found 2 years after treatment. Conclusion: IMRT for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma could only partially preserve the whole salivary function and oral health-related quality of life.

  4. Can Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Preserve Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pow, Edmond H.N., E-mail: ehnpow@hku.hk [Oral Rehabilitation, University of Hong Kong Faculty of Dentistry, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Lee, Victor H.F.; Ng, Sherry C.Y. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in salivary function and oral health-related quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 57 patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma received IMRT. The parotid and whole saliva flow was measured, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire 35-item head-and-neck module, and Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires were completed at baseline and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after IMRT. Results: Parotid saliva flow recovered fully after 1 year and maintained. Whole saliva flow recovered partially to 40% of baseline. A general trend of deterioration in most quality of life scales was observed after IMRT, followed by gradual recovery. Persistent oral-related symptoms were found 2 years after treatment. Conclusion: IMRT for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma could only partially preserve the whole salivary function and oral health-related quality of life.

  5. Driving forces behind the stagnancy of China's energy-related CO2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: the relative importance of structural change, intensity change and scale change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, S.; Matsuoka, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is noteworthy that income elasticity of energy consumption in China shifted from positive to negative after 1996, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO 2 emissions. This paper therefore investigate the evolution of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1985 to 1999 and the underlying driving forces, using the newly proposed three-level 'perfect decomposition' method and provincially aggregated data. The province-based estimates and analyses reveal a 'sudden stagnancy' of energy consumption, supply and energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1996 to 1999. The speed of a decrease in energy intensity and a slowdown in the growth of average labor productivity of industrial enterprises may have been the dominant contributors to this 'stagnancy'. The findings of this paper point to the highest rate of deterioration of state-owned enterprises in early 1996, the industrial restructuring caused by changes in ownership, the shutdown of small-scale power plants, and the introduction of policies to improve energy efficiency as probable factors. Taking into account the characteristics of those key driving forces, we characterize China's decline of energy-related CO 2 emissions as a short-term fluctuation and incline to the likelihood that China will resume an increasing trend from a lower starting point in the near future. (author)

  6. Instream flow needs below peaking hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhous, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a method developed to assist in the determination of instream flow needs below hydroelectric projects operated in a peaking mode. Peaking hydroelectric projects significantly change streamflow over a short period of time; consequently, any instream flow methodology must consider the dual flows associated with peaking projects. The dual flows are the lowest flow and the maximum generation flow of a peaking cycle. The methodology is based on elements of the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and uses habitat, rather than fish numbers or biomas, as at basic response variable. All aquatic animals are subject to the rapid changes in streamflow which cause rapid swings in habitat quality. Some aquatic organisms are relatively fixed in location in the stream while others can move when flows change. The habitat available from a project operated in peaking mode is considered to be the minimum habitat occurring during a cycle of habitat change. The methodology takes in to consideration that some aquatic animals can move and others cannot move during a peaking cycle

  7. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Case management for high-intensity service users: towards a relational approach to care co-ordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Phil; Escott, Diane; Bee, Penny

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on a formative evaluation of a case management service for high-intensity service users in Northern England. The evaluation had three main purposes: (i) to assess the quality of the organisational infrastructure; (ii) to obtain a better understanding of the key influences that played a role in shaping the development of the service; and (iii) to identify potential changes in practice that may help to improve the quality of service provision. The evaluation was informed by Gittell's relational co-ordination theory, which focuses upon cross-boundary working practices that facilitate task integration. The Assessment of Chronic Illness Care Survey was used to assess the organisational infrastructure and qualitative interviews with front line staff were conducted to explore the key influences that shaped the development of the service. A high level of strategic commitment and political support for integrated working was identified. However, the quality of care co-ordination was variable. The most prominent operational factor that appeared to influence the scope and quality of care co-ordination was the pattern of interaction between the case managers and their co-workers. The co-ordination of patient care was much more effective in integrated co-ordination networks. Key features included clearly defined, task focussed, relational workspaces with interactive forums where case managers could engage with co-workers in discussions about the management of interdependent care activities. In dispersed co-ordination networks with fewer relational workspaces, the case managers struggled to work as effectively. The evaluation concluded that the creation of flexible and efficient task focused relational workspaces that are systemically managed and adequately resourced could help to improve the quality of care co-ordination, particularly in dispersed networks. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Desensitizing Addiction: Using Eye Movements to Reduce the Intensity of Substance-Related Mental Imagery and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall traumatic memories while making horizontal eye movements (EM). Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories but also positive memories and imagined events. Substance use behavior and craving are maintained by maladaptive memory associations and visual imagery. Preliminary findings have indicated that these mental images can be desensitized by EMDR techniques. We conducted two proof-of-principle studies to investigate whether EM can reduce the sensory richness of substance-related mental representations and accompanying craving levels. We investigated the effects of EM on (1) vividness of food-related mental imagery and food craving in dieting and non-dieting students and (2) vividness of recent smoking-related memories and cigarette craving in daily smokers. In both experiments, participants recalled the images while making EM or keeping eyes stationary. Image vividness and emotionality, image-specific craving and general craving were measured before and after the intervention. As a behavioral outcome measure, participants in study 1 were offered a snack choice at the end of the experiment. Results of both experiments showed that image vividness and craving increased in the control condition but remained stable or decreased after the EM intervention. EM additionally reduced image emotionality (experiment 2) and affected behavior (experiment 1): participants in the EM condition were more inclined to choose healthy over unhealthy snack options. In conclusion, these data suggest that EM can be used to reduce intensity of substance-related imagery and craving. Although long-term effects are yet to be demonstrated, the current studies suggest that EM might be a useful technique in addiction treatment.

  10. Desensitizing addiction: using eye movements to reduce the intensity of substance-related mental imagery and craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eLittel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall a traumatic memory while making horizontal eye movements (EM. Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories, but also positive memories and imagined events. Substance use behavior and craving are maintained by maladaptive memory associations and visual imagery. Preliminary findings have indicated that these mental images can be desensitized by EMDR techniques. We conducted two proof-of-principle studies to investigate whether EM can reduce the sensory richness of substance-related mental representations and accompanying craving levels. We investigated the effects of EM on 1 vividness of food-related mental imagery and food craving in dieting and non-dieting students, and 2 vividness of recent smoking-related memories and cigarette craving in daily smokers. In both experiments, participants recalled the images while making EM or keeping eyes stationary. Image vividness and emotionality, image-specific craving and general craving were measured before and after the intervention. As a behavioral outcome measure, participants in study 1 were offered a snack choice at the end of the experiment.Results of both experiments showed that image vividness and craving increased in the control condition, but remained stable or decreased after the EM intervention. EM additionally reduced image emotionality (exp 2, and affected behavior (exp 1: participants in the EM condition were more inclined to choose healthy over unhealthy snack options. In conclusion, the data suggest that EM can be used to reduce intensity of substance related imagery and craving. Although long-term effects are yet to be demonstrated, the current studies suggest that EM might be a useful technique in addiction treatment.

  11. Yeast cell inactivation related to local heating induced by low-intensity electric fields with long-duration pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Stéphane; Ferret, Eric; Boehm, Jean-Baptiste; Gervais, Patrick

    2007-01-25

    The effects of electric field (EF) treatments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae viability were investigated using a PG200 electroporator (Hoefer Scientific Instrument, San Fransisco, CA, USA) with specific attention to induced thermal effects on cell death. Lethal electric fields (1.5 kV cm(-1) for 5 s) were shown to cause heat variations in the cell suspension medium (water+glycerol), while corresponding classical thermal treatments at equivalent temperatures had no effect on the cells viability. Variations of the electrical conductivity of the intra- and extracellular matrix caused by ions and solutes transfer across the membrane were shown to be involved in the observed heating. The results permitted to build a theoretical model for the temperature variations induced by electric fields. Using this model and the electrical conductivity of the different media, a plausible explanation of the cell death induced by low-intensity electric fields with long-duration pulses has been proposed. Indeed, cell mortality could in part be caused by direct and indirect effects of electric fields. Direct effects are related to well known electromechanical phenomena, whereas indirect effects are related to secondary thermal stress caused by plasma membrane thermoporation. This thermoporation was attributed to electrical conductivity variations and the corresponding intracellular heating.

  12. An After-School, high-intensity, interval physical activity programme improves health-related fitness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Reloba Martínez

    Full Text Available Abstract Health problems related to a low level of physical activity (PA in children and adolescents have prompted research into extracurricular PA programs. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different levels of PA on the health-related fitness of school children. Ninety-four girls and boys (7-9 years were randomly assigned to a control group (CG or intervention group (IG. Over a 12 week study period, children in the CG participated in a similar PA program to that of a standard school physical education program while those in the IG completed a high intensity interval training (HIIT program. Both programs involved two 40 minute extracurricular sessions per week. Our findings indicate that the HIIT intervention improved motor capacity (speed/agility, Vpeak, VO2 max and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC (p < 0.05 along with the musculoskeletal capacity of the lower trunk (mean propulsive velocity and standing long jump, p < 0.05. The PA program had no effect on anthropometric variables or hand-grip strength. The data indicate that a 12 week strength training program using workloads adapted to children may significantly improve several markers of health and physical fitness compared to a standard school PA program.

  13. Decomposition of intensity of energy-related CO_2 emission in Chinese provinces using the LMDI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Ke; Zhou, Dequn; Zhang, Wenrui; Gao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the driving factors of CO_2 emission intensity declining is important for China. This paper improves the logarithmic mean Divisia index technique, which includes energy density and energy consumption intensity, to explore the driving factors of carbon emission intensity (CI) in 29 Chinese provinces from 1995–2012. The main results are: (1) energy consumption intensity plays a more important role than carbon emission density (CD) for a rapid decrease in CI during the research period, so a much room is left for a significant CD reduction through carbon emission reduction technology, energy structural reduction, and energy consumption proportional reduction. (2) The decrease in energy consumption technology and energy structure in secondary industries contributes the most reduction in energy consumption intensity. (3)The energy consumption proportions of secondary and tertiary industries are the two most important drivers to decrease CD. (4) During the research period, the energy consumption proportions of secondary industries result in the most decrease in CD, whereas the energy consumption proportions of tertiary industries cause the most increase in CD. - Highlights: •Carbon emission intensity decreased rapidly from 1995 to 2012. •Energy intensity is the more significant driver for decrease of carbon intensity. •The most contribution of EI's decrease came from secondary industries. •The most contribution of CD's decrease came from secondary and tertiary industries. •Several policies of reducing carbon emission intensity in China have been raised.

  14. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet L Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city; population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods. Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible.

  15. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  16. Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

    2011-10-01

    The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  18. Hurricane Mitch: Peak Discharge for Selected River Reachesin Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark E.; Phillips, Jeffrey V.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch began as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea on 22 October 1998. By 26 October, Mitch had strengthened to a Category 5 storm as defined by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (National Climate Data Center, 1999a), and on 27 October was threatening the northern coast of Honduras (fig. 1). After making landfall 2 days later (29 October), the storm drifted south and west across Honduras, wreaking destruction throughout the country before reaching the Guatemalan border on 31 October. According to the National Climate Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Climate Data Center, 1999b), Hurricane Mitch ranks among the five strongest storms on record in the Atlantic Basin in terms of its sustained winds, barometric pressure, and duration. Hurricane Mitch also was one of the worst Atlantic storms in terms of loss of life and property. The regionwide death toll was estimated to be more than 9,000; thousands of people were reported missing. Economic losses in the region were more than $7.5 billion (U.S. Agency for International Development, 1999). Honduras suffered the most widespread devastation during the storm. More than 5,000 deaths, and economic losses of more than $4 billion, were reported by the Government of Honduras. Honduran officials estimated that Hurricane Mitch destroyed 50 years of economic development. In addition to the human and economic losses, intense flooding and landslides scarred the Honduran landscape - hydrologic and geomorphologic processes throughout the country likely will be affected for many years. As part of the U.S. Government's response to the disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted post-flood measurements of peak discharge at 16 river sites throughout Honduras (fig. 2). Such measurements, termed 'indirect' measurements, are used to determine peak flows when direct measurements (using current meters or dye studies, for example) cannot be made. Indirect measurements of

  19. Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation of hematological diseases from related, haploidentical donors after reduced-intensity conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Kavita; Pagliuca, Antonio; Bradstock, Kenneth; Noriega, Victor; Potter, Victoria; Streetly, Matthew; McLornan, Donal; Kazmi, Majid; Marsh, Judith; Kwan, John; Huang, Gillian; Getzendaner, Lisa; Lee, Stephanie; Guthrie, Katherine A; Mufti, Ghulam J; O'Donnell, Paul

    2014-06-01

    In a multicenter collaboration, we carried out T cell-replete, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations from related, HLA-haploidentical donors with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in 55 patients with high-risk hematologic disorders. Patients received 2 doses of Cy 50 mg/kg i.v. on days 3 and 4 after infusion of PBSC (mean, 6.4 × 10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells; mean, 2.0 × 10(8)/kg CD3(+) cells). The median times to neutrophil (500/μL) and platelet (>20,000/μL) recovery were 17 and 21 days respectively. All but 2 of the patients achieved full engraftment. The 1-year cumulative incidences of grade II and grade III acute GVHD were 53% and 8%, respectively. There were no cases of grade IV GVHD. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GHVD was 18%. With a median follow-up of 509 days, overall survival and event-free survival at 2 years were 48% and 51%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 23% and 28%, respectively. Our results suggest that PBSC can be substituted safely and effectively for bone marrow as the graft source for haploidentical transplantation after RIC. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of optical-spectrum errors on excess relative intensity noise in a fiber-optic gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Lijing

    2018-03-01

    The excess relative intensity noise (RIN) generated from broadband sources degrades the angular-random-walk performance of a fiber-optic gyroscope dramatically. Many methods have been proposed and managed to suppress the excess RIN. However, the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical errors in the fiber-optic gyroscope have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, it is difficult for the existing RIN-suppression methods to achieve the optimal results in practice. In this work, the influences of different optical-spectrum errors on the power spectral density of the excess RIN are theoretically analyzed. In particular, the properties of the excess RIN affected by the raised-cosine-type ripples in the optical spectrum are elaborately investigated. Experimental measurements of the excess RIN corresponding to different optical-spectrum errors are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis, demonstrating its validity. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical-spectrum errors. Potentially, it can be utilized to optimize the configurations of the existing RIN-suppression methods by accurately evaluating the power spectral density of the excess RIN.

  1. Organizational Stressors and Related Stress Intensities in Tehran\\'s Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers: From the Employees\\' Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyereh Tavafi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rehabilitation services employees are exposed to stressors at everyday work because they are in touch with people who disability and problems have associated with. Inappropriate policies and processes in work place aggravate stress and would adversely affect mental and physical health of this population which in turn would affect their quality of work. Materials & Methods: In order to determine the status of inappropriate organizational policies and processes as organizational stressors and related stress intensities in Tehran’s comprehensive rehabilitation centers, in a descriptive study all of the personnel were asked to fill a questionnaire which consisted of 32 questions. Content validity was approved by expertise people and reliability was 0.83. Results: Revealed that misevaluation of employees (%98 and using unclear and inappropriate criteria for evaluating personal (%95 were the most prevalent inappropriate organizational policy and process that personnel confronted with. Also we found that exposure to "inequality of payment for similar jobs" and "invalidity of criteria which were used for personnel evaluation", induced highest degree of stress on employees (2.64 from 4 & 1.71from 4 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that as the most prevalent factor which induced stress in personnel is misevaluation, correction of personnel evaluation system should be over emphasized.

  2. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band (<5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is -110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty ≤0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by ≤0.2 dB. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  3. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band ({lt}5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is {minus}110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty {le}0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by {le}0.2 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  4. Mind the Gap? An Intensive Longitudinal Study of Between-Person and Within-Person Intention-Behavior Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Shrout, Patrick E; Bolger, Niall; Stadler, Gertraud; Scholz, Urte

    2016-08-01

    Despite their good intentions, people often do not eat healthily. This is known as the intention-behavior gap. Although the intention-behavior relationship is theorized as a within-person process, most evidence is based on between-person differences. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the within-person intention-behavior association for unhealthy snack consumption. Young adults (N = 45) participated in an intensive longitudinal study. They reported intentions and snack consumption five times daily for 7 days (n = 1068 observations analyzed). A within-person unit difference in intentions was associated with a halving of the number of unhealthy snacks consumed in the following 3 h (CI95 27-70 %). Between-person differences in average intentions did not predict unhealthy snack consumption. Consistent with theory, the intention-behavior relation for healthy eating is best understood as a within-person process. Interventions to reduce unhealthy snacking should target times of day when intentions are weakest.

  5. Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Andreas; the LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA. It demonstrated that the performance requirements for the interferometric measurement of two test masses in free fall can be met. An important part of the data analysis is to identify the limiting noise sources. [1] This measurement is performed with heterodyne interferometry. The performance of this optical metrology system (OMS) at high frequencies is limited by sensing noise. One such noise source is Relative Intensity Noise (RIN). RIN is a property of the laser, and the photodiode current generated by the interferometer signal contains frequency dependant RIN. From this electric signal the phasemeter calculates the phase change and laser power, and the coupling of RIN into the measurement signal depends on the noise frequency. RIN at DC, at the heterodyne frequency and at two times the heterodyne frequency couples into the phase. Another important noise at high frequencies is path length noise. To reduce the impact this noise is suppressed with a control loop. Path length noise not suppressed will couple directly into the length measurement. The subtraction techniques of both noise sources depend on the phase difference between the reference signal and the measurement signal, and thus on the test mass position. During normal operations we position the test mass at the interferometric zero, which is optimal for noise subtraction purposes. This paper will show results from an in-flight experiment where the test mass position was changed to make the position dependant noise visible.

  6. Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Reale, Carrie; Slagle, Jason M; Anders, Shilo; Shotwell, Matthew S; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Weinger, Matthew B

    Medication safety presents an ongoing challenge for nurses working in complex, fast-paced, intensive care unit (ICU) environments. Studying ICU nurse's medication management-especially medication-related events (MREs)-provides an approach to analyze and improve medication safety and quality. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of facilitated MRE reporting in identifying system deficiencies and the relationship between MREs and nurses' work in the ICUs. We conducted 124 structured 4-hour observations of nurses in three different ICUs. Each observation included measurement of nurse's moment-to-moment activity and self-reports of workload and negative mood. The observer then obtained MRE reports from the nurse using a structured tool. The MREs were analyzed by three experts. MREs were reported in 35% of observations. The 60 total MREs included four medication errors and seven adverse drug events. Of the 49 remaining MREs, 65% were associated with negative patient impact. Task/process deficiencies were the most common contributory factor for MREs. MRE occurrence was correlated with increased total task volume. MREs also correlated with increased workload, especially during night shifts. Most of these MREs would not be captured by traditional event reporting systems. Facilitated MRE reporting provides a robust information source about potential breakdowns in medication management safety and opportunities for system improvement.

  7. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  8. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Ronald; Mahieu, Ronald; Schlichter, Felix

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to allocate optimal positions in peak and off-peak forward contracts. It is shown that the optimal allocations are based on the difference in risk premiums per unit of day-ahead risk as a measure of relati...

  9. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  10. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed; Kong, Xin-Bing; Liu, Zhi; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  11. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2013-01-07

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  12. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  13. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait). Div. of Environment and Urban Development

    2005-07-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. The Role of Parental Perceptions of Tic Frequency and Intensity in Predicting Tic-Related Functional Impairment in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency. PMID:24395287

  16. The role of parental perceptions of tic frequency and intensity in predicting tic-related functional impairment in youth with chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espil, Flint M; Capriotti, Matthew R; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-12-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with chronic tic disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency.

  17. Peaking-factor of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Noboru; Kato, Yasuji; Yokoi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Output peaking factor often plays an important role in the safety and operation of nuclear reactors. The meaning of the peaking factor of PWRs is categorized into two features or the peaking factor in core (FQ-core) and the peaking factor on the basis of accident analysis (or FQ-limit). FQ-core is the actual peaking factor realized in nuclear core at the time of normal operation, and FQ-limit should be evaluated from loss of coolant accident and other abnormal conditions. If FQ-core is lower than FQ-limit, the reactor may be operated at full load, but if FQ-core is larger than FQ-limit, reactor output should be controlled lower than FQ-limit. FQ-core has two kinds of values, or the one on the basis of nuclear design, and the other actually measured in reactor operation. The first FQ-core should be named as FQ-core-design and the latter as FQ-core-measured. The numerical evaluation of FQ-core-design is as follows; FQ-core-design of three-dimensions is synthesized with FQ-core horizontal value (X-Y) and FQ-core vertical value, the former one is calculated with ASSY-CORE code, and the latter one with one dimensional diffusion code. For the evaluation of FQ-core-measured, on-site data observation from nuclear reactor instrumentation or off-site data observation is used. (Iwase, T.)

  18. Chinese emissions peak: Not when, but how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Wang, Xin; Sartor, Oliver; Waisman, Henri

    2016-07-01

    It seems highly likely that China will overachieve its 2020 and 2030 targets, and peak its emissions before 2030 and possibly at a lower level than often assumed. This paper argues that the debate on the timing of the peak is misplaced: what matters is not when by why. For the peak to be seen as a harbinger of deep transformation, it needs to be based on significant macro-economic reform and restructuring, with attendant improvement in energy intensity. The Chinese economic model has been extraordinarily investment and resource intensive, and has driven the growth in GHG emissions. That model is no longer economically or environmentally sustainable. Therefore Chinese policy-makers are faced with a trade-off between slower short-term growth and economic reform, versus supporting short-term growth but slowing economic reform. The outcome will be crucial for the transition to a low-carbon economy. Overall, the 13. FYP (2016-2020) gives the impression of a cautious reflection of the new normal paradigm on the economic front, and a somewhat conservative translation of this shift into the energy and climate targets. Nonetheless, the 13. FYP targets set China well on the way to overachieving its 2020 pledge undertaken at COP15 in Copenhagen, and to potentially overachieving its INDC. It thus seems likely that China will achieve its emissions peak before 2030. However, the crucial question is not when China peaks, but whether the underlying transformation of the Chinese economy and energy system lays the basis for deep decarbonization thereafter. Thorough assessments of the implications of the 'new normal' for Chinese emissions and energy system trajectories, taking into account the link with the Chinese macro-economy, are needed. Scenarios provide a useful framework and should focus on a number of short-term uncertainties. Most energy system and emissions scenarios published today assume a continuity of trends between 2010-2015 and 2015-2020, which is at odds with clear

  19. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  20. Peak effect in twinned superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Marchetti, M.C.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    A sharp maximum in the critical current J c as a function of temperature just below the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice has recently been observed in both low- and high-temperature superconductors. This peak effect is strongest in twinned crystals for fields aligned with the twin planes. We propose that this peak signals the breakdown of the collective pinning regime and the crossover to strong pinning of single vortices on the twin boundaries. This crossover is very sharp and can account for the steep drop of the differential resistivity observed in experiments. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  1. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register-based occupational codes (1993-2007) to a general population job exposure matrix to obtain year-by-year exposure intensities on measurement scales for force, upper arm elevation >90° and repetition and expert rated intensities of exposure to HAV. For 10-year exposure time windows, we calculated the duration of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular velocity 90° >2 min/day implied an increased risk reaching ORs of 1.7 and 1.5 after 10 years at low intensities. No associations were found for HAV. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition. Any intensities of force and upper arm elevation >90° above minimal implied an increased risk across 10-year exposure time windows. No independent associations were found for HAV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in managing catheter-related blood stream infection in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xixi; He, Mei; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, was applied to reduce errors associated with the process which begins with assessment of patient and ends with treatment of complications. The aim of this study is to assess whether FMEA implementation will significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in intensive care unit.The FMEA team was constructed. A team of 15 medical staff from different departments were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible processes of central venous catheterization failures. Failure modes with risk priority number (RPN) ≥100 (top 10 RPN scores) were deemed as high-priority-risks, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications were put, the resulting RPN was compared with the previous one. A centralized nursing care system was designed.A total of 25 failure modes were identified. High-priority risks were "Unqualified medical device sterilization" (RPN, 337), "leukopenia, very low immunity" (RPN, 222), and "Poor hand hygiene Basic diseases" (RPN, 160). The corrective measures that we took allowed a decrease in the RPNs, especially for the high-priority risks. The maximum reduction was approximately 80%, as observed for the failure mode "Not creating the maximal barrier for patient." The averaged incidence of CRBSIs was reduced from 5.19% to 1.45%, with 3 months of 0 infection rate.The FMEA can effectively reduce incidence of CRBSIs, improve the security of central venous catheterization technology, decrease overall medical expenses, and improve nursing quality. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-related quality of life using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gysen, Kirsten L.; Guo, Linxin; Kneebone, Andrew B.; Eade, Thomas N.; Vaux, Kenneth J.; Lazzaro, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to decrease toxicity by reducing dose to surrounding structures. We assessed its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). PPRT patients were enrolled in a prospective HRQoL database. To be eligible, patients were required to be treated with IMRT and have a minimum of 15-month follow up. HRQoL was assessed at baseline, 3, 9 and 15–24 months using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire. Higher scores reflected better HRQoL. Results were analysed as both population means and as individual scores where a moderate change was 10–20 points and a substantial change was >20 points. There were 64 patients eligible and 83% of the cohort received salvage radiotherapy. Prescribed dose was 64Gy in 32 fractions for adjuvant and 66Gy in 33 fractions for salvage IMRT. Mean function scores for urinary, bowel and sexual domains were similar at baseline and 15 months (83.5, 94.2 and 16.9 vs. 82.2, 93.1 and 14.3, respectively). Mean global physical functioning (51.0 vs. 48.1) and mental functioning (51.6 vs. 54.2) showed no difference over time. Individual patient scores by 2 years showed a >20-point deterioration in urinary (12.5%), bowel (1.6%), sexual function (9.4%), physical functioning (3.1%) and mental functioning (1.6%). This report on HRQoL following post-prostatectomy IMRT demonstrates no variation in mean scores in any domain and only 1.6% of patients reporting a greater than 20-point deterioration between baseline and 15–24 months in bowel function.

  4. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yang, Yeping [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Wang, Meng [Fudan University, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Soochow University, Division of Endocrinology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou (China); Zhu, Jingjing [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Yao, Zhenwei [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Lu, Yun [Fudan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-15

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly. (orig.)

  5. [French law related to patient's rights and end of life: pediatric intensive care unit's health professionals' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, L; Cremer, R; Elie, C; Lesage, F; Dupic, L; Hubert, P

    2014-01-01

    To identify the knowledge of caregivers of pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) on the French law related to patients' rights and end of life, their views on withholding/withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (WWLST) decisions, and their feelings about how these decisions were made and implemented. A multicenter survey in 24 French PICUs during the fourth trimester 2010. One thousand three hundred and thirty-nine professional healthcare workers (1005 paramedics and 334 physicians) responded. Over 85% of caregivers had good knowledge of the WWLST decision-making processes required by law. More than 80% of caregivers accepted mechanical ventilation, hemodiafiltration, or hemodynamic support withdrawal or withholding. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration generated reluctance or opposition for the majority of respondents. While paramedics' participation in the decision-making process was deemed necessary by all caregivers, paramedics found more often than physicians that they were insufficiently involved. The quality of end-of-life care was judged very positively by caregivers. The answers on how WWLST was applied suggest very different interpretations of the law. Some caregivers respect the principles of palliative care as stated in the public health code and 40% of doctors and 64% of caregivers consider it "acceptable" to hasten death if resulting from a collaborative decision-making process. This study is the first to show that caregivers of French PICUs have good knowledge of the French law concerning the end of life. Yet, there is still confusion about the limits of practice during the end-of-life period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-related quality of life after salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, V.; Baco, E.; Dahl, A.A.; Karlsen, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Since June 2006 we have treated 61 patients consecutively by salvage HIFU. All patients were offered the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up. Scores ranged from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Clinically significant changes were defined as a minimum difference of 10 points between the baseline score and the score at follow-up. Fifty-seven patients (93%) had evaluable data at baseline, compared with 46 (75%) after treatment. The mean time lapse between HIFU treatment and questionnaire response was 17.5 months (range 6-29 months). The mean score for urinary function decreased from 79.7±12.1 prior to HIFU to 67.4±17.8 after HIFU (P<0.001). The mean score for sexual function decreased from 32.1±24.1 prior to HIFU to 17.2±17.0 after HIFU (P<0.001). There were no significant effects on bowel function. There was a significant reduction in the mean score for Physical HRQOL, but the mean score for Mental HRQOL was did not change significantly. Treatment of localized radiorecurrent PCa by salvage HIFU is associated with clinically significant reductions in urinary and sexual function domains after a mean follow-up of 17.5 months. (author)

  7. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yang, Yeping; Wang, Meng; Zhu, Jingjing; Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei; Yao, Zhenwei; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly. (orig.)

  8. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Meng; Zhu, Jingjing; Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yao, Zhenwei; Lu, Yun; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Yang, Yeping; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei

    2016-11-01

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly.

  9. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  10. The use of biologically related model (Eclipse for the intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning of nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W K Kan

    Full Text Available Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT is the most common treatment technique for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Physical quantities such as dose/dose-volume parameters are used conventionally for IMRT optimization. The use of biological related models has been proposed and can be a new trend. This work was to assess the performance of the biologically based IMRT optimization model installed in a popular commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse as compared to its dose/dose volume optimization model when employed in the clinical environment for NPC cases.Ten patients of early stage NPC and ten of advanced stage NPC were selected for this study. IMRT plans optimized using biological related approach (BBTP were compared to their corresponding plans optimized using the dose/dose volume based approach (DVTP. Plan evaluation was performed using both biological indices and physical dose indices such as tumor control probability (TCP, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP, target coverage, conformity, dose homogeneity and doses to organs at risk. The comparison results of the more complex advanced stage cases were reported separately from those of the simpler early stage cases.The target coverage and conformity were comparable between the two approaches, with BBTP plans producing more hot spots. For the primary targets, BBTP plans produced comparable TCP for the early stage cases and higher TCP for the advanced stage cases. BBTP plans reduced the volume of parotid glands receiving doses of above 40 Gy compared to DVTP plans. The NTCP of parotid glands produced by BBTP were 8.0 ± 5.8 and 7.9 ± 8.7 for early and advanced stage cases, respectively, while those of DVTP were 21.3 ± 8.3 and 24.4 ± 12.8, respectively. There were no significant differences in the NTCP values between the two approaches for the serial organs.Our results showed that the BBTP approach could be a potential alternative approach to the DVTP approach for NPC.

  11. The Role of Parental Perceptions of Tic Frequency and Intensity in Predicting Tic-Related Functional Impairment in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic ...

  12. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports.

  13. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with ammonia-oxidation, nitrate reduction, and biomass decomposition in mineral soil are altered by intensive timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinski, R. M.; Zhou, Y.; Gentry, T. J.; Boutton, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are substantially altered by anthropogenic disturbances such as timber harvest and land conversion, with effects being observed in carbon and nutrient pools as well as biogeochemical processes. Furthermore, the desire to develop renewable energy sources in the form of biomass extraction from logging residues may result in alterations in soil community structure and function. While the impact of forest management on soil physicochemical properties of the region has been studied, its' long-term effect on soil bacterial community composition and metagenomic potential is relatively unknown, especially at deeper soil depths. This study investigates how intensive organic matter removal intensities associated with timber harvest influence decadal-scale alterations in bacterial community structure and functional potential in the upper 1-m of the soil profile, 18 years post-harvest in a Pinus taeda L. forest of eastern Texas. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used in conjunction with soil chemical analyses to evaluate treatment-induced differences in community composition and potential environmental drivers of associated change. Furthermore, functional potential was assessed by using amplicon data to make metagenomic predictions. Results indicate that increasing organic matter removal intensity leads to altered community composition and the relative abundance of dominant OTUs annotated to Burkholderia and Aciditerrimonas. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification were highest in the most intensively harvested treatment while genes involved in nitrification were significantly lower in the most intensively harvested treatment. Furthermore, genes associated with glycosyltransferases were significantly reduced with increasing harvest intensity while polysaccharide lyases increased. These results imply that intensive organic matter removal may create

  14. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate...... if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. METHODS: We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register...... of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. RESULTS: We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular...

  15. Peaking China’s CO2 Emissions: Trends to 2030 and Mitigation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China has submitted its nationally determined contribution to peak its energy-related emissions around 2030. To understand how China might develop its economy while controlling CO2 emissions, this study surveys a number of recent modeling scenarios that project the country’s economic growth, energy mix, and associated emissions until 2050. Our analysis suggests that China’s CO2 emissions will continue to grow until 2040 or 2050 and will approximately double their 2010 level without additional policy intervention. The alternative scenario, however, suggests that peaking CO2 emissions around 2030 requires the emission growth rate to be reduced by 2% below the reference level. This step would result in a plateau in China’s emissions from 2020 to 2030. This paper also proposed a deep de-carbonization pathway for China that is consistent with China’s goal of peaking emissions by around 2030, which can best be achieved through a combination of improvements in energy and carbon intensities. Our analysis also indicated that the potential for energy intensity decline will be limited over time. Thus, the peaking will be largely dependent on the share of non-fossil fuel energy in primary energy consumption.

  16. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (? 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI...

  17. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  18. The influence of a high intensity physical activity intervention on a selection of health related outcomes: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Non E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of mortality throughout the world. With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, it is unsurprising that research into obesity prevalence within school aged youth is burgeoning. Within this study our primary objective will be to examine whether high intensity interval training (HIT improves the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents. Our secondary objective will be to identify the prevalence of CVD risk factors and examine factors associated with these in adolescents aged 15 - 18 years. Method/Design A South Lanarkshire school of low socioeconomic status (SES was selected to participate in the study intervention. Participants from secondary 5 (15 - 17 years and 6 (16 - 18 years will be recruited for this study. Participants from secondary 6 will be randomly assigned to Group A (HIT or Group B (moderate-vigorous and will perform each protocol three times weekly. The secondary 5 participants will act as the control group. Data collection will take place during the Physical Education (PE lessons and on school premises and will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at two sites, physiological responses (blood pressure, aerobic fitness, heart rate (HR response, vertical jump performance, 10-metre (m sprint, 50-m sprint and 505-agility test, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen (Fg, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin (high molecular weight, triglyceride and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. An environmental audit of the secondary school and the health related quality of life (HRQOL of the participants will also be measured. Finally, all exercise

  19. Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joe P; Blackney, Donna M; Ennis, Erin J

    2017-11-10

    The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ r,Z , μ r,A ] that provides the maximum

  20. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  1. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  2. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446). Supplement No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Supplement 7 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the Texas Utilities Electric Company application for a license to operate Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445, 50-446), located in Somervell County, Texas, has been jointly prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and the Comanche Peak Technical Review of the US Nuclera Regulatory Commission. This supplement provides the results of the staff's evaluation and resolution of approximately 80 technical concerns and allegations in the areas of Electric/Instrumentation and Test Programs regarding construction and plant readiness testing practices at the Comanche Peak facility. Issues raised during Atomic Safety and Licensing Board hearings will be dealt with in future supplements to the Safety Evaluation Report

  3. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. Patients and Methods A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer

  4. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  5. Valence electronic structure of Ni in Ni Si alloys from relative K X-ray intensity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Y.; Aydinuraz, A.; Tugluoglu, B.; Mutlu, R. H.

    2007-02-01

    The Kβ-to-Kα X-ray intensity ratio of Ni in Ni 3Si, Ni 2Si and NiSi has been determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. It is found that the intensity ratio of Ni decreases from pure Ni to Ni 2Si and then increases from Ni 2Si to NiSi, in good agreement with the electronic structure calculations cited in the literature. We have also performed band structure calculations for pure Ni in various atomic configurations by means of linear muffin-tin orbital method and used this data with the normalized theoretical intensity ratios cited in the literature to estimate the 3d-occupation numbers of Ni in Ni-Si alloys. It is emphasized that investigation of alloying effect in terms of X-ray intensity ratios should be carried out for the stoichiometric alloys in order to make reliable and quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment in transition metal alloys.

  6. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, psmokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected (r=.739, smokers vs. r=.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO2max, but not following a run at 80% VO2max. An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis. PMID:27182363

  7. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

  8. Scenario analysis on the goal of carbon emission peaking around 2030 of China proposed in the China-U.S. joint statement on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T.

    2015-12-01

    A goal of carbon (C) emission peaking around 2030 of China was declared in the China-U.S. joint statement on climate change, and emphasized in China's intended nationally determined contributions (INDC). Here, we predicted the carbon emission of China during the period 2011~2050 under seven scenarios, and analyzed the scientific and social implications of realizing the goal. Our results showed that: (1) C emissions of China will reach their peaks at 2022~2045 (with peak values 3.15~5.10 Pg C), and the predicted decay rates of C intensity were 2.1~4.2% in 2011~2050; (2) the precondition that the national C emission reaches the peak before 2030 is that the annual decay rates of C intensity must exceed 3.3% , as decay rates under different scenarios were predicted higher than that except for Past G8 scenario; (3) the national C emission would reach the peak before 2030, if the government of China should realize the C emissions reduction goals of China's 12th five-year plan, climate commitments of Copenhagen and INDC; (4) Chinese government could realize the goal of C emission peaking around 2030 from just controlling C emission intensity , but associated with relatively higher government's burden. In summary, China's C emission may well peak before 2030, meanwhile the combination of emissions reduction and economic macro-control would be demanded to avoid heavier social pressure of C emissions reduction occurred.

  9. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  10. Reduced-intensity conditioning lowers treatment-related mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia : a population-matched analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreger, P; Brand, R; Milligan, D; Corradini, P; Finke, J; Deliliers, GL; Martino, R; Russell, N; van Biezen, A; Michallet, M; Niederwieser, D

    To elucidate whether reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) decreases treatment-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we retrospectively compared 73 RIC cases from a recent EBMT survey with 82 patients from the EBMT

  11. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  12. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, J.E.; Kuiper, R.; van Kan, H.J.; de Pont, A.C.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Lie-A-Huen, L.; Vroom, M.B.; Smorenburg, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an

  13. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kuiper, Rob; van Kan, Hendrikus J.; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Smorenburg, Susanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As

  14. Screened Raman response in two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductors: Relative intensities in different symmetry channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenger, F.; Käll, M.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the Raman-scattering response in a two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductor and point out a strong suppression of relative intensity in the screened A(1g) channel compared to the B-1g channel for a generic tight-binding model. This is in contrast with the observed behavior in high...

  15. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). METHOD: Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and

  16. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional : An integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). Method Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and reference

  17. Health related quality of life is differently associated with leisure-time physical activity intensities according to gender: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila Missaki; Teixeira, Inaian Pignatti; Smirmaul, Bruno Paula Caraça; Sebastião, Emerson; Papini, Camila Bosquiero; Gobbi, Sebastião; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2014-08-18

    Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, studies have suggested that this association depends both on the PA intensity and the domain of HRQL evaluated. This study aimed to explore the association between physical, mental and overall HRQL with recommended levels of PA. PA levels were divided into moderate and vigorous intensity leisure-time PA and total leisure-time PA. The study included 1001 adults, 582 women (46 ± 17 years) and 419 men (43 ± 16 years), residents in Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire to assess HRQL and the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to assess level and intensities of leisure-time PA. Total leisure-time PA at moderate intensity was classified as: less than 9 min/week, 10-149 min/week, 150-299 min/week and 300 min/week or more. Total leisure-time PA at vigorous intensity was classified as: less than 9 min/week, 10 to 74.9 min/week, 75-149 min/week and 150 min/week or more. Multiple linear regression was performed in STATA version 12.0. Among women, moderate intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with physical health. Among men, moderate and vigorous intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with physical health and overall HRQL. Furthermore, moderate intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with mental health in men. However, vigorous intensity PA was not associated with mental health for this group. The different domains of HRQL were associated with different levels and intensities of PA in leisure-time according to gender of adults. These findings indicate the complexity and importance of evaluating the HRQL stratified by gender and consider the different levels and intensities of PA.

  18. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  19. Survey of elemental specificity in positron annihilation peak shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, U.; Simpson, P. J.

    1997-12-01

    Recently the detailed interpretation of positron-annihilation γ-ray peak shapes has proven to be of interest with respect to their chemical specificity. In this contribution, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements. To this purpose, annihilation spectra with strongly reduced background intensities were recorded in the two detector geometry, using a variable-energy positron beam. Division of the subsequently normalized spectra by a standard spectrum (in our case the spectrum of pure silicon) yields quotient spectra, which display features characteristic of the sample material. First we ascertain that the specific spectrum of an element is conserved in different chemical compounds, demonstrated here by identical oxygen spectra obtained from both SiO2/Si and MgO/Mg. Second, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements (Fe...Zn, Ag, Ir...Au). We show that the characteristic features in these spectra vary in a systematic fashion with the atomic number of the element and can be tentatively identified with particular orbitals. Finally, for 26 different elements we compare the maximum intensity in the quotient spectra with the relative atomic density in the corresponding element. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive survey of such data made to date.

  20. Diffraction peaks in x-ray spectroscopy: Friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, R.G.; Goehner, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Diffraction peaks can occur as unidentifiable peaks in the energy spectrum of an x-ray spectrometric analysis. Recently, there has been increased interest in oriented polycrystalline films and epitaxial films on single crystal substrates for electronic applications. Since these materials diffract x-rays more efficiently than randomly oriented polycrystalline materials, diffraction peaks are being observed more frequently in x-ray fluorescent spectra. In addition, micro x-ray spectrometric analysis utilizes a small, intense, collimated x-ray beam that can yield well defined diffraction peaks. In some cases these diffraction peaks can occur at the same position as elemental peaks. These diffraction peaks, although a possible problem in qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis, can give very useful information about the crystallographic structure and orientation of the material being analyzed. The observed diffraction peaks are dependent on the geometry of the x-ray spectrometer, the degree of collimation and the distribution of wavelengths (energies) originating from the x-ray tube and striking the sample

  1. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446). Supplement No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This Supplement provides the results of the staff's evaluation and resolution of approximately 400 technical concerns and allegations in the mechanical and piping area regarding construction practices at the Comanche Peak facility. This report does not address the Walsh/Doyle allegations regarding deficiencies in the pipe support design process and the new allegations recently received by the staff

  2. Factors influencing when intensive care unit nurses go to the bedside to investigate patient related alarms: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despins, Laurel A

    2017-12-01

    This study examines what prompts the intensive care unit (ICU) nurse to go to the patient's bedside to investigate an alarm and the influences on the nurse's determination regarding how quickly this needs to occur. A qualitative descriptive design guided data collection and analysis. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis guided by the Patient Risk Detection Theoretical Framework was applied to the data. Four specialty intensive care units in an academic medical center. ICU nurses go the patient's bedside in response to an alarm to catch patient deterioration and avert harm. Their determination of the immediacy of patient risk and their desire to prioritize their bedside investigations to true alarms influences how quickly they proceed to the bedside. Ready visual access to physiological data and waveform configurations, experience, teamwork, and false alarms are important determinants in the timing of ICU nurses' bedside alarm investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low calcium-phosphate intakes modulate the low-protein diet-related effect on peak bone mass acquisition: a hormonal and bone strength determinants study in female growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Rizzoli, R; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    Peak bone mass acquisition is influenced by environmental factors including dietary intake. A low-protein diet delays body and skeletal growth in association with a reduction in serum IGF-1 whereas serum FGF21 is increased by selective amino acid deprivation. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are also key nutrients for skeletal health, and inadequate intakes reduce bone mass accrual in association with calciotropic hormone modulation. Besides, the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mass in prepubertal children appears to be influenced by protein intake. To further explore the interaction of dietary protein and Ca-P intake on bone growth, 1-month-old female rats were fed with an isocaloric 10%, 7.5%, or 5% casein diet containing normal or low Ca-P for an 8-week period (6 groups). Changes in tibia geometry, mineral content, microarchitecture, strength, and intrinsic bone quality were analyzed. At the hormonal level, serum IGF-1, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), and FGF23 were investigated as well as the Ghr hepatic gene expression. In normal dietary Ca-P conditions, bone mineral content, trabecular and cortical bone volume, and bone strength were lower in the 5% casein group in association with a decrease in serum IGF-1 and an increase in FGF21 levels. Unexpectedly, the low-Ca-P diet attenuated the 5% casein diet-related reduction of serum IGF-1 and Ghr hepatic gene expression, as well as the low-protein diet-induced decrease in bone mass and strength. However, this was associated with lower cortical bone material level properties. The low-Ca-P diet increased serum calcitriol but decreased FGF23 levels. Calcitriol levels positively correlated with Ghr hepatic mRNA levels. These results suggest that hormonal modulation in response to a low-Ca-P diet may modify the low-protein diet-induced effect on Ghr hepatic mRNA levels and consequently the impact of low protein intakes on IGF-1 circulating levels and skeletal

  4. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Yang

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n =7) and non-smokers ( n =7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO 2max . AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, p vs. 15.6±0.41, p smokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected ( r =.739, smokers vs. r =.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO 2max, but not following a run at 80% VO 2max . An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO 2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis.

  5. Mind the gap? An intensive longitudinal study of between-person and within-person intention-behavior relations

    OpenAIRE

    Inauen Jennifer; Shrout Patrick E; Bolger Niall; Stadler Gertraud; Scholz Urte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite their good intentions people often do not eat healthily. This is known as the intention behavior gap. Although the intention behavior relationship is theorized as a within person process most evidence is based on between person differences. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the within person intention behavior association for unhealthy snack consumption. METHODS: Young adults (N?=?45) participated in an intensive longitudinal study. They reported ...

  6. [An fMRI Study of the Brain Activation Related to Intensive Positive Emotions During Viweing Erotic Pictures in 49-74 Old Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, O; Portnova, G; Orlov, I

    2016-01-01

    According to psychological research erotic images are evaluated in the context of positive emotions as the most intense, most associated with emotional arousal, among the variety of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. However it is difficult to separate areas of the brain that are related to the general emotional process from the activity of the brain areas involved in neuronal representations of reward system. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male subjects in evaluating an intensity of pleasant images, including erotic, or unpleasant and neutral pictures. When comparing the condition with evaluation of the pleasant erotic images with conditions containing neutral or unpleasant stimuli, a significant activation was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex; the prefrontal cortex and the right globus pallidus. An increased activity of the right anterior central gyrus was observed in the conditions related to evaluation of pleasant and neutral stimuli. Thus, in the process of evaluating the intensity of emotional images of an erotic nature the active brain areas were related not only to neuronal representations of emotions, but also to motivations and control system of emotional arousal, which should be taken into account while using erotic pictures as intensive positive emotional stimuli.

  7. Effect of Light Intensity on the Relative Dominance of Toxigenic and Nontoxigenic Strains of Microcystis aeruginosa ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc Renaud, Susan; Pick, Frances R.; Fortin, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, the factors that regulate the dominance of toxin-producing cyanobacteria over non-toxin-producing strains of the same species are largely unknown. One possible hypothesis is that limiting resources lead to the dominance of the latter because of the metabolic costs associated with toxin production. In this study, we tested the effect of light intensity on the performance of a microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa (UTCC 300) when grown in mixed cultures with non-microcystin-producing strains with similar intrinsic growth rates (UTCC 632 and UTCC 633). The endpoints measured included culture growth rates, microcystin concentrations and composition, and mcyD gene copy numbers determined using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). In contrast to the predicted results, under conditions of low light intensity (20 μmol·m−2·s−1), the toxigenic strain became dominant in both of the mixed cultures based on gene copy numbers and microcystin concentrations. When grown under conditions of high light intensity (80 μmol·m−2·s−1), the toxigenic strain still appeared to dominate over nontoxigenic strain UTCC 632 but less so over strain UTCC 633. Microcystins may not be so costly to produce that toxigenic cyanobacteria are at a disadvantage in competition for limiting resources. PMID:21841026

  8. Comparative LC-MS: A landscape of Peaks and Valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    America, A.H.P.; Cordewener, J.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics approaches using stable isotopes are well-known and used in many labs nowadays. More recently, high resolution quantitative approaches are reported that rely on LC-MS quantitation of peptide concentrations by comparing peak intensities between multiple runs obtained by

  9. Modeling the probability distribution of peak discharge for infiltrating hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-07-01

    Hillslope response plays a fundamental role in the prediction of peak discharge at the basin outlet. The peak discharge for the critical duration of rainfall and its probability distribution are needed for designing urban infrastructure facilities. This study derives the probability distribution, denoted as GABS model, by coupling three models: (1) the Green-Ampt model for computing infiltration, (2) the kinematic wave model for computing discharge hydrograph from the hillslope, and (3) the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) model for computing design rainfall intensity. The Hortonian mechanism for runoff generation is employed for computing the surface runoff hydrograph. Since the antecedent soil moisture condition (ASMC) significantly affects the rate of infiltration, its effect on the probability distribution of peak discharge is investigated. Application to a watershed in Sicily, Italy, shows that with the increase of probability, the expected effect of ASMC to increase the maximum discharge diminishes. Only for low values of probability, the critical duration of rainfall is influenced by ASMC, whereas its effect on the peak discharge seems to be less for any probability. For a set of parameters, the derived probability distribution of peak discharge seems to be fitted by the gamma distribution well. Finally, an application to a small watershed, with the aim to test the possibility to arrange in advance the rational runoff coefficient tables to be used for the rational method, and a comparison between peak discharges obtained by the GABS model with those measured in an experimental flume for a loamy-sand soil were carried out.

  10. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  11. The Peak Pairs algorithm for strain mapping from HRTEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, Pedro L. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail: pedro.galindo@uca.es; Kret, Slawomir [Institute of Physics, PAS, AL. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Sanchez, Ana M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Laval, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UPR5 CNRS-ESPCI, Paris (France); Yanez, Andres; Pizarro, Joaquin; Guerrero, Elisa [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    Strain mapping is defined as a numerical image-processing technique that measures the local shifts of image details around a crystal defect with respect to the ideal, defect-free, positions in the bulk. Algorithms to map elastic strains from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images may be classified into two categories: those based on the detection of peaks of intensity in real space and the Geometric Phase approach, calculated in Fourier space. In this paper, we discuss both categories and propose an alternative real space algorithm (Peak Pairs) based on the detection of pairs of intensity maxima in an affine transformed space dependent on the reference area. In spite of the fact that it is a real space approach, the Peak Pairs algorithm exhibits good behaviour at heavily distorted defect cores, e.g. interfaces and dislocations. Quantitative results are reported from experiments to determine local strain in different types of semiconductor heterostructures.

  12. Nutrition therapy with high intensity interval training to improve prostate cancer-related fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Skinner, Tina L; Leveritt, Michael D; Wright, Olivia R L

    2017-01-03

    Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most prevalent, prolonged and distressing side effects of prostate cancer treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests natural therapies such as nutrition therapy and structured exercise prescription can reduce symptoms of cancer-related fatigue. Men appear to change their habitual dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis, yet prostate-specific dietary guidelines provide limited support for managing adverse side effects of treatment. The exercise literature has shown high intensity interval training can improve various aspects of health that are typically impaired with androgen deprivation therapy; however exercise at this intensity is yet to be conducted in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nutrition therapy beyond the current healthy eating guidelines with high intensity interval training for managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. This is a two-arm randomized control trial of 116 men with prostate cancer and survivors treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group i.e. nutrition therapy and high intensity interval training, or usual care. The intervention group will receive 20 weeks of individualized nutrition therapy from an Accredited Practising Dietitian, and high intensity interval training (from weeks 12-20 of the intervention) from an Accredited Exercise Physiologist. The usual care group will maintain their standard treatment regimen over the 20 weeks. Both groups will undertake primary and secondary outcome testing at baseline, week 8, 12, and 20; testing includes questionnaires of fatigue and quality of life, objective measures of body composition, muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers for disease progression, as well as dietary analysis. The primary outcomes for this trial are measures of

  13. Can You Hear That Peak? Utilization of Auditory and Visual Feedback at Peak Limb Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Tristan; de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: At rest, the central nervous system combines and integrates multisensory cues to yield an optimal percept. When engaging in action, the relative weighing of sensory modalities has been shown to be altered. Because the timing of peak velocity is the critical moment in some goal-directed movements (e.g., overarm throwing), the current study…

  14. Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mengshan; Keller, Arturo A.; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Den, Walter; Wang, Hongtao; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This study quantifies the nexus as energy intensity and greenhouse gas potential. •Baseline water stress and return flow ratio are identified as water risks. •Source water accessibility significantly contributes to variations in the nexus. •Water risks have little impact on the nexus of wastewater systems. •Study on the nexus is suggested to be conducted at regional levels. -- Abstract: The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great

  15. Economic analysis of three interventions of different intensity in improving school implementation of a government healthy canteen policy in Australia: costs, incremental and relative cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kathryn L; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Wiggers, John

    2018-03-20

    No evaluations of the cost or cost effectiveness of interventions to increase school implementation of food availability policies have been reported. Government and non-government agency decisions regarding the extent of investment required to enhance school implementation of such policies are unsupported by such evidence. This study sought to i) Determine cost and cost-effectiveness of three interventions in improving school implementation of an Australian government healthy canteen policy and; ii) Determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the interventions in improving school implementation of such a policy. An analysis of the cost and cost-effectiveness of three implementation interventions of varying support intensity, relative to usual implementation support conducted during 2013-2015 was undertaken. Secondly, an indirect comparison of the trials was undertaken to determine the most cost-effective of the three strategies. The economic analysis was based on the cost of delivering the interventions by health service delivery staff to increase the proportion of schools 'adherent' with the policy. The total costs per school were $166,971, $70,926 and $75,682 for the high, medium and low intensity interventions respectively. Compared to usual support, the cost effectiveness ratios for each of the three interventions were: A$2982 (high intensity), A$2627 (medium intensity) and A$4730 (low intensity) per percent increase in proportion of schools reporting 'adherence'). Indirect comparison between the 'high' and 'medium intensity' interventions showed no statistically significant difference in cost-effectiveness. The results indicate that while the cost profiles of the interventions varied substantially, the cost-effectiveness did not. This result is valuable to policy makers seeking cost-effective solutions that can be delivered within budget.

  16. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  17. Study in the plasma with non-equilibrium ionization state by relative intensities in K-spectra of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The pressure of the K-spectra formation of multicharge h-, He-, Li-like ions in a plasma with an arbitrary ionization state are considered. It is shown that comparison of experimental and theoretical data on the intensities of f a number of spectral lines belonging to such ions allows one to determine both the plasma electron temperature and ion distribution versus the ionization degre ees. The proposed method of plasma diagnostics is used for measuring parameters of the expanding laser-produced magnesium plasme

  18. A Cross-cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eSoon Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one’s experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105, South Korea (n = 113, and China (n = 87. The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts’ profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users’ profiles and contact with friends’ profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts’ profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  20. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions. PMID:27148100

  1. Analysis of High-Intensity Skating in Top-Class Ice Hockey Match-Play in Relation to Training Status and Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignell, Erik; Fransson, Dan; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2018-05-01

    Lignell, E, Fransson, D, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. Analysis of high-intensity skating in top-class ice hockey match-play in relation to training status and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1303-1310, 2018-We examined high-intensity activities in a top-class ice-hockey game and the effect of training status. Male ice-hockey players (n = 36) from the National Hockey League participated. Match analysis was performed during a game and physical capacity was assessed by a submaximal Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Ice-hockey test, level 1 (YYIR1-IHSUB). Venous blood samples were collected 24-hour post-game to determine markers of muscle damage. Players performed 119 ± 8 and 31 ± 3 m·min of high intensity and sprint skating, respectively, during a game. Total distance covered was 4,606 ± 219 m (2,260-6,749 m), of which high-intensity distance was 2042 ± 97 m (757-3,026 m). Sprint-skating speed was 5-8% higher (p ≤ 0.05) in periods 1 and 2 vs. period 3 and overtime. Defensemen (D) covered 29% more (p ≤ 0.05) skating in total than forwards (F) and were on the ice 47% longer. However, F performed 54% more (p ≤ 0.05) high-intensity skating per minute than defensemen. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) was 338 ± 45 (78-757) U·L 24-hour post-game. Heart rate loading during YYIR1-IHSUB correlated inversely (p ≤ 0.05) to the frequency of high-intensity skating bouts (r = -0.55) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (r = -0.85) and positively to post-game CK (r = 0.49; p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, ice hockey is a multiple-sprint sport that provokes fatigue in the latter half of a game. Forwards perform more intense skating than defensemen. Moreover, high-intensity game activities during top-class ice hockey are correlated with cardiovascular loading during a submaximal skating test. Taken together, training of elite ice-hockey players should improve the ability for repeated high-intensity skating, and testing should include the YYIR1-IHSUB test as an indicator for ice

  2. Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Tomoko; Kuze, Noko; Bernard, Henry; Malim, Titol Peter; Kohshima, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) and fruit availability for 10 years (2005-2014), in primary lowland dipterocarp forests in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. During the research period, two mast fruitings and three other peak fruiting events of different scales occurred in the study area. The orangutan population density, estimated every 2 months by the marked nest count method, changed between 0.3 and 4.4 ind/km 2 and the mean population density was 1.3 ind/km 2  ± SE 0.1 (n = 56). The population density increased markedly during mast and peak fruiting periods. A significant positive correlation was observed between the population density and fruit availability in the study period (Spearman, R = 0.3, P < 0.01, n = 56). During non-fruiting periods, however, no significant correlation was observed between them. These results suggest that the spatial difference in fruit availability during mast and peak fruiting periods was larger than during non-fruiting periods, and many orangutans temporarily moved to the study site from the surrounding areas seeking fruit.

  3. daily nigerian nigerian nigerian peak load forec peak load forec

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    company. Basic operating functions such as u commitment, economic dispatch, fuel scheduli and unit ... analysis or contingency analysis [1]. 8035134769 ... A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction relatively smaller ...

  4. Evaluation of peak power prediction equations in male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M

    2008-07-01

    This study compared peak power estimated using 4 commonly used regression equations with actual peak power derived from force platform data in a group of adolescent basketball players. Twenty-five elite junior male basketball players (age, 16.5 +/- 0.5 years; mass, 74.2 +/- 11.8 kg; height, 181.8 +/- 8.1 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Actual peak power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump on a force platform. Estimated peak power was determined using countermovement jump height and body mass. All 4 prediction equations were significantly related to actual peak power (all p jump prediction equations, 12% for the Canavan and Vescovi equation, and 6% for the Sayers countermovement jump equation. In all cases peak power was underestimated.

  5. Daily Nigerian peak load forecasting using artificial neural network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A daily peak load forecasting technique that uses artificial neural network with seasonal indices is presented in this paper. A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction network is used to predict the daily peak load for a period of one year over which the actual daily load data are available using one ...

  6. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  7. Acquisition of peak responding: what is learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Gallistel, Charles R; Allen, Brian D; Frank, Krystal M; Gibson, Jacqueline M; Brunner, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the common measures of timing performance behaved in the course of training on the peak procedure in C3H mice. Following fixed interval (FI) pre-training, mice received 16 days of training in the peak procedure. The peak time and spread were derived from the average response rates while the start and stop times and their relative variability were derived from a single-trial analysis. Temporal precision (response spread) appeared to improve in the course of training. This apparent improvement in precision was, however, an averaging artifact; it was mediated by the staggered appearance of timed stops, rather than by the delayed occurrence of start times. Trial-by-trial analysis of the stop times for individual subjects revealed that stops appeared abruptly after three to five sessions and their timing did not change as training was prolonged. Start times and the precision of start and stop times were generally stable throughout training. Our results show that subjects do not gradually learn to time their start or stop of responding. Instead, they learn the duration of the FI, with robust temporal control over the start of the response; the control over the stop of response appears abruptly later.

  8. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O.; Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E T miss > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m g or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  9. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. The dislocation-internal friction peak γ in tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.; Benoit, W.; Schultz, H.

    1989-01-01

    Torsion-pendulum measurements were carried out on high-purity single crystal specimens of tantalum, having extremely low oxygen contents ( 2 peak, which appears close to γ is small traces of oxygen are presents. The γ 2 peak was formerly explained as a ''dislocation-enhanced Snoek peak''. The γ peak recovers at the peak temperature, whereas the γ 2 peak is more stable. On the basis of their results, and making use of earlier investigations of Rodrian and Schultz, the authors suggest that γ 2 is modified γ relaxation, related to screw-dislocation segments, stabilized by oxygen-decorated kinks. The stability of the γ 2 peak allows an accurate determination of the activation energy, found to be 1.00 +- 0.03 eV. This value is distinctly lower than the activation energy of the oxygen Snoek effect (1.10 eV) and is related here to the mechanism of ''kink-pair formation'' in screw dislocations, as the original γ peak. The numerical value is compatible with recent values derived from flow-stress measurements. The peak γ 2 shows increasing stability with increasing oxygen content. This is explained by single- and multi-decorated kinks

  11. Individual vision and peak distribution in collective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng

    2017-06-01

    People make decisions on whether they should participate as participants or not as free riders in collective actions with heterogeneous visions. Besides of the utility heterogeneity and cost heterogeneity, this work includes and investigates the effect of vision heterogeneity by constructing a decision model, i.e. the revised peak model of participants. In this model, potential participants make decisions under the joint influence of utility, cost, and vision heterogeneities. The outcomes of simulations indicate that vision heterogeneity reduces the values of peaks, and the relative variance of peaks is stable. Under normal distributions of vision heterogeneity and other factors, the peaks of participants are normally distributed as well. Therefore, it is necessary to predict distribution traits of peaks based on distribution traits of related factors such as vision heterogeneity and so on. We predict the distribution of peaks with parameters of both mean and standard deviation, which provides the confident intervals and robust predictions of peaks. Besides, we validate the peak model of via the Yuyuan Incident, a real case in China (2014), and the model works well in explaining the dynamics and predicting the peak of real case.

  12. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... and cysts ((oo-) cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011 to June 2012) in piglets (n=152), starter pigs (n=234), fatteners (n=230) and sows (n=240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (Oo-) cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium...

  13. Quality of care in the intensive care unit from the perspective of patient's relatives: development and psychometric evaluation of the consumer quality index 'R-ICU'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Ans; van Mol, Margo M; Menheere, Ilse; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Verhoogt, Ellen; Maris, Bea; Manders, Willeke; Vloet, Lilian; Verharen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-24

    The quality standards of the Dutch Society of Intensive Care require monitoring of the satisfaction of patient's relatives with respect to care. Currently, no suitable instrument is available in the Netherlands to measure this. This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire-based Consumer Quality Index 'Relatives in Intensive Care Unit' (CQI 'R-ICU'). The CQI 'R-ICU' measures the perceived quality of care from the perspective of patients' relatives, and identifies aspects of care that need improvement. The CQI 'R-ICU' was developed using a mixed method design. Items were based on quality of care aspects from earlier studies and from focus group interviews with patients' relatives. The time period for the data collection of the psychometric evaluation was from October 2011 until July 2012. Relatives of adult intensive care patients in one university hospital and five general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate. Psychometric evaluation included item analysis, inter-item analysis, and factor analysis. Twelve aspects were noted as being indicators of quality of care, and were subsequently selected for the questionnaire's vocabulary. The response rate of patients' relatives was 81% (n = 455). Quality of care was represented by two clusters, each showing a high reliability: 'Communication' (α = .80) and 'Participation' (α = .84). Relatives ranked the following aspects for quality of care as most important: no conflicting information, information from doctors and nurses is comprehensive, and health professionals take patients' relatives seriously. The least important care aspects were: need for contact with peers, nuisance, and contact with a spiritual counsellor. Aspects that needed the most urgent improvement (highest quality improvement scores) were: information about how relatives can contribute to the care of the patient, information about the use of meal-facilities in the hospital, and

  14. ULTRA-LOW INTENSITY PROTON BEAMS FOR RADIATION RESPONSE RELATED EXPERIMENTS AT THE U-120M CYCLOTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matlocha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Rez is used for radiation hardness tests of electronics for high-energy physics experiments. These tests are usually carried out with proton fluxes of the order of 105–109 proton·cm−2·s−1. Some tests done for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at CERN, however, required proton beam intensities several orders of magnitude lower. This paper presents a method which has been developed to achieve the proton beam flux of the order of 1 proton · cm−2·s−1. The method is mainly based on reduction of the discharge current in the cyclotron internal Penning type ion source. Influence of this new operation mode on the lifetime of ion source cathodes is discussed.

  15. Changes in intensity of precipitation extremes in Romania on very hight temporal scale and implications on the validity of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busuioc, Aristita; Baciu, Madalina; Breza, Traian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Stoica, Cerasela; Baghina, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Many observational, theoretical and based on climate model simulation studies suggested that warmer climates lead to more intense precipitation events, even when the total annual precipitation is slightly reduced. In this way, it was suggested that extreme precipitation events may increase at Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate under global warming and constraint of constant relative humidity. However, recent studies show that the relationship between extreme rainfall intensity and atmospheric temperature is much more complex than would be suggested by the CC relationship and is mainly dependent on precipitation temporal resolution, region, storm type and whether the analysis is conducted on storm events rather than fixed data. The present study presents the dependence between the very hight temporal scale extreme rainfall intensity and daily temperatures, with respect to the verification of the CC relation. To solve this objective, the analysis is conducted on rainfall event rather than fixed interval using the rainfall data based on graphic records including intensities (mm/min.) calculated over each interval with permanent intensity per minute. The annual interval with available a such data (April to October) is considered at 5 stations over the interval 1950-2007. For Bucuresti-Filaret station the analysis is extended over the longer interval (1898-2007). For each rainfall event, the maximum intensity (mm/min.) is retained and these time series are considered for the further analysis (abbreviated in the following as IMAX). The IMAX data were divided based on the daily mean temperature into bins 2oC - wide. The bins with less than 100 values were excluded. The 90th, 99th and 99.9th percentiles were computed from the binned data using the empirical distribution and their variability has been compared to the CC scaling (e.g. exponential relation given by a 7% increase per temperature degree rise). The results show a dependence close to double the CC relation for

  16. 'J-KAREN' - high intensity, high contrast laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Mori, Michiaki; Nakai, Yoshiki; Okada, Hajime; Sasao, Hajime; Sagisaka, Akito; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Momoko; Kondo, Kiminori; Tateno, Ryo; Sugiyama, Akira; Daido, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masato; Kawanishi, Syunichi; Shimomura, Takuya; Tanoue, Manabu; Wakai, Daisuke; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei

    2010-01-01

    We report on the high intensity, high contrast double chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system (named J-KAREN). By use of an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier that is seeded by a cleaned high-energy pulse, a background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) level of 10 -10 relative to the peak main femtosecond pulse on the picosecond timescales demonstrated with an output energy of 1.7 J and a pulse duration of 30 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 60TW at a 10 Hz repetition rate. This system which uses a cryogenically-cooled Ti:sapphire final amplifier generates focused peak intensity in excess of 10 20 W/cm 2 at a 10 Hz repetition rate. (author)

  17. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-445 and 50-446). Supplement No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This supplement addresses TUEC's analyses in support of its request to amend the Comanche Peak Final Safety Analysis Report to eliminate the commitment that coatings inside the reactor Containment Building be qualified for Units 1 and 2. In addition, this supplement provides the results of the staff's evaluation and resolution of 62 technical concerns and allegations in the coatings area for Unit 1. Because of the favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes for the issues considered herein, that there is reasonable assurance that the facility can be operated by TUEC without endangering the health and safety of the public

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Severe Obesity after Intensive Lifestyle Treatment and at 1-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeke Hoedjes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine changes in generic and weight-related, health-related quality of life (HRQoL in children and adolescents with severe obesity participating in intensive lifestyle treatment, and to examine whether changes in SDS-BMI were associated with changes in HRQoL. Methods: In this prospective observational study, a referred sample of 120 children and adolescents (8-19 years with severe obesity (SDS-BMI ≥ 3.0, or ≥ 2.3 in combination with obesity-related comorbidity received an intensive 1-year lifestyle treatment with an inpatient period in a specialized childhood obesity center. A weight-related (IWQOL-Kids and three generic (KIDSCREEN-52, PedsQL 4.0, and EuroQol HRQoL questionnaires were administered at baseline (T0, after treatment (T1, and 1 year later (T2. Generalized Linear Mixed Models and partial correlations were used to analyze changes in HRQoL and associations with changes in SDS-BMI. Results: Statistically significant improvements in generic and weight-related HRQoL overall and domain scores were observed at T1and at T2 in comparison with T0, despite partial weight regain from T1 to T2. Larger weight loss at T2 was correlated with larger improvements in physical HRQoL domains. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with severe obesity experienced long-term improvements in generic and weight-related HRQoL after participating in intensive lifestyle treatment, despite partial weight regain.

  19. Intravenous injection of gadobutrol in an epidemiological study group did not lead to a difference in relative signal intensities of certain brain structures after 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Langner, Soenke; Kirsch, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Ittermann, Till [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); Weitschies, Werner [University Greifswald, Institute of Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate if application of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents in volunteers is associated with neuronal deposition detected by magnetic resonance imaging in a 5-year longitudinal survey. Three hundred eighty-seven volunteers who participated in a population-based study were enrolled. Subjects underwent plain T1-weighted brain MRI at baseline and 5 years later with identical sequence parameters. At baseline, 271 participants additionally received intravenous injection of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadobutrol (1.5 mmol/kg). A control group including 116 subjects received no contrast agent. Relative signal intensities of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus were compared at baseline and follow-up. No difference in relative signal intensities was observed between contrast group (thalamus, p = 0.865; pallidum, p = 0.263; pons, p = 0.533; dentate nucleus, p = 0.396) and control group (thalamus, p = 0.683; pallidum; p = 0.970; pons, p = 0.773; dentate nucleus, p = 0.232) at both times. Comparison between both groups revealed no significant differences in relative signal intensities (thalamus, p = 0.413; pallidum, p = 0.653; pons, p = 0.460; dentate nucleus, p = 0.751). The study showed no significant change in globus pallidus-to-thalamus or dentate nucleus-to-pons ratios. Five years after administration of a 1.5-fold dose gadobutrol to normal subjects, signal intensity of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus did not differ from participants who had not received gadobutrol. (orig.)

  20. Intravenous injection of gadobutrol in an epidemiological study group did not lead to a difference in relative signal intensities of certain brain structures after 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Ittermann, Till; Langner, Sönke; Kirsch, Michael; Weitschies, Werner; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2017-02-01

    To investigate if application of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents in volunteers is associated with neuronal deposition detected by magnetic resonance imaging in a 5-year longitudinal survey. Three hundred eighty-seven volunteers who participated in a population-based study were enrolled. Subjects underwent plain T1-weighted brain MRI at baseline and 5 years later with identical sequence parameters. At baseline, 271 participants additionally received intravenous injection of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadobutrol (0.15 mmol/kg). A control group including 116 subjects received no contrast agent. Relative signal intensities of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus were compared at baseline and follow-up. No difference in relative signal intensities was observed between contrast group (thalamus, p = 0.865; pallidum, p = 0.263; pons, p = 0.533; dentate nucleus, p = 0.396) and control group (thalamus, p = 0.683; pallidum; p = 0.970; pons, p = 0.773; dentate nucleus, p = 0.232) at both times. Comparison between both groups revealed no significant differences in relative signal intensities (thalamus, p = 0.413; pallidum, p = 0.653; pons, p = 0.460; dentate nucleus, p = 0.751). The study showed no significant change in globus pallidus-to-thalamus or dentate nucleus-to-pons ratios. Five years after administration of a 1.5-fold dose gadobutrol to normal subjects, signal intensity of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus did not differ from participants who had not received gadobutrol. • Gadobutrol does not lead to neuronal signal alterations after 5 years. • Neuronal deposition of macrocyclic contrast agent could not be confirmed. • Macrocyclic contrast agents in a proven dosage are safe.

  1. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  2. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  3. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  4. Future gender relations in global restructuring processes case study evidence from knowledge-intensive, manufacturing and service occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Nierling

    2008-01-01

    Global restructuring processes have not only strong implications for European working and living realities, but also have specific outcomes with regard to gender relations. The following contribution analyses in which way global restructuring shapes current gender relations in order to identify important trends and developments for future gender (in)equalities at the workplace. On the basis of a large qualitative study on global restructuring and impacts on different occupational groups it ar...

  5. FHWA operations support : port peak pricing program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluates the applicability, Federal policy implications, and possible public and private sector roles related to peak pricing strategies at ports and intermodal facilities in the U.S. A number of ports and intermodal terminals are consid...

  6. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  7. Orofacial symptoms related to temporomandibular joint arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: smallest detectable difference in self-reported pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper D; Verna, Carlalberta; Küseler, Annelise; Herlin, Troels; Pedersen, Thomas K

    2012-12-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may lead to mandibular growth disturbances and interfere with optimal joint and muscle function. Orofacial symptoms are common clinical findings in relation to TMJ arthritis in adolescence. Knowledge about their clinical manifestation is important for TMJ arthritis diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome evaluation. The aim of our prospective observational study was to evaluate and describe the frequency, the main complaints, and the localization of TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms. The smallest detectable differences (SDD) for minimal, average, and maximal pain were estimated. Thirty-three patients with JIA and arthritis-related orofacial symptoms in relation to 55 affected TMJ were included in our questionnaire study (mean age 14.11 yrs). Calculation of the SDD was based on a duplicate assessment 45 min after the first questionnaire was completed. The majority of the patients had common orofacial symptoms during mastication and maximal mouth opening procedures. Persistent orofacial symptoms were rare. The TMJ area in combination with the masseter muscle region was the orofacial region where symptoms were most common. The SDD for minimal, average, and maximal pain were between 10 and 14 mm on a visual analog scale. Our study offers new knowledge about TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms that may aid diagnosis and clinical decision-making. We suggest that TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms could be understood as products of the primary TMJ inflammation in combination with secondary myogenic and functional issues.

  8. Emergency ultrasound and echocardiography in patients with infarct-related cardiogenic shock : A survey among members of the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, G; Hempel, D; Pfister, R; Janssens, U

    2018-04-09

    Current international and national guidelines promote the use of emergency echocardiography in patients with cardiogenic shock. We assessed whether these recommendations are followed in clinical practice of infarct-related cardiogenic shock patients. For this purpose we conducted a web-based survey among all members of the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN); 40% of the DGIIN members completed the survey. Participants reported that in their department emergency echocardiography/ultrasound is performed on most patients in infarct-related cardiogenic shock presenting to the emergency department/chest pain unit or intensive care unit (58.6% versus 81.4%). Only 33% stated that on patients admitted directly to the catheterization laboratory emergency ultrasound/echocardiography is applied in their institution. Local availability of a standardized algorithm was lacking in the majority of departments (77.2%). A great proportion (38.3%) of participants stated that they personally had no formal training in emergency ultrasound. In order to meet the demands of the current guidelines, in addition to integration of ultrasound examinations into diagnostic algorithms, a structured training of all emergency and intensive care physicians is necessary.

  9. Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Relative Abundances of Protein Conformation in a Heterogeneous Mixture from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Intensity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuk, A. Emre; Akcakaya, Murat; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.; Makowski, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the relative abundances of different conformations of a protein in a heterogeneous mixture from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities. To consider cases where the solution includes intermediate or unknown conformations, we develop a subset selection method based on k-means clustering and the Cramér-Rao bound on the mixture coefficient estimation error to find a sparse basis set that represents the space spanned by the measured SAXS intensities of the known conformations of a protein. Then, using the selected basis set and the assumptions on the model for the intensity measurements, we show that the MLE model can be expressed as a constrained convex optimization problem. Employing the adenylate kinase (ADK) protein and its known conformations as an example, and using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation scheme. Here, although we use 45 crystallographically determined experimental structures and we could generate many more using, for instance, molecular dynamics calculations, the clustering technique indicates that the data cannot support the determination of relative abundances for more than 5 conformations. The estimation of this maximum number of conformations is intrinsic to the methodology we have used here. PMID:26924916

  10. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  11. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  12. DELIRIUM RELATED DISTRESS EXPERIENCED BY PATIENTS, CAREGIVERS AND NURSING STAFF IN A MEDICAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Kumar Jayaswal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Delirium, a common neuropsychiatric syndrome in intensive care settings is a distressing experience for the patient, caregivers and nursing staff. Research on delirium experience has been scant and unsystematic. We set out to explore the extent of recall of delirium, differential distress it had on patients, caregivers and nursing staff and the extent to which it impacted recognition across the motoric subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out on all consecutively admitted patients in the medical ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients diagnosed with delirium using Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU were administered the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS for differentiating the motor subtypes (hypoactive, hyperactive, mixed. Distress was assessed using the Delirium Experience Questionnaire (DEQ. RESULTS Of the 88 patients (31.43% who developed delirium, 60.2% recalled their experience. Recall was highest in the hyperactive subtype. 76% of patients, 94.3% of caregivers and 31.8% of nursing staff reported severe levels of distress. Motoric subtypes did not impact on the distress levels experienced by the patients or their caregivers, but influenced it significantly in the nursing staff (highest in hyperactive, least in hypoactive. Identification of delirium by nursing staff (13.4% was significantly influenced by the motor subtypes (highest in hyperactive, least in hypoactive. Linear regression analysis revealed that distress of ICU staff (F=1.36, p=0.018 and not the motoric subtypes (F=1.36, p=0.262 significantly predicted recognition of delirium. CONCLUSIONS Most patients who develop delirium and their caregivers experience high levels of distress. Under-recognition is significantly influenced by the distress it causes the ICU staff than the motor subtype of delirium.

  13. Four Weeks of Off-Season Training Improves Peak Oxygen Consumption in Female Field Hockey Players

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey T. Funch; Erik Lind; Larissa True; Deborah Van Langen; John T. Foley; James F. Hokanson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙O2peak) and running economy (RE) following four-weeks of high intensity training and concurrent strength and conditioning during the off-season in collegiate female field hockey players. Fourteen female student-athletes (age 19.29 ± 0.91 years) were divided into two training groups, matched from baseline V ˙O2peak: High Intensity Training (HITrun; n = 8) and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT; ...

  14. Intensity and timing of physical activity in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tricia M; Moore, Steven C; Gierach, Gretchen L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of an inverse association of physical activity with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, whether a certain intensity or time of life of physical activity is most effective for lowering breast cancer risk is not known. In 118,899 postmenopausal women in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the relations of light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during four periods of life ('historical': ages 15-18, 19-29, 35-39 years; 'recent': past 10 years) to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at baseline, and 4287 incident breast cancers were identified over 6.6 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted and multivariate Cox regression models, >7 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity during the past 10 years was associated with 16% reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (RR:0.84; 95%CI:0.76,0.93) compared with inactivity. The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI (RR:0.87; 95%CI:0.78,0.96). Neither moderate-to-vigorous activity during other periods of life nor light intensity activity during any period of life was related to breast cancer risk, and associations did not vary by tumor characteristics. A high level of recent, but not historical, physical activity of moderate-to-vigorous intensity is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. More precise recall of recent physical activity than activity in the distant past is one possible explanation for our findings

  15. Microcirculation and its relation to continuous subcutaneous glucose sensor accuracy in cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegelaar, Sarah E.; Barwari, Temo; Hermanides, Jeroen; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring could be helpful for glucose regulation in critically ill patients; however, its accuracy is uncertain and might be influenced by microcirculation. We investigated the microcirculation and its relation to the accuracy of 2 continuous glucose monitoring devices in

  16. Relating Landscape Development Intensity to Coral Reef Condition in the Watersheds of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagnosing the degree to which local landscape activities impact coral reef ecosystems and their ecological services is critically important to coastal and watershed decision-makers. We report, for the first time, a study that relates coral reef condition metrics to metrics of h...

  17. A partial life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy intensity and related greenhouse gas emission in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Murgia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is constantly evolving towards more intensive levels of mechanization and automation which demand more energy consumption and result in higher economic and environmental costs. The usage of fossil energy in agricultural processes contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to the use of grid power. As a consequence, a more efficient use of fossil resources together with an increased use of renewable energies can play a key role for the development of more sustainable production systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the energy requirements (fuels and electricity in dairy farms, define the distribution of the energy demands among the different farm operations, identify the critical point of the process and estimate the amount of CO2 associated with the energy consumption. The inventory of the energy uses has been outlined by a partial Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, setting the system boundaries at the farm level, from cradle to farm gate. All the flows of materials and energy associated to milk production process, including crops cultivation for fodder production, were investigated in 20 dairy commercial farms over a period of one year. Self-produced energy from renewable sources was also accounted as it influence the overall balance of emissions. Data analysis was focused on the calculation of energy and environmental sustainability indicators (EUI, CO2-eq referred to the functional units. The production of 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM required on average 0.044 kWhel and 0.251 kWhth, corresponding to a total emission of 0.085 kg CO2-eq. The farm activities that contribute most to the electricity requirements were milk cooling, milking and slurry management, while feeding management and crop cultivation were the greatest diesel fuel consuming operation and the largest in terms of environmental impact of milk production (73% of

  18. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  19. Children’s intensive participation in sport and peer relations: Evidence from a Danish longitudinal school study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2018-01-01

    In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils...

  20. Children’s intensive participation in sport and peer relations: Evidence from a Danish longitudinal school study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2018-01-01

    , it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate...

  1. The quality of intensive care unit nurse handover related to end of life: a descriptive comparative international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Endacott, Ruth; Chaboyer, Wendy; Benbinishty, Julie; Ben Nun, Maureen; Ryan, Helen; Schoter, Amanda; Boulanger, Carole; Chamberlain, Wendy; Spooner, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Quality ICU end-of-life-care has been found to be related to good communication. Handover is one form of communication that can be problematic due to lost or omitted information. A first step in improving care is to measure and describe it. The objective of this study was to describe the quality of ICU nurse handover related to end-of-life care and to compare the practices of different ICUs in three different countries. This was a descriptive comparative study. The study was conducted in seven ICUs in three countries: Australia (1 unit), Israel (3 units) and the UK (3 units). A convenience sample of 157 handovers was studied. Handover quality was rated based on the ICU End-of-Life Handover tool, developed by the authors. The highest levels of handover quality were in the areas of goals of care and pain management while lowest levels were for legal issues (proxy and advanced directives) related to end of life. Significant differences were found between countries and units in the total handover score (country: F(2,154)=25.97, p=studied. The total score was higher when quality of care might be deemed at greater risk (if the nurses did not know the patient or the patient was expected to die), indicating that nurses were exercising some form of discretionary decision making around handover communication; thus validating the measurement tool. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. On dealing with multiple correlation peaks in PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, A.; Theunissen, R.

    2018-05-01

    A novel algorithm to analyse PIV images in the presence of strong in-plane displacement gradients and reduce sub-grid filtering is proposed in this paper. Interrogation windows subjected to strong in-plane displacement gradients often produce correlation maps presenting multiple peaks. Standard multi-grid procedures discard such ambiguous correlation windows using a signal to noise (SNR) filter. The proposed algorithm improves the standard multi-grid algorithm allowing the detection of splintered peaks in a correlation map through an automatic threshold, producing multiple displacement vectors for each correlation area. Vector locations are chosen by translating images according to the peak displacements and by selecting the areas with the strongest match. The method is assessed on synthetic images of a boundary layer of varying intensity and a sinusoidal displacement field of changing wavelength. An experimental case of a flow exhibiting strong velocity gradients is also provided to show the improvements brought by this technique.

  3. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  4. Detection of the relationship between peak temperature and extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Liu, J.; Zhiyong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Under the background of climate change and human activities, the characteristics and pattern of precipitation have changed significantly in many regions. As the political and cultural center of China, the structure and character of precipitation in Jingjinji District has varied dramatically in recent years. In this paper, the daily precipitation data throughout the period 1960-2013 are selected for analyzing the spatial-temporal variability of precipitation. The results indicate that the frequency and intensity of precipitation presents an increasing trend. Based on the precipitation data, the maximum, minimum and mean precipitation in different temporal and spatial scales is calculated respectively. The temporal and spatial variation of temperature is obtained by using statistical methods. The relationship between temperature and precipitation in different range is analyzed. The curve relates daily precipitation extremes with local temperatures has a peak structure, increasing at the low-medium range of temperature variations but decreasing at high temperatures. The relationship between extreme precipitation is stronger in downtown than that in suburbs.

  5. Computation of peak discharge at culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rolland William

    1957-01-01

    Methods for computing peak flood flow through culverts on the basis of a field survey of highwater marks and culvert geometry are presented. These methods are derived from investigations of culvert flow as reported in the literature and on extensive laboratory studies of culvert flow. For convenience in computation, culvert flow has been classified into six types, according to the location of the control section and the relative heights of the head-water and tail-water levels. The type of flow which occurred at any site can be determined from the field data and the criteria given in this report. A discharge equation has been developed for each flow type by combining the energy and continuity equations for the distance between an approach section upstream from the culvert and a terminal section within the culvert barrel. The discharge coefficient applicable to each flow type is listed for the more common entrance geometries. Procedures for computing peak discharge through culverts are outlined in detail for each of the six flow types.

  6. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Simultaneous collection method of on-peak window image and off-peak window image in Tl-201 imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomonori; Noguchi, Yasushi; Kojima, Akihiro; Takagi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    Tl-201 imaging detects the photopeak (71 keV, in on-peak window) of characteristic X-rays of Hg-201 formed from Tl-201 decay. The peak is derived from 4 rays of different energy and emission intensity and does not follow in Gaussian distribution. In the present study, authors made an idea for the method in the title to attain the more effective single imaging, which was examined for its accuracy and reliability with phantoms and applied clinically to Tl-201 scintigraphy in a patient. The authors applied the triple energy window method for data acquisition: the energy window setting was made on Hg-201 X-rays photopeak in three of the lower (3%, L), main (72 keV, M) and upper (14%, U) windows with the gamma camera with 2-gated detector (Toshiba E. CAM/ICON). L, M and U images obtained simultaneously were then constructed to images of on-peak (L+M, Mock on-peak) and off-peak (M+U) window settings for evaluation. Phantoms for line source with Tl-201-containing swab and for multi-defect with acrylic plate containing Tl-201 solution were imaged in water. The female patient with thyroid cancer was subjected to preoperative scintigraphy under the defined conditions. Mock on-, off-peak images were found to be equivalent to the true (ordinary, clinical) on-, off-peak ones, and the present method was thought usable for evaluation of usefulness of off-peak window data. (R.T.)

  8. CT imaging of bronchus related to solitary pulmonary lesion: comparison of minimum intensity projection and multi-planar reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Shan Fei; Zhang Zhiyong; Yang Shan; Zhang Xingwei; Wu Dong; Zhan Songhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of 64-slice computed tomography with MinIP and MPR for imaging the bronchus related to a solitary pulmonary lesion (SPL). Methods: Seventy-five subjects with solitary pulmonary lesions underwent chest 64-slice CT and their bronchi were analyzed retrospectively. All images of thin-section (0.625 mm) were reconstructed with MPR and MinIP into images of 1, 2, 3, and 5 mm thickness and 1 mm gap in two orthogonal planes along the long axis of bronchus related to the SPL. The image quality of four series of MinIP and MPR images was evaluated in the aspect of bronchus visibility and pulmonary vascular masking. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and interclass correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analysis. Results: (1) The mean scores of display of the bronchi on MinIP images of four series (4.85, 4.77 and 4.84, 4.63 and 4.67, 4.25 and 4.28, in 1, 2, 3, and 5 mm thickness, respectively) and on MPR images of 1 or 2 mm thickness (4.77 and 4.76, 4.04 and 4.27, in 1 and 2 mm thickness, respectively) were good or excellent. MPR images of 1 mm thickness and MinIP images of 1-3 mm thickness showed no significant differences (t=0.318, P> 0.05 for all), but they were superior to MinIP images of 5 mm thickness (t=6.318 and 6.610, P 0.05). (2) The effect of suppression of pulmonary vascular markings on MinIP images was better with the increase of slice thickness (F= 45.312 and 40.415, P<0.01). The mean scores of MinIP images of 3 mm and 5 mm thickness (4.67 and 4.64, 5.00 and 4.97, for 3 and 5 mm thickness, respectively) were good or excellent, but MinIP images of 2 mm thickness were just acceptable. Conclusion: MinIP images of 3 mm thickness may display the bronchus related to SPL more clearly. (authors)

  9. Children’s intensive participation in sport and peer relations: Evidence from a Danish longitudinal school study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2018-01-01

    In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate, it is rel......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...

  10. Use of integrated analogue and numerical modelling to predict tridimensional fracture intensity in fault-related-folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzati, Mattia; Cavozzi, Cristian; Magistroni, Corrado; Storti, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    Fracture density pattern predictions with low uncertainty is a fundamental issue for constraining fluid flow pathways in thrust-related anticlines in the frontal parts of thrust-and-fold belts and accretionary prisms, which can also provide plays for hydrocarbon exploration and development. Among the drivers that concur to determine the distribution of fractures in fold-and-thrust-belts, the complex kinematic pathways of folded structures play a key role. In areas with scarce and not reliable underground information, analogue modelling can provide effective support for developing and validating reliable hypotheses on structural architectures and their evolution. In this contribution, we propose a working method that combines analogue and numerical modelling. We deformed a sand-silicone multilayer to eventually produce a non-cylindrical thrust-related anticline at the wedge toe, which was our test geological structure at the reservoir scale. We cut 60 serial cross-sections through the central part of the deformed model to analyze faults and folds geometry using dedicated software (3D Move). The cross-sections were also used to reconstruct the 3D geometry of reference surfaces that compose the mechanical stratigraphy thanks to the use of the software GoCad. From the 3D model of the experimental anticline, by using 3D Move it was possible to calculate the cumulative stress and strain underwent by the deformed reference layers at the end of the deformation and also in incremental steps of fold growth. Based on these model outputs it was also possible to predict the orientation of three main fractures sets (joints and conjugate shear fractures) and their occurrence and density on model surfaces. The next step was the upscaling of the fracture network to the entire digital model volume, to create DFNs.

  11. Health-related quality of life before planned admission to intensive care: memory over three and six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadini Laura

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL recalled by ICU admitted patients have not been published. The aim of this study was to compare the baseline HRQOL measured before surgery and ICU admission with that recalled at 3 and 6 months in a population of patients with planned ICU admission after surgery. Methods This prospective study was performed in three Italian centres on patients who had undergone General, Orthopaedic or Urologic surgery. All adult patients with planned ICU admission between October 2007 and July 2008 were considered for enrolment. At hospital admission, the Mini Mental Status Examination and EuroQoL (EQ questionnaire (referring to the last two weeks were administered to the patients who consented. Three and six months after ICU admission, the researchers administered by phone the EQ questionnaire and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14 questions Inventory, asking the patients to rate their HRQOL before surgery and ICU admission. Past medical history demographic and clinical ICU-related variables were collected. Statistical analysis Chi-square test and non parametric statistics were used to compare groups of patients. The EQ-5D was transformed in the time trade-off (TTO to obtain a continuous variable, subsequently analysed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. Results Of the 104 patients assessed at baseline and discharged from the hospital, 93 had the EQ administered at 3 months, and 89 at 6 months. The ICC for TTO recalled at 3 months vs pre-ICU TTO was 0.851, and that for TTO recalled at 6 months vs pre-ICU TTO was 0.833. The ICC for the EQ-VAS recalled at 3 months vs pre-ICU EQ-VAS was 0.648, and that for the EQ-VAS recalled at 6 months vs pre-ICU EQ-VAS was 0.580. Forty-two (45% patients assessed at 3 months gave the same score in all EQ-5D items as at baseline. They underwent mainly orthopaedic surgery (p 0.011, and perceived the severity of their illness as lower (p 0

  12. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  13. O2 uptake kinetics during exercise at peak O2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Barry W; Barstow, Thomas J

    2003-11-01

    Compared with moderate- and heavy-intensity exercise, the adjustment of O2 uptake (VO2) to exercise intensities that elicit peak VO2 has received relatively little attention. This study examined the VO2 response of 21 young, healthy subjects (25 +/- 6 yr; mean +/- SD) during cycle ergometer exercise to step transitions in work rate (WR) corresponding to 90, 100, and 110% of the peak WR achieved during a preliminary ramp protocol (15-30 W/min). Gas exchange was measured breath by breath and interpolated to 1-s values. VO2 kinetics were determined by use of a two- or three-component exponential model to isolate the time constant (tau2) as representative of VO2 kinetics and the amplitude (Amp) of the primary fast component independent of the appearance of any VO2 slow component. No difference in VO2 kinetics was observed between WRs (tau90 = 24.7 +/- 9.0; tau100 = 22.8 +/- 6.7; tau110 = 21.5 +/- 9.2 s, where subscripts denote percent of peak WR; P > 0.05); nor in a subgroup of eight subjects was tau2 different from the value for moderate-intensity (exercise (tau2 = 25 +/- 12 s, P > 0.05). As expected, the Amp increased with increasing WRs (Amp90 = 2,089 +/- 548; Amp100 = 2,165 +/- 517; Amp110 = 2,225 +/- 559 ml/min; Amp90 vs. Amp110, P exercise, the gain of the Vo2 response (as deltaVO2/DeltaWR) is reduced for exercise transitions in the severe-intensity domain, but the approach to this gain is well described by a common time constant that is invariant across work intensities. The lower deltaVO2/deltaWR may be due to an insufficient adjustment of the cardiovascular and/or pulmonary systems that determine O2 delivery to the exercising muscles or due to recruitment of motor units with lower oxidative capacity, after the onset of exercise in the severe-intensity domain.

  14. Adding high-intensity interval training to conventional training modalities: optimizing health-related outcomes during chemotherapy for breast cancer: the OptiTrain randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Jervaeus, Anna; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Margolin, Sara; Browall, Maria; Rundqvist, Helene; Wengström, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    Exercise training is an effective and safe way to counteract cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). High-intensity interval training has proven beneficial for the health of clinical populations. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), and moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) to usual care (UC) in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was CRF and the secondary endpoints were HRQoL and cancer treatment-related symptoms. Two hundred and forty women planned to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to supervised RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Questionnaires included Piper Fatigue Scale, EORTC-QLQ-C30, and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The RT-HIIT group was superior to UC for CRF: total CRF (p = 0.02), behavior/daily life (p = 0.01), and sensory/physical (p = 0.03) CRF. Role functioning significantly improved while cognitive functioning was unchanged for RT-HIIT compared to declines shown in the UC group (p = 0.04). AT-HIIT significantly improved emotional functioning versus UC (p = 0.01) and was superior to UC for pain symptoms (p = 0.03). RT-HIIT reported a reduced symptom burden, while AT-HIIT remained stable compared to deteriorations shown by UC (p HIIT was superior to UC for total symptoms (p HIIT was effective in preventing increases in CRF and in reducing symptom burden for patients during chemotherapy for breast cancer. These findings add to a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of structured exercise prescriptions, including HIIT, as a vital component of cancer rehabilitation. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT02522260.

  15. Estimation of historical earthquake intensities and intensity-PGA relationship for wooden house damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kil; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests and dynamic analyses on Korean traditional wooden houses was performed for the intensity estimation of the typical large historical earthquake records. Static and cyclic lateral load tests on the wooden frames were performed to assess the lateral load capacity of wooden frames. The shaking table tests on two 1:4 scaled models of a Korean ancient commoner's house made of fresh pine lumber were performed. Typical earthquake time histories recorded on soil and rock sites were used as input for the tests. The prototypical wooden house was analyzed for multiple time histories which match Ohsaki's ground response spectra. Seismic analyses comprise the aging of lumber and different soil condition. The relationship between the earthquake intensity and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) is proposed for the wooden house damages based on the results of this study. The intensity of major Korean historical earthquake records related with house collapses was quantitatively estimated to be MM VIII

  16. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of host-related factors on the intensity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Luciano Bello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the identification of factors associated with liver disease progression in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. We assessed host-related factors associated with a histologically advanced stage of this disease and determined the rate of liver fibrosis progression in HCV-infected patients. We included patients submitted to liver biopsy, who were anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive, who showed a parenteral risk factor (blood transfusion or intravenous drug use, and who gave information about alcohol consumption.Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: group 1 - grades 0 to 2; group 2 - grades 3 to 4. The groups were compared in terms of sex, age at the time of infection, estimated duration of infection and alcoholism. The rate of fibrosis progression (index of fibrosis was determined based on the relationship between disease stage and duration of infection (years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age at the time of infection (P or = 40 years (median = 0.47. The main factors associated with a more rapid fibrosis progression were age at the time of infection and the estimated duration of infection. Patients who acquired HCV after 40 years of age showed a higher rate of fibrosis progression.

  18. Evaluation of Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit Due to Drug-Related Suicide Attempt and Access to Drugs: A Single Center Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Doğu Geyik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate patients who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit due to drug-related suicide attempt (medical or insecticides and their access to these drugs. Methods: We prospectively recorded the demographic characteristics and medical data of 50 patients (32 females and 18 males who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit due to drug-related suicide attempt. Results: 66% of subjects were between the ages of 15 and 24 years with a mean age of 25.4±8.8 years. Multiple drug overdose was observed in 28% of patients. The unemployment rate was higher for women than men (p<0.001. Men obtained drugs from pharmacy more often than women (27.8% vs 6.2%, p=0,03. Of the patients, 86% got the drugs from home medicine cabinet while this rate was 93% among women (n=30. The level of toxicity was higher among patients who got the drugs from pharmacy than in those who used drugs at home (p=0.06. The length of stay in the intensive care unit was longer among patients with toxic level of medication (p=0.001. Conclusion: Patients usually use drugs or insecticides available at home to commit suicide. We believe that in patients with risk of suicide attempt, access to drugs should be limited and state regulations should be applied. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:111-5

  19. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejection accompanied with DH type II radio burst in relation with interplanetary magnetic field, geomagnetic storms and cosmic ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Harish; Bhatt, Beena

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have selected 114 flare-CME events accompanied with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II radio burst chosen from 1996 to 2008 (i.e., solar cycle 23). Statistical analyses are performed to examine the relationship of flare-CME events accompanied with DH type II radio burst with Interplanetary Magnetic field (IMF), Geomagnetic storms (GSs) and Cosmic Ray Intensity (CRI). The collected sample events are divided into two groups. In the first group, we considered 43 events which lie under the CME span and the second group consists of 71 events which are outside the CME span. Our analysis indicates that flare-CME accompanied with DH type II radio burst is inconsistent with CSHKP flare-CME model. We apply the Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method to both set of data to find the geo-effectiveness. We observed different fluctuations in IMF for arising and decay phase of solar cycle in both the cases. Maximum decrease in Dst during arising and decay phase of solar cycle is different for both the cases. It is noted that when flare lie outside the CME span CRI shows comparatively more variation than the flare lie under the CME span. Furthermore, we found that flare lying under the CME span is more geo effective than the flare outside of CME span. We noticed that the time leg between IMF Peak value and GSs, IMF and CRI is on average one day for both the cases. Also, the time leg between CRI and GSs is on average 0 to 1 day for both the cases. In case flare lie under the CME span we observed high correlation (0.64) between CRI and Dst whereas when flare lie outside the CME span a weak correlation (0.47) exists. Thus, flare position with respect to CME span play a key role for geo-effectiveness of CME.

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  1. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Lovera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels.Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported.Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid

  2. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Draxler, M; Taglauer, E; Schmid, K; Gruber, R; Ermolov, S N; Bauer, P

    2003-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from approx 2 atomic...

  3. PEAK SHIFTS PRODUCED BY CORRELATED RESPONSE TO SELECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor; Turelli, Michael; Slatkin, Montgomery

    1993-02-01

    Traits may evolve both as a consequence of direct selection and also as a correlated response to selection on other traits. While correlated response may be important for both the production of evolutionary novelty and in the build-up of complex characters, its potential role in peak shifts has been neglected empirically and theoretically. We use a quantitative genetic model to investigate the conditions under which a character, Y, which has two alternative optima, can be dragged from one optimum to the other as a correlated response to selection on a second character, X. High genetic correlations between the two characters make the transition, or peak shift, easier, as does weak selection tending to restore Y to the optimum from which it is being dragged. When selection on Y is very weak, the conditions for a peak shift depend only on the location of the new optimum for X and are independent of the strength of selection moving it there. Thus, if the "adaptive valley" for Y is very shallow, little reduction in mean fitness is needed to produce a shift. If the selection acts strongly to keep Y at its current optimum, very intense directional selection on X, associated with a dramatic drop in mean fitness, is required for a peak shift. When strong selection is required, the conditions for peak shifts driven by correlated response might occur rarely, but still with sufficient frequency on a geological timescale to be evolutionarily important. © 1993 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Intensity and Pattern of Enhancement on CESM: Prognostic Significance and its Relation to Expression of Podoplanin in Tumor Stroma - A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Heinze, Sylwia; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Marcyniuk, Paulina; Rudnicki, Wojciech; Mitus, Jerzy W; Dyczek, Sonia; Rys, Janusz; Sas-Korczynska, Beata

    2018-02-01

    It is possible that the degree of enhancement on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), a new diagnostic method, might provide prognostic information for breast cancer patients. Therefore, in a group of 82 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the prognostic significance of degree and pattern of enhancement on CESM as well as its relation to: (a) breast cancer immunophenotype (based on ER/PR/HER2 status) (b) podoplanin expression in cancer stroma (lymphatic vessel density plus podoplanin-positivity of cancer-associated fibroblasts), and (c) other histological parameters. For each tumor the intensity of enhancement on CESM was qualitatively assessed as strong or weak/medium, while the pattern - as homogenous and heterogenous. Herein we report, for the first time, that strong and heterogenous enhancement on CESM was related to unfavorable disease-free survival of breast cancer patients (p=0.005). Moreover, the strong enhancement was more frequent in large and node-positive tumors (pT>1, pN>0) (p=0.002), as well as in carcinomas with podoplanin-sparse stroma (p=0.008). Intensity and pattern of enhancement on CESM might provide (together with the results of other diagnostic imaging methods) not only the confirmation of presence or absence of tumor, but also prognostic information. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (psoccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  6. Intensity and Types of Physical Exercise in Relation to Dementia Risk Reduction in Community-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2015-10-01

    To systematically examine the amount and type of physical exercise that might reduce the future risk of dementia in community-living older people. Six-year observational study. All the Elderly Health Centers (EHCs) of the Department of Health in Hong Kong. A total of 15,589 community-living Chinese aged 65 years and older with no history of stroke, clinical dementia, or Parkinson disease when they completed health assessment at the EHCs in the first 6 months of 2005. Self-reported habitual physical exercise patterns, including the frequency, duration, and type of exercise, at baseline and Year 3 were analyzed. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Both the cognitively stable and incident groups reported exercising a median of 7 days per week and 45 minutes per day at baseline and Year 3. The former practiced aerobic and mind-body exercises more at baseline and Year 3, whereas the latter practiced stretching and toning exercises more. The odds ratio for dementia remained significant for aerobic (0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.95; P = .01) and mind-body exercises (0.76; 0.63-0.92; P = .004) after excluding participants who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for important potential confounders, such as age, gender, educational level, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities. Although physical exercise is widely promoted as a nonpharmacological intervention for dementia prevention, not all types of exercise appear to be useful in reducing risk of dementia in older people. Our findings suggest that daily participation in aerobic and mind-body but not stretching and toning exercises might protect community-living older adults from developing dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  7. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, R. E.

    1998-02-01

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 5.8%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum.

  8. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1,000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 98%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum

  9. The relative meaning of absolute numbers: the case of pain intensity scores as decision support systems for pain management of patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Valentina; Dowding, Dawn; Closs, S José

    2015-12-24

    Assessment and management of pain in patients with dementia is known to be challenging, due to patients' cognitive and/or communication difficulties. In the UK, pain in hospital is managed through regular assessments, with the use of pain intensity scores as triggers for action. The aim of this study was to understand current pain assessment practices, in order to later inform the development of a decision support tool designed to improve the management of pain for people with dementia in hospital. An exploratory study was conducted in four hospitals in the UK (11 wards), with observations of patients with dementia (n = 31), interviews of staff (n = 52) and patients' family members (n = 4) and documentary analysis. A thematic analysis was carried out, structured along dimensions of decision making. This paper focuses on the emergent themes related to the use of assessment tools and pain intensity scores. A variety of tools were used to record pain intensity, usually with numerical scales. None of the tools in actual use had been specifically designed for patients with cognitive impairment. With patients with more severe dementia, the patient's body language and other cues were studied to infer pain intensity and then a score entered on behalf of the patient. Information regarding the temporality of pain and changes in pain experience (rather than a score at a single point in time) seemed to be most useful to the assessment of pain. Given the inherent uncertainty of the meaning of pain scores for patients with dementia, numerical scales were used with caution. Numerical scores triggered action but their meaning was relative - to the patient, to the clinician, to the time of recording and to the purpose of documenting. There are implications for use of data and computerized decision support systems design. Decision support interventions should include personalized alerting cut-off scores for individual patients, display pain scores over time and integrate

  10. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p  0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p HIIT (90% peak oxygen uptake and 99% peak heart rate) and sprint interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to

  11. Localization of Coronary High-Intensity Signals on T1-Weighted MR Imaging: Relation to Plaque Morphology and Clinical Severity of Angina Pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Ehara, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Takao; Sakaguchi, Mikumo; Otsuka, Kenichiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Shimada, Kenei

    2015-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between localization of high-intensity signals (HISs) on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) with the noncontrast magnetic resonance technique and plaque morphology detected on optical coherence tomography, and the clinical severity of angina pectoris. Since the introduction of the T1WI noncontrast magnetic resonance technique for plaque imaging, some groups have reported that HISs in the coronary artery on T1WI are associated with a vulnerable morphology and future cardiac events. However, the association between the localization of HISs, such as coronary intrawall or intraluminal, and plaque morphology has not been investigated. One hundred lesions with either stable or unstable angina were included and divided into 3 groups according to the following criteria using T1WI. First, the plaques with the ratio between the signal intensities of coronary plaque and cardiac muscle ≤1.0 were classified as non-HISs (n = 39). Then, HISs with the ratio between the signal intensities of coronary plaque and cardiac muscle >1.0 were classified into 2 types by using cross-sectional T1WI. Those localized within the coronary wall when the lumen was identified were defined as intrawall HISs (n = 37), whereas those occupying the lumen when the lumen was not, or even if only partly, identified, were defined as intraluminal HISs (n = 24). Multivariate analysis revealed that intrawall HISs were associated with macrophage accumulation and the absence of calcification assessed by using optical coherence tomography. In contrast, thrombus and intimal vasculature were independent factors associated with intraluminal HISs. Furthermore, 50% of patients with intraluminal HISs experienced rest angina, such as Braunwald class II or III. This study shows that intrawall and intraluminal HISs on T1WI in patients with angina are related to the different types of vulnerable plaque morphology and the clinical severity. Copyright © 2015 American College of

  12. Effect of ranibizumab on high-speed indocyanine green angiography and minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography findings in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Benjamin P; Nigam, Divya; Toy, Brian; Stetson, Paul F; Agrón, Elvira; Jacobs-El, Naima; Cunningham, Denise; Cukras, Catherine; Wong, Wai; Wiley, Henry; Chew, Emily; Ferris, Frederick; Meyerle, Catherine B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to investigate how induction/pro re nata ranibizumab intravitreal treatment of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration affects the anatomy of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the overlying outer retinal tissue. High-speed indocyanine green (HS-ICG) angiography measurements provided quantification of the CNV size in 60 patients followed for 1 year. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography (MinIP OCT), a novel algorithm assessing minimum optical intensity between the internal limiting membrane and retinal pigment epithelium, measured the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV. Fluorescein angiography was also assessed to evaluate late retinal leakage. After 1 year, the mean area of CNV measured with indocyanine green angiography decreased by 5.8%. The mean area of MinIP OCT of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV decreased by 4.2%. Mean area of fluorescein angiography leakage decreased by 6.3%. Both the area of outer retinal disruption measured with MinIP OCT and the area of leakage on fluorescein angiography typically exceeded the area of CNV on indocyanine green angiography at baseline and 1 year. Choroidal neovascularization treated with induction/pro re nata intravitreal ranibizumab for 1 year essentially remained static. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography suggests that the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV may be greater than the CNV itself and often correlates with the leakage area on fluorescein angiography. Additionally, there was minimal change in the area of outer retinal disruption on MinIP OCT even when fluid resolved. Measurements of the extent of CNV lesions based on indocyanine green angiography and MinIP OCT may provide useful outcome variables to help assess the CNV complex longitudinally and warrant further validation.

  13. Statistical analysis of the low-temperature dislocation peak of internal friction (Bordoni peak) in nanostructured copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatazhuk, E.N.; Natsik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    The temperature-frequency dependence of internal friction in the nanostructured samples of Cu and fibred composite C-32 vol.%Nb with the sizes of structure fragments approx 200 nm is analyzed. Experiments are used as initial information for such analysis. The characteristic for the heavily deformed copper Bordoni peak, located nearby a temperature 90 K, was recorded on temperature dependence of vibration decrement (frequencies 73-350 kHz) in previous experiments. The peak is due to the resonance interaction of sound with the system of thermal activated relaxators, and its width considerably greater in comparison with the width of standard internal friction peak with the single relaxation time. Statistical analysis of the peak is made in terms of assumption that the reason of broadening is random activation energy dispersion of relaxators as a result of intense distortion of copper crystal structure. Good agreement of experimental data and Seeger theory considers thermal activated paired kinks at linear segments of dislocation lines, placed in potential Peierls relief valley, as relaxators of Bordoni peak, was established. It is shown that the registered peak height in experiment correspond to presence at the average one dislocation segment in the interior of crystalline grain with size of 200 nm. Empirical estimates for the critical Peierls stress σp ∼ 2x10 7 Pa and integrated density of the interior grain dislocations ρ d ∼ 10 13 m -2 are made. Nb fibers in the composite Cu-Nb facilitate to formation of nanostructured copper, but do not influence evidently on the Bordoni peak.

  14. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  15. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  16. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  17. High frequency migraine is associated with lower acute pain sensitivity and abnormal insula activity related to migraine pain intensity, attack frequency, and pain catastrophizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A Mathur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful, we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds and pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients had aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing. Compared to controls, patients had reduced activity in pain modulatory regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and middle temporal cortices and, at a lower-threshold, greater activation in the right mid-insula to moderate pain versus mild pain. We also found that pain-related activity in the insula was associated with clinical variables in patients, including associations between: bilateral anterior insula and pain catastrophizing (PCS; bilateral anterior insula and contralateral posterior insula and migraine pain intensity; and bilateral posterior insula and migraine frequency at a lower-threshold. PCS and migraine pain intensity were also negatively associated with activity in midline regions including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity; FA and migraine duration in the right mid-insula and a positive correlation between left mid-insula FA and PCS. In sum, while patients showed lower sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli, the neuroimaging findings suggest enhanced nociceptive processing and significantly disrupted modulatory networks, particularly involving the insula cortex, associated with indices of

  18. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  19. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  20. The slope-background for the near-peak regimen of photoemission spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Gomez, A., E-mail: aherrera@qro.cinvestav.mx [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Bravo-Sanchez, M. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Vazquez-Lepe, M.O. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco 44430 (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We propose a method that accounts for the change in the background slope of XPS data. •The slope-background can be derived from Tougaard–Sigmund's transport theory. •The total background is composed by Shirley–Sherwood and Tougaard type backgrounds. •The slope-background employs one parameter that can be related to REELS spectra. •The slope, in conjunction with the Shirley–Sherwood background, provides better fits. -- Abstract: Photoemission data typically exhibits a change on the intensity of the background between the two sides of the peaks. This step is usually very well reproduced by the Shirley–Sherwood background. Yet, the change on the slope of the background in the near-peak regime, although usually present, is not always as obvious to the eye. However, the intensity of the background signal associated with the evolution of its slope can be appreciable. The slope-background is designed to empirically reproduce the change on the slope. Resembling the non-iterative Shirley method, the proposed functional form relates the slope of the background to the integrated signal at higher electron kinetic energies. This form can be predicted under Tougaard–Sigmund's electron transport theory in the near-peak regime. To reproduce both the step and slope changes on the background, it is necessary to employ the slope-background in conjunction with the Shirley–Sherwood background under the active-background method. As it is shown for a series of materials, the application of the slope-background provides excellent fits, is transparent to the operator, and is much more independent of the fitting range than other background methods. The total area assessed through the combination of the slope and the Shirley–Sherwood backgrounds is larger than when only the Shirley–Sherwood background is employed, and smaller than when the Tougaard background is employed.

  1. Demographic and health related data of users of a mobile application to support drug adherence is associated with usage duration and intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Becker

    Full Text Available A wealth of mobile applications are designed to support users in their drug intake. When developing software for patients, it is important to understand the differences between individuals who have, who will or who might never adopt mobile interventions. This study analyzes demographic and health-related factors associated with real-life "longer usage" and the "usage-intensity per day" of the mobile application "Medication Plan".Between 2010-2012, the mobile application "Medication Plan" could be downloaded free of charge from the Apple-App-Store. It was aimed at supporting the regular and correct intake of medication. Demographic and health-related data were collected via an online questionnaire. This study analyzed captured data.App-related activities of 1799 users (1708 complete data sets were recorded. 69% (1183/1708 applied "Medication Plan" for more than a day. 74% were male (872/1183, the median age 45 years. Variance analysis showed a significant effect of the users' age with respect to duration of usage (p = 0.025. While the mean duration of use was only 23.3 days for users younger than 21 years, for older users, there was a substantial increase over all age cohorts up to users of 60 years and above (103.9 days. Sex and educational status had no effect. "Daily usage intensity" was directly associated with an increasing number of prescribed medications and increased from an average of 1.87 uses per day and 1 drug per day to on average 3.71 uses per day for users stating to be taking more than 7 different drugs a day (p<0.001. Demographic predictors (sex, age and educational attainment did not affect usage intensity.Users aged 60+ as well as those with complicated therapeutic drug regimens relied on the service we provided for more than three months on average. Mobile applications may be a promising approach to support the treatment of patients with chronic conditions.

  2. Separate representation of stimulus frequency, intensity, and duration in auditory sensory memory: an event-related potential and dipole-model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, M H; Lavikahen, J; Reinikainen, K; Perrin, F; Bertrand, O; Pernier, J; Näätänen, R

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The present study analyzed the neural correlates of acoustic stimulus representation in echoic sensory memory. The neural traces of auditory sensory memory were indirectly studied by using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential component elicited by a change in a repetitive sound. The MMN is assumed to reflect change detection in a comparison process between the sensory input from a deviant stimulus and the neural representation of repetitive stimuli in echoic memory. The scalp topographies of the MMNs elicited by pure tones deviating from standard tones by either frequency, intensity, or duration varied according to the type of stimulus deviance, indicating that the MMNs for different attributes originate, at least in part, from distinct neural populations in the auditory cortex. This result was supported by dipole-model analysis. If the MMN generator process occurs where the stimulus information is stored, these findings strongly suggest that the frequency, intensity, and duration of acoustic stimuli have a separate neural representation in sensory memory.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  6. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective and time-efficient training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  7. An Empirical Study on Raman Peak Fitting and Its Application to Raman Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xueyin; Mayanovic, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Fitting experimentally measured Raman bands with theoretical model profiles is the basic operation for numerical determination of Raman peak parameters. In order to investigate the effects of peak modeling using various algorithms on peak fitting results, the representative Raman bands of mineral crystals, glass, fluids as well as the emission lines from a fluorescent lamp, some of which were measured under ambient light whereas others under elevated pressure and temperature conditions, were fitted using Gaussian, Lorentzian, Gaussian-Lorentzian, Voigtian, Pearson type IV, and beta profiles. From the fitting results of the Raman bands investigated in this study, the fitted peak position, intensity, area and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values of the measured Raman bands can vary significantly depending upon which peak profile function is used in the fitting, and the most appropriate fitting profile should be selected depending upon the nature of the Raman bands. Specifically, the symmetric Raman bands of mineral crystals and non-aqueous fluids are best fit using Gaussian-Lorentzian or Voigtian profiles, whereas the asymmetric Raman bands are best fit using Pearson type IV profiles. The asymmetric O-H stretching vibrations of H 2 O and the Raman bands of soda-lime glass are best fit using several Gaussian profiles, whereas the emission lines from a florescent light are best fit using beta profiles. Multiple peaks that are not clearly separated can be fit simultaneously, provided the residuals in the fitting of one peak will not affect the fitting of the remaining peaks to a significant degree. Once the resolution of the Raman spectrometer has been properly accounted for, our findings show that the precision in peak position and intensity can be improved significantly by fitting the measured Raman peaks with appropriate profiles. Nevertheless, significant errors in peak position and intensity were still observed in the results from fitting of weak and wide Raman

  8. Comparative study of boson peak in normal and secondary alcohols with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomogida, Yoshiki; Sato, Yuki; Nozaki, Ryusuke; Mishina, Tomobumi; Nakahara, Jun'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex permittivity of some normal (1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol) and secondary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, and 2-pentanol) in the frequency ranges from 0.2 to 2.5 THz at temperatures from 253 to 323 K. For all the samples, the complex permittivity in the THz region includes the following three components: (i) a high frequency side of dielectric relaxation processes, (ii) a broad mode around 1 THz, and (iii) a low frequency side of an intermolecular vibration mode located above 2.5 THz. The mode around 1 THz is recognized as a boson peak which is related to the local structure of disordered materials. The intensity of the boson peak in secondary alcohols is higher than that in normal alcohols. On the other hand, the number of carbon atoms slightly affects the appearance of the boson peak. These observations indicate that the position of an OH group in a molecule has a profound effect on the local structures in monohydric alcohols.

  9. Restriction of the spread of epileptic discharges in cats by means of Bragg peak, intracranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, C.T.; Montoya, V.J.; Lyman, J.T.; Howard, J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male cats with a single epileptic focus receive neon ion Bragg peak radiation at the Bevalac at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Bragg peak radiation is deposited in a thin disc of brain tissue beneath an epileptogenic focus produced with alumina cream. Paroxysmal electroencephalograms (EEGs) from the occipital cortex of cats confirm the biolectric changes in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Distant spread of seizure activity occurs when the cells in the cortical focus fire a series of relatively simultaneous spikes at high frequency with sufficient intensity to develop self-sustained discharges in remote brain areas. The development of a 'mirror focus' in the EEG records in the contralateral cortex gives a measure of the distances paroxysmal discharges spread. Interhemispheric responses (IHR) that travel from the alumina-treated cortex via the corpus callosum to the contralateral cortex are a second measure of pathways over which paroxysmal discharges spread. In cat studies Bragg peak radiation is positioned beneath the epileptic cortical focus. Various heavy ion doses are employed to test whether an absorbed dose per cat is sufficient to block the transmission of epileptic activity as a function of the post-irradiation time. The relationship between neon ion dose and the post-irradiation time for the loss of IHR is a measure of the physiological dissociation of the epileptic brain tissue from the remainder of the brain. The loss of the 'mirror focus' in EEG records agrees with the IHR findings. (author)

  10. Estimation of DNA DSB radiation damage using a solid state nanodosimeters based on glow peak 5a in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, L.; Haddad, J.; Horowitz, Y.S.; Biderman, S.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the viability of the concept of using existing molecular nano structures in TL solid-state nanodosimeters. The concept is based on mimicking radiobiology (specifically the ionization density dependence of double strand breaks in DNA) by using the similar ionization density dependence of simultaneous electron-hole capture in spatially correlated TC/LC pairs in the thermoluminescence of LiF:Mg, Ti. This simultaneous electron-hole capture has been shown to lead to ionization density dependence in the relative intensity of peak 5a to peak 5 similar to the ratio of DSBs to SSBs for low energy He ions. (authors)

  11. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates cell proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and expression of growth factor-related genes in human nucleus pulposus cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kobayashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulation has been shown to effect differentiation and activation of human chondrocytes. A study involving stimulation of rabbit disc cells with LIPUS revealed upregulation of cell proliferation and proteoglycan (PG synthesis. However, the effect of LIPUS on human nucleus pulposus cells has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether LIPUS stimulation of a human nucleus pulposus cell line (HNPSV-1 exerted a positive effect on cellular activity. HNPSV-1 cells were encapsulated in 1.2% sodium alginate solution at 1x105 cells/ml and cultured at 10 beads/well in 6-well plates. The cells were stimulated for 20 min each day using a LIPUS generator, and the effects of LIPUS were evaluated by measuring DNA and PG synthesis. Furthermore, mRNA expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray using total RNA extracted from the cultured cells. Our study revealed no significant difference in cell proliferation between the control and the ultrasound treated groups. However, PG production was significantly upregulated in HNPSV cells stimulated at intensities of 15, 30, 60, and 120 mW/cm2 compared with the control. The results of cDNA array showed that LIPUS significantly stimulated the gene expression of growth factors and their receptors (BMP2, FGF7, TGFbetaR1 EGFRF1, VEGF. These findings suggest that LIPUS stimulation upregulates PG production in human nucleus pulposus cells by the enhancement of several matrix-related genes including growth factor-related genes. Safe and non-invasive stimulation using LIPUS may be a useful treatment for delaying the progression of disc degeneration.

  12. Can We Advance Proton Therapy for Prostate? Considering Alternative Beam Angles and Relative Biological Effectiveness Variations When Comparing Against Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Tracy, E-mail: tunderwood@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Moteabbed, Maryam; Zietman, Anthony; Efstathiou, Jason; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: For prostate treatments, robust evidence regarding the superiority of either intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or proton therapy is currently lacking. In this study we investigated the circumstances under which proton therapy should be expected to outperform IMRT, particularly the proton beam orientations and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) assumptions. Methods and Materials: For 8 patients, 4 treatment planning strategies were considered: (A) IMRT; (B) passively scattered standard bilateral (SB) proton beams; (C) passively scattered anterior oblique (AO) proton beams, and (D) AO intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). For modalities (B)-(D) the dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions were simulated using the TOPAS Monte Carlo platform and RBE was calculated according to 3 different models. Results: Assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1, our implementation of IMRT outperformed SB proton therapy across most normal tissue metrics. For the scattered AO proton plans, application of the variable RBE models resulted in substantial hotspots in rectal RBE weighted dose. For AO IMPT, it was typically not possible to find a plan that simultaneously met the tumor and rectal constraints for both fixed and variable RBE models. Conclusion: If either a fixed RBE of 1.1 or a variable RBE model could be validated in vivo, then it would always be possible to use AO IMPT to dose-boost the prostate and improve normal tissue sparing relative to IMRT. For a cohort without rectum spacer gels, this study (1) underlines the importance of resolving the question of proton RBE within the framework of an IMRT versus proton debate for the prostate and (2) highlights that without further LET/RBE model validation, great care must be taken if AO proton fields are to be considered for prostate treatments.

  13. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: decrease of the tinnitus-related distress during a one-year follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Szczepek, A; Klapp, B F; Schrom, T

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of the chronic tinnitus is aimed at improving the way patients cope with their tinnitus and at reducing the tinnitus-related distress. The present study investigated the changes of psychometric parameters that occurred in patients with chronic tinnitus after 7-days outpatient multidisciplinary therapy. The changes were monitored for up to 1 year in order to evaluate the long-term efficiency. Main emphasis of the intensive tinnitus therapy applied was placed on tinnitus habituation and on teaching the patients how to apply coping strategies. The main elements of the multimodal concept included progressive muscle relaxation according to Jacobson, physiotherapy, educative seminars, training of selective attention and, lastly, the change of judgment, attitude and behaviour towards tinnitus. Psychometric parameters and tinnitus-related distress were assessed prior to and after the therapy (at 3, 6 and 12 months) using the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) according to Goebel and Hiller. Furthermore, subjects waiting for therapy (waiting list) were recruited to the control group and compared with the therapy group which had received therapy 3 months earlier. The therapy group showed a significant reduction of the TQ total score after 3 months as compared to the control group. Moreover, we observed a long-term, progressive positive outcome during the one-year follow-up. The TQ total score was reduced by 10.9 points. There was an obvious decrease of the emotional and cognitive distress as well as of the intrusiveness of tinnitus, as per evaluation of TQ subscales. The outpatient intensive multidisciplinary tinnitus therapy with long-term aftercare has proved to be an effective method in the treatment of patients with chronic tinnitus. The outpatient setting enables the instant implementation of strategies learned during therapy in the patients' everyday life.

  14. Peak load pricing lowers generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Before a utility implements peak load pricing for different classes of consumers, the costs and the benefits should be compared. The methodology described enables a utility to determine whether peak load pricing should be introduced for specific users. Cost-benefit analyses for domestic consumers and commercial/industrial consumers, showing break-even points are presented. (author)

  15. Peak Shaving Considering Streamflow Uncertainties | Iwuagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric Power Authority. The random ...

  16. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mazurek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME. Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n=24 or CME; n=24 of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p<0.001, similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME, despite body mass not changing significantly (p=0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME. A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p=0.018 and p=0.018; a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p<0.001, but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p=0.022. Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  17. Data Intensive Systems (DIS) Benchmark Performance Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musmanno, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    .... However, elements such as larger caches, prefetching, and multithreading do not address the needs of data-intensive DoD applications, which consequently operate at rates far below the peak processor- capacity...

  18. Relative role of pre-monsoon conditions and intraseasonal oscillations in determining early-vs-late indian monsoon intensity in a GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohit; Chakraborty, Arindam; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify relative roles of different land-atmospheric conditions, apart from sea surface temperature (SST), in determining early vs. late summer monsoon intensity over India in a high resolution general circulation model (GCM). We find that in its early phase (June-July; JJ), pre-monsoon land-atmospheric processes play major role to modulate the precipitation over Indian region. These effects of pre-monsoon conditions decrease substantially during its later phase (August-September; AS) for which the interannual variation is mainly governed by the low frequency northward propagating intraseasonal oscillations. This intraseasonal variability which is related to mean vertical wind shear has a significant role during the early phase of monsoon as well. Further, using multiple linear regression, we show that interannual variation of early and late monsoon rainfall over India is best explained when all these land-atmospheric parameters are taken together. Our study delineates the relative role of different processes affecting early versus later summer monsoon rainfall over India that can be used for determining its subseasonal predictability.

  19. Cost savings from reduced catheter-related bloodstream infection after simulation-based education for residents in a medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine R; Feinglass, Joe; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Barnard, Cynthia; O'Donnell, Anna; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2010-04-01

    Interventions to reduce preventable complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) can also decrease hospital costs. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of simulation-based education. The aim of this study was to estimate hospital cost savings related to a reduction in CRBSI after simulation training for residents. This was an intervention evaluation study estimating cost savings related to a simulation-based intervention in central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at an urban teaching hospital. After residents completed a simulation-based mastery learning program in CVC insertion, CRBSI rates declined sharply. Case-control and regression analysis methods were used to estimate savings by comparing CRBSI rates in the year before and after the intervention. Annual savings from reduced CRBSIs were compared with the annual cost of simulation training. Approximately 9.95 CRBSIs were prevented among MICU patients with CVCs in the year after the intervention. Incremental costs attributed to each CRBSI were approximately $82,000 in 2008 dollars and 14 additional hospital days (including 12 MICU days). The annual cost of the simulation-based education was approximately $112,000. Net annual savings were thus greater than $700,000, a 7 to 1 rate of return on the simulation training intervention. A simulation-based educational intervention in CVC insertion was highly cost-effective. These results suggest that investment in simulation training can produce significant medical care cost savings.

  20. Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Giusti, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Tasca, Hilarj; Ciceri, Francesca; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Morandi, Francesco; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and exposed to varying levels of skin-breaking procedures (pain-related stress), even in absence of severe clinical conditions. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in VPT infants. During the post-discharge period, altered HPA axis reactivity has been documented in response to non-social stressors, using salivary cortisol as a biomarker. However, little is known about the effects of NICU pain-related stress on subsequent HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in infants. We examined the relationship between pain-related stress in NICU and HPA axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol reactivity) to an age-appropriate socio-emotional condition in 37 healthy VPT infants compared to 53 full-term (FT) controls. The number of skin-breaking procedures was obtained across NICU stay for VPT infants. At 3 months (corrected age for prematurity), all infants participated in the maternal Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) procedure, in order to assess HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness). VPT infants exhibited a blunted salivary cortisol reactivity, which was associated with the amount of skin-breaking procedures during NICU: greater pain-related stress predicted lower salivary cortisol reactivity, adjusting for neonatal confounders. These findings further advance our knowledge of how early exposure to pain-related stress in NICU contributes to the programming of an altered HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old VPT infants, even in the absence of major perinatal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.