WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative isoperimetric inequality

  1. A Generalized Affine Isoperimetric Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenxiong; Howard, Ralph; Lutwak, Erwin; Yang, Deane; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2004-01-01

    A purely analytic proof is given for an inequality that has as a direct consequence the two most important affine isoperimetric inequalities of plane convex geometry: The Blaschke-Santalo inequality and the affine isoperimetric inequality of affine differential geometry.

  2. Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacelli Bessa, G.; Montenegro, J.F.

    2007-09-01

    Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)

  3. Dual affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some inequalities for the dual -centroid bodies which are the dual forms of the results by Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. Further, we establish a Brunn-Minkowski-type inequality for the polar of dual -centroid bodies.

  4. On the Lp affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of − p K . Author Affiliations. Wuyang Yu1 Gangsong Leng2. Institute of Management Decision ...

  5. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Calculus of variations, shape optimization, isoperimetric prob- lems. Figure 1. Starting from the triangle inequality, we will dis- cuss a series of shape optimization problems us- ing elementary geometry and ultimately derive the classical isoperimetric inequality in the plane. One of the important results we learn in plane geom ...

  6. Holography, probe branes and isoperimetric inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In many instances of holographic correspondences between a d-dimensional boundary theory and a (d+1-dimensional bulk, a direct argument in the boundary theory implies that there must exist a simple and precise relation between the Euclidean on-shell action of a (d−1-brane probing the bulk geometry and the Euclidean gravitational bulk action. This relation is crucial for the consistency of holography, yet it is non-trivial from the bulk perspective. In particular, we show that it relies on a nice isoperimetric inequality that must be satisfied in a large class of Poincaré–Einstein spaces. Remarkably, this inequality follows from theorems by Lee and Wang.

  7. A spectral isoperimetric inequality for cones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 4 (2017), s. 717-732 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Shrodinger operator * delta-interaction * conical surface * isoperimetric inequality * existence of bound states Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.671, year: 2016

  8. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Local Monotonicity and Isoperimetric Inequality on Hypersurfaces in Carnot groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Montefalcone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a k-step Carnot group of homogeneous dimension Q. Later on we shall present some of the results recently obtained in [32] and, in particular, an intrinsic isoperimetric inequality for a C2-smooth compact hypersurface S with boundary @S. We stress that S and @S are endowed with the homogeneous measures n????1 H and n????2 H , respectively, which are actually equivalent to the intrinsic (Q - 1-dimensional and (Q - 2-dimensional Hausdor measures with respect to a given homogeneous metric % on G. This result generalizes a classical inequality, involving the mean curvature of the hypersurface, proven by Michael and Simon [29] and Allard [1], independently. One may also deduce some related Sobolev-type inequalities. The strategy of the proof is inspired by the classical one and will be discussed at the rst section. After reminding some preliminary notions about Carnot groups, we shall begin by proving a linear isoperimetric inequality. The second step is a local monotonicity formula. Then we may achieve the proof by a covering argument.We stress however that there are many dierences, due to our non-Euclidean setting.Some of the tools developed ad hoc are, in order, a \\blow-up" theorem, which holds true also for characteristic points, and a smooth Coarea Formula for the HS-gradient. Other tools are the horizontal integration by parts formula and the 1st variation formula for the H-perimeter n????1H already developed in [30, 31] and then generalized to hypersurfaces having non-empty characteristic set in [32]. These results can be useful in the study of minimal and constant horizontal mean curvature hypersurfaces in Carnot groups.

  10. Generalized isoperimetric inequalities for extrinsic balls in minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    The volume of an extrinsic ball in a minimal submanifold has a well defined lower bound when the ambient manifold has an upper bound on its sectional curvatures, see e.g. [2] and [10]. When this upper bound is non-positive, the second named author has shown an isoperimetric inequality for such do...

  11. Horndeski gravity and the violation of reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lu, Wen-Tian; Lue, H. [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China); Liu, Hai-Shan [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-11-15

    We consider Einstein-Horndeski-Maxwell gravity, together with a cosmological constant and multiple Horndeski axions. We construct charged AdS planar black holes in general dimensions where the Horndeski axions span over the planar directions. We analyze the thermodynamics and obtain the black hole volumes. We show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality can be violated, implying that these black holes can store information more efficiently than the Schwarzschild black hole. (orig.)

  12. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    OpenAIRE

    JiaJin Wen; Jun Yuan; ShanHe Wu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 ) { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2)} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p ) 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ) ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr)^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varG...

  13. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJin Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$

  14. Inequalities for means of chords, with application to isoperimetric problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Harrell, EM.; Loss, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2006), s. 225-233 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : isoperimetric * elektrostatics * Schrödinger equation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2006

  15. Necklaces with interacting beads isoperimetric problem

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, P

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a pair of isoperimetric problems which at a glance seem to be unrelated. The first one is classical: one places $N$identical point charges at a closed curve $\\Gamma$ at the samearc-length distances and asks about the energy minimum, i.e. whichshape does the loop take if left by itself. The second problemcomes from quantum mechanics: we take a Schr\\"odinger operator in$L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d),\\; d=2,3,$ with $N$ identical point interactionplaced at a loop in the described way, and ask about theconfiguration which \\emph{maximizes} the ground state energy. Wereduce both of them to geometric inequalities which involve chordsof $\\Gamma$; it will be shown that a sharp local extremum is inboth cases reached by $\\Gamma$ in the form of a regular (planar)polygon and that such a $\\Gamma$ solves the two problems alsoglobally.

  16. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  17. Divergence operator and related inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    This Brief is mainly devoted to two classical and related results: the existence of a right inverse of the divergence operator and the so-called Korn Inequalities. It is well known that both results are fundamental tools in the analysis of some classic differential equations, particularly in those arising in fluid dynamics and elasticity. Several connections between these two topics and improved Poincaré inequalities are extensively treated. From simple key ideas the book is growing smoothly in complexity. Beginning with the study of these problems on star-shaped domains the arguments are extended first to John domains and then to Hölder α domains where the need of weighted spaces arises naturally. In this fashion, the authors succeed in presenting in an unified and concise way several classic and recent developments in the field. These features certainly makes this Brief useful for students, post-graduate students, and researchers as well.

  18. Volume inequalities for asymmetric Wulff shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Franz E.; Weberndorfer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Sharp reverse affine isoperimetric inequalities for asymmetric Wulff shapes and their polars are established, along with the characterization of all extremals. These new inequalities have as special cases previously obtained simplex inequalities by Ball, Barthe and Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. In particular, they provide the solution to a problem by Zhang.

  19. An approach to the isoperimetric problem on some lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, J.A.M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how elements of convex-set theory and lattice symmetry requirements can be combined to determine the areas, symmetry point groups and lattice constants of all isoperimetric solutions for regular lattices. The technique is also applied to one semi-regular lattice, where it assists in obtaining the exact expansion for polygonal closures. (author)

  20. Relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality: a structured regression framework for estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Betancur, Margarita; Latouche, Aurélien; Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Rey, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    The relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality are the two major indices used in epidemiologic studies for the measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Yet the current definitions of these indices are not adapted to their main purpose, which is to provide summary

  1. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feng; Zhang Wei; Huang Yi-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. (paper)

  2. All Inequalities for the Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibinson, Ben; Linden, Noah; Winter, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The relative entropy of two n-party quantum states is an important quantity exhibiting, for example, the extent to which the two states are different. The relative entropy of the states formed by reducing two n-party states to a smaller number m of parties is always less than or equal to the relative entropy of the two original n-party states. This is the monotonicity of relative entropy. Using techniques from convex geometry, we prove that monotonicity under restrictions is the only general inequality satisfied by quantum relative entropies. In doing so we make a connection to secret sharing schemes with general access structures: indeed, it turns out that the extremal rays of the cone defined by monotonicity are populated by classical secret sharing schemes. A surprising outcome is that the structure of allowed relative entropy values of subsets of multiparty states is much simpler than the structure of allowed entropy values. And the structure of allowed relative entropy values (unlike that of entropies) is the same for classical probability distributions and quantum states.

  3. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  4. Income-related inequalities in health: some international comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Wagstaff (Adam); H. Bleichrodt (Han)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents evidence on income-related inequalities in self-assessed health in nine industrialized countries. Health interview survey data were used to construct concentration curves of self-assessed health, measured as a latent variable. Inequalities in health favoured the

  5. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of

  6. Fisher information, kinetic energy and uncertainty relation inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong

    2002-01-01

    By interpolating between Fisher information and mechanical kinetic energy, we introduce a general notion of kinetic energy with respect to a parameter of Schroedinger wavefunctions from a statistical inference perspective. Kinetic energy is the sum of Fisher information and an integral of a parametrized analogue of quantum mechanical current density related to phase. A family of integral inequalities concerning kinetic energy and moments are established, among which the Cramer-Rao inequality and the Weyl-Heisenberg inequality, are special cases. In particular, the integral inequalities involving the negative order moments are relevant to the study of electron systems. Moreover, by specifying the parameter to a scale, we obtain a family of inequalities of uncertainty relation type which incorporate the position and momentum observables symmetrically in a single quantity. (author)

  7. Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Byung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health

  8. Inequalities in selected health-related Millennium Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequalities in selected health-related Millennium Development Goals ... and interventions (including health promotion, primary and secondary prevention, ... and ensuring environmental sustainability (through reduction in the use of solid fuels ...

  9. Extrinsic Isoperimetric Analysis on Submanifolds with Curvatures bounded from below

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    and on the radial part of the intrinsic unit normals at the boundaries of the extrinsic spheres, respectively. In the same vein we also establish lower bounds on the mean exit time for Brownian motions in the extrinsic balls, i.e. lower bounds for the time it takes (on average) for Brownian particles to diffuse......We obtain upper bounds for the isoperimetric quotients of extrinsic balls of submanifolds in ambient spaces which have a lower bound on their radial sectional curvatures. The submanifolds are themselves only assumed to have lower bounds on the radial part of the mean curvature vector field...... within the extrinsic ball from a given starting point before they hit the boundary of the extrinsic ball. In those cases, where we may extend our analysis to hold all the way to infinity, we apply a capacity comparison technique to obtain a sufficient condition for the submanifolds to be parabolic, i...

  10. Income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services in Finland after a major subsidization reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raittio, Eero; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Aromaa, Arpo; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2015-06-01

    In Finland, a major oral healthcare reform (OHCR), implemented during 2001-2002, opened the public dental services (PDS) and extended subsidies for private dental services to entire adult population. Before the reform, adults born earlier than 1956 were not entitled to use PDS nor did they receive any reimbursements for their private dental costs. We aimed to examine changes in the income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services among the adult Finns after the reform. Representative data from Finnish adults born in 1970 or earlier were gathered from three identical postal surveys concerning the use of dental services and subjective perceptions of oral health. Those surveys were conducted before the OHCR in 2001 (n = 1907) and after the OHCR in 2004 (n = 1629) and 2007 (n = 1509). We used concentration index and its decomposition to analyse income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services and factors associated with them. Results showed that pro-rich inequality and inequity in the overall use of dental services narrowed from 2001 to 2004. However, between 2004 and 2007, pro-rich inequality and inequity widened, so it returned to a rather similar level in 2007 as it had been in 2001. Most of the pro-rich inequality and inequity were related to regular dental visiting habit and income level. While there was pro-poor inequality and inequity in the use of PDS, there was pro-rich inequality and inequity in the use of private dental services throughout the study years. It seems that income-related inequality and inequity in the use of dental services narrowed only temporarily after the reform. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Many low‐ and middle‐income countries are achieving good rates of economic growth, while high inequality remains a priority concern. Some countries meanwhile have low growth, high inequality, and pervasive poverty—often linked to their fragility. There is now active debate on how countries should...... set themselves goals for achieving both absolute poverty reduction and lower inequality. But policy action needs to be better served by analysis and data....

  12. Cauchy inequality and uncertainty relations for mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    Cauchy inequality (CI) relates scalar products of two vectors and their norms. I point out other similar inequalities (SI). Starting with CI Schroedinger derived his uncertainty relation (UR). By using SI other various UR can be obtained. It is shown that they follow from the Schroedinger UR. Two generalizations of CI are obtained for mixed states described by density matrices. Using them two generalizations of UR for mixed states are derived. Both differ from the UR generalization known from the literature. The discussion of these generalizations is given

  13. Bell's inequalities from the field concept in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nonlinear field theory of matter, based axiomatically on general relativity, has an asymptotic, low-energy limit that predicts the outcome of experimental tests of Bell's inequalities. The inequalities should follow if spin-correlated, spin-1/2 particles, observed in coincidence, were a spacelike distance apart; they should be violated if they were separated by timelike distances. The experiment at timelike separations, for scattered protons observed in coincidence, was carried out by Lahemi-Rachti and Mittig and, thus far, agrees with this theory. Extension of the low-energy pp scattering experiment to observations at spacelike distances is suggested, with the prediction that agreement should be obtained with Bell's inequalities there. (author)

  14. New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guanlei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle plays an important role in mathematics, physics, signal processing, and so on. Firstly, based on definition of the linear canonical transform (LCT and the traditional Pitt's inequality, one novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains is obtained, which is connected with the LCT parameters a and b. Then one novel logarithmic uncertainty principle is derived from this novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains, which is associated with parameters of the two LCTs. Secondly, from the relation between the original function and LCT, one entropic uncertainty principle and one Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the LCT domains are derived, which are associated with the LCT parameters a and b. The reason why the three lower bounds are only associated with LCT parameters a and b and independent of c and d is presented. The results show it is possible that the bounds tend to zeros.

  15. Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukiwo, Ukoha

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

  16. Relational Inequality: Gender Earnings Inequality in U.S. and Japanese Manufacturing Plants in the Early 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent-Holt, Dustin; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relational model of inequality using samples of employer-employee matched data from manufacturing plants in the United States and Japan. We argue that gender is a salient status characteristic in both the United States and Japan, but because of differences in gender politics, wage inequality will vary more across U.S. workplaces…

  17. A relational approach to durable poverty, inequality and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, David

    2010-01-01

    The article argues for what can be called a 'relational' approach to poverty: one that first views persistent poverty as the consequence of historically developed economic and political relations, and second, that emphasises poverty and inequality as an effect of social categorisation and identity, drawing in particular on the experience of adivasis ("tribals") and dalits ("untouchables") subordinated in Indian society. The approach follows Charles Tilly's Durable Inequality in combining Marxian ideas of exploitation and dispossession with Weberian notions of social closure. The article then draws on the work of Steven Lukes, Pierre Bourdieu and Arjun Appadurai to argue for the need to incorporate a multidimensional conception of power; including not only power as the direct assertion of will but also 'agenda-setting power' that sets the terms in which poverty becomes (or fails to become) politicised, and closely related to power as political representation. This sets the basis for discussion of the politics of poverty and exclusion.

  18. Black hole enthalpy and an entropy inequality for the thermodynamic volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Kubiznak, D.; Pope, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    In a theory where the cosmological constant Λ or the gauge coupling constant g arises as the vacuum expectation value, its variation should be included in the first law of thermodynamics for black holes. This becomes dE=TdS+Ω i dJ i +Φ α dQ α +ΘdΛ, where E is now the enthalpy of the spacetime, and Θ, the thermodynamic conjugate of Λ, is proportional to an effective volume V=-(16πΘ/D-2)''inside the event horizon.'' Here we calculate Θ and V for a wide variety of D-dimensional charged rotating asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole spacetimes, using the first law or the Smarr relation. We compare our expressions with those obtained by implementing a suggestion of Kastor, Ray, and Traschen, involving Komar integrals and Killing potentials, which we construct from conformal Killing-Yano tensors. We conjecture that the volume V and the horizon area A satisfy the inequality R≡ ((D-1)V/A D-2 ) 1/(D-1) (A D-2 /A) 1/(D-2) ≥1, where A D-2 is the volume of the unit (D-2) sphere, and we show that this is obeyed for a wide variety of black holes, and saturated for Schwarzschild-AdS. Intriguingly, this inequality is the ''inverse'' of the isoperimetric inequality for a volume V in Euclidean (D-1) space bounded by a surface of area A, for which R≤1. Our conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality can be interpreted as the statement that the entropy inside a horizon of a given ''volume''V is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS. The thermodynamic definition of V requires a cosmological constant (or gauge coupling constant). However, except in seven dimensions, a smooth limit exists where Λ or g goes to zero, providing a definition of V even for asymptotically flat black holes.

  19. Is the relative increase in income inequality related to tooth loss in middle-aged adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Mariél de Aquino; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether Brazilian middle-aged adults living in cities that experienced a relative increase on income inequality were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition. Data on Brazilian adults aged 35-44 years from state capitals and Federal District from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) were analyzed. Clinically assessed tooth loss outcomes were severe tooth loss (Income inequality was assessed by Gini Index in 1991, 2000, and 2003 using tertiles of distribution. Variation in Gini Index was assessed by changes in the tertiles distribution between years. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95 percent CI) between variation in income inequality and tooth loss outcomes adjusting for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Prevalence of severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 4.8 percent and 21.2 percent, respectively. Individuals living in cities with moderate and high increase in income inequality between 1991 and 2003 were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition in 2010 compared with those living in cities with stable income inequality in the same period. Relationships between low family income and both tooth loss outcomes were significantly attenuated by relative increases in income inequality. Relative increases in income inequality were significantly associated with severe tooth loss and lack of a functional dentition in Brazilian middle-aged adults. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore 'equalisation' in adolescence. We used five years of data (2006-2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25-44 and 45-64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstan...

  2. Monomial geometric programming with an arbitrary fuzzy relational inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shivanian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimization model with geometric objective function is presented. Geometric programming is widely used; many objective functions in optimization problems can be analyzed by geometric programming. We often encounter these in resource allocation and structure optimization and technology management, etc. On the other hand, fuzzy relation equalities and inequalities are also used in many areas. We here present a geometric programming model with a monomial objective function subject to the fuzzy relation inequality constraints with an arbitrary function. The feasible solution set is determined and compared with some common results in the literature. A necessary and sufficient condition and three other necessary conditions are presented to conceptualize the feasibility of the problem. In general a lower bound is always attainable for the optimal objective value by removing the components having no effect on the solution process. By separating problem to non-decreasing and non-increasing function to prove the optimal solution, we simplify operations to accelerate the resolution of the problem.

  3. Income inequality, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Roberts, Sarah C M; Bond, Jason

    2013-04-01

    We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.

  4. Income related inequality in financial inclusion and role of banks: Evidence on financial exclusion in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Pal; Rupayan Pal

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes income related inequality in financial inclusion in India using a representative household level survey data, linked to State-level factors. It shows that (a) the extent of financial exclusion is quite severe among households across all income groups, (b) income related inequality in financial inclusion varies widely across sub-national regions in India, but it is quite high in most of the cases, (c) income related inequality in financial inclusion cannot be considered as ...

  5. Policies and interventions on employment relations and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michael; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Vergara, Montserrat; Eijkemans, Gerry; Santana, Vilma; Chung, Haejoo; Castedo, Antía; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The association between certain increasingly pervasive employment conditions and serious health inequalities presents a significant policy challenge. A critical starting point is the recognition that these problems have not arisen in a policy vacuum. Rather, policy frameworks implemented by governments over the past 35 years, in conjunction with corporate globalization (itself facilitated by neoliberal policies), have undermined preexisting social protection policies and encouraged the growth of health-damaging forms of work organization. After a brief description of the context in which recent developments should be viewed, this article describes how policies can be reconfigured to address health-damaging employment conditions. A number of key policy objectives and entry points are identified, with a summary of policies for each entry point, relating to particular employment conditions relevant to rich and poor countries. Rather than trying to elaborate these policy interventions in detail, the authors point to several critical issues in relation to these interventions, linking these to illustrative examples.

  6. Global income-related inequalities in HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Auburn; Moore, Spencer; Harper, Sam; Lynch, John

    2011-09-01

    Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is an important prevention initiative in reducing HIV/AIDS transmission. Despite current global prevention efforts, many low- and middle-income countries continue reporting low VCT levels. Little is known about the association of within- and between-country socioeconomic inequalities and VCT. Based on the 'inverse equity hypothesis,' this study examines the degree to which low socioeconomic groups in developing countries are disadvantaged in VCT. Using recently released data from the 2002 to 2003 World Health Survey (WHS) for 106 705 individuals in 49 countries, this study used multilevel logistic regression to examine the association of individual- and national-level factors with VCT, and whether national economic development moderated the association between individual income and VCT. Individual income was based on country-specific income quintiles. National economic development was based on national gross domestic product per capita (GDP/c). Effect modification was evaluated with the likelihood ratio test (G(2)). Individuals eligible for the VCT question of the WHS were adults between the ages of 18-49 years; women who had given birth in the last 2 years were excluded from this question. VCT was more likely among higher income quintiles and in countries with higher GDP/c. GDP/c moderated the association between individual income and VCT whereby relative income differences in VCT were greater in countries with lower GDP/c (G(2)= 9.21; P= 0.002). Individual socio-demographic characteristics were also associated with the likelihood of a person having VCT. Relative socioeconomic inequalities in VCT coverage appear to decline when higher SES groups reach a certain level of coverage. These findings suggest that changes to international VCT programs may be necessary to moderate the relative VCT differences between high- and low-income individuals in lower GDP/c nations.

  7. Reducing social inequalities in health: work-related strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Despite reduced health risks in terms of physical and chemical hazards current trends in occupational life continue to contribute to ill health and disease among economically active people. Stress at work plays a crucial role in this respect, as evidenced by recent scientific progress. This paper discusses two leading theoretical models of work-related stress, the demand-control model and the model of effort-reward imbalance, and it summarizes available evidence on adverse health effects. As work stress in terms of these models is more prevalent among lower socioeconomic status groups, these conditions contribute to the explanation of socially graded risks of morbidity and mortality in midlife. Implications of this new knowledge for the design and implementation of worksite health-promotion measures are elaborated. In conclusion, it is argued that workplace strategies deserve high priority on any agenda that aims at reducing social inequalities in health.

  8. On the isoperimetric rigidity of extrinsic minimal balls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2003-01-01

    We consider an m-dimensional minimal submanifold P and a metric R-sphere in the Euclidean space R-n. If the sphere has its center p on P, then it will cut out a well defined connected component of P which contains this center point. We call this connected component an extrinsic minimal R-ball of P....... The quotient of the volume of the extrinsic ball and the volume of its boundary is not larger than the corresponding quotient obtained in the space form standard situation, where the minimal submanifold is the totally geodesic linear subspace R-m. Here we show that if the minimal submanifold has dimension...... larger than 3, if P is not too curved along the boundary of an extrinsic minimal R-ball, and if the inequality alluded to above is an equality for the extrinsic minimal ball, then the minimal submanifold is totally geodesic....

  9. Phase transition and entropy inequality of noncommutative black holes in a new extended phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming, E-mail: miaoyg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: xuzhenm@mail.nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the thermodynamics of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini AdS black hole with the non-Gaussian smeared matter distribution by regarding a noncommutative parameter as an independent thermodynamic variable named as the noncommutative pressure . In the new extended phase space that includes this noncommutative pressure and its conjugate variable, we reveal that the noncommutative pressure and the original thermodynamic pressure related to the negative cosmological constant make the opposite effects in the phase transition of the noncommutative black hole, i.e. the former dominates the UV regime while the latter does the IR regime, respectively. In addition, by means of the reverse isoperimetric inequality, we indicate that only the black hole with the Gaussian smeared matter distribution holds the maximum entropy for a given thermodynamic volume among the noncommutative black holes with various matter distributions.

  10. Time trends in absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilcz, Máté; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables. Slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used as summary measures of the social gradient in physical inactivity. The linear trend in inequalities and difference between gender and years were estimated by interaction analyses. The year 2010 displayed the highest physical inactivity inequalities for all socioeconomic position indicators, but educational and occupational inequalities decreased in 2014. However, significant positive linear trends were found in absolute and relative income inequalities. Moreover, women had significantly higher RII of education in physical inactivity in 2014 and significantly higher SII and RII of income in physical inactivity in 2010, than did men in the same years. The recent reduction in educational and occupational inequalities following the high inequalities around the time of the great recession in 2010 suggests that the current policies might be fairly effective. However, to eventually alleviate inequities in physical inactivity, the focus of the researchers and policymakers should be directed toward the widening trends of income inequalities in physical inactivity.

  11. Income-related inequality in health and health care utilization in Chile, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Felipe; Paraje, Guillermo; Estay, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To measure and explain income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization in the period 2000 - 2009 in Chile, while assessing variations within the country and determinants of inequalities. Data from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey for 2000, 2003, and 2009 were used to measure inequality in health and health care utilization. Income-related inequality in health care utilization was assessed with standardized concentration indices for the probability and total number of visits to specialized care, generalized care, emergency care, dental care, mental health care, and hospital care. Self-assessed health status and physical limitations were used as proxies for health care need. Standardization was performed with demographic and need variables. The decomposition method was applied to estimate the contribution of each factor used to calculate the concentration index, including ethnicity, employment status, health insurance, and region of residence. In Chile, people in lower-income quintiles report worse health status and more physical limitations than people in higher quintiles. In terms of health service utilization, pro-rich inequities were found for specialized and dental visits with a slight pro-rich utilization for general practitioners and all physician visits. All pro-rich inequities have decreased over time. Emergency room visits and hospitalizations are concentrated among lower-income quintiles and have increased over time. Higher education and private health insurance contribute to a pro-rich inequity in dentist, general practitioner, specialized, and all physician visits. Income contributes to a pro-rich inequity in specialized and dentist visits, whereas urban residence and economic activity contribute to a pro-poor inequity in emergency room visits. The pattern of health care utilization in Chile is consistent with policies implemented in the country and in the intended direction. The significant income inequality in the

  12. Inequity among human service professionals : Measurement and relation to burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDierendonck, D; Schaufeli, W.B; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1996-01-01

    This research investigated the impact on burnout of inequity experienced by human service professionals. Two studies were conducted, among therapists working with inmates in a forensic psychiatric center (N = 112) and among staff members of an institute for the direct care of mentally disabled (N =

  13. On some functional equations related to Steffensen's inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Choczewski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem, proposed by the second author (cf. [1] of solving functional equations stemming from the Steffensen integral inequality (S, which is applicable in actuarial problems, cf. [4]. Imposing some regularity conditions we find solutions of two equations in two variables, one with two and another with three unknown functions.

  14. On the relation between income inequality and happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina AV

    In this paper, we revisit the association between happiness and inequality. We argue that the perceived fairness of the income generation process affects this association. Building on a two-period model of individual life-time utility maximization, we predict that persons with higher perceived...

  15. Entrenched geographical and socioeconomic disparities in child mortality: trends in absolute and relative inequalities in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Jimenez-Soto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. METHODS: Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. FINDINGS: Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. CONCLUSION: Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key

  16. Public awareness of income-related health inequalities in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankardass Ketan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Continued action is needed to tackle health inequalities in Canada, as those of lower income continue to be at higher risk for a range of negative health outcomes. There is arguably a lack of political will to implement policy change in this respect. As a result, we investigated public awareness of income-related health inequalities in a generally representative sample of Ontarians in late 2010. Methods Data were collected from 2,006 Ontario adults using a telephone survey. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with various statements asserting that there are or are not health inequalities in general and by income in Ontario, including questions pertaining to nine specific conditions for which inequalities have been described in Ontario. A multi-stage process using binary logistic regression determined whether awareness of health inequalities differed between participant subgroups. Results Almost 73% of this sample of Ontarians agreed with the general premise that not all people are equally healthy in Ontario, but fewer participants were aware of health inequalities between the rich and the poor (53%–64%, depending on the framing of the question. Awareness of income-related inequalities in specific outcomes was considerably lower, ranging from 18% for accidents to 35% for obesity. Conclusions This is the first province-wide study in Canada, and the first in Ontario, to explore public awareness on health inequalities. Given that political will is shaped by public awareness and opinion, these results suggest that greater awareness may be required to move the health equity agenda forward in Ontario. There is a need for health equity advocates, physicians and researchers to increase the effectiveness of knowledge translation activities for studies that identify and explore health inequalities.

  17. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  18. Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David

    2015-07-17

    We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.

  19. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Jóhannsdóttir, Hildur Margrét

    2017-12-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to analyze how income-related health inequality changed across time periods that can be described as a boom, crisis and recovery. The concentration curve and the concentration index are calculated for each disease, both overall and by gender. In all cases, we find a considerable income-related health inequality favoring higher income individuals, with a slight increase over the study period. Between 2007 and 2009, our results indicate increased inequality for women but decreased inequality for men. Between 2009 and 2012 on the contrary, men's inequality increases but women's decreases. The overarching result is thus that the economic hardship of the crisis temporarily increased female income-related health inequality, but decreased that of men.

  20. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-09-18

    Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as "excellent or good" and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  1. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  2. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  3. Decomposing income-related inequality in cervical screening in 67 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Brittany; Harper, Sam; Moore, Spencer

    2011-04-01

    The development of successful policies to reduce income-related inequalities in cervical cancer screening rates requires an understanding of the reasons why low-income women are less likely to be screened. We sought to identify important determinants contributing to inequality in cervical screening rates. We analyzed data from 92,541 women aged 25-64 years, who participated in the World Health Survey in 2002-2003. Income-related inequality in Pap screening was measured using the concentration index (CI). Using a decomposition method for the CI, we quantified the contribution to inequality of age, education level, marital status, urbanicity and recent health-care need. There was substantial heterogeneity in the contributions of different determinants to inequality among countries. Education generally made the largest contribution (median = 15%, interquartile range [IQR] = 23%), although this varied widely even within regions (e.g., 5% in Austria, 28% in Hungary). The contribution of rural residence was greatest in African countries (median = 10%, IQR = 13%); however, there was again substantial within-region variation (e.g., 26% in Zambia, 2% in Kenya). Considerable heterogeneity in the contributions of screening determinants among countries suggests interventions to reduce screening inequalities may require country-specific approaches.

  4. Relative health effects of education, socioeconomic status and domestic gender inequity in Sweden: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan P; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 773) we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women) and the work environment (for men) in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated.

  5. Relative health effects of education, socioeconomic status and domestic gender inequity in Sweden: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Phillips

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. METHODS: Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 773 we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women and the work environment (for men in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated.

  6. Expressing complementarity and the x-p commutation relation through further quantum inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, Ramon F

    2010-01-01

    Complementarity and the commutation relation of position (x) and momentum (p) imply much more than the fundamental x-p uncertainty inequality. Here, we display some further consequences of the former that could have certain pedagogical interest and, so, contribute to the teaching of quantum mechanics. Inspired by an elementary derivation of the x-p uncertainty inequality, based upon a positive quadratic polynomial, we explore one possible extension, via quartic polynomials and simple algebra and integrations. Our analysis, aimed at providing some further pedagogic expression of genuine quantum behaviours, yields other quantum inequalities for expectation values, expressed through suitable discriminants associated with quartic algebraic equations, which differ from (and are not a strict consequence of) the x-p uncertainty inequality. Those quantum inequalities are confirmed, and genuine non-classical behaviours are exhibited, for simple cases: a harmonic oscillator, a hydrogenic atom and free Gaussian wave packets. The physical interest of the expectation values involved in the quantum inequalities and of the latter is discussed, in the framework of quantum optics and squeezing phenomena.

  7. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  8. What Causes Environmental Inequalities and Related Health Effects? An Analysis of Evolving Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruize, Hanneke; Droomers, Mariël; van Kamp, Irene; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    Early environmental justice studies were exposure-oriented, lacked an integrated approach, and did not address the health impact of environmental inequalities. A coherent conceptual framework, needed to understand and tackle environmental inequalities and the related health effects, was lacking. We analyzed the more recent environmental justice literature to find out how conceptual insights have evolved. The conceptual framework of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) was analyzed for additional explanations for environmental inequalities and the related health effects. This paper points out that recent environmental justice studies have broadened their scope by incorporating a broader set of physical and social environmental indicators, and by focusing on different geographic levels and on health impacts of environmental inequalities. The CSDH framework provided additional elements such as the role of structural determinants, the role of health-related behavior in relation to the physical and social environment, access to health care, as well as the life course perspective. Incorporating elements of the CSDH framework into existing environmental justice concepts, and performing more empirical research on the interactions between the different determinants at different geographical levels would further improve our understanding of environmental inequalities and their health effects and offer new opportunities for policy action. PMID:24886752

  9. What Causes Environmental Inequalities and Related Health Effects? An Analysis of Evolving Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Kruize

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Early environmental justice studies were exposure-oriented, lacked an integrated approach, and did not address the health impact of environmental inequalities. A coherent conceptual framework, needed to understand and tackle environmental inequalities and the related health effects, was lacking. We analyzed the more recent environmental justice literature to find out how conceptual insights have evolved. The conceptual framework of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH was analyzed for additional explanations for environmental inequalities and the related health effects. This paper points out that recent environmental justice studies have broadened their scope by incorporating a broader set of physical and social environmental indicators, and by focusing on different geographic levels and on health impacts of environmental inequalities. The CSDH framework provided additional elements such as the role of structural determinants, the role of health-related behavior in relation to the physical and social environment, access to health care, as well as the life course perspective. Incorporating elements of the CSDH framework into existing environmental justice concepts, and performing more empirical research on the interactions between the different determinants at different geographical levels would further improve our understanding of environmental inequalities and their health effects and offer new opportunities for policy action.

  10. Income related inequalities in avoidable mortality in Norway: A population-based study using data from 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality in Norway over the period 1994-2011. We undertook a register-based population study of Norwegian residents aged 18-65 years between 1994 and 2011, using data from the Norwegian Income Register and the Cause of Death Registry. Concentration indices were used to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality for each year. We compared the trend in income-related inequality in avoidable mortality with the trend in income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient for income. Avoidable, amenable and preventable deaths in Norway have declined over time. There were persistent pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality, and the degree of inequality was larger in preventable mortality than in amenable mortality throughout the period. The income-avoidable mortality association was positively correlated with income inequalities in avoidable mortality over time. There was little or no relationship between variations in the Gini coefficient due to tax reforms and socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable mortality. Income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality have remained relatively constant between 1994 and 2011 in Norway. They were mainly correlated with the relationship between income and avoidable mortality rather than with variations in the Gini coefficient of income inequality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bonnesen-style inequality for the first eigenvalue on a complete surface of constant curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niufa Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By Cheeger’s isoperimetric constants, some lower bounds and upper bounds of λ 1 $\\lambda_{1}$ , the first eigenvalue on a complete surface of constant curvature, are given. Some Bonnesen-style inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style inequalities for the first eigenvalue are obtained. Those Bonnesen-style inequalities obtained are stronger than the well-known Osserman’s results and the upper bound is stronger than Osserman’s results (Osserman in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Helsinki, 1978.

  12. Income inequality, social capital and self-inflicted injury and violence-related mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.

    Background: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation of income inequality and indicators of social capital to self-inflicted injury mortality (suicide) and violence-related mortality, and to the share of total mortality that is due to these two causes of death in 35 developed

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in knee pain, knee osteoarthritis, and health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiadaliri, A. A.; Gerhardsson de Verdier, Maria; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    L questionnaires. We used the individuals’ level of education and occupation as socioeconomic status (SES) measures, and we calculated the relative index of inequality (RII) using Poisson regression with robust standard errors adjusted for age and gender. We applied weighting to account for a possible selection......Objectives: To determine socioeconomic inequalities in frequent knee pain (FKP), knee osteoarthritis (OA), and associated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Sweden. Method: In 2007 a postal questionnaire about knee pain was sent to a random sample of 10 000 residents of Malmö, Sweden (7402...

  14. Simple and tight monogamy relations for a class of Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Physical principles constrain the way nonlocal correlations can be distributed among distant parties in a Bell-type experiment. These constraints are usually expressed by monogamy relations that bound the amount of Bell inequality violation observed by a set of parties by the violation observed by a different set of parties. Here we show that the no-signaling principle yields simple and tight monogamy relations for an important class of bipartite and multipartite Bell inequalities. We also link these trade-offs to the guessing probability—a key quantity in device-independent information processing.

  15. Age-related inequalities in health and healthcare: the life stages approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2017-05-16

    How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inequality and union membership: the influence of relative earnings and inequality attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Using surveys from the International Social Survey Programme covering the period 1985-2002 for seven European countries (West and East Germany, Sweden, Norway, Italy, the Netherlands and Great Britain), we examine the effect of relative earnings on union membership and show that union density is

  17. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Lofters

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. RESULTS: There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1% than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3% or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%. DISCUSSION: A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support

  18. The socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability among Chinese adults: the application of concentration index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Du, Wei; Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2013-06-01

    Traffic crashes have become the fifth leading cause of burden of diseases and injuries in China. More importantly, it may further aggravate the degree of health inequality among Chinese population, which is still under-investigated. Based on a nationally representative data, we calculated the concentration index (CI) to measure the socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability (TRD), and decomposed CI into potential sources of the inequality. Results show that more than 1.5 million Chinese adults were disabled by traffic crashes and the adults with financial disadvantage bear disproportionately heavier burden of TRD. Besides, strategies of reducing income inequality and protecting the safety of poor road users, are of great importance. Residence appears to counteract the socioeconomic inequality in TRD, however, it does not necessarily come to an optimistic conclusion. In addition to the worrying income gap between rural and urban areas, other possible mechanisms, e.g. the low level of post-crash medical resources in rural area, need further studies. China is one of the developing countries undergoing fast motorization and our findings could provide other countries in similar context with some insights about how to maintain socioeconomic equality in road safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing socioeconomic related health inequality in mothers and children using the concentration index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Amirian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of socioeconomic inequity on major public health indices such as maternal and child mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries are less understood and needs to be evaluated through the concentration index.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, and 1400 households were enrolled through a stratified cluster random sampling method. The effect of inequity on health outcomes was investigated via a three-stage procedure including: (a definition of health outcomes; (b measuring socioeconomic status using an asset index; and (c measuring inequality of health outcome using concentration index (CI.Results: There was inequality for all outcomes of interest. The CI was negative for low birth weight, underweight, stunting, wasting, minor injuries, moderate injuries, consanguineous marriage, child with disability, short birth spacing, and adolescent pregnancy indicating the disproportionate concentration of the health outcomes among the poor. On the other hand, CI was positive for preterm birth, Nonexclusive breastfeeding, severe injuries, incomplete health care, cesarean section, and advanced maternal age indicating opposite conclusion.Conclusion: According to our results, there is a health inequality between the poor and the rich subgroups which may increase the risk of mothers and infant mortality and morbidity rates among the poor while the majority of the conditions related to the health outcomes are preventable.

  20. The evolution of income inequality and relative poverty in Italy: 1987-2010

    OpenAIRE

    BIAGI FEDERICO; CASALONE Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of poverty and inequality in Italy in the period 1987-2010. Our data are from the Bank of Italy Survey of Household Income and Wealth and the variable of interest is real income (reference year is 2009), defined using price indexes that are allowed to vary by region and that allow us to make comparisons in levels of real incomes. We construct relative poverty and inequality indexes using equivalent income obtained by applying two types of equivalence scale...

  1. Inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly determine the expenditure of effort in project teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojie Han

    Full Text Available The literature on team cooperation has neglected the effects of relative kindness intention on cooperation, which we measure by comparing the kindness intentions of an agent to her group members to the kindness shown by other members to this same agent. We argue that the agent's emotional reaction to material payoff inequity is not constant, but rather affected by her relative kindness intention. Then, we apply the model to team projects with multiple partners and investigate how inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly influence team cooperation. We first consider the case of homogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are the same, and then consider the case of heterogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are not the same. Our results show that inequity-aversion has no effect on effort expenditure in the former case, but does affect it in the latter case. The consideration of relative kindness intention may impact the agents' optimal cooperative effort expenditure when their technical capacities are different. In addition, it is beneficial for team cooperation, and might not only reduce the negative impact but also enhance the positive impact of inequity-aversion on the agents' effort expenditures.

  2. Social Inequalities in Obesity Persist in the Nordic Region Despite Its Relative Affluence and Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Maria; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olafsdottir, Steingerdur

    2014-01-01

    Social inequalities in overweight and obesity (OWOB) have persisted in the affluent and reputedly egalitarian Nordic countries. In this review we examine associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and OWOB, and secular trends in such associations. Determinants and possible causes of the re......Social inequalities in overweight and obesity (OWOB) have persisted in the affluent and reputedly egalitarian Nordic countries. In this review we examine associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and OWOB, and secular trends in such associations. Determinants and possible causes...... of the relations are discussed together with opportunities to cope with OWOB as a public health problem. The findings show a persisting inverse social gradient. An interaction between SEP and gender is noted for adults in Denmark, Finland and Iceland and for children in Sweden. There are overall tendencies...... for increased inequality, however no consistent trend for an increased social gradient in OWOB. Reasons that increased inequality does not unequivocally mirror in a steepened social gradient in obesity may include methodological questions as well as societal efforts to counteract obesity. Multi-level efforts...

  3. The Sobolev inequality and the Tsallis entropic uncertainty relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Heisenberg uncertainty relation is expressed in terms of the Tsallis entropies associated with the conjugate coordinate and momentum probability densities. By rewriting this in terms of a positive joint probability distribution suggested by Cohen and coworkers, a different insight into the statistical dependence of the quantum variables is obtained. A discussion of how this improves the previous results on this subject is given. (orig.)

  4. Decomposing the causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality among urban and rural populations in China: a new decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C; Zhao, Hongzhong

    2017-07-18

    In recent decades, China has experienced tremendous economic growth and also witnessed growing socioeconomic-related health inequality. The study aims to explore the potential causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality in urban and rural areas of China over the past two decades. This study used six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 to 2006. The recentered influence function (RIF) regression decomposition method was employed to decompose socioeconomic-related health inequality in China. Health status was derived from self-rated health (SRH) scores. The analyses were conducted on urban and rural samples separately. We found that the average level of health status declined from 1989 to 2006 for both urban and rural populations. Average health scores were greater for the rural population compared with those for the urban population. We also found that there exists pro-rich health inequality in China. While income and secondary education were the main factors to reduce health inequality, older people, unhealthy lifestyles and a poor home environment increased inequality. Health insurance had the opposite effects on health inequality for urban and rural populations, resulting in lower inequality for urban populations and higher inequality for their rural counterparts. These findings suggest that an effective way to reduce socioeconomic-related health inequality is not only to increase income and improve access to health care services, but also to focus on improvements in the lifestyles and the home environment. Specifically, for rural populations, it is particularly important to improve the design of health insurance and implement a more comprehensive insurance package that can effectively target the rural poor. Moreover, it is necessary to comprehensively promote the flush toilets and tap water in rural areas. For urban populations, in addition to promoting universal secondary education, healthy lifestyles should be promoted

  5. Inequalities for finite trigonometric sums. An interplay: with some series related to harmonic numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Kouba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An interplay between the sum of certain series related to harmonic numbers and certain finite trigonometric sums is investigated. This allows us to express the sum of these series in terms of the considered trigonometric sums, and permits us to find sharp inequalities bounding these trigonometric sums. In particular, this answers positively an open problem of Chen (Excursions in Classical Analysis, 2010.

  6. Income inequality is associated with stronger social comparison effects: The effect of relative income on life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that having rich neighbors is associated with reduced levels of subjective well-being, an effect that is likely due to social comparison. The current study examined the role of income inequality as a moderator of this relative income effect. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a sample of more than 1.7 million people from 2,425 counties in the United States. Results showed that higher income inequality was associated with stronger relative income effects. In other words, people were more strongly influenced by the income of their neighbors when income inequality was high. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Income Inequality Is Associated with Stronger Social Comparison Effects: The Effect of Relative Income on Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that having rich neighbors is associated with reduced levels of subjective well-being, an effect that is likely due to social comparison. The current study examined the role of income inequality as a moderator of this relative income effect. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a sample of over 1.7 million people from 2,425 counties in the United States. Results showed that higher income inequality was associated with stronger relative income effects. In other words, people were more strongly influenced by the income of their neighbors when income inequality was high. PMID:26191957

  8. Dental care coverage and income-related inequalities in foregone dental care in Europe during the great recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2017-08-01

    This study examines income inequalities in foregone dental care in 23 European countries during the years with global economic crisis. Associations between dental care coverage from public health budgets or social insurance, and income-related inequalities in perceived access to dental care, are analysed. Survey data 2008-2013 from 23 countries were combined with country data on macro-economic conditions and coverage for dental care. Foregone dental care was defined as self-reported abstentions from needed dental care because of costs or other crisis-related reasons. Age-standardized percentages reporting foregone dental care were estimated for respondents, age 20-74, in the lowest and highest income quartile. Associations between dental care coverage and income inequalities in foregone dental care, adjusted for macro-economic indicators, were examined by country-level regression models. In all 23 countries, respondents in the lowest income quartile reported significantly higher levels of foregone dental care than respondents in the highest quartile. During 2008-2013, income inequalities in foregone dental care widened significantly in 13 of 23 countries, but decreased in only three countries. Adjusted for countries' macro-economic situation and severity of the economic crisis, higher dental care coverage was significantly associated with smaller income inequalities in foregone dental care and less widening of these inequalities. Income-related inequalities in dental care have widened in Europe during the years with global economic crisis. Higher dental care coverage corresponded to less income-related inequalities in foregone dental care and less widening of these inequalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Several applications of Cartwright-Field's inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Minculete, Nicuşor; Furuichi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present several applications of Cartwright-Field's inequality. Among these we found Young's inequality, Bernoulli's inequality, the inequality between the weighted power means, H\\"{o}lder's inequality and Cauchy's inequality. We give also two applications related to arithmetic functions and to operator inequalities.

  10. Individual Income, Area Deprivation, and Health: Do Income-Related Health Inequalities Vary by Small Area Deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin; Mielck, Andreas; Maier, Werner

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to explore potential associations between health inequalities related to socioeconomic deprivation at the individual and the small area level. We use German cross-sectional survey data for the years 2002 and 2006, and measure small area deprivation via the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. We test the differences between concentration indices of income-related and small area deprivation related inequalities in obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Our results suggest that small area deprivation and individual income both yield inequalities in health favoring the better-off, where individual income-related inequalities are significantly more pronounced than those related to small area deprivation. We then apply a semiparametric extension of Wagstaff's corrected concentration index to explore how individual-level health inequalities vary with the degree of regional deprivation. We find that the concentration of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes among lower income groups also exists at the small area level. The degree of deprivation-specific income-related inequalities in the three health outcomes exhibits only little variations across different levels of multiple deprivation for both sexes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. One or two nation projects? Discourse on inequalities and equality-related policies in South Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leubolt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis contribution focuses on the social production and reproduction of social inequalities in Brazil and South Africa. It aims at interlinking different theoretical perspectives and applying them to a comparative analysis of inequality-related policies. Resorting to strategic-relational institutionalism, the historical heritage of discourse formation and the institutionalization of inequality regimes in the two countries to inform the analysis of the more recent conjuncture will be analysed. While South Africa is an example of formal racist discrimination, the Brazilian inequality regime worked on more informal patterns. The different historical heritage influences current foci of equality-related policies, which tend to be dominantly anti-racist in South Africa, while focusing on poverty reduction in Brazil during the recent years. The latter experience tended more towards a discourse of a ‘common interest’ and was better able to institutionalize policies to reduce income inequalities. South Africa is still discursively divided into ‘two nations’. Social uplifting for Africans linked to the governing parties was only partially accompanied by improved living conditions for the poor majority of Africans. Both countries are significantly structured by the respective historical heritage concerning both the creation and the reduction of inequalities. The Brazilian ‘one nation’ discourse was more successful in promoting equality-related policies than its ‘two nations’ counterpart in South Africa. Despite important improvements, both countries are now in critical junctures and societal contradictions are beginning to create new crisis tendencies.

  12. Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Delampady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Methods Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. Results The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Conclusion Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality

  13. The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001–2003 (N=3,105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. PMID:28372829

  14. The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K

    2018-02-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001-2003 (N = 3105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relational trustworthiness: how status affects intra-organizational inequality in job autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Castillo, Celeste; Ewoodzie, Kwesi

    2014-03-01

    Recent accounts of trustworthiness have moved away from treating it as a stable, individual-level attribute toward viewing it as a variable situated in a relational context, but have not been formalized or supported empirically. We extend status characteristics theory (SCT) to develop formal propositions about relational trustworthiness. We posit that members of task- and collectively oriented groups (non-consciously) infer three qualities from their relative status that are commonly used to determine an individual's trustworthiness: ability, benevolence, and integrity. We apply our formalization to clarify ambiguities regarding intra-organizational job autonomy inequality, thereby linking SCT to broader disparities rooted in job autonomy. We analyze data from a vignette experiment and the General Social Survey to test incrementally how well our propositions generalize across different settings and populations. Results generally support our proposed links between status and intra-organizational job autonomy. We discuss implications for SCT in understanding broader patterns of inequalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrimination-related health inequality and role of social capital among marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-10-26

    This study aimed to evaluate whether social capital could alleviate health inequality against racial discrimination and identify the critical nature of social capital that generates health inequality differences within the social context of South Korea. Using the data of the 2009 National Survey of Multicultural Families, a nationally representative sample in which 40,430 foreign wives participated, the concentration index (CI) was used to measure the discrimination-related inequalities in self-rated health and was decomposed into contributing factors. The results showed a significant concentration of poor self-rated health unfavorable to foreign wives who were highly discriminated (CI 0.023, standard error [SE] 0.001, p inequality in health was observed among the group of linking social capital (CI 0.008, SE 0.008, p .332). The total differential decomposition method showed two major factors that generate differences in health inequality between the groups of non-linking and linking social capital: protest against discrimination (35.8 %); experiences of discrimination (28.3 %). The present results indicated that linking social capital can be a useful resource of health resilience factor that equalizes discrimination-related health inequality among marriage migrant women in South Korea. This study provides additional evidence that social capital needs to be placed in its political context.

  17. Income-Related Inequalities in Access to Dental Care Services in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Akemi; Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2017-05-12

    Background : This study aimed to evaluate whether income-related inequalities in access to dental care services exist in Japan. Methods : The subjects included beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Chiba City, Japan, who had been enrolled from 1 April 2014 to 31 March 2015. The presence or absence of dental visits and number of days spent on dental care services during the year were calculated using insurance claims submitted. Equivalent household income was calculated using individual income data from 1 January to 31 December 2013, declared for taxation. Results : Of the 216,211 enrolled subjects, 50.3% had dental care during the year. Among those with dental visits, the average number of days (standard deviation) spent on dental care services per year was 7.7 (7.1). Low income was associated with a decreased rate of dental care utilization regardless of age and sex. However, there was a significant inverse linear association between the number of days spent on dental care services and income levels for both sexes. Conclusions : There were income-related inequalities in access to dental care services, regardless of the age group or sex, within the Japanese universal health insurance system.

  18. Trends in income-related inequality in untreated caries among children in the United States: findings from NHANES I, NHANES III, and NHANES 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Diego Alberto; Iafolla, Timothy; Kingman, Albert; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this analysis was to describe income-related inequality in untreated caries among children in the United States over time. The analysis focuses on children ages 2-12 years in three nationally representative U.S. surveys: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1971-1974, NHANES 1988-1994, and NHANES 1999-2004. The outcome of interest is untreated dental caries. Various methods are employed to measure absolute and relative inequality within each survey such as pair-wise comparisons, measures of association (odds ratios), and three summary measures of overall inequality: the slope index of inequality, the relative index of inequality, and the concentration index. Inequality trends are then assessed by comparing these estimates across the three surveys. Inequality was present in each of the three surveys analyzed. Whether measured on an absolute or relative scale, untreated caries disproportionately affected those with lower income. Trend analysis shows that, despite population-wide reductions in untreated caries between NHANES I and NHANES III, overall absolute inequality slightly increased, while overall relative inequality significantly increased. Between NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2004, both absolute and relative inequality tended to decrease; however, these changes were not statistically significant. Socioeconomic inequality in oral health is an important measure of progress in overall population health and a key input to inform health policies. This analysis shows the presence of socioeconomic inequality in oral health in the American child population, as well as changes in its magnitude over time. Further research is needed to determine the factors related to these changes and their relative contribution to inequality trends. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Confronting inequities: A scoping review of the literature on pharmacist practice and health-related disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Lisa M; Rosenthal, Meagen; Sharpe, Jane Pearson; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    An expanding body of literature is exploring the presence and impact of health and health care disparities among marginalized populations. This research challenges policy makers, health professionals, and scholars to examine how unjust and avoidable inequities are created at the societal, institutional, and individual level, and explore strategies for mitigating challenges. Recognizing the significance of this broader conversation, this scoping review provides an overview of pharmacy-specific research attentive to health-related disparities. Following Arksey and O'Malley's framework, a rigorous screening process yielded 93 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature articles, each analyzed for core themes. Lending critical insight to how pharmacy practice researchers are conceptualizing and measuring health inequities, this review highlights three paths of inquiry evident across this literature, including research focused on what pharmacists know about marginalized groups, how pharmacists perceive these groups, and how they provide services. Striving to drive research and practice forward, this review details research gaps and opportunities, including a need to expand the scope of research and integrate knowledge. As pharmacists endeavor to provide equitable and impactful patient care, it is essential to understand challenges, and build strong evidence for meaningful action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Income-related inequality in completed suicide across the provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Galougahi, Mohammad Hassan; Mansouri, Asieh; Akbarpour, Samaneh; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Sartipi, Majid; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure income-related inequality in completed suicide across the provinces of Iran. This ecological study was performed using data from the Urban and Rural Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010 conducted by the Iranian Center of Statistics, along with data on completed suicide from the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization in 2012. We calculated the Gini coefficient of per capita income and the completed suicide rate, as well as the concentration index for per capita income inequality in completed suicide, across the provinces of Iran. The Gini coefficients of per capita income and the completed suicide rate in the provinces of Iran were 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.13) and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46), respectively. We found a trivial decreasing trend in the completed suicide incidence rate according to income quintile. The poorest-to-richest ratio in the completed suicide rate was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.26 to 3.22). The concentration index of completed suicide in the provinces of Iran was -0.12 (95% CI, -0.30 to 0.06). This study found that lower income might be considered as a risk factor for completed suicide. Nonetheless, further individual studies incorporating multivariable analysis and repeated cross-sectional data would allow a more fine-grained analysis of this phenomenon.

  1. The political economy of urban homicide: assessing the relative impact of gender inequality on sex-specific victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWees, Mari A; Parker, Karen F

    2003-02-01

    This research examines the ways in which the changing political economy of urban areas has contributed differently to the homicide victimization rates of females and males across US cities. Recent research, while relatively limited, has presented disparate results regarding the effect of gender inequality on urban sex-specific victimization. Our work further explores this relationship by taking into account relative gender disparities in income, education, labor market opportunities, and politics in an examination of sex-specific homicide victimization in 1990. Key to this current investigation is the evaluation of feminist and lifestyle arguments that suggest that structural gender inequality has a unique effect on female victimization. Overall, our findings reveal gender inequality to be a significant predictor of both male and female urban homicide. While these findings suggest mixed support for theoretical arguments regarding gender inequality, further analyses reveal significant differences in specific types of gender inequality on victimization patterns across genders. These additional results highlight the need for greater attention toward both methodological and theoretical issues when examining the interconnections between gender, political economy, and violence in research.

  2. Income-related and educational inequality in small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland 1987-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn; Kaplan, George A; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie N

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs). From the national medical birth registries we gathered information on all births from 1987 to 2003. Information on highest completed maternal education and household income in the year preceding birth of the offspring was obtained for 1,012,400 births in Denmark and 499,390 in Finland. We then calculated CIXs for income- and education-related inequality in SGA and preterm birth. The mean household income-related inequality in SGA was -0.04 (95% confidence interval: -0.05, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The maternal education-related inequality in SGA was -0.08 (-0.10, -0.06) in Denmark and -0.07 (-0.08, -0.06) in Finland. The income-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.03 (-0.03, -0.02) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The education-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.05 (-0.07, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) in Finland. In Denmark, the income-related and education-related inequity in SGA increased over time. In Finland, the income-related inequality in SGA birth increased slightly, while education-related inequalities remained stable. Inequalities in preterm birth decreased over time in both countries. Denmark and Finland are examples of nations with free prenatal care and publicly financed obstetric care of high quality. During the period of study there were macroeconomic shocks affecting both countries. However, only small income- and education-related inequalities in SGA and preterm births during the period were observed.

  3. Is income inequality related to childhood dental caries in rich countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Hobdell, Martin H

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlates of income and income inequality with dental caries in a sample of all countries, as well as in rich countries alone. In this ecological study, the authors analyzed national data on income, income inequality and dental caries from 48 countries. Of them, 22 were rich countries (according to World Bank criteria). The authors determined income by gross national income (GNI) per capita (formerly known as gross national product) and income inequality by the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality on a scale between 0 and 1). They assessed dental caries according to the decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) index in 5- to 6-year-old children. The authors used Pearson and partial correlation coefficients to examine the linear associations of income and income inequality with dental caries. GNI per capita, but not the Gini coefficient, was inversely correlated with the dmft index in the 48 countries. However, the results showed an opposite pattern when analyses were restricted to rich countries (that is, the dmft index was significantly correlated with the Gini coefficient but not with GNI per capita). These findings support the income inequality hypothesis that beyond a certain level of national income, the relationship between income and the population's health is weak. Income inequality was correlated more strongly with dental caries than was income in rich countries. Among rich countries, income inequality is a stronger determinant of childhood dental caries than is absolute income.

  4. When do relative prices matter for measuring income inequality? The case of food prices in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    are accounted for, inequality of real consumption increases substantially. We obtain this result by constructing a price deflator that reflects divergent price dynamics of different product categories. Since the main factors driving this result prevail in other developing countries, it is likely that inequality...

  5. Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Having recalled the 1935 debate between A. Einstein and N. Bohr about quantum mechanics (Q.M.) the thought-experiment of D. Bohm is described and a new derivation of the Bell's inequalities is established to test the class of theories based on the hypothesis of hidden-parameters in the common past. It is shown that Q.M. violates these inequalities almost everywhere. The general properties of functions satisfying Bell's inequalities are studied in order to compare them to Q.M. predictions as regards derivatives, integrals, values, intervals, amplitudes and finally the overall behaviour: a few of the Bell's functions chosen to approach somehow Q.M. are given. Altogether, in the comparison between Q.M. and functions satisfying Bell's inequalities, an incompatibility is revealed that is stronger then that resulting from consideration of just the inequalities [fr

  6. Structural and intermediary determinants of social inequalities in the mental well-being of European workers: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Muntaner, Carles; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2014-09-09

    The objective of this study is to examine social inequalities in employee mental well-being, using relational social class indicators. Relational social class indicators are based on theoretical insights about the mechanisms generating social (health) inequalities. Additionally, it is examined whether the psychosocial work environment and employment quality act as intermediary determinants of social class inequalities in mental well-being, simultaneously testing the mediation (differential exposure) and moderation (differential vulnerability) hypotheses. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004/5) and Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. The measure for social class was inspired by E.O. Wright's class scheme. Three-level linear multilevel modelling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. We found social class inequalities in mental well-being in the European working population for both men and women. Compared to unskilled workers, managers reported the best mental well-being, while supervisors held an intermediary position. As regards the mediation hypothesis, an unfavourable psychosocial work environment and low-quality employment conditions mediated the relation between social class and poor mental well-being in both men and women. However, low quality of employment relations only mediated the "social class-mental well-being" association in the male sample. As regards the moderation hypothesis, modification effects were seen for the psychosocial work environment and employment conditions in both men and women. Relational indicators of social class are related to mental well-being in European employees. Relational accounts of social class are complementary to stratification indicators in social epidemiology. From a policy perspective, better employee mental well-being and less social class inequality could be achieved through initiatives addressing the

  7. [Occupation-, transportation- and leisure-related physical activity: gender inequalities in Santander, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga-Sánchez, Claudia M; Alzate-Posada, Martha L; Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Otero-Wandurraga, Johanna A

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of occupation-, transportation- and leisure-related physical activity, its compliance with recommendations, and to explore its association with demographic and socioeconomic variables in men and women of the Department of Santander (Colombia). Methods The sample consisted of 2421 people between 15 and 64 years of age, participants in the Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases of Santander cross-sectional study, developed in 2010. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for data collection. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated and multivariate analysis models were built by sex using robust Poisson regression. Results The prevalence of occupational and leisure physical activity and compliance with recommendations were lower in women. Sexual division of labor and a low socioeconomic level negatively influenced physical activity in women, limiting the possibility of practice of those principally engaged in unpaid work at home. Young or single men and those living in higher socioeconomic areas were more likely to practice physical activity in leisure time and meet recommendations. Conclusion Physical activity surveillance and related public policies should take into account the inequalities between the practice of men and women related to their socioeconomic conditions and the sexual division of labor.

  8. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  9. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  10. Health-related quality of life inequalities by sexual orientation: Results from the Barcelona Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Pastor, Marc; Perez, Gloria; German, Danielle; Pont, Angels; Garin, Olatz; Alonso, Jordi; Gotsens, Mercè; Ferrer, Montse

    2018-01-01

    Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) inequalities according to sexual orientation are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL inequalities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people and heterosexuals in the 2011 Barcelona population, to describe the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions could explain such inequalities, and to understand if they are sexual orientation inequities. In the 2011 Barcelona Health Interview Survey 3277 adults answered the EQ-5D, which measures five dimensions of HRQoL summarized into a single utility index (1 = perfect health, 0 = death). To assess HRQoL differences by sexual orientation we constructed Tobit models for the EQ-5D index, and Poisson regression models for the EQ-5D dimensions. In both cases, nested models were constructed to assess the mediator role of selected variables. After adjusting by socio-demographic variables, the LGB group presented a significantly lower EQ-5D index than heterosexuals, and higher prevalence ratios of problems in physical EQ-5D dimensions among both genders: adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.70 for mobility (p = 0.046) and 2.11 for usual activities (p = 0.019). Differences in mental dimensions were only observed among men: aPR = 3.15 for pain/discomfort (p = 0.003) and 2.49 for anxiety/depression (p = 0.030). All these differences by sexual orientation disappeared after adding chronic conditions and health-related behaviors in the models. The LGB population presented worse HRQoL than heterosexuals in the EQ-5D index and most dimensions. Chronic conditions, health-related behaviors and gender play a major role in explaining HRQoL differences by sexual orientation. These findings support the need of including sexual orientation into the global agenda of health inequities.

  11. Health-related quality of life inequalities by sexual orientation: Results from the Barcelona Health Interview Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Marti-Pastor

    Full Text Available Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQoL inequalities according to sexual orientation are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL inequalities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people and heterosexuals in the 2011 Barcelona population, to describe the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and chronic conditions could explain such inequalities, and to understand if they are sexual orientation inequities.In the 2011 Barcelona Health Interview Survey 3277 adults answered the EQ-5D, which measures five dimensions of HRQoL summarized into a single utility index (1 = perfect health, 0 = death. To assess HRQoL differences by sexual orientation we constructed Tobit models for the EQ-5D index, and Poisson regression models for the EQ-5D dimensions. In both cases, nested models were constructed to assess the mediator role of selected variables.After adjusting by socio-demographic variables, the LGB group presented a significantly lower EQ-5D index than heterosexuals, and higher prevalence ratios of problems in physical EQ-5D dimensions among both genders: adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 1.70 for mobility (p = 0.046 and 2.11 for usual activities (p = 0.019. Differences in mental dimensions were only observed among men: aPR = 3.15 for pain/discomfort (p = 0.003 and 2.49 for anxiety/depression (p = 0.030. All these differences by sexual orientation disappeared after adding chronic conditions and health-related behaviors in the models.The LGB population presented worse HRQoL than heterosexuals in the EQ-5D index and most dimensions. Chronic conditions, health-related behaviors and gender play a major role in explaining HRQoL differences by sexual orientation. These findings support the need of including sexual orientation into the global agenda of health inequities.

  12. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  13. Inequities in energy-balance related behaviours and family environmental determinants in European children: baseline results of the prospective EPHE evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Radulian, Gabriella; Borys, Jean-Michel; du Plessis, Hugues; Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; de Henauw, Stefaan; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Visscher, Tommy Ls; Seidell, Jacob C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tackling inequalities in overweight, obesity and related determinants has become a top priority for the European research and policy agendas. Although it has been established that such inequalities accumulate from early childhood onward, they have not been studied extensively in

  14. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  15. Differences and inequalities in relation to access to renal replacement therapy in the BRICS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fábio Humberto Ribeiro Paes; Rodrigues, Cibele Isaac Saad; Gatto, Giuseppe Cesare; Sá, Natan Monsores de

    2017-07-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries due to the high level of economic resources needed to maintain patients in the different programs that make up renal replacement therapy (RRT). To analyze the differences and inequalities involved in access to RRT in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa). This is an applied, descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study, with documentary analysis and a literature review. The sources of data were from national censuses and scientific publications regarding access to RRT in the BRICS countries. There is unequal access to RRT in all the BRICS countries, as well as the absence of information regarding dialysis and transplants (India), the absence of effective legislation to inhibit the trafficking of organs (India and South Africa) and the use of deceased prisoners as donors for renal transplants (China). The construction of mechanisms to promote the sharing of benefits and solidarity in the field of international cooperation in the area of renal health involves the recognition of bioethical issues related to access to RRT in the BRICS countries.

  16. Educational content related to postcolonialism and indigenous health inequities recommended for all rehabilitation students in Canada: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Ala; Beavis, Allana S W; Kassam, Aly; Choudhury, Daniel; Fraser, Michelle; Masching, Renée; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2017-10-02

    Postcolonial analysis can help rehabilitation providers understand how colonization and racialization create and sustain health inequities faced by indigenous peoples. However, there is little guidance in the literature regarding inclusion of postcolonialism within rehabilitation educational curricula. Therefore, this study explored perspectives regarding educational content related to postcolonialism and indigenous health that rehabilitation students in Canada should learn to increase health equity. This qualitative study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 19 individuals with insight into postcolonialism and health in Canada. Data were analyzed collaboratively to identify, code, and translate themes according to a structured six-phase method. Four themes emerged regarding educational content for rehabilitation students: (1) the historic trauma of colonization and its ongoing impacts on rehabilitation for indigenous peoples; (2) disproportionate health burden and inequitable access to health services; (3) how rehabilitation is related to Indigenous ways of knowing; and (4) why rehabilitation is well-positioned to address health inequities with Indigenous Peoples. Results call for reflection on assumptions underpinning the rehabilitation professions that may unintentionally reinforce health inequities. A postcolonial lens can help rehabilitation educators promote culturally safe services for people whose ill health and disability are linked to the effects of colonization. Implications for Rehabilitation Given the powerful, ongoing effects of colonization and racialization on health and disability, recommendation #24 from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada calls for the education of health professionals related to Indigenous history, rights, and anti-racism. However, there is little curricula on these areas in the education of rehabilitation professional students or in continuing education programs for practicing clinicians. This is the

  17. Some Nonlinear Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales, which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions. The inequalities given here unify and extend some inequalities in (B G Pachpatte, On some new inequalities related to a certain inequality arising in the theory of differential ...

  18. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Results Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. Conclusions This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth. PMID:23915121

  19. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucia; Moen, Bente E; Benavides, Fernando G

    2013-08-05

    Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth.

  20. Migration-related health inequalities: showing the complex interactions between gender, social class and place of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we briefly review theories and findings on migration and health from the health equity perspective, and then analyse migration-related health inequalities taking into account gender, social class and migration characteristics in the adult population aged 25-64 living in Catalonia, Spain. On the basis of the characterisation of migration types derived from the review, we distinguished between immigrants from other regions of Spain and those from other countries, and within each group, those from richer or poorer areas; foreign immigrants from low-income countries were also distinguished according to duration of residence. Further stratification by sex and social class was applied. Groups were compared in relation to self-assessed health in two cross-sectional population-based surveys, and in relation to indicators of socio-economic conditions (individual income, an index of material and financial assets, and an index of employment precariousness) in one survey. Social class and gender inequalities were evident in both health and socio-economic conditions, and within both the native and immigrant subgroups. Migration-related health inequalities affected both internal and international immigrants, but were mainly limited to those from poor areas, were generally consistent with their socio-economic deprivation, and apparently more pronounced in manual social classes and especially for women. Foreign immigrants from poor countries had the poorest socio-economic situation but relatively better health (especially men with shorter length of residence). Our findings on immigrants from Spain highlight the transitory nature of the 'healthy immigrant effect', and that action on inequality in socio-economic determinants affecting migrant groups should not be deferred. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social class and policy preferences: implications for economic inequality and interclass relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2017-12-01

    Record-setting levels of income and wealth inequality are deepening social class divisions. The adoption of strong progressive redistributive policies is crucial to reducing class inequities, yet many barriers to doing so exist. This review examines class-based policy preferences, focusing on the effects of economic self-interest, system justification, and classist, racist, and sexist stereotypes on policy support. The impact of broader economic conditions is also considered. Collectively, this body of research makes clear that building stronger cross-class support for redistributive policies and programs will prove difficult without addressing both class-based power differences and beliefs that justify inequality. Reducing stereotypes and developing a shared sense of societal responsibility that cuts across class lines can help advance these goals. Social psychological research is vital to informing these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinan; Shi, Lizheng; Meng, Qingyue; Khan, M Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data ...

  3. Gender, professional and non-professional work, and the changing pattern of employment-related inequality in poor self-rated health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Ho; Khang, Young Ho; Cho, Sung Il; Chun, Heeran; Muntaner, Carles

    2011-01-01

    We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.

  4. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  5. An equivalence theorem for integral conditions related to Hardyďs inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kufner, Alois; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Persson, L. E.; Wedestig, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2004), s. 867-880 ISSN 0147-1937 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/0333; GA AV ČR IAA1019305; GA ČR GA201/03/0671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : inequalities * weighted spaces * Hardy operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge gap: a case of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu; Kimm, HeeJin; Song, In Han

    2015-05-01

    Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities are major obstacles to achieving health equity. The authors investigated whether there is any association between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge within caste and ethnic populations. They used the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally represented cross-sectional study data set. The study sample consisted of 11,273 women between 15 and 49 years of age. Univariate and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge. The study sample was divided into high Hindu caste (47.9 percent), "untouchable" caste (18.4 percent), and indigenous populations (33.7 percent). Within the study sample, the high-caste population was found to have the greatest knowledge of the means by which HIV is prevented and transmitted. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, untouchables were the least knowledgeable. The odds ratio for incomplete knowledge about transmission among indigenous populations was 1.27 times higher than that for high Hindu castes, but there was no significant difference in knowledge of preventive measures. The findings suggest the existence of a prevailing HIV knowledge gap. This in turn suggests that appropriate steps need to be implemented to convey complete knowledge to underprivileged populations.

  7. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  8. Income-related and educational inequality in small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland 1987-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs).......In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs)....

  9. Regional Deprivation Index and Socioeconomic Inequalities Related to Infant Deaths in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Ju; Son, Mia

    2016-04-01

    Deprivation indices have been widely used to evaluate neighborhood socioeconomic status and therefore examine individuals within their regional context. Although some studies on the development of deprivation indices were conducted in Korea, additional research is needed to construct a more valid and reliable deprivation index. Therefore, a new deprivation index, named the K index, was constructed using principal component analysis. This index was compared with the Carstairs, Townsend and Choi indices. A possible association between infant death and deprivation was explored using the K index. The K index had a higher correlation with the infant mortality rate than did the other three indices. The regional deprivation quintiles were unequally distributed throughout the country. Despite the overall trend of gradually decreasing infant mortality rates, inequalities in infant deaths according to the deprivation quintiles persisted and widened. Despite its significance, the regional deprivation variable had a smaller effect on infant deaths than did individual variables. The K index functions as a deprivation index, and we may use this index to estimate the regional socioeconomic status in Korea. We found that inequalities in infant deaths according to the time trend persisted. To reduce the health inequalities among infants in Korea, regional deprivation should be considered.

  10. Inequality and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Gavrilović Biljana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Inequality can be analyzed from various aspects. In this paper our attention is drawn to economic inequality, most frequently manifested through income and wealth. The measurement of economic inequality is a complex task. The Lorenz curve and a number of numerical indices are applied, and let us mention the following ones: the Gini coefficient, the coefficient of variation, the Theil index and the Atkinson measure. These indices do satisfy the criteria (principles presenting, according to general consent an appropriate measure of economic inequality: anonymity (symmetry principle, population principle, relative income principle and the Dalton principle of transfer. In recent times, the problem of inequality has been attracting a lot of attention. The explanation should be sought in the widening of income differences (within individual countries and between them and also in new knowledge about the relationship between inequality and development. The attitude to inequality being determined mainly by the economic development level (as presented in the Kuznets hypothesis is gradually being replaced by the attitude to inequality being the determinant of income and its growth. Contrary to previous beliefs about the stronger income inequalities being favorable to the economic growth, more recent research has pointed to the fact that a more equal distribution of income through various channels, can possibly act as an efficient stimulus of growth.

  11. Changes in mortality inequalities across occupations in Japan: a national register based study of absolute and relative measures, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Tamiya, Nanako; Takahashi, Hideto; Noguchi, Haruko; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2017-09-05

    Changes in mortality inequalities across socioeconomic groups have been a substantial public health concern worldwide. We investigated changes in absolute/relative mortality inequalities across occupations, and the contribution of different diseases to inequalities in tandem with the restructuring of the Japanese economy. Using complete Japanese national death registries from 5 year intervals (1980-2010), all cause and cause specific age standardised mortality rates (ASMR per 100 000 people standardised using the Japanese standard population in 1985, aged 30-59 years) across 12 occupations were computed. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured in ASMR differences (RDs) and ASMR ratios (RRs) among occupations in comparison with manufacturing workers (reference). We also estimated the changing contribution of different diseases by calculating the differences in ASMR change between 1995 and 2010 for occupations and reference. All cause ASMRs tended to decrease in both sexes over the three decades except for male managers (increased by 71% points, 1995-2010). RDs across occupations were reduced for both sexes (civil servants 233.5 to -1.9 for men; sales workers 63.3 to 4.5 for women) but RRs increased for some occupations (professional workers 1.38 to 1.70; service workers 2.35 to 3.73) for men and decreased for women from 1980 to 2010. Male relative inequalities widened among farmer, fishery and service workers, because the percentage declines were smaller in these occupations. Cerebrovascular disease and cancer were the main causes of the decrease in mortality inequalities among sexes but the incidence of suicide increased among men, thereby increasing sex related inequalities. Absolute inequality trends in mortality across occupations decreased in both sexes, while relative inequality trends were heterogeneous in Japan. The main drivers of narrowing and widening mortality inequalities were cerebrovascular disease and suicide, respectively. Future

  12. Mind the Gap: What explains the education-related inequality in missed opportunities for vaccination in sub-Saharan Africa? Compositional and structural characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambala, Evanson Z; Uthman, Olalekan A; Adamu, Abdu; Ndwandwe, Duduzile; Wiyeh, Alison B; Olukade, Tawa; Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2018-04-09

    Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) is an important barrier hindering full immunisation coverage among eligible children. Though factors responsible for MOV are well documented in literature, little attention has been paid to the role of inequalities. The aim of this study is to examine the association between structural or compositional factors and education inequalities in MOV. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in missed opportunities for vaccination between uneducated and educated mothers in sub-Saharan Africa using DHS survey data from 35 sub Saharan African countries collected between 2007 and 2016. The sample contained 69,657 children aged 12 to 23 months. We observed a wide variation and inter-country differences in the prevalence of missed opportunity for vaccination across populations and geographical locations. Our results show that the prevalence of MOV in Zimbabwe among uneducated and educated mothers was 9% and 21% respectively while in Gabon corresponding numbers were 85% and 89% respectively. In 15 countries, MOV was significantly prevalent among children born to uneducated mothers (pro-illiterate inequality) while in 5 countries MOV was significantly prevalent among educated mothers (pro-educated inequality). Our results suggest that education-related inequalities in missed opportunities for vaccination are explained by compositional and structural characteristics; and that neighbourhood socio-economic status was the most important contributor to education-related inequalities across countries followed by either the presence of under-five children, media access or household wealth index. The results showed that differential effects such as neighbourhood socio-economic status, presence of under-five children, media access and household wealth index, primarily explained education-related inequality in MOV. Interventions to reduce gaps in education-related inequality in MOV

  13. Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.

    2005-01-01

    We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame

  14. Rape and its relation to social disorganization, pornography and inequality in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, L; Straus, M A

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical model seeks to integrate social disorganization and feminist theories of rape, reporting an empirical test of that model using data on rapes per 100,000 population known to the police in the 50 states of the United States. The model includes the following aspects of the social organization of the states: social disorganization (measured by a six item index), sexual inequality (measured by a status of women index to men), pornography (measured by a sex magazine circulation index for eight sexually explicit magazines) and the level of culturally legitimate violence (measured by a 12 item legitimate violence index using indicators like corporal punishment in schools. There were marked differences between states of the USA in the incidence of rape during the 1980-82. Path analysis was used to test the theoretical model, which posits rape as a function of the direct and indirect effects of social disorganization, sexual inequality, pornography, legitimate violence and seven control variables. The results show that all four variables play an important part in explaining differences between states in rape; and that together, the variables in the model explain 83 per cent of the state-to-state variation in rape. Women are in much greater danger of being raped in some American states than in others. Since the FBI began compiling statistics on rape, states like Alaska, Nevada, and California have consistently registered many more rapes per capita than North Dakota, Maine, and Iowa. What factors account for such differences between states? Could the variation in the rape rate be explained by four aspects of the social structure of states: (1) the proliferation of pornography (2) sexual inequality (3) culturally legitimate violence and (4) social disorganization. Each factor represents a theory which will be examined within the context of an integrated theory on rape.

  15. Soffer's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.R.; Jaffe, R.L.; Ji, X.

    1995-01-01

    Various issues surrounding a recently proposed inequality among twist-two quark distributions in the nucleon are discussed. We provide a rigorous derivation of the inequality in QCD, including radiative corrections and scale dependence. We also give a more heuristic, but more physical derivation, from which we show that a similar inequality does not exist among twist-three quark distributions. We demonstrate that the inequality does not constrain the nucleon's tensor charge. Finally we explore physical mechanisms for saturating the inequality, arguing it is unlikely to occur in nature

  16. Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed comparison of Bell's inequalities (B.I.) and quantum mechanics (Q.M.) in an E.P.R.B. situation is given. It is first shown that Q.M. violates the original (3 directions) or generalized (4 directions) B.I. almost everywhere. The properties of functions satisfying the original B.I. are then derived and compared to Q.M. predictions. Finally, the behaviour of functions which satisfy B.I. and attempt to fit Q.M. is described. Altogether, an incompatibility is shown to be stronger than that resulting from just the usual examination

  17. Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-02-10

    A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with "the latent effect life course model", it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions. Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up. Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss. The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital

  18. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data of 2006 and 2009 were used to create the concentration curve and the concentration index. GEE logistic regression was used to model the health insurance coverage as dependent variable and household income per capita as independent variable, controlling for individuals' age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, year 2009 (Y2009, household size, retirement status, and geographic variations. The change in the income-related inequality in 2009 was estimated using the interaction term of income*Y2009. Results In 2006, 49.7% (4,712/9,476 respondents had health insurance: 13.4% with BHIS and 28.4% with NCMS. In 2009, 90.8% (8,964/9,863 had health insurance: 10.1% with URBMI, 18.3% with BHIS, and 57.6% with NCMS. The BHIS, URBMI, and NCMS programs had different patterns of population coverage over 10 income deciles. The concentration index was 0.15 in 2006 and 0.04 in 2009. The dominance test showed that the concentration curves were significantly different between 2006 and 2009 (p  Discussions Comparing 2009 to 2006, the income inequality in health insurance coverage was largely corrected in China through rapid expansion of CHNS in rural areas and initiation of URBMI in urban areas.

  19. Income related inequality and influencing factors: a study for the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hai; Kou, Yun; Yan, Zhiwen; Ding, Yilei; Shieh, Jusheng; Sun, Jun; Cui, Nan; Wang, Qianjing; You, Hua

    2017-09-20

    Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) puts a heavy disease burden on patients' families, aggravating income-related inequality. In an attempt to reduce the financial risks of rural families incurring CHE, China began the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) on a trial basis in 2003 and has raised the reimbursement rates continuously since then. Based on statistical data about rural families in sample area of Jiangsu province, this study measures the incidence of CHE, analyzes socioeconomic inequality related to CHE, and explores the influences of the NCMS on the incidence of CHE. Statistical data were acquired from two surveys about rural health care, one conducted in 2009 and one conducted in 2010. In 2009, 1424 rural families were analyzed; in 2010, 1796 rural families were analyzed. An index of CHE is created to enable the evaluation of the associated financial risks. The concentration index and concentration curve are used to measure the income-related inequality involved in CHE. Multiple logistic regression is utilized to explore the factors that influence the incidence of CHE. The incidence of CHE decreased from 13.62% in 2009 to 7.74% in 2010. The concentration index of CHE was changed from -0.298 (2009) to -0.323 (2010). Compared with rural families in which all members were covered by the NCMS, rural families in which some members were not covered by the NCMS had a lower incidence of CHE: The odds ratio is 0.65 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.43 to 1.00. For rural families in which all members were covered by the NCMS, the increase in reimbursement rates is correlated to the decline in the incidence of CHE if other influencing factors were controlled: The odds ratio is 0.48 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.36 to 0.64. Between 2009 and 2010, the incidence rate of CHE in the sampled area decreased sharply, CHE was more concentrated among least wealthy and inequality increased during study period. As of 2010, the poorest rural families still had

  20. Towards universal health coverage: the role of within-country wealth-related inequality in 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Victora, Cesar G; Bergen, Nicole; Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties

    2011-12-01

    To measure within-country wealth-related inequality in the health service coverage gap of maternal and child health indicators in sub-Saharan Africa and quantify its contribution to the national health service coverage gap. Coverage data for child and maternal health services in 28 sub-Saharan African countries were obtained from the 2000-2008 Demographic Health Survey. For each country, the national coverage gap was determined for an overall health service coverage index and select individual health service indicators. The data were then additively broken down into the coverage gap in the wealthiest quintile (i.e. the proportion of the quintile lacking a required health service) and the population attributable risk (an absolute measure of within-country wealth-related inequality). In 26 countries, within-country wealth-related inequality accounted for more than one quarter of the national overall coverage gap. Reducing such inequality could lower this gap by 16% to 56%, depending on the country. Regarding select individual health service indicators, wealth-related inequality was more common in services such as skilled birth attendance and antenatal care, and less so in family planning, measles immunization, receipt of a third dose of vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and treatment of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age. The contribution of wealth-related inequality to the child and maternal health service coverage gap differs by country and type of health service, warranting case-specific interventions. Targeted policies are most appropriate where high within-country wealth-related inequality exists, and whole-population approaches, where the health-service coverage gap is high in all quintiles.

  1. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Carla; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Bots, Michiel L; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; van Rossem, Lenie; van Dis, Ineke; Capewell, Simon; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2012-08-07

    Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age-gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42-1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45-74 years and in women aged 65-84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute socioeconomic inequalities in AMI were highest in

  2. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopman Carla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.32 – 1.36 in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47 in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden

  3. The Ginibre inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    In the Ising-type models of statistical mechanics and the related quantum field theories, an inequality of Ginibre implies useful positivity and monotonicity properties: the Griffiths correlation inequalities. Essentially, the Ginibre inequality states that certain functions on the cycle group of a graph are positive definite. This has been proved for arbitrary graphs when the spin dimensions is 1 or 2 (classical Ising or plane rotator models). We give a counterexample to show that these spin dimensions are the only ones for which the Ginibre inequality is generally true: there are graphs for which it never holds when the spin dimension is at least 3. On the other hand, we show that for any graph the inequality holds for the apparent leading term in the large-spin-dimension limit. (The leading term vanishes in the graph of the counterexample.) Based on these results, one expects the Ginibre inequality to be true in most instances, with infrequent exceptions. A numerical survey supports this. The surprising failure of the Ginibre inequality in higher dimensions need not necessarily mean the Griffiths inequalities fail as well, but a different approach to them is required. (orig.)

  4. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women: an analysis of data from a national cross-sectional survey, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Design Cross-sectional survey. Settings South African primary public health facilities in 2012. Participants A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Outcome measures Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Results Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was −0.030 (95% confidence interval −0.038 to −0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (−44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Conclusions Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional

  5. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women: an analysis of data from a national cross-sectional survey, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-12

    Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Cross-sectional survey. South African primary public health facilities in 2012. A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was -0.030 (95% confidence interval -0.038 to -0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (-44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional-specific and age-specific bottlenecks. Future interventions need to be context

  6. Depression-related work disability: socioeconomic inequalities in onset, duration and recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Ervasti

    Full Text Available Depression is a major cause of disability in working populations and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in disability is an important public health challenge. We examined work disability due to depression with four indicators of socioeconomic status.A prospective cohort study of 125 355 Finnish public sector employees was linked to national register data on work disability (>9 days due to depressive disorders (International Classification of Diseases, codes F32-F34 from January 2005 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were the onset of work disability due to depressive disorders and, among those with such disability, return to work after and recurrent episodes of work disability due to depression.We found a consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient in work disability due to depression. Lower occupational position, lower educational level, smaller residence size, and rented (vs. owner-occupied residence were all associated with an increased risk of work disability. Return to work was slower for employees with basic education (cumulative odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39 compared to those with higher education. Recurrent work disability episodes due to depression were less common among upper-grade non-manual workers (the highest occupational group than among lower-grade non-manual (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25 and manual (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26 workers.These data from Finnish public sector employees show persistent socioeconomic inequalities in work disability due to depression from 2005 to 2011 in terms of onset, recovery and recurrence.

  7. Extensions of Heinz–Kato–Furuta inequality, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Ritsuo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In our preceding note, we discussed a generalized Schwarz inequality, an improvement of the Heinz–Kato–Furuta inequality and an inequality related to the Furuta inequality. In succession, we give further discussions on them from the viewpoint of the covariance–variance inequality and the chaotic order. Finally, we consider a relation between our improvement and Wielandt's theorem.

  8. [Do parental resources mediate between social inequality and health-related quality of life of children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold-Kerri, S; Sperlich, S

    2010-02-01

    self-efficacy (t-test, each with p=0.002). Maternal parenting resources were substantially correlated with quality of life (boys: r (Max)=0.28**; girls: r (Max)=0.24**). They had mediating effects on the relationship between social factors and quality of life of girls. This may be explained by a direct effect of socioeconomic conditions and by an indirect effect of maternal parenting resources. Our findings emphasise the importance of gender-specific analyses dealing with health inequality in childhood. Socialisation was found to be relevant for the transmission of health inequality between generations. The results emphasise the need for programmes directed towards promoting parental resources for deprived mothers. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  9. Household income, income inequality, and health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D in Shaanxi, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhijun; Shi, Fuyan; Zhang, Haiyue; Li, Ning; Xu, Yongyong; Liang, Ying

    2018-03-14

    In advanced economies, economic factors have been found to be associated with many health outcomes, including health-related quality of life (HRQL), and people's health is affected more by income inequality than by absolute income. However, few studies have examined the association of income inequality and absolute income with HRQL in transitional economies using individual data. This paper focuses on the effects of county or district income inequality and absolute income on the HRQL measured by EQ-5D and the differences between rural and urban regions in Shaanxi province, China. Data were collected from the 2008 National Health Service Survey conducted in Shaanxi, China. The EQ-5D index based on Japanese weights was employed as a health indicator. The income inequality was calculated on the basis of self-reported income. The special requirements for complex survey data analysis were considered in the bivariate analysis and linear regression models. The mean of the EQ-5D index was 94.6. The EQ-5D index of people with low income was lower than that in the high-income group (for people in the rural region: 93.2 v 96.1, P gender, education, marital status, employment, medical insurance, and chronic disease, all the coefficients of the low-income group and high income inequality were significantly negative. After stratifying by income group, all the effects of high income inequality remained negative in both income groups. However, the coefficients of the models in the high income group were not statistically significant. Income inequality has damaging effects on HRQL in Shaanxi, China, especially for people with low income. In addition, people living in rural regions were more vulnerable to economic factors.

  10. Welche Lohnungleichheiten sind gerecht? Arbeitsmarktbezogene Ursachen von Lohnungleichheiten und die wahrgenommene (Un-)Gerechtigkeit des eigenen Erwerbseinkommens [Which income inequalities are considered just? Labour market related causes of income inequalities, and employees' (in)justice perceptions of their earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, C.G.; Valet, P.; Liebig, S.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the reasons for inequalities of earnings in Germany and the extent to which these inequalities are considered to be legitimate. We focus on three major inequality-generating factors derived from labour market and inequality research: individual, firm-specific and structural

  11. Functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Ghoussoub, Nassif

    2013-01-01

    The book describes how functional inequalities are often manifestations of natural mathematical structures and physical phenomena, and how a few general principles validate large classes of analytic/geometric inequalities, old and new. This point of view leads to "systematic" approaches for proving the most basic inequalities, but also for improving them, and for devising new ones--sometimes at will and often on demand. These general principles also offer novel ways for estimating best constants and for deciding whether these are attained in appropriate function spaces. As such, improvements of Hardy and Hardy-Rellich type inequalities involving radially symmetric weights are variational manifestations of Sturm's theory on the oscillatory behavior of certain ordinary differential equations. On the other hand, most geometric inequalities, including those of Sobolev and Log-Sobolev type, are simply expressions of the convexity of certain free energy functionals along the geodesics on the Wasserstein manifold of...

  12. Social and economic inequalities in fatal opioid and cocaine related overdoses in Luxembourg: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origer, Alain; Le Bihan, Etienne; Baumann, Michèle

    2014-09-01

    To investigate social and economic inequalities in fatal overdose cases related to opioid and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence in a nested case-control study design. Overdose cases were individually matched with four controls, when available, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. 272 cases vs 1056 controls were analysed. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the respective impact of a series of socioeconomic variables. Being professionally active [OR=0.66 (95% CI 0.45-0.99)], reporting salary as main legal income source [OR=0.42 (95% CI 0.26-0.67)] and education attainment higher than primary school [OR=0.50 (95% CI 0.34-0.73)] revealed to be protective factors, whereas the professional status of the father or legal guardian of victims was not significantly associated to fatal overdoses. Socioeconomic inequalities in drug users impact on the occurrence of fatal overdoses. Compared to their peers, users of illicit drugs with lower socioeconomic profiles show increased odds of dying from overdose. However, actual and self-referred socioeconomic characteristics of drug users, such as educational attainment and employment, may have a greater predictive value of overdose mortality than the parental socioeconomic status. Education, vocational training and socio-professional reintegration should be part of drug-related mortality prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinan; Shi, Lizheng; Meng, Qingyue; Khan, M Mahmud

    2012-08-14

    China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data of 2006 and 2009 were used to create the concentration curve and the concentration index. GEE logistic regression was used to model the health insurance coverage as dependent variable and household income per capita as independent variable, controlling for individuals' age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, year 2009 (Y2009), household size, retirement status, and geographic variations. The change in the income-related inequality in 2009 was estimated using the interaction term of income*Y2009. In 2006, 49.7% (4,712/9,476) respondents had health insurance: 13.4% with BHIS and 28.4% with NCMS. In 2009, 90.8% (8,964/9,863) had health insurance: 10.1% with URBMI, 18.3% with BHIS, and 57.6% with NCMS. The BHIS, URBMI, and NCMS programs had different patterns of population coverage over 10 income deciles. The concentration index was 0.15 in 2006 and 0.04 in 2009. The dominance test showed that the concentration curves were significantly different between 2006 and 2009 (p China through rapid expansion of CHNS in rural areas and initiation of URBMI in urban areas.

  14. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  15. Boole and Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.

  16. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  17. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  18. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  19. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...

  20. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  1. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernstsen Linda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  2. Poverty Mapping Project: Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality dataset consists of consumption-based poverty, inequality and related measures for subnational administrative...

  3. Handbook of functional equations functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    As Richard Bellman has so elegantly stated at the Second International Conference on General Inequalities (Oberwolfach, 1978), “There are three reasons for the study of inequalities: practical, theoretical, and aesthetic.” On the aesthetic aspects, he said, “As has been pointed out, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, it is generally agreed that certain pieces of music, art, or mathematics are beautiful. There is an elegance to inequalities that makes them very attractive.” The content of the Handbook focuses mainly on both old and recent developments on approximate homomorphisms, on a relation between the Hardy–Hilbert and the Gabriel inequality, generalized Hardy–Hilbert type inequalities on multiple weighted Orlicz spaces, half-discrete Hilbert-type inequalities, on affine mappings, on contractive operators, on multiplicative Ostrowski and trapezoid inequalities, Ostrowski type inequalities for the  Riemann–Stieltjes integral, means and related functional inequalities, Weighted G...

  4. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  5. Entropy-power uncertainty relations: towards a tight inequality for all Gaussian pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertz, Anaelle; Jabbour, Michael G; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2017-01-01

    We show that a proper expression of the uncertainty relation for a pair of canonically-conjugate continuous variables relies on entropy power, a standard notion in Shannon information theory for real-valued signals. The resulting entropy-power uncertainty relation is equivalent to the entropic formulation of the uncertainty relation due to Bialynicki-Birula and Mycielski, but can be further extended to rotated variables. Hence, based on a reasonable assumption, we give a partial proof of a tighter form of the entropy-power uncertainty relation taking correlations into account and provide extensive numerical evidence of its validity. Interestingly, it implies the generalized (rotation-invariant) Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation exactly as the original entropy-power uncertainty relation implies Heisenberg relation. It is saturated for all Gaussian pure states, in contrast with hitherto known entropic formulations of the uncertainty principle. (paper)

  6. Can policy ameliorate socioeconomic inequities in obesity and obesity-related behaviours? A systematic review of the impact of universal policies on adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  7. The Impact of Emotions and Empathy-Related Traits on Punishment Behavior: Introduction and Validation of the Inequality Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M Klimecki

    Full Text Available In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports, arousal (by means of skin conductance responses, physical effort (force exertion, and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic

  8. The Impact of Emotions and Empathy-Related Traits on Punishment Behavior: Introduction and Validation of the Inequality Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimecki, Olga M.; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David

    2016-01-01

    In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG) as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an “unfair other” as opposed to a “fair other” and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports), arousal (by means of skin conductance responses), physical effort (force exertion), and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling) and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic traits can

  9. The Relationship between Gender Inequality Index and Indicators Related to Children in Countries with Different Income Levels: An Ecologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Increase in gender inequality can enhance the mortality of infants and children less than five years; it also can decrease the percentage of vaccination coverage in children. However, gender inequality happens more in countries with less income. Therefore, to reduce child mortality, not only health interventions, but also socio-cultural and economic activities are required. Hence, Cross-sectoral policies should be developed and implemented.

  10. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  11. Social inequalities in children's oral health-related quality of life: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragt, L.; Wolvius, E.B.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is the most important patient-reported outcome measure in oral health research. The purpose of the present research was to study the association of family socioeconomic position (SEP) with children's OHRQoL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study

  12. The Relation Between the Health Workforce distribution and Maternal and Child Health Inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Sousa (Angelica)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWeak health systems with a shortage of qualified staff, and lack of equipment and medicines impede the delivery of quality health care that is required to prevent maternal and newborn deaths and the attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Using the cases

  13. Socioeconomic related inequality in depression among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-08-15

    Difficult living conditions in urban areas could result in an increased risk of developing depression, particularly among women. One of the strong predictors of depression is poverty, which could lead to inequality in risk of depression. However, previous studies found conflicting results between poverty and depression. This study examines whether depression was unequally distributed among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities and investigate the factors contributed to the inequality. Data from 1117 young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were analysed. Concentration Index (CI) was calculated to measure the degree of the inequality. The CI was decomposed to investigate the factor contributing most to the inequality. The prevalence of depression was 15% and more concentrated among lower economic group (CI=-0.0545). Compared to the middle-adult group, the prevalence of depression among women in the young-adult group was significantly higher (18% vs 11%, pinequality in both group. Other factors contributing to inequality were smoking in young-adult group and marital status in middle-adult group. Contribution of education to inequality varied for different age groups. Depression is more concentrated among the lower economic groups, with household expenditure being the major factor contributing to the inequality. This finding emphasises the importance of primary care level mental health services, particularly in poorer urban communities. This study is based on a cross-sectional data, and only assesses social determinants of depression. These determinants are important to address in addition to biological determinants and other factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reinterpreting between-group inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, C.T.M.; Lanjouw, P.F.; Mistiaen, J.; Özler, B

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate observed inequality between population groups against a benchmark of the maximum between-group inequality attainable given the number and relative sizes of those groups under examination. Because our measure is normalized by these parameters, drawing comparisons across different settings

  15. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  16. Social inequalities and gender differences in the experience of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals' education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event.

  17. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Hildur Margrét, Jóhannsdóttir

    2017-01-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to an...

  18. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms......, and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between...

  19. THE RELATION BETWEEN MILD LEG-LENGTH INEQUALITY AND ABLE-BODIED GAIT ASYMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Seeley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of able-bodied gait asymmetries are unclear. Mild ( 1 cm; n = 7. Statistically significant relationships were observed between LLI and the symmetry coefficient for knee joint moment (r = -0.48 and power (r = -0.51, and ankle joint moment (r = -0.41 and power (r = -0.42. Similarly, subjects with relatively large LLI exhibited significantly lower symmetry coefficients for knee joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.35, and ankle joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.22 than subjects with relatively small LLI. Degree of bilateral symmetry for knee and ankle joint kinetics appears to be related to LLI in able- bodied gait. This finding supports the idea that LLI is one cause of able-bodied gait asymmetries. Other factors, however, are also likely to contribute to these gait asymmetries; these may include other morphological asymmetries as well as asymmetrical neuromuscular input to the lower limb muscles

  20. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  1. Health inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Social investment policy has become a central response to the demographic and economic challenges facing European welfare states. This focus on investment in human capabilities and their efficient use is, however, challenged by health inequalities where education, health and employment...... are increasingly linked. This paper outlines the main principles of social investment policies (learning, activation and protection) and links them to a conceptual model of health inequalities and the policy entry-points tackling them by addressing the processes of social stratification, differential exposure...... investments in health so as to enable social investments to tackle the health divide....

  2. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.

  3. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294

  4. The Fisher-information-based uncertainty relation, Cramer-Rao inequality and kinetic energy for the D-dimensional central problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Gonzalez-Ferez, R [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)

    2007-02-23

    The inequality >= (l+1/2){sup 2}, with L being the grand orbital quantum number, and its conjugate relation for ((r{sup 2}) (p{sup -2})) are shown to be fulfilled in the D-dimensional central problem. Their use has allowed us to improve the Fisher-information-based uncertainty relation (I{sub {rho}}I{sub {gamma}}{>=} const) and the Cramer-Rao inequalities ((r{sup 2})I{sub {rho}} {>=} D{sup 2}; (p{sup 2})I{sub {gamma}} {>=} D{sup 2}). In addition, the kinetic energy and the radial expectation value (r{sup 2}) are shown to be bounded from below by the Fisher information in position and momentum spaces, denoted by I{sub {rho}} and I{sub {gamma}}, respectively.

  5. Competitive Pressure on China : Income Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Pan, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the preceding paper we have seen that the top types of labor are relatively scarce in China and this raises the issue of income inequality under competition.Our main finding is that inequality would multiply indeed. Subsidiary, the nature of inequality would shift from the rural-urban divide to

  6. Environmental Health Related Socio-Spatial Inequalities: Identifying “Hotspots” of Environmental Burdens and Social Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rehana; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Differential exposure to multiple environmental burdens and benefits and their distribution across a population with varying vulnerability can contribute heavily to health inequalities. Particularly relevant are areas with high cumulative burdens and high social vulnerability termed as “hotspots”. This paper develops an index-based approach to assess these multiple burdens and benefits in combination with vulnerability factors at detailed intra-urban level. The method is applied to the city of Dortmund, Germany. Using non-spatial and spatial methods we assessed inequalities and identified “hotspot” areas in the city. We found modest inequalities burdening higher vulnerable groups in Dortmund (CI = −0.020 at p vulnerability, is essential to inform environmental justice debates and to mobilize local stakeholders. Locating “hotspot” areas at this detailed spatial level can serve as a basis to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups to ensure a health conducive equal environment. PMID:27409625

  7. Bell inequalities for the simplest exclusivity graph

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Muhamad; Badziag, Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

    2011-01-01

    Which is the simplest logical structure for which there is quantum nonlocality? We show that there are only three bipartite Bell inequalities with quantum violation associated with the simplest graph of relationships of exclusivity with a quantum-classical gap. These are the most elementary logical Bell inequalities. We show that the quantum violation of some well-known Bell inequalities is related to them. We test the three Bell inequalities with pairs of polarization-entangled photons and r...

  8. Competitive Pressure on China: Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Raa, T.; Pan, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the preceding paper we have seen that the top types of labor are relatively scarce in China and this raises the issue of income inequality under competition.Our main finding is that inequality would multiply indeed. Subsidiary, the nature of inequality would shift from the rural-urban divide to differences between social classes.The existing negative relationship between development and inequality would be dissolved by competition.

  9. On some fractional order hardy inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kufner Alois

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Weighted inequalities for fractional derivatives ( fractional order Hardy-type inequalities have recently been proved in [4] and [1]. In this paper, new inequalities of this type are proved and applied. In particular, the general mixed norm case and a general twodimensional weight are considered. Moreover, an Orlicz norm version and a multidimensional fractional order Hardy inequality are proved. The connections to related results are pointed out.

  10. Inequities in energy-balance related behaviours and family environmental determinants in European children: baseline results of the prospective EPHE evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Radulian, Gabriella; Borys, Jean-Michel; Du Plessis, Hugues; Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; De Henauw, Stefaan; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Visscher, Tommy Ls; Seidell, Jacob C

    2015-12-02

    Tackling inequalities in overweight, obesity and related determinants has become a top priority for the European research and policy agendas. Although it has been established that such inequalities accumulate from early childhood onward, they have not been studied extensively in children. The current article discusses the results of an explorative analysis for the identification of inequalities in behaviours and their determinants between groups with high and low socio-economic status. This study is part of the Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity (EPHE) evaluation study, the overall aim of which is to assess the impact and sustainability of EPODE methodology to diminish inequalities in childhood obesity and overweight. Seven community-based programmes from different European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands) participate in the EPHE study. In each of the communities, children aged 6-8 years participated, resulting in a total sample of 1266 children and their families. A parental self-administrated questionnaire was disseminated in order to assess the socio-economic status of the household, selected energy balance-related behaviours (1. fruit and vegetable consumption; 2. soft drink/ fruit juices and water consumption; 3. screen time and 4. sleep duration) of the children and associated family environmental determinants. The Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to test differences between the low and high education groups. The country-specific median was chosen as the cut-off point to determine the educational level, given the different average educational level in every country. Children with mothers of relatively high educational level consumed fruits and vegetables more frequently than their peers of low socio-economic status. The latter group of children had a higher intake of fruit juices and/or soft drinks and had higher screen time. Parental rules and home availability were

  11. Global Trends in Adolescent Fertility, 1990-2012, in Relation to National Wealth, Income Inequalities, and Educational Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Garbers, Samantha; Sharma, Vinit; Viner, Russell M

    2017-02-01

    National wealth, income inequalities, and expenditures on education can profoundly influence the health of a nation's women, children, and adolescents. We explored the association of trends in national socioeconomic status (SES) indicators with trends in adolescent birth rates (ABRs), by nation and region. An ecologic research design was employed using national-level data from the World Bank on birth rates per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, national wealth (per capita gross domestic product or GDP), income inequality (Gini index), and expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (EduExp). Data were available for 142 countries and seven regions for 1990-2012. Multiple linear regression for repeated measures with generalized estimating equations was used to examine independent associations. ABRs in 2012 varied >200-fold-with the highest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and lowest rates in the Western Europe/Central Asia region. The median national ABR fell 40% from 72.4/1,000 in 1990 to 43.6/1,000 in 2012. The largest regional declines in ABR occurred in South Asia (70%), Europe/Central Asia (63%), and the Middle East/North Africa (53%)-regions with lower income inequality. In multivariable analyses considering change over time, ABRs were negatively associated with GDP and EduExp and positively associated with greater income inequality. ABRs have declined globally since 1990. Declines closely followed rising socioeconomic status and were greater where income inequalities were lower in 1990. Reducing poverty and income inequalities and increasing investments in education should be essential components of national policies to prevent adolescent childbearing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...... consistent results. They analyze data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC); health was measured by limiting longstanding illness (LLSI). Results show that for both men and women reporting LLSI in combination with low educational level, the probabilities of non......-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude...

  13. Industrialization and inequality revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work combines economic and demographic data to examine inequality of living standards in Stockholm at the turn of the twentieth century. Using a longitudinal population register with occupational information, we utilize event-history models to show that despite absolute decreases in mortality......, relative differences between socioeconomic groups remained virtually constant. The results also show that child mortality continued to be sensitive to short-term fluctuations in wages and that there were no socioeconomic differences in this response. We argue that the persistent inequality in living...

  14. Ordinal bivariate inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlationincreasing switches and/or median......-preserving spreads. For the canonical 2x2 case (with two binary indicators), we derive a simple operational procedure for checking ordinal inequality relations in practice. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood deprivation in Mozambique....

  15. Ordinal Bivariate Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlation-increasing switches and....../or median-preserving spreads. For the canonical 2 × 2 case (with two binary indicators), we derive a simple operational procedure for checking ordinal inequality relations in practice. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood deprivation in Mozambique....

  16. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  17. The analysis and geometry of Hardy's inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Balinsky, Alexander A; Lewis, Roger T

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents advances that have been made over recent decades in areas of research featuring Hardy's inequality and related topics. The inequality and its extensions and refinements are not only of intrinsic interest but are indispensable tools in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Hardy inequalities on domains have a substantial role and this necessitates a detailed investigation of significant geometric properties of a domain and its boundary. Other topics covered in this volume are Hardy- Sobolev-Maz’ya inequalities; inequalities of Hardy-type involving magnetic fields; Hardy, Sobolev and Cwikel-Lieb-Rosenbljum inequalities for Pauli operators; the Rellich inequality.   The Analysis and Geometry of Hardy’s Inequality provides an up-to-date account of research in areas of contemporary interest and would be suitable for a graduate course in mathematics or physics. A good basic knowledge of real and complex analysis is a prerequisite.

  18. Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E; West, Brooke S; Pouget, Enrique R; Williams, Leslie D; Des Jarlais, Don C; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or cocaine predicted HIV prevalence and mortality but did not predict changes in PWID population prevalence. Income inequality and measures of structural racism were associated with hard drug arrests or other properties of policing. These findings, whose limitations and implications for further research are discussed, suggest that efforts to respond to HIV and to drug injection should include supra-individual efforts to reduce both income inequality and racism. At a time when major social movements in many countries are trying to reduce inequality, racism and oppression (including reforming drug laws), these macro-social issues in public health should be both addressable and a priority in both research and action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); K. Giskes (Katrina); J. Brug (Hans); A.E. Kunst (Anton); A. Burdorf (Alex); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region.Methods: Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed,

  20. Gender & Racial Inequality at Work: The Sources & Consequences of Job Segregation. Cornell Studies in Industrial and Labor Relations Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    This book proposes that job-level segregation by sex and race is a fundamentally important source of black-white and male-female inequalities in employment. Drawing on the North Carolina Employment and Health Survey, the first general population survey that measures the gender and racial compositions of jobs, the book explores this thesis in the…

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, Marielle A.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Giskes, Katrina; Brug, Johannes; Kunst, Anton E.; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region. Methods: Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of

  2. Income-, education- and gender-related inequalities in out-of-pocket health-care payments for 65+ patients - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrieri Sandro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In all OECD countries, there is a trend to increasing patients' copayments in order to balance rising overall health-care costs. This systematic review focuses on inequalities concerning the amount of out-of-pocket payments (OOPP associated with income, education or gender in the Elderly aged 65+. Methods Based on an online search (PubMed, 29 studies providing information on OOPP of 65+ beneficiaries in relation to income, education and gender were reviewed. Results Low-income individuals pay the highest OOPP in relation to their earnings. Prescription drugs account for the biggest share. A lower educational level is associated with higher OOPP for prescription drugs and a higher probability of insufficient insurance protection. Generally, women face higher OOPP due to their lower income and lower labour participation rate, as well as less employer-sponsored health-care. Conclusions While most studies found educational and gender inequalities to be associated with income, there might also be effects induced solely by education; for example, an unhealthy lifestyle leading to higher payments for lower-educated people, or exclusively gender-induced effects, like sex-specific illnesses. Based on the considered studies, an explanation for inequalities in OOPP by these factors remains ambiguous.

  3. Income inequality widens the existing income-related disparity in depression risk in post-apartheid South Africa: Evidence from a nationally representative panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Lund, Crick

    2017-05-01

    Income inequality (II) and poverty are major challenges in South Africa (SA) yet little is known about their interaction on population mental health. We explored relationships between district II, household income (HHI) and depressive symptoms in national panel data. We used 3 waves (2008, 2010, 2012) of the SA National Income Dynamics Study (n=25936) in adjusted mixed effects logistic regression to assess if the relationship between HHI and depressive symptoms is dependent on level of II. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and District inequality ratios (P10P90) derived from HHI distributions in 53 districts. Lower HHI and increasing II were associated with depressive symptoms. The interaction term between HHI and II on depressive symptoms was significant (β=0.01, 95% CI: income-related disparities in depression risk in SA, with policy implications for understanding socioeconomic determinants of mental health and informing global efforts to reduce disparities in high poverty and inequality contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E.; West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Williams, Leslie D.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or co...

  5. The Impact of Emotions and Empathy-Related Traits on Punishment Behavior: Introduction and Validation of the Inequality Game

    OpenAIRE

    Klimecki, Olga M.; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David

    2016-01-01

    In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG) as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. T...

  6. Fast and scalable inequality joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2016-09-07

    Inequality joins, which is to join relations with inequality conditions, are used in various applications. Optimizing joins has been the subject of intensive research ranging from efficient join algorithms such as sort-merge join, to the use of efficient indices such as (Formula presented.)-tree, (Formula presented.)-tree and Bitmap. However, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are notably very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms based on sorted arrays and space-efficient bit-arrays. We further introduce a simple method to estimate the selectivity of inequality joins which is then used to optimize multiple predicate queries and multi-way joins. Moreover, we study an incremental inequality join algorithm to handle scenarios where data keeps changing. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, a distributed version on top of Spark SQL, and an existing data cleaning system, Nadeef. By comparing our algorithms against well-known optimization techniques for inequality joins, we show our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  7. Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelson, Gregory M.; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D.

    2007-01-01

    Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of sp...

  8. Educational inequality in cardiovascular disease depends on diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne V; Koch, Mette B; Davidsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality is present in the morbidity as well as the mortality of cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to quantify and compare the level of educational inequality across different cardiovascular diagnoses. DESIGN: Register based study. METHODS: Comparison of the extent...... index of inequality: -29 (-35.1; -21.9) to -1 (-4.8; -3.8)). CONCLUSION: The degree of educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases depends on the diagnosis, with the highest inequality in ischaemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Small differences were found...... of inequality across different cardiovascular diagnoses requires a measure of inequality which is comparable across subgroups with different educational distributions. The slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality were applied for measuring inequalities in incidence of six cardiovascular...

  9. Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepetyuk, V.; Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The rise in consumption inequality in response to the increase in income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality while the standard incomplete

  10. Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepetyuk, V.; Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The rise in within-group consumption inequality in response to the increase in within-group income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality

  11. Bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index and generalized impact factor: an improvement over existing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ash Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index, and generalized impact factor. We derive the bounds and inequalities relating these indexing parameters from their basic definitions and without assuming any continuous model to be followed by any of them. We verify the theorems using citation data for five Price Medalists. We observe that the lower bound for h-index given by Theorem 2, [formula: see text], g ≥ 1, comes out to be more accurate as compared to Schubert-Glanzel relation h is proportional to C(2/3)P(-1/3) for a proportionality constant of 1, where C is the number of citations and P is the number of papers referenced. Also, the values of h-index obtained using Theorem 2 outperform those obtained using Egghe-Liang-Rousseau power law model for the given citation data of Price Medalists. Further, we computed the values of upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3, g ≤ (h + e), where e denotes the value of e-index. We observe that the upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3 is reasonably tight for the given citation record of Price Medalists.

  12. Ideology and intergroup inequality : Emerging directions and trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, Aaron; Brandt, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose that two guiding frameworks characterize psychological research on the relation between ideology and inequality. The first, called the product approach, focuses on ideologies directly concerned with intergroup relations, in which beliefs about inequality can be considered a

  13. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  14. Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Mikkelson

    Full Text Available Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.

  15. Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D

    2007-05-16

    Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.

  16. Health inequity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frausing, Kristian Park; Smærup, Michael; Maibom, Kirsten

    living alone. Social and psychological needs were of primary concern whereas practical needs were of lesser concern. The second study showed older men living alone with no/short education to rate their health significantly worse on almost all items compared to men of higher education. The third study......Background: Being male, living alone and being of low socioeconomic status (SES) are all risk factors for health inequities, including a shorter lifespan. Not much is known, however, about older low-SES men living alone. This study maps their health. Methods: Three studies were conducted. First......, an electronic survey with municipal preventive home visitors nationwide inquiring into their perception of the health and needs of old men living alone. The second study compared older men's self-rated health according to their living arrangements and educational level using data from 29.791 older men from...

  17. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  18. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Beasley, R Palmer; Tran, Ly T H; Nguyen, Huong T H; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-10-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women's health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females' sexual or reproductive health. Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students' discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women's vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women's sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  19. Ethnic inequalities in health between Arabs and Jews in Israel: the relative contribution of individual-level factors and the living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Soskolne, Varda; Mindell, Jennifer S; Roth, Marilyn A; Manor, Orly

    2018-04-01

    Ethnic inequalities in health (EIH) are unjust public health problem that emerge across societies. In Israel, despite uniform healthcare coverage, marked EIH persist between Arabs and Jews. We draw on the ecosocial approach to examine the relative contributions of individual socioeconomic status (SES), psychosocial and health behavioral factors, and the living environment (neighborhood problems, social capital, and social participation) to explaining ethnic differences in self-rated health (SRH). Data were derived from two nationwide studies conducted in 2004-2005 of stratified samples of Arabs (N = 902) and Jews (N = 1087). Poor SRH was significantly higher among Arabs after adjustment for age and gender [odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.94 (1.57-2.40)]. This association was reversed following adjustment for all possible mediators: OR (95% CI) = 0.70(0.53-0.92). The relative contribution of SES and the living environment was sizable, each attenuating the EIH by 40%, psychosocial factors by 25%, and health behaviors by 16%. Arabs in Israel have poorer SRH than Jews. Polices to reduce this inequality should mainly focus on improving the SES and the living conditions of the Arabs, which might enhance health behaviors and well-being.

  20. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...

  1. H1N1, globalization and the epidemiology of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparke, Matthew; Anguelov, Dimitar

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in relation to wider work on globalization and the epidemiology of inequality. The media attention and economic resources diverted to the threats posed by H1N1 were significant inequalities themselves when contrasted with weaker responses to more lethal threats posed by other diseases associated with global inequality. However, the multiple inequalities revealed by H1N1 itself in 2009 still provide important insights into the future of global health in the context of market-led globalization. These lessons relate to at least four main forms of inequality: (1) inequalities in blame for the outbreak in the media; (2) inequalities in risk management; (3) inequalities in access to medicines; and (4) inequalities encoded in the actual emergence of new flu viruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  3. Limitation on Bell's inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e., all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory).

  4. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkin, Igor; Oz, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  5. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  6. Inequality, poverty and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, M S

    1976-12-01

    Dicussion explores the nature of the relationship between the distribution of income and the process of development on the basis of cross country data on income inequality. The results presented are based on a sample of 60 countries, including 40 developing countries, 14 developed countries, and 6 socialist countries. The approach adopted is essentially exploratory. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate cross country relationships between the income shares of different percentile groups and selected variables reflecting aspects of the development process which are likely to influence income inequality. The estimated equations are then used as a basis for broad generalizations about the relationship between income distribution and development. There was strong support for the proposition that relative inequaltiy increases substantially in the early stages of development, with a reversal of this tendency in the later stages. The propositions held whether the sample was restricted to developing countries or expanded to include developed and socialist countries. The process was most prolonged for the poorest group. There were a number of processes occurring "pari passu" with development which were correlated with income inequality and which can plausibly be interpreted as causal. These were intersectoral shifts in the structure of production, expansion in education attainment and skill level of the labor force; and reduction in the growth of population. The operation of these processes appeared to explain some of the improvement in income distribution observed in the later stages of development, but they did not serve to explain the marked deterioration observed in the earlier stages. The cross section results failed to support the stronger hypothesis that the deterioration in relative inequality reflected a prolonged absolute impoverishment of large sections of the population in the course of development. The cross country pattern showed average

  7. Bell inequalities stronger than the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for three-level isotropic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David

    2006-01-01

    We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination

  8. Healthcare investment and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ayona; Shin, Jong Kook; Subramanian, Chetan; Swaminathan, Shailender

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines how the relative shares of public and private health expenditures impact income inequality. We study a two period overlapping generation's growth model in which longevity is determined by both private and public health expenditure and human capital is the engine of growth. Increased investment in health, reduces mortality, raises return to education and affects income inequality. In such a framework we show that the cross-section earnings inequality is non-decreasing in the private share of health expenditure. We test this prediction empirically using a variable that proxies for the relative intensity of investments (private versus public) using vaccination data from the National Sample Survey Organization for 76 regions in India in the year 1986-87. We link this with region-specific expenditure inequality data for the period 1987-2012. Our empirical findings, though focused on a specific health investment (vaccines), suggest that an increase in the share of the privately provided health care results in higher inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Rebecca V.

    2009-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

  10. Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)

  11. An inequality relating gauge group coupling constants and the number of generations in a string inspired model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Bennett, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    Using a model with a regularized (e.g. latticized) Kaluza-Klein space-time at the fundamental scale with Yang-Mills fields in the compactified dimensions, we examine the β-function for a dimensionless expression for the coupling constants g in D-dimensions. In going from the Planck scale of D > 4 down in energy to the scale where D goes from D > 4 to D = 4, it is argued that couplings are weakened by a factor roughly equal to the number of fundamental string regions that can be accommadated in the volume of the compactification space. Subsequently this factor is claimed to be greater than the number of generations by using an argument reminiscent of that often encountered in string model T.O.E. in which various quark and lepton generations are said to correspond to various zero modes of a Weyl operator in the compactifying space. Finally, it is argued that the inequality, which can be shown to be more saturated the larger the gauge group, is already near saturation for the group factors of the SMG. This fact leads to several conclusions: 1. there is not room for many more than 3 generations; 2. G.U.T. can be accommadated only at scales very close to the fundamental scale; 3. No new blossoms are expected to be found in the desert; 4. the compactifying space should not be 'larger than necessary'; 5. at the fundamental scale, couplings are expected to be close to (but not suspiciousely close to) β crit. . (orig./HSI)

  12. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  13. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  14. Determinants of income inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Afandi, Akhsyim; Rantung, Vebryna Permatasari; Marashdeh, Hazem

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether changing economic structure, social conditions, and financialization are responsible for increased income inequality in Indonesia. By employing panel data of 32 provinces in Indonesia that spans from 2007 to 2013, it finds that structural change affects income inequality, increased share of finance reduces inequality, which is against the financialization hypothesis, and social conditions have expected effects on income inequality. While an increased share of both ...

  15. Incorporating concepts of inequality and inequity into health benefits analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchmann Jessica L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although environmental policy decisions are often based in part on both risk assessment information and environmental justice concerns, formalized approaches for addressing inequality or inequity when estimating the health benefits of pollution control have been lacking. Inequality indicators that fulfill basic axioms and agree with relevant definitions and concepts in health benefits analysis and environmental justice analysis can allow for quantitative examination of efficiency-equality tradeoffs in pollution control policies. Methods To develop appropriate inequality indicators for health benefits analysis, we provide relevant definitions from the fields of risk assessment and environmental justice and consider the implications. We evaluate axioms proposed in past studies of inequality indicators and develop additional axioms relevant to this context. We survey the literature on previous applications of inequality indicators and evaluate five candidate indicators in reference to our proposed axioms. We present an illustrative pollution control example to determine whether our selected indicators provide interpretable information. Results and Conclusions We conclude that an inequality indicator for health benefits analysis should not decrease when risk is transferred from a low-risk to high-risk person, and that it should decrease when risk is transferred from a high-risk to low-risk person (Pigou-Dalton transfer principle, and that it should be able to have total inequality divided into its constituent parts (subgroup decomposability. We additionally propose that an ideal indicator should avoid value judgments about the relative importance of transfers at different percentiles of the risk distribution, incorporate health risk with evidence about differential susceptibility, include baseline distributions of risk, use appropriate geographic resolution and scope, and consider multiple competing policy alternatives. Given

  16. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  18. Income inequality revisited 60 years later: Piketty vs Kuznets

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Lyubimov

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares two popular views on the evolution of income inequality. The article by Simon Kuznets, which was published in American Economic Review in 1955, considers inequality as a byproduct of economic growth and suggests that a relatively rich economy should also be less unequal. In contrast, Thomas Piketty indicates that inequality is progressing, and an internationally coordinated policy is required to bring inequality under control. My paper applies the arguments of Kuznets and ...

  19. ARE PEOPLE INEQUALITY AVERSE OR JUST RISK AVERSE?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Daruvala, Dinky; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2001-01-01

    Individuals’ preferences for risk and inequality are measured through experimental choices between hypothetical societies and lotteries. The median relative risk aversion, which is often seen to reflect social inequality aversion, is between 2 and 3. We also estimate the individual inequality aversion, reflecting individuals’ willingness to pay for living in a more equal society. Left-wing voters and women are both more risk- and inequality averse than others. The model allows for non-monoton...

  20. Assessing Demographic Changes and Income Inequalities: A Case Study of West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Hailu, Yohannes G.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.; Jackson, Randall W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates demographic change and income inequalities, and relationship between economic growth and income inequality in West Virginia. Income growth was positively related with population and employment growth, but is significantly and negatively related with income inequality. This indicates that higher income inequality is associated with slower economic growth.

  1. Young adults' experiences of neighbourhood smoking-related norms and practices: A qualitative study exploring place-based social inequalities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Lapalme, Josée; McCready, Geneviève; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    In this qualitative exploratory study we asked how smoking among young adults relates to the local neighbourhood context to better understand place-based social inequalities in smoking. We used data collected through focus groups with young adults from four economically diverse neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada. Using the collective lifestyles framework to guide data analysis, we examined within and between neighbourhood social norms, practices, and agency. We found that some smoking-related social norms, practices and agency were particular to neighbourhoods of the same socio-economic status (SES). For example, permissive smoking-related social norms in low-SES neighbourhoods made it difficult to avoid smoking but also reduced local experiences of smoking-related stigma and isolation. In high-SES neighbourhoods, strong anti-smoking norms led to smoking in secret and/or amidst 'acceptable' social settings. Findings may inform future investigations and local-level interventions focused on this age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of increasing income inequalities on educational inequalities in mortality - An analysis of six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rasmus; Hu, Yannan; de Gelder, Rianne; Menvielle, Gwenn; Bopp, Matthias; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-07-08

    Over the past decades, both health inequalities and income inequalities have been increasing in many European countries, but it is unknown whether and how these trends are related. We test the hypothesis that trends in health inequalities and trends in income inequalities are related, i.e. that countries with a stronger increase in income inequalities have also experienced a stronger increase in health inequalities. We collected trend data on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, as well as on the household income of people aged 35-79, for Belgium, Denmark, England & Wales, France, Slovenia, and Switzerland. We calculated absolute and relative differences in mortality and income between low- and high-educated people for several time points in the 1990s and 2000s. We used fixed-effects panel regression models to see if changes in income inequality predicted changes in mortality inequality. The general trend in income inequality between high- and low-educated people in the six countries is increasing, while the mortality differences between educational groups show diverse trends, with absolute differences mostly decreasing and relative differences increasing in some countries but not in others. We found no association between trends in income inequalities and trends in inequalities in all-cause mortality, and trends in mortality inequalities did not improve when adjusted for rising income inequalities. This result held for absolute as well as for relative inequalities. A cause-specific analysis revealed some association between income inequality and mortality inequality for deaths from external causes, and to some extent also from cardiovascular diseases, but without statistical significance. We find no support for the hypothesis that increasing income inequality explains increasing health inequalities. Possible explanations are that other factors are more important mediators of the effect of education on health, or more simply that income is not an important

  3. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Scholars studying economic inequality in China have maintained that regional inequality and economic divergence across provinces have steadily increased over the past 30 years. New studies have shown that this trend is a statistical aberration; calculations show that instead of quickly and sharply...... rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...... across provinces in order to show that without these processes, we would have seen more of a rise in interprovincial income inequality. We conclude by arguing that inequality in China is still increasing, but it is changing and becoming less place-based. As regional inequality decreases, there are signs...

  4. A tour of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a concise and up-to-date tour to the realm of inequality indices. Originally devised for socioeconomic applications, inequality indices gauge the divergence of wealth distributions in human societies from the socioeconomic 'ground state' of perfect equality, i.e. pure communism. Inequality indices are quantitative scores that take values in the unit interval, with the zero score characterizing perfect equality. In effect, inequality indices are applicable in the context of general distributions of sizes - non-negative quantities such as count, length, area, volume, mass, energy, and duration. For general size distributions, which are omnipresent in science and engineering, inequality indices provide multi-dimensional and infinite-dimensional quantifications of the inherent inequality - i.e., the statistical heterogeneity, the non-determinism, the randomness. This paper compactly describes the insights and the practical implementation of inequality indices.

  5. Inequalities for quantum skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information...... with respect to this order structure in the set of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations....

  6. Experimental tests of Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses the experiments related to Bell's inequalities. After first introducing Bell's theorem, the author presents a brief review of the experiments carried out between 1970 and 1976. Finally, some details on experiments that are in progress in the Institut d'Optique d'Orsay are given. (Auth.)

  7. Dynamic inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi; Saker, Samir

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph devoted to recent research and results on dynamic inequalities on time scales. The study of dynamic inequalities on time scales has been covered extensively in the literature in recent years and has now become a major sub-field in pure and applied mathematics. In particular, this book will cover recent results on integral inequalities, including Young's inequality, Jensen's inequality, Holder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, Steffensen's inequality, Hermite-Hadamard inequality and Čebyšv's inequality. Opial type inequalities on time scales and their extensions with weighted functions, Lyapunov type inequalities, Halanay type inequalities for dynamic equations on time scales, and Wirtinger type inequalities on time scales and their extensions will also be discussed here in detail.

  8. Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, Denis; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  9. Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Denis; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  10. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  11. Informing Investment to Reduce Inequalities: A Modelling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McAuley

    Full Text Available Reducing health inequalities is an important policy objective but there is limited quantitative information about the impact of specific interventions.To provide estimates of the impact of a range of interventions on health and health inequalities.Literature reviews were conducted to identify the best evidence linking interventions to mortality and hospital admissions. We examined interventions across the determinants of health: a 'living wage'; changes to benefits, taxation and employment; active travel; tobacco taxation; smoking cessation, alcohol brief interventions, and weight management services. A model was developed to estimate mortality and years of life lost (YLL in intervention and comparison populations over a 20-year time period following interventions delivered only in the first year. We estimated changes in inequalities using the relative index of inequality (RII.Introduction of a 'living wage' generated the largest beneficial health impact, with modest reductions in health inequalities. Benefits increases had modest positive impacts on health and health inequalities. Income tax increases had negative impacts on population health but reduced inequalities, while council tax increases worsened both health and health inequalities. Active travel increases had minimally positive effects on population health but widened health inequalities. Increases in employment reduced inequalities only when targeted to the most deprived groups. Tobacco taxation had modestly positive impacts on health but little impact on health inequalities. Alcohol brief interventions had modestly positive impacts on health and health inequalities only when strongly socially targeted, while smoking cessation and weight-reduction programmes had minimal impacts on health and health inequalities even when socially targeted.Interventions have markedly different effects on mortality, hospitalisations and inequalities. The most effective (and likely cost

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Kidney Transplantation Process: A Registry-Based Study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang, MSc

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions. Socioeconomic status-related inequalities exist with regard to both access to the waitlist, and kidney transplantation conditional on listing. However, the former inequality is substantially larger and is therefore expected to contribute more to societal inequalities. Further studies are needed to explore the potential mechanisms and strategies to reduce these inequalities.

  13. Inequality in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Rikke; Poulsen, Ingrid

    OBJECTIVES: The overall Ph.d.-study aims to investigate rehabilitation trajectories in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, and to describe mechanisms behind the institutionalized (health care) part of inequality in health with emphasis on interfaces and critical transitions...... from time of accident to twelve month follow-up. The case study aims to explore the process of rehabilitation in a high status patient, related to professions in healthcare. The focus is on how a high status patient is perceived and handled in organizations and among professions, and strategies applied...... by the patient and relatives. METHODS: Observation and qualitative interview has been conducted of one patient following the patients’ trajectories though different phases of the rehabilitation process during admission at Traumatic Brain Unit. Interdisciplinary meetings are regarded as key elements...

  14. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  15. Social inequalities in changes in health-related behaviour among Slovak adolescents aged between 15 and 19: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleskova Maria

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower socioeconomic position is generally associated with higher rates of smoking and alcohol consumption and lower levels of physical activity. Health-related behaviour is usually established during late childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study is to explore changes in health-related behaviour in a cohort of adolescents aged between 15 and 19, overall and by socioeconomic position. Methods The sample consisted of 844 first-year students (42.8% males, baseline in 1998 – mean age 14.9, follow-up in 2002 – mean age 18.8 from 31 secondary schools located in Kosice, Slovakia. This study focuses on changes in adolescents' smoking, alcohol use, experience with marijuana and lack of physical exercise with regard to their socioeconomic position. Four indicators of socioeconomic position were used – adolescents' current education level and employment status, and the highest education level and highest occupational status of their parents. We first made cross tabulations of HRB with these four indicators, using McNemar's test to assess differences. Next, we used logistic regression to assess adjusted associations, using likelihood ratio tests to assess statistical significance. Results Statistically significant increases were found in all health-related behaviours. Among males, the most obvious socioeconomic gradient was found in smoking, both at age 15 and at 19. Variations in socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviour were more apparent among females. Although at age 15, almost no socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviour were found, at age 19 differences were found for almost all socioeconomic indicators. Among males, only traditional socioeconomic gradients were found (the lower the socioeconomic position, the higher the prevalence of potentially harmful health-related behaviour, while among females reverse socioeconomic gradients were also found. Conclusion We confirmed an increase in unhealthy

  16. Bell's inequalities for quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaas, H.E.

    1991-10-01

    Inequalities corresponding to the generalized Bell's inequalities of local realism are derived for the quantum case. The extremal values permitted by these inequalities exceed those allowed by the generalized Bell's inequalities. Quantum predictions for systems of two spin-1/2 particles prepared as mixtures do not violate Bell's inequalities. 15 refs

  17. THE DAMASCUS INEQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Dannan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 Prof. Fozi M. Dannan from Damascus, Syria, proposed an interesting inequality for three positive numbers with unit product. It became widely known but was not proved yet in spite of elementary formulation. In this paper we prove this inequality together with similar ones, its proof occurred to be rather complicated. We propose some proofs based on different ideas: Lagrange multipliers method, geometrical considerations, Klamkin–type inequalities for symmetric functions, usage of symmetric reduction functions of computer packages. Also some corollaries and generalizations are considered, they include cycle inequalities, triangle geometric inequalities, inequalities for arbitrary number of values and special forms of restrictions on numbers, applications to cubic equations and symmetric functions.

  18. Income inequality revisited 60 years later: Piketty vs Kuznets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lyubimov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two popular views on the evolution of income inequality. The article by Simon Kuznets, which was published in American Economic Review in 1955, considers inequality as a byproduct of economic growth and suggests that a relatively rich economy should also be less unequal. In contrast, Thomas Piketty indicates that inequality is progressing, and an internationally coordinated policy is required to bring inequality under control. My paper applies the arguments of Kuznets and Piketty to the problem of income inequality in modern Russia.

  19. Socioeconomic inequality of diabetes patients' health care utilization in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortsø, Camilla; Lauridsen, Jørgen; Emneus, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Understanding socioeconomic inequalities in health care is critical for achieving health equity. The aim of this paper is threefold: 1) to quantify inequality in diabetes health care service utilization; 2) to understand determinants of these inequalities in relation to socio-demographic and clin......Understanding socioeconomic inequalities in health care is critical for achieving health equity. The aim of this paper is threefold: 1) to quantify inequality in diabetes health care service utilization; 2) to understand determinants of these inequalities in relation to socio...... differences in inequality estimates. While income, alike other measures of labor market attachment, to a certain extent is explained by morbidity and thus endogenous, education is more decisive for patients' ability to take advantage of the more specialized services provided in a universal health care system....

  20. Inequalities in long term health-related quality of life between partnered and not partnered breast cancer survivors through the mediation effect of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Smith, Michelle D; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2016-10-01

    To compare long-term quality of life outcomes by marital status among women living with breast cancer, and to test the mediation effects of social support as an underlying factor. Data are drawn from 1996 to 2010 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The sample included 505 women with breast cancer with six years of follow-up data. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS). Physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Breast cancer survivors who did not have a partner, compared to those who had a partner, had significantly lower levels of social support, which was associated with poorer HRQOL. Social support mediated the relationship between not having a partner and poorer HRQOL. Results were consistent after taken into consideration socio-demographic characteristics, which included age, highest level of education, country of birth, and area of residence. Women recovering from breast cancer who do not have partners have poorer physical and mental HRQOL, than those with partners, with a lack of social support as an underlying inequality. Partners of breast cancer survivors are importance sources in the provision of social support to help them maintain well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  2. Inequality in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  3. Globalisation, Inequality and Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Brian

    2017-01-01

    read before the Society, 20 April 2017; Symposium 2016-2017: Globalisation, Inequality and the Rise of Populism Inequality in the distribution of income and wealth among individuals has now come to the fore as a core concern across the industrialised world. In 2013 then President of the United States Barack Obama identified rising income inequality as ?the defining challenge of our times?. The Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund Christine Lagarde has stated that ?reducing ...

  4. Inequalities in Science

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative ...

  5. Inequalities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  6. Should poverty researchers worry about inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrientos

    2010-01-01

    The paper constructs a case for arguing that poverty researchers need not worry about inequality (as poverty researchers). It reviews conceptualisations of poverty as essentially relational, a particular reflection of prevailing inequalities. In this approach, people are in poverty because they are less well off than others along important dimensions of wellbeing. As against this view, the paper constructs a case for studying poverty as non-relational. In this approach, people are in poverty ...

  7. Social inequalities in children’s oral health-related quality of life: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kragt (Lea); E.B. Wolvius (Eppo); H. Raat (Hein); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.M. Ongkosuwito (Edwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is the most important patient-reported outcome measure in oral health research. The purpose of the present research was to study the association of family socioeconomic position (SEP) with children’s OHRQoL. Methods: This

  8. Socioeconomic health inequalities among a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents: the role of different types of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B

    2003-01-01

    found in the ways adolescents reported their own and their parents relations to school. For example, girls from families of lower socioeconomic position were more than four times as likely to report their parents unwilling to attend school meetings (odds ratio=4.54, 95% confidence intervals: 2.68 to 7...

  9. Social inequalities in changes in health-related behaviour among Slovak adolescents aged between 15 and 19 : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonna, Ferdinand; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Sleskova, Maria; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lower socioeconomic position is generally associated with higher rates of smoking and alcohol consumption and lower levels of physical activity. Health-related behaviour is usually established during late childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study is to explore changes in

  10. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  11. Childhood Household Dysfunction, Social Inequality and Alcohol Related Illness in Young Adulthood. A Swedish National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Gauffin

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912, which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.

  12. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  13. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant workers into a general cardinal ill-health score. Determinants associated with migrant worker health included but were not limited to age, marital status, income, and education, among other factors. Concentration index, concentration curve, and decomposition of the concentration index were employed to measure socioeconomic inequality in migrant workers' health. Prorich inequality was found in the health of migrant workers. The concentration index was -0.0866, as a score indicator of ill health. Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that the factors most contributing to the observed inequality were income, followed by gender, age, marital status, and smoking history. It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  14. Entanglement polygon inequality in qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Alonso, Miguel A.; Eberly, J. H.

    2018-06-01

    We prove a set of tight entanglement inequalities for arbitrary N-qubit pure states. By focusing on all bi-partite marginal entanglements between each single qubit and its remaining partners, we show that the inequalities provide an upper bound for each marginal entanglement, while the known monogamy relation establishes the lower bound. The restrictions and sharing properties associated with the inequalities are further analyzed with a geometric polytope approach, and examples of three-qubit GHZ-class and W-class entangled states are presented to illustrate the results.

  15. Measuring and Analysing Educational Inequality: The Distribution of Grade Enrolment Rates in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Frankema, Ewout; Bolt, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Cross-country research on educational inequality presents contrasting views on the extent of educational inequality in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The differences in opinion also concern the relation between educational inequality and income inequality. This paper argues that part of the reported results are influenced by the type of inequality indicator applied. Moreover, there may be a separate effect of educational attainment and educational distribution on income inequality, whi...

  16. On an application of conformal maps to inequalities for rational functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, V N

    2002-01-01

    Using classical properties of conformal maps, we get new exact inequalities for rational functions with prescribed poles. In particular, we prove a new Bernstein-type inequality, an inequality for Blaschke products and a theorem that generalizes the Turan inequality for polynomials. The estimates obtained strengthen some familiar inequalities of Videnskii and Rusak. They are also related to recent results of Borwein, Erdelyi, Li, Mohapatra, Rodriguez, Aziz and others

  17. Poverty, growth, inequality and pro-poor factors : new evidence from macro data

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Chiara; Dal Bianco, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Does economic growth reduce poverty? If so, by how much? How economic inequality affects poverty? Does the responsiveness of poverty to growth and inequality depend on initial poverty and inequality? How do pro-poor policies influence the poverty-growth-inequality nexus? \\ud \\ud This paper provides novel quantitative answers to such questions. In particular, the System Generalised Method of Moments estimator is employed to estimate the intertwined relation between poverty, growth, inequality ...

  18. The Linkages between Growth, Poverty and Inequality in Vietnam: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi Quoc Le

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how initial inequality and poverty rate are related to subsequent economic growth in the provincial level of Vietnam. The results show a robust negative relationship between initial poverty rate and subsequent economic growth. However, there is no link between initial inequality and subsequent economic growth. The results also show that lower inequality leads to lower poverty rate and poverty reduction could help to reduce inequality. Other determinants of inequality and p...

  19. On economic inequality and social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the relations between economic inequality and social welfare staring from the assumption that causality goes from economic inequality to social welfare. Standard methodological framework of economic science was enhanced with interpersonal function of individual welfare so the effects of economic inequality of the level of social welfare can be considered. It was demonstrated that there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion and that differences in the preferences among people should be empirical considered for more insights. The analysis of the consequences of economic inequality to economic growth, i.e. dynamics of social welfare, demonstrated that there are numerous mechanisms of causality with the countervailing effects. The most important mechanism by which inequality speeds-up economic growth is based on the increased saving and invents rates, and the most important mechanism by which it slows-down growth is based on decreasing investments in human capital. Accordingly, there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion also in this case. Nonetheless, modern growth theory has demonstrated that that the most dangerous economic growth is inequality of the treatment of economic agents, i.e. discrimination and exclusion, as that kind of inequality creates substantial allocative inefficiency.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  1. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  2. Health Inequality and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…

  3. Inequalities for Differential Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Presents a series of local and global estimates and inequalities for differential forms, in particular the ones that satisfy the A-harmonic equations. This work focuses on the Hardy-Littlewood, Poincare, Cacciooli, imbedded and reverse Holder inequalities. It is for researchers, instructors and graduate students

  4. Global Inequality: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country inequalities since at least the 1870s when a wave of economic globalization under the Pax Britannica increased average wages in the core while leaving most of the periphery and the semiperiphery at subsistence levels. Increasing inequality was one of the most important consequences of nineteenth century globalization, and this fact is pregnant with importance for those who seek to understand what the consequences of twentieth century globalization may be. Resistance to global capitalism and attacks on symbols of power are likely to increase, just as they did in the decades following the great expansion of trade and investment in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Research into the causes of increasing inequalities is thus extremely important for social scientists, policy makers and global citizens who need to understand how the world-system works in order to change it.

  5. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  6. Does inequality in health impede economic growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of inequality in health on economic growth in low and middle income countries. The empirical part of the paper uses an original cross-national panel data set covering 62 low and middle income countries over the period 1985 to 2007. I find a substantial and relatively robust negative effect of health inequality on income levels and income growth controlling for life expectancy, country and time fixed-effects and a large number of other effects that have been shown to matter for growth. The effect also holds if health inequality is instrumented to circumvent a potential problem of reverse causality. Hence, reducing inequality in the access to health care and to health-related information can make a substantial contribution to economic growth.

  7. Inequalities with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Cloud, Michael J; Lebedev, Leonid P

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to mathematical inequalities for graduate students and researchers in the fields of engineering and applied mathematics. It begins by reviewing essential facts from algebra and calculus and proceeds with a presentation of the central inequalities of applied analysis, illustrating a wide variety of practical applications. The text provides a gentle introduction to abstract spaces, such as metric, normed, and inner product spaces. It also provides full coverage of the central inequalities of applied analysis, such as Young's inequality, the inequality of the means, Hölder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Chebyshev's inequality, Jensen's inequality, and the triangle inequality. The second edition features extended coverage of applications, including continuum mechanics and interval analysis. It also includes many additional examples and exercises with hints and full solutions that may appeal to upper-level undergraduate and graduate...

  8. Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, J. L.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Bopp, M.; Strand, B. H.; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, O.; Martikainen, P.; Deboosere, P.; Kalediene, R.; Artnik, B.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Richardus, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We aim to describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban, and rural populations in several European countries. Design Data were obtained from the Eurothine project covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardized mortality rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. Results The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100 000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were larger than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern Europe, and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern countries and in Norway, Finland, and Sweden. Mortality inequalities were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve vulnerable groups’ access to treatment and thereby reduce TB mortality. PMID:22008757

  9. Socioeconomic health inequalities among a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities.......To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities....

  10. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenyi Shao

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation.

  11. Class-related health inequalities are not larger in the East: a comparison of four European regions using the new European socioeconomic classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, T. A.; Kunst, A. E.; Judge, K.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The article investigates whether people in Eastern Europe have larger health inequalities than their counterparts in three West European regions (North, Central and the South). METHODS: Data were obtained for 63,754 individuals in 23 countries from the first (2002) and second (2004)

  12. Class-related health inequalities are not larger in the East : A comparison of four European regions using the new European socioeconomic classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Eikemo (Terje); A.E. Kunst (Anton); K. Judge; J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The article investigates whether people in Eastern Europe have larger health inequalities than their counterparts in three West European regions (North, Central and the South). Methods: Data were obtained for 63 754 individuals in 23 countries from the first (2002) and

  13. Leggett–Garg inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the spatial Bell's inequalities which probe entanglement between spatially separated systems, the Leggett–Garg inequalities test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of a genuine Leggett–Garg test implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. Quantum mechanics violates the inequalities on both accounts and the original motivation for these inequalities was as a test for quantum coherence in macroscopic systems. The last few years has seen a number of experimental tests and violations of these inequalities in a variety of microscopic systems such as superconducting qubits, nuclear spins, and photons. In this article, we provide an introduction to the Leggett–Garg inequalities and review these latest experimental developments. We discuss important topics such as the significance of the non-invasive measurability assumption, the clumsiness loophole, and the role of weak measurements. Also covered are some recent theoretical proposals for the application of Leggett–Garg inequalities in quantum transport, quantum biology and nano-mechanical systems. (review article)

  14. Income Inequality and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Breen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators have seen the growing gap in earnings and income between those with a college education and those without as a major cause of increasing inequality in the United States and elsewhere. In this article we investigate the extent to which increasing the educational attainment of the US population might ameliorate inequality. We use data from NLSY79 and carry out a three-level decomposition of total inequality into within-person, between-person and between-education parts. We find that the between-education contribution to inequality is small, even when we consider only adjusted inequality that omits the within-person component. We carry out a number of simulations to gauge the likely impact on inequality of changes in the distribution of education and of a narrowing of the differences in average incomes between those with different levels of education. We find that any feasible educational policy is likely to have only a minor impact on income inequality.

  15. Integral and discrete inequalities and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on one- and multi-dimensional linear integral and discrete Gronwall-Bellman type inequalities. It provides a useful collection and systematic presentation of known and new results, as well as many applications to differential (ODE and PDE), difference, and integral equations. With this work the author fills a gap in the literature on inequalities, offering an ideal source for researchers in these topics. The present volume is part 1 of the author’s two-volume work on inequalities. Integral and discrete inequalities are a very important tool in classical analysis and play a crucial role in establishing the well-posedness of the related equations, i.e., differential, difference and integral equations.

  16. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  17. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grogan Sarah C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up. Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s; and the development of

  18. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Rachel C; Hurst, Gemma L; Smith, Graham R; Grogan, Sarah C; Kurth, Judy

    2011-09-12

    There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up). Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s) related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s); and the development of local systems for ongoing monitoring and evaluation

  19. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  20. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  1. Volume Inequalities for Isotropic Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lutwak, Erwin; Yang, Deane; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct approach to Ball's simplex inequality is presented. This approach, which does not use the Brascamp-Lieb inequality, also gives Barthe's characterization of the simplex for Ball's inequality and extends it from discrete to arbitrary measures. It also yields the dual inequality, along with equality conditions, and it does both for arbitrary measures.

  2. Firming Up Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Song; David J. Price; Fatih Guvenen; Nicholas Bloom; Till von Wachter

    2015-01-01

    Earnings inequality in the United States has increased rapidly over the last three decades, but little is known about the role of firms in this trend. For example, how much of the rise in earnings inequality can be attributed to rising dispersion between firms in the average wages they pay, and how much is due to rising wage dispersion among workers within firms? Similarly, how did rising inequality affect the wage earnings of different types of workers working for the same employer—men vs. w...

  3. Wealth and cardiovascular health: a cross-sectional study of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in high-, middle- and low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Benjamin; McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; AlHabib, Khalid F; Avezum, Alvaro Jr; Bahonar, Ahmad; Ismail, Noorhassim; Chifamba, Jephat; Chow, Clara K; Corsi, Daniel J; Dagenais, Gilles R; Diaz, Rafael; Gupta, Rajeev; Iqbal, Romaina; Kaur, Manmeet; Khatib, Rasha; Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Iolanthe Marike; Lanas, Fernando; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Minfan, Fu; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mony, Prem K; Oguz, Aytekin; Palileo-Villanueva, Lia M; Perel, Pablo; Poirier, Paul; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Rensheng, Lei; Rosengren, Annika; Soman, Biju; Stuckler, David; Subramanian, S V; Teo, Koon; Tsolekile, Lungiswa P; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yaguang, Peng; Yeates, Karen; Yongzhen, Mo; Yusoff, Khalid; Yusuf, Rita; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-12-08

    Effective policies to control hypertension require an understanding of its distribution in the population and the barriers people face along the pathway from detection through to treatment and control. One key factor is household wealth, which may enable or limit a household's ability to access health care services and adequately control such a chronic condition. This study aims to describe the scale and patterns of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in 21 countries using baseline data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study. A cross-section of 163,397 adults aged 35 to 70 years were recruited from 661 urban and rural communities in selected low-, middle- and high-income countries (complete data for this analysis from 151,619 participants). Using blood pressure measurements, self-reported health and household data, concentration indices adjusted for age, sex and urban-rural location, we estimate the magnitude of wealth-related inequalities in the levels of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in each of the 21 country samples. Overall, the magnitude of wealth-related inequalities in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control was observed to be higher in poorer than in richer countries. In poorer countries, levels of hypertension awareness and treatment tended to be higher among wealthier households; while a similar pro-rich distribution was observed for hypertension control in countries at all levels of economic development. In some countries, hypertension awareness was greater among the poor (Sweden, Argentina, Poland), as was treatment (Sweden, Poland) and control (Sweden). Inequality in hypertension management outcomes decreased as countries became richer, but the considerable variation in patterns of wealth-related inequality - even among countries at similar levels of economic development - underscores the importance of health systems in improving hypertension management for all

  4. Inequalities an approach through problems

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatachala, B J

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses about the basic topics on inequalities and their applications. These include the arithmetic mean–geometric mean inequality, Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Chebyshev inequality, rearrangement inequality, convex and concave functions and Muirhead's theorem. The book contains over 400 problems with their solutions. A chapter on geometric inequalities is a special feature of this book. Most of these problems are from International Mathematical Olympiads and from many national mathematical Olympiads. The book is intended to help students who are preparing for various mathematical competitions. It is also a good source book for graduate students who are consolidating their knowledge of inequalities and their applications. .

  5. Evaluating Inequality or Injustice in Water Use for Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability and population density distributions are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources; but is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water and explored the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring plant and animal commodities and the "virtual water" embedded in them. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated country specific patterns of water use for food with, and without trade, over a 25-year period in order to elucidate the influence of trade and inequality on equability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, when related to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.

  6. Inequality or injustice in water use for food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2015-02-01

    The global distributions of water availability and population density are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources. Is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water, and the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring ‘virtual water’ embedded in plant and animal commodities. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated patterns of water use with and without trade over a 25-year period to identify the influence of trade and inequality on equitability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, relative to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.

  7. Inequality or injustice in water use for food?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J A; Seekell, D A; D’Odorico, P

    2015-01-01

    The global distributions of water availability and population density are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources. Is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water, and the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring ‘virtual water’ embedded in plant and animal commodities. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated patterns of water use with and without trade over a 25-year period to identify the influence of trade and inequality on equitability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, relative to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality. (letter)

  8. Lies, Damned Lies, and Health Inequality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Measuring and monitoring socioeconomic health inequalities are critical for understanding the impact of policy decisions. However, the measurement of health inequality is far from value neutral, and one can easily present the measure that best supports one’s chosen conclusion or selectively exclude measures. Improving people’s understanding of the often implicit value judgments is therefore important to reduce the risk that researchers mislead or policymakers are misled. While the choice between relative and absolute inequality is already value laden, further complexities arise when, as is often the case, health variables have both a lower and upper bound, and thus can be expressed in terms of either attainments or shortfalls, such as for mortality/survival. We bring together the recent parallel discussions from epidemiology and health economics regarding health inequality measurement and provide a deeper understanding of the different value judgments within absolute and relative measures expressed both in attainments and shortfalls, by graphically illustrating both hypothetical and real examples. We show that relative measures in terms of attainments and shortfalls have distinct value judgments, highlighting that for health variables with two bounds the choice is no longer only between an absolute and a relative measure but between an absolute, an attainment- relative and a shortfall-relative one. We illustrate how these three value judgments can be combined onto a single graph which shows the rankings according to all three measures, and illustrates how the three measures provide ethical benchmarks against which to judge the difference in inequality between populations. PMID:26133019

  9. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...

  10. Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassine, Nadia Belhaj

    2012-01-01

    The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...

  11. Covariance Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozsgay, Victor; Hirsch, Flavien; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    We introduce Bell inequalities based on covariance, one of the most common measures of correlation. Explicit examples are discussed, and violations in quantum theory are demonstrated. A crucial feature of these covariance Bell inequalities is their nonlinearity; this has nontrivial consequences for the derivation of their local bound, which is not reached by deterministic local correlations. For our simplest inequality, we derive analytically tight bounds for both local and quantum correlations. An interesting application of covariance Bell inequalities is that they can act as "shared randomness witnesses": specifically, the value of the Bell expression gives device-independent lower bounds on both the dimension and the entropy of the shared random variable in a local model.

  12. Towards Experiments to Test Violation of the Original Bell Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this note is to attract attention of experimenters to the original Bell (OB) inequality which was shadowed by the common consideration of the CHSH inequality. There are two reasons to test the OB inequality and not the CHSH inequality. First of all, the OB inequality is a straightforward consequence to the EPR-argumentation. And only this inequality is related to the EPR-Bohr debate. However, the last statement can be objected by some experts working in quantum foundations. Therefore to convince experimenters to perform the OB-violation experiment, we prefer to concentrate on the second distinguishing feature of the OB inequality which was emphasized by I. Pitowsky. He pointed out that the OB inequality provides a higher degree of violations of classicality than the CHSH inequality. The main problem is that the OB inequality is derived under the assumption of perfect (anti-) correlations. However, the last years were characterized by the amazing development of quantum technologies. Nowadays, there exist sources producing with very high probability the pairs of photons in the singlet state. Moreover, the efficiency of photon detectors was improved tremendously. In any event one can start by proceeding with the fair sampling assumption. Another possibility is to use the scheme of Hensen et al. experiment for entangled electrons.

  13. Some means inequalities for positive operators in Hilbert spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we obtain two refinements of the ordering relations among Heinz means with different parameters via the Taylor series of some hyperbolic functions and by the way, we derive new generalizations of Heinz operator inequalities. Moreover, we establish a matrix version of Heinz inequality for the Hilbert-Schmidt norm. Finally, we introduce a weighted multivariate geometric mean and show that the weighted multivariate operator geometric mean possess several attractive properties and means inequalities.

  14. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regi...

  15. Child Labour and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, Simone; Fioroni, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of child labour, fertility and human capital in an economy characterized by two type of individuals, low and high skilled workers. This heterogeneity allows for an endogenous analysis of inequality generated by child labour. More specifically, according to empirical evidence, we oer an explanation for the emergence of a vicious cycle between child labour and inequality. The basic intuition behind this result is the interdependence between child labour and f...

  16. Corruption and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Uslaner, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Economic inequality provides a fertile breeding ground for corruption and, in turn, leads to further inequalities. Most corruption models focus on the institutional determinants of government dishonesty. However, such accounts are problematic. Corruption is remarkably sticky over time. There is a very powerful correlation between crossnational measures corruption in 1980 and in 2004. In contrast, measures of democracy such as the Freedom House scores are not so strongly correlated over time, ...

  17. Gender Inequality since 1820

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...

  18. Inequalities for Humbert functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by an open problem of Luke’s theorem. We consider the problem of developing a unified point of view on the theory of inequalities of Humbert functions and of their general ratios are obtained. Some particular cases and refinements are given. Finally, we obtain some important results involving inequalities of Bessel and Whittaker’s functions as applications.

  19. Income inequality and access to housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, C.; Lancee, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between income inequality and access to housing for low- income households. Three arguments are developed, explaining how inequality might affect housing affordability, quality and quantity. First, it is the absolute level of resources, not their relative

  20. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  1. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods: The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant worker...

  2. Towards Experiments to Test Violation of the Original Bell Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to attract the attention of experimenters to the original Bell (OB inequality that was shadowed by the common consideration of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH inequality. There are two reasons to test the OB inequality and not the CHSH inequality. First of all, the OB inequality is a straightforward consequence to the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR argumentation. In addition, only this inequality is directly related to the EPR–Bohr debate. The second distinguishing feature of the OB inequality was emphasized by Itamar Pitowsky. He pointed out that the OB inequality provides a higher degree of violations of classicality than the CHSH inequality. For the CHSH inequality, the fraction of the quantum (Tsirelson bound Q CHSH = 2 2 to the classical bound C CHSH = 2 , i.e., F CHSH = Q CHSH C CHSH = 2 is less than the fraction of the quantum bound for the OB inequality Q OB = 3 2 to the classical bound C OB = 1 , i.e., F OB = Q OB C OB = 3 2 . Thus, by violating the OB inequality, it is possible to approach a higher degree of deviation from classicality. The main problem is that the OB inequality is derived under the assumption of perfect (anti- correlations. However, the last few years have been characterized by the amazing development of quantum technologies. Nowadays, there exist sources producing, with very high probability, the pairs of photons in the singlet state. Moreover, the efficiency of photon detectors was improved tremendously. In any event, one can start by proceeding with the fair sampling assumption. Another possibility is to use the scheme of the Hensen et al. experiment for entangled electrons. Here, the detection efficiency is very high.

  3. Measuring and Analysing Educational Inequality : The Distribution of Grade Enrolment Rates in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, Ewout; Bolt, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Cross-country research on educational inequality presents contrasting views on the extent of educational inequality in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The differences in opinion also concern the relation between educational inequality and income inequality. This paper argues that part of the

  4. A limitation on Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, V.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e. all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory)

  5. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2016-01-01

    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  6. Summarizing health inequalities in a Balanced Scorecard. Methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Raynault, Marie-France

    2006-01-01

    The association between social determinants and health inequalities is well recognized. What are now needed are tools to assist in disseminating such information. This article describes how the Balanced Scorecard may be used for summarizing data on health inequalities. The process begins by selecting appropriate social groups and indicators, and is followed by the measurement of differences across person, place, or time. The next step is to decide whether to focus on absolute versus relative inequality. The last step is to determine the scoring method, including whether to address issues of depth of inequality.

  7. Income inequality and child maltreatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, John; Smith, Elliott G; McCarthy, Margaret E; Dineen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    To examine the relation between county-level income inequality and rates of child maltreatment. Data on substantiated reports of child abuse and neglect from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. County-level data on income inequality and children in poverty were obtained from the American Community Survey. Data for additional control variables were obtained from the American Community Survey and the Health Resources and Services Administration Area Resource File. The Gini coefficient was used as the measure of income inequality. Generalized additive models were estimated to explore linear and nonlinear relations among income inequality, poverty, and child maltreatment. In all models, state was included as a fixed effect to control for state-level differences in victim rates. Considerable variation in income inequality and child maltreatment rates was found across the 3142 US counties. Income inequality, as well as child poverty rate, was positively and significantly correlated with child maltreatment rates at the county level. Controlling for child poverty, demographic and economic control variables, and state-level variation in maltreatment rates, there was a significant linear effect of inequality on child maltreatment rates (P income inequality across US counties was significantly associated with higher county-level rates of child maltreatment. The findings contribute to the growing literature linking greater income inequality to a range of poor health and well-being outcomes in infants and children.

  8. Income inequality and socioeconomic gradients in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard G; Pickett, Kate E

    2008-04-01

    We investigated whether the processes underlying the association between income inequality and population health are related to those responsible for the socioeconomic gradient in health and whether health disparities are smaller when income differences are narrower. We used multilevel models in a regression analysis of 10 age- and cause-specific US county mortality rates on county median household incomes and on state income inequality. We assessed whether mortality rates more closely related to county income were also more closely related to state income inequality. We also compared mortality gradients in more- and less-equal states. Mortality rates more strongly associated with county income were more strongly associated with state income inequality: across all mortality rates, r= -0.81; P=.004. The effect of state income inequality on the socioeconomic gradient in health varied by cause of death, but greater equality usually benefited both wealthier and poorer counties. Although mortality rates with steep socioeconomic gradients were more sensitive to income distribution than were rates with flatter gradients, narrower income differences benefit people in both wealthy and poor areas and may, paradoxically, do little to reduce health disparities.

  9. Product spaces and Nelson's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain inequalities for unbounded linear operators in L 2 extend to product spaces. This product space property is used to give a new proof that Gross's inequality for matrices implies Nelson's inequality for ordinary differential operators, and that this in turn implies Nelson's inequality for partial differential operators in infinitely many dimensions. A new proof of Gross's inequality is given. There is also a discussion of the physical meaning of Nelson's inequality in quantum field theory. The article may serve as an introduction for non-specialists to some of the recent mathematical work in this subject. (Auth.)

  10. Generalizations of Steffensen’s inequality via some Euler-type identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pečarić Josip

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using Euler-type identities some new generalizations of Steffensen’s inequality for n–convex functions are obtained. Moreover, the Ostrowski-type inequalities related to obtained generalizations are given. Furthermore, using inequalities for the Čebyšev functional in terms of the first derivative some new bounds for the remainder in identities related to generalizations of Steffensen’s inequality are proven.

  11. Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  12. Income-related inequality in health and health care utilization in Chile, 2000 - 2009 Desigualdades en salud y en la atención sanitaria relacionadas con los ingresos en Chile, 2000 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vásquez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure and explain income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization in the period 2000 - 2009 in Chile, while assessing variations within the country and determinants of inequalities. METHODS: Data from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey for 2000, 2003, and 2009 were used to measure inequality in health and health care utilization. Income-related inequality in health care utilization was assessed with standardized concentration indices for the probability and total number of visits to specialized care, generalized care, emergency care, dental care, mental health care, and hospital care. Self-assessed health status and physical limitations were used as proxies for health care need. Standardization was performed with demographic and need variables. The decomposition method was applied to estimate the contribution of each factor used to calculate the concentration index, including ethnicity, employment status, health insurance, and region of residence. RESULTS: In Chile, people in lower-income quintiles report worse health status and more physical limitations than people in higher quintiles. In terms of health service utilization, pro-rich inequities were found for specialized and dental visits with a slight pro-rich utilization for general practitioners and all physician visits. All pro-rich inequities have decreased over time. Emergency room visits and hospitalizations are concentrated among lower-income quintiles and have increased over time. Higher education and private health insurance contribute to a pro-rich inequity in dentist, general practitioner, specialized, and all physician visits. Income contributes to a pro-rich inequity in specialized and dentist visits, whereas urban residence and economic activity contribute to a pro-poor inequity in emergency room visits. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of health care utilization in Chile is consistent with policies implemented in the country and in the

  13. To what extent does immigration affect inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yonatan; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-11-01

    The current surge in income and wealth inequality in most western countries, along with the continuous immigration to those countries demand a quantitative analysis of the effect immigration has on economic inequality. This paper presents a quantitative analysis framework providing a way to calculate this effect. It shows that in most cases, the effect of immigration on wealth and income inequality is limited, mainly due to the relative small scale of immigration waves. For a large scale flow of immigrants, such as the immigration to the US, the UK and Australia in the past few decades, we estimate that 10 % ÷ 15 % of the wealth and income inequality increase can be attributed to immigration. The results demonstrate that immigration could possibly decrease inequality substantially, if the characteristics of the immigrants resemble the characteristics of the destination middle class population in terms of wealth or income. We empirically found that the simple linear relation ΔS = 0.18 ρ roughly describes the increase in the wealth share of the top 10 % due to immigration of a fraction ρ of the population.

  14. Social Determinants of LGBT Cancer Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Breen, Elizabeth; Kittiteerasack, Priyoth

    2018-02-01

    To describe the extant literature on social determinants of health as they relate to the cancer disparities and to highlight the research findings relating to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. Published scientific literature and clinical literature, and published reports from the World Health Organization and US Department of Health and Human Services. The larger literature on health inequities is moving beyond individual-level predictors of risk to evaluate the influence of social determinants of health on the persistent health inequalities in a population. As it has for other groups, additional research into social determinants of health for LGBT persons of color may play an important role in identifying and reducing cancer inequities for this group. Increased awareness of the factors that contribute to health inequities for the LGBT population may provide insight into improving patient-provider relationships with LGBT patients. A large body of experiential and clinical knowledge positions nurses to conduct meaningful research to expand the current understanding of the social determinants of LGBT cancer health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…

  16. Inefficient Self-Selection into Education and Wage Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework where "within graduates" wage inequality is related to overeducation/educational mismatch in the labor market. We show that wage inequality may arise because of inefficient self-selection into education in the presence of ability-complementary technological progress and asymmetric information…

  17. Two New Sharp Ostrowski-Grüss Type Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use a variant of the Grüss inequality to derive two new sharp Ostrowski-Grüss type inequalities related to a perturbed trapezoidal type rule and a perturbed generalized interior point rule, respectively, which provide improvements of some previous results in the literatures.

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking across 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moor, Irene; Rathmann, Katharina; Lenzi, Michela

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco-related heath inequalities are a major public health concern, with smoking being more prevalent among lower socioeconomic groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms leading to socioeconomic inequalities in smoking among 15-year-old adolescents by examining ...

  19. Are UNDP Indices Appropriate to Capture Gender Inequalities in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permanyer, Inaki

    2013-01-01

    This study critically investigates the suitability of United Nations' composite indices and other related measures--among which the Gender Inequality Index just released in 2010--to capture gender inequalities in the context of "highly developed" countries, focusing on the case of Europe. Our results indicate that many of the gender gaps…

  20. New report highlights epidemic of tobacco and global health inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tob

  1. Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF

    2001-01-01

    We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov

  2. DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…

  3. Children's and Adolescents' Developing Perceptions of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…

  4. Income inequality, trust and homicide in 33 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Aitken, Nicole

    2011-04-01

    Theories of why income inequality correlates with violence suggest that inequality erodes social capital and trust, or inhibits investment into public services and infrastructure. Past research sensed the importance of these causal paths but few have examined them using tests of statistical mediation. We explored links between income inequality and rates of homicide in 33 countries and then tested whether this association is mediated by an indicator of social capital (interpersonal trust) or by public spending on health and education. Survey data on trust were collected from 48 641 adults and matched to country data on per capita income, income inequality, public expenditures on health and education and rate of homicides. Between countries, income inequality correlated with trust (r = -0.64) and homicide (r = 0.80) but not with public expenditures. Trust also correlated with homicides (r = -0.58) and partly mediated the association between income inequality and homicide, whilst public expenditures did not. Multilevel analysis showed that income inequality related to less trust after differences in per capita income and sample characteristics were taken into account. Results were consistent with psychosocial explanations of links between income inequality and homicide; however, the causal relationship between inequality, trust and homicide remains unclear given the cross-sectional design of this study. Societies with large income differences and low levels of trust may lack the social capacity to create safe communities.

  5. Spatially Embedded Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach: – The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer...... and ethnification of job categories. However, the same spatial structures allows for a variety of opposition and conciliation strategies among minority employees, even though the latter tend to prevail in a reproduction rather than a transformation of the organizational opportunity structures. Research limitations...... the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality. Originality/value: – Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro...

  6. Cultural capital and social inequality in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, T

    2008-07-01

    Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.

  7. Present status of the Penrose inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, Marc [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-10-07

    The Penrose inequality gives a lower bound for the total mass of a spacetime in terms of the area of suitable surfaces that represent black holes. Its validity is supported by the cosmic censorship conjecture, and therefore its proof (or disproof) is an important problem in relation with gravitational collapse. The Penrose inequality is a very challenging problem in mathematical relativity and it has received continuous attention since its formulation by Penrose in the early seventies. Important breakthroughs have been made in the last decade or so, with the complete resolution of the so-called Riemannian Penrose inequality and a very interesting proposal to address the general case by Bray and Khuri. In this review, the most important results on this field will be discussed and the main ideas behind their proofs will be summarized, with the aim of presenting what is the status of our present knowledge in this topic. (topical review)

  8. Economic inequality increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Hannay, Jason W

    2017-05-02

    Rising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments ( n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes. This effect of unequal distributions on risk taking was driven by upward social comparisons. Next, we estimated economic risk taking in daily life using large-scale data from internet searches. Risk taking was higher in states with greater income inequality, an effect driven by inequality at the upper end of the income distribution. Results suggest that inequality may promote poor outcomes, in part, by increasing risky behavior.

  9. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both......Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...

  10. All inequality is not equal: children correct inequalities using resource value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Fairness concerns guide children's judgments about how to share resources with others. However, it is unclear from past research if children take extant inequalities or the value of resources involved in an inequality into account when sharing with others; these questions are the focus of the current studies. In all experiments, children saw an inequality between two recipients—one had two more resources than another. What varied between conditions was the value of the resources that the child could subsequently distribute. When the resources were equal in value to those involved in the original inequality, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two resources to the child with fewer resources (Experiment 1). However, as the value of the resources increased relative to those initially shared by the experimenter, children were more likely to distribute the two high value resources equally between the two recipients, presumably to minimize the overall inequality in value (Experiments 1 and 2). We found that children specifically use value, not just size, when trying to equalize outcomes (Experiment 3) and further found that children focus on the relative rather than absolute value of the resources they share—when the experimenter had unequally distributed the same high value resource that the child would later share, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two high value resources to the person who had received fewer high value resources. These results illustrate that children attempt to correct past inequalities and try to maintain equality not just in the count of resources but also by using the value of resources. PMID:23882227

  11. Wringing out better Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, S.L.; Caves, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Local realism implies constraints on the statistics of two physically separated systems. These constraints, known collectively as Bell inequalities, can be violated by quantum mechanics. We generalize the standard Bell inequalities in two ways: first, by 'chaining' the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for two-state systems and, second, by formulating information-theoretic Bell inequalities that apply to any pair of systems. (orig.)

  12. Quantum mechanics and Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.T.; Adelberger, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    Santos argues that, if one interprets probabilities as ratios of detected events to copies of the physical system initially prepared, the quantum mechanical predictions for the classic tests of Bell's inequalities do not violate the inequalities. Furthermore, he suggests that quantum mechanical states which do violate the inequalities are not physically realizable. We discuss a physically realizable experiment, meeting his requirements, where quantum mechanics does violate the inequalities

  13. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    for both sexes, with the steepest gradient observed among adults of working age, although differences persist also among the elderly. The causes of death found to be most highly correlated with social inequality, and largely responsible for the increasing inequality over the last decade, are those associated with addiction and exclusion (drug, alcohol and violence related deaths), with smoking (lung cancer) and with safety in the workplace and on the roads (accidents). Similar gradients and trends have been observed with different outcomes, such as self-reported morbidity, disability and cancer incidence (chapter 1.1, Section I). Reproductive outcomes confiirm this picture: compared to women belonging to the upper classes, those women in low conditions experience more spontaneous abortions and their children suffer from higher infant mortality and low birth weight. This is a critical issue since poor infant health, particularly for metabolic and respiratory pathologies, affects health in adult life. There is now substantive evidence showing that also socioeconomic circumstances at birth or during adolescence may have a strong impact on adult health (chapter 1.2, Section I). Differences in harmful lifestyles, such as smoking, heavy drinking, drug use, unhealthy diet, obesity and physical inactivity, have a similar effect. The only exception is smoking among women, which is positively correlated with socioeconomic status; however, since women in the upper classes have a greater tendency to quit smoking, the gradient will soon be reversed (chapter 1.7, Section I). On the other hand, most of these behaviours do not follow from free and conscious individual choice; they are a form of adaptation to chronic stress originating in the work-place (chapter 1.4, Section I), or to particularly unfavourable events and conditions, such as unemployment (chapter 1.5, Section I) or lack of family and social support (chapter 1.6, Section I). Poor socioeconomic circumstances are the

  14. Gender Inequality Index Appropriateness for Measuring Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Elham; Sabermahani, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequality means unequal distribution of wealth, power, and benefits among women and men. The gender inequality index (GII) measures the lost human development in three important dimensions: reproductive health, political empowerment, and economic status. The first purpose of this study was to calculate the index for provinces of Iran, and the second purpose was to survey the appropriateness of that, for comparing different regions, through regression estimations. In this study, GII has been calculated for Iran between the years 2006-2011 and provinces have been ranked based on it. Then, a panel composed of 30 sections was estimated for five years to determine the most important factor affecting level of index. Some changes have been made to analyze values of the index and the ranking of provinces. Based on panel model, share of parliamentary seats was the most effective factor for determination of the index. After applying adjustments, some differences were seen in the ranking of provinces and general level of index. Weighing of dimensions of the index and considering an overall variable, such as life expectancy in the field of health, will give a more accurate comparison of the GII among different regions though concurrent attention to non-discriminatory cultural dimensions of political participation of women; therefore, making more analyses possible for a more correct comparison of the extensive geographical regions, such as countries.

  15. Do Socioeconomic Inequalities in Neonatal Mortality Reflect Inequalities in Coverage of Maternal Health Services? Evidence from 48 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Britt; Harper, Sam; Kaufman, Jay S

    2016-02-01

    To examine socioeconomic and health system determinants of wealth-related inequalities in neonatal mortality rates (NMR) across 48 low- and middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2012. Absolute and relative inequalities for NMR and coverage of antenatal care, facility-based delivery, and Caesarean delivery were measured using the Slope Index of Inequality and Relative Index of Inequality, respectively. Meta-regression was used to assess whether variation in the magnitude of NMR inequalities was associated with inequalities in coverage of maternal health services, and whether country-level economic and health system factors were associated with mean NMR and socioeconomic inequality in NMR. Of the three maternal health service indicators examined, the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in NMR was most strongly related to inequalities in antenatal care. NMR inequality was greatest in countries with higher out-of-pocket health expenditures, more doctors per capita, and a higher adolescent fertility rate. Determinants of lower mean NMR (e.g., higher government health expenditures and a greater number of nurses/midwives per capita) differed from factors associated with lower NMR inequality. Reducing the financial burden of maternal health services and achieving universal coverage of antenatal care may contribute to a reduction in socioeconomic differences in NMR. Further investigation of the mechanisms contributing to these cross-national associations seems warranted.

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities and mortality trends in BRICS, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mújica, Oscar J; Vázquez, Enrique; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Cortez-Escalante, Juan J; Molina, Joaquin; Barbosa da Silva Junior, Jarbas

    2014-06-01

    To explore the presence and magnitude of--and change in--socioeconomic and health inequalities between and within Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--between 1990 and 2010. Comparable data on socioeconomic and health indicators, at both country and primary subnational levels, were obtained from publicly available sources. Health inequalities between and within countries were identified and summarized by using standard gap and gradient metrics. Four of the BRICS countries showed increases in both income level and income inequality between 1990 and 2010. The exception was Brazil, where income inequality decreased over the same period. Between-country inequalities in level of education and access to sanitation remained mostly unchanged but the largest between-country difference in mean life expectancy increased, from 9 years in 1990 to 20 years in 2010. Throughout the study period, there was disproportionality in the burden of disease between BRICS. However, the national infant mortality rate fell substantially over the study period in all five countries. In Brazil and China, the magnitude of subnational income-related inequalities in infant mortality, both absolute and relative, also decreased substantially. Despite the economic prosperity and general improvements in health seen since 1990, profound inequalities in health persist both within and between BRICS. However, the substantial reductions observed--within Brazil and China--in the inequalities in income-related levels of infant mortality are encouraging.

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities and mortality trends in BRICS, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mújica, Oscar J; Vázquez, Enrique; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Cortez-Escalante, Juan J; Molina, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the presence and magnitude of – and change in – socioeconomic and health inequalities between and within Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – the countries known as BRICS – between 1990 and 2010. Methods Comparable data on socioeconomic and health indicators, at both country and primary subnational levels, were obtained from publicly available sources. Health inequalities between and within countries were identified and summarized by using standard gap and gradient metrics. Findings Four of the BRICS countries showed increases in both income level and income inequality between 1990 and 2010. The exception was Brazil, where income inequality decreased over the same period. Between-country inequalities in level of education and access to sanitation remained mostly unchanged but the largest between-country difference in mean life expectancy increased, from 9 years in 1990 to 20 years in 2010. Throughout the study period, there was disproportionality in the burden of disease between BRICS. However, the national infant mortality rate fell substantially over the study period in all five countries. In Brazil and China, the magnitude of subnational income-related inequalities in infant mortality, both absolute and relative, also decreased substantially. Conclusion Despite the economic prosperity and general improvements in health seen since 1990, profound inequalities in health persist both within and between BRICS. However, the substantial reductions observed – within Brazil and China – in the inequalities in income-related levels of infant mortality are encouraging. PMID:24940014

  18. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  19. The Growth-Inequality Association:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...... under rightwing governments. This may provide a qualification to recent studies of inequality....

  20. On weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachizawa K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an alternate proof of weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities which are essentially proved by Sawyer and Wheeden. We use the Bellman function approach of Nazarov and Treil. As an application we give an alternate proof of weighted inequalities for dyadic fractional maximal operators. A result on weighted inequalities for fractional integral operators is given.

  1. Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination as Sources of Depression among U.S. Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Deborah; Doucet, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Poverty, inequality, and discrimination endanger women's well-being. Poverty is a consistent predictor of depression in women. Economic inequalities relate to reduced life expectancy and various negative physical health consequences. Discrimination maintains inequalities, lessens economic security, and exposes women to unmerited contempt.…

  2. Should Less Inequality in Education Lead to a More Equal Income Distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldvari, Peter; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the question whether inequality in education and human capital is closely related to income inequality. Using the most popular functional forms describing the relationship between, first, output and human capital and, second, education and human capital, we find that the effect of inequality in schooling on income…

  3. Do racial inequities in infant mortality correspond to variations in societal conditions? A study of state-level income inequality in the U.S., 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Bruce, Donald J; Erwin, Paul C

    2016-09-01

    Prior studies have examined the association between income inequality and overall infant mortality rates (IMR). We examine effects of income inequality on racial inequities in IMR over the period 1992-2007 in the U.S. Race-specific state IMR data were obtained from 1992 to 2007, from which absolute and relative IMR inequities were calculated. Fixed and random effects models, adjusted for state-level median income, percent poverty, percent high school graduates, and unemployment rate, were used to determine contemporaneous and lagged state-level associations between income inequality and racial IMR inequities. Racial IMR inequities varied significantly across the U.S. Contemporaneous income inequality was negatively associated with white IMR only. Two-year lagged income inequality was negatively associated with black IMR and had the most pronounced effect on racial inequities in IMR. Future studies should consider lagged effects of income inequality on IMR and other health outcomes, and should examine other potential societal conditions that may account for state-level variations in racial IMR inequities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Income Inequality in Rural India: Decomposing the Gini by Income Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...

  5. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Arcaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose–response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population.

  6. Lightning Fast and Space Efficient Inequality Joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2015-09-01

    Inequality joins, which join relational tables on inequality conditions, are used in various applications. While there have been a wide range of optimization methods for joins in database systems, from algorithms such as sort-merge join and band join, to various indices such as B+-tree,R*-tree and Bitmap, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are usually very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms. We put columns to be joined in sorted arrays and we use permutation arrays to encode positions of tuples in one sorted array w.r.t. the other sorted array. In contrast to sort-merge join, we use space effcient bit-arrays that enable optimizations, such as Bloom filter indices, for fast computation of the join results. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, and a distributed version on top of Spark SQL. We have compared against well known optimization techniques for inequality joins and show that our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster.

  7. Lightning fast and space efficient inequality joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2015-09-01

    Inequality joins, which join relational tables on inequality conditions, are used in various applications. While there have been a wide range of optimization methods for joins in database systems, from algorithms such as sort-merge join and band join, to various indices such as B+-tree, R*-tree and Bitmap, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are usually very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms. We put columns to be joined in sorted arrays and we use permutation arrays to encode positions of tuples in one sorted array w.r.t. the other sorted array. In contrast to sort-merge join, we use space efficient bit-arrays that enable optimizations, such as Bloom filter indices, for fast computation of the join results. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, and a distributed version on top of Spark SQL. We have compared against well known optimization techniques for inequality joins and show that our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster.

  8. Lightning fast and space efficient inequality joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair; Lucia, William; Singh, Meghna; Ouzzani, Mourad; Papotti, Paolo; Quiané -Ruiz, Jorge-Arnulfo; Tang, Nan; Kalnis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Inequality joins, which join relational tables on inequality conditions, are used in various applications. While there have been a wide range of optimization methods for joins in database systems, from algorithms such as sort-merge join and band join, to various indices such as B+-tree, R*-tree and Bitmap, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are usually very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms. We put columns to be joined in sorted arrays and we use permutation arrays to encode positions of tuples in one sorted array w.r.t. the other sorted array. In contrast to sort-merge join, we use space efficient bit-arrays that enable optimizations, such as Bloom filter indices, for fast computation of the join results. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, and a distributed version on top of Spark SQL. We have compared against well known optimization techniques for inequality joins and show that our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster.

  9. Inequality in health versus inequality in lifestyle choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnstein Øvrum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Norwegian cross-sectional data for the period 2005 to 2011 are used to compare sources of inequality in health, as represented by self-assessed health and obesity, with sources of inequality in lifestyles that are central to the production of health, as represented by physical activity, cigarette smoking and dietary behavior. Sources of overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in these lifestyle and health indicators are compared by estimating probit models, and by decomposing the explained part of the associated Gini and concentration indices with respect to education and income. As potential sources of inequality, we consider education, income, occupation, age, gender, marital status, psychological traits and childhood circumstances. Our results suggest that sources of inequality in health are not necessarily representative of sources of inequality in underlying lifestyles. While education is generally an important source of overall inequality in both lifestyles and health, income is unimportant in all lifestyle indicators except physical activity. In several cases, education and income are clearly outranked by other factors in terms of explaining overall inequality, such as gender in eating fruits and vegetables and age in fish consumption. These results suggest that it is important to decompose both overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in different lifestyle and health indicators. In indicators where other factors than education and income are clearly most important, policy makers should consider to target these factors to efficiently improve overall population health.

  10. Inequality in Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Kappel, Nanna

    The overall purpose of the research we want to present, is to discuss how social inequality in health can both be maintained and strengthened- and changed through the health system and health efforts. Our contribution provides a view of a special point of intersection in which the health system...

  11. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  12. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  13. Inequity aversion revisted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first systematic study of the robustness of parameter estimates for the Fehr-Schmidt (1999) model of inequity aversion with respect to (i) the occurrence of efficiency concerns; (ii) the scale of payoffs; and (iii) the game used (i.e., cross-game consistency). Moreover, we provide

  14. Roots of inequity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomba, Susan Wangui; Kariuki, Juliet; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    policy of the project maps onto the existing unequal land distribution, it reinforces inequality. By illustrating how current, well-intended, REDD+ efforts inadvertently come to entrench a long process of dispossession of marginalized people, we call attention to the pivotal importance that historical...

  15. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  16. Inequality and Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2013-01-01

    We argue that perceived fairness of the income generation process affects the association between income inequality and subjective well-being, and that there are systematic differences in this regard between countries that are characterized by a high or, respectively, low level of actual fairness...

  17. Analysis of income inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Federičová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, 7-8 (2011), s. 13-15 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : inequalities * Europe * labour market Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/index.php?disp=teorie&shw=478&lst=117

  18. Gender Inequality in North East India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, Bidisha; Nayak, Purusottam

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of gender inequality in North East India using various indicators based on secondary data. The study reveals that the northeast is better off than that of the nation as a whole in terms of gender equality. However inequality between women and men exists in the region in spite of the predominance of various ethnic groups who by and large do not believe in sex discrimination. The study reveals that women are relatively disempowered and enjoy...

  19. Critical point inequalities and scaling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A refined and extended version of the Buckingham-Gunton inequality relating various pairs of critical exponents is shown to be valid for a large class of statistical mechanical models. If this inequality is an equality (in the refined sense) and one of the critical exponents has a non-Gaussian value, then any scaling limit must be non-Gaussian. This result clarifies the relationships between the nontriviality of triviality of the scaling limit for ordinary critical points in four dimensions (or tricritical points in three dimensions) and the existence of logarithmic factors in the asymptotics which define the two critical exponents. (orig.) [de

  20. Radial fractional Laplace operators and Hessian inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Fausto; Verbitsky, Igor E.

    In this paper we deduce a formula for the fractional Laplace operator ( on radially symmetric functions useful for some applications. We give a criterion of subharmonicity associated with (, and apply it to a problem related to the Hessian inequality of Sobolev type: ∫Rn |(u| dx⩽C∫Rn -uFk[u] dx, where Fk is the k-Hessian operator on Rn, 1⩽kFerrari et al. [5] contains the extremal functions for the Hessian Sobolev inequality of X.-J. Wang (1994) [15]. This is proved using logarithmic convexity of the Gaussian ratio of hypergeometric functions which might be of independent interest.

  1. Energy transition and urban ecological inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamman, Philippe; Christen, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with social inequalities in the relationship to the environment, by looking at the capacity of actors to mobilize around renewable energy initiatives in the context of the energy transition. It is based on field surveys (qualitative and quantitative) on an urban scale, conducted between 2012 and 2015 in the metropolitan area of Strasbourg. We show that the emphasis on resident involvement masks the reality of rather prescriptive 'eco-innovations'; and that the differentiated relations of the inhabitants to the technical tools meant to materialize renewable energy reveal ecological inequalities that reinforce socio-economic division in the city

  2. European health inequality through the 'Great Recession': social policy matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Saltkjel, Therese; Chen, Wen-Hao; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the association between the Great Recession and educational inequalities in self-rated general health in 25 European countries. We investigate four different indicators related to economic recession: GDP; unemployment; austerity and a 'crisis' indicator signifying severe simultaneous drops in GDP and welfare generosity. We also assess the extent to which health inequality changes can be attributed to changes in the economic conditions and social capital in the European populations. The paper uses data from the European Social Survey (2002-2014). The analyses include both cross-sectional and lagged associations using multilevel linear regression models with country fixed effects. This approach allows us to identify health inequality changes net of all time-invariant differences between countries. GDP drops and increasing unemployment were associated with decreasing health inequalities. Austerity, however, was related to increasing health inequalities, an association that grew stronger with time. The strongest increase in health inequality was found for the more robust 'crisis' indicator. Changes in trust, social relationships and in the experience of economic hardship of the populations accounted for much of the increase in health inequality. The paper concludes that social policy has an important role in the development of health inequalities, particularly during times of economic crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  3. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  4. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-09-24

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  5. Health inequality - determinants and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manual, Celie

    2012-01-01

    The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy....... The review seeks to identify the causes of this social inequality. The analysis finds 12 areas of great importance for the inequality in health. This is i.e. early child development, schooling and education, the health behavior of the population, and the role of the health system. Within each of the 12 areas...

  6. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues.

  7. Measuring health inequalities over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bergonzoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: several methodologies have been used to measure health inequalities. Most of them do so in a cross- sectional fashion, causing significant loss of information. None of them measure health inequalities in social territories over time. Methods: this article presents two approaches measure health inequalities: one approach consists of a refinement of cross-sectional study, by using the analysis of ANOVA variance (ANOVA procedure to explore whether the gap between social territories is real or due to chance. Several adjustments were made to limit errors inevitably found in multiple comparisons. Polynomial procedures were then applied to identify and evaluate any trends. The second sociales se utilizó approach measures the health gap between social territories or strata (as defined in this study over time using the Poisson regression. These approaches were applied using life expectancy and maternal mortality data from Venezuela. Results: a positive relationship between tendenterritories and life expectancy was found, with a significant cia linal trend. The relation between maternal mortality and materna y territorios sociales fue cuadrática. La medición desocial territories was quadratic. The measurement of the la brecha, gap between least developed social territory and the most, a developed territory showed a gap reduction from the first to the second decade, mainly because of an increase of territorio social maternal mortality in the more developed area, rather than a real improvement in the least developed. Conclusions: study helps to clarify the impact that public policies and interventions have in reducing the health gap. Knowledge that a health gap between social territories can decrease without showing improvement in the least developed sector , is an important finding for monitoring and evaluating health interventions for improving living and health conditions in the population.

  8. Economic and social distance: Perceived income inequality negatively predicts an interdependent self-construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ángel; Willis, Guillermo B; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa

    2017-07-03

    Previous research has shown that economic inequality influences how people are related with others. In this article, we suggest that perceived economic inequality influences self-construal. Specifically, we propose that higher economic inequality leads to an independent self-construal, whereas lower economic inequality leads to an interdependent self-construal. Correlational data from Studies 1a and 1b revealed that people who perceive lower levels of economic inequality tend to show higher levels of interdependent self-construal, even after controlling for social class. In Study 2, using an experimental design, we found that perceived high economic inequality leads to a more independent and less interdependent self-construal compared to the low economic inequality condition. These results expand the literature bridging the gap between a macro-social factor, such as economic inequality, and a micro-social factor, such as self-construal. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Conference on Inequalities and Applications : Dedicated to the Memory of Wolfgang Walter

    CERN Document Server

    Gilányi, Attila; Losonczi, László; Plum, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities arise as an essential component in various mathematical areas. Besides forming a highly important collection of tools, e.g. for proving analytic or stochastic theorems or for deriving error estimates in numerical mathematics, they constitute a challenging research field of their own. Inequalities also appear directly in mathematical models for applications in science, engineering, and economics. This edited volume covers divers aspects of this fascinating field. It addresses classical inequalities related to means or to convexity as well as inequalities arising in the field of ordinary and partial differential equations, like Sobolev or Hardy-type inequalities, and inequalities occurring in geometrical contexts. Within the last five decades, the late Wolfgang Walter has made great contributions to the field of inequalities. His book on differential and integral inequalities was a real breakthrough in the 1970’s and has generated a vast variety of further research in this field. He also organize...

  10. Wealth inequality: The physics basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Errera, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    "Inequality" is a common observation about us, as members of society. In this article, we unify physics with economics by showing that the distribution of wealth is related proportionally to the movement of all the streams of a live society. The hierarchical distribution of wealth on the earth happens naturally. Hierarchy is unavoidable, with staying power, and difficult to efface. We illustrate this with two architectures, river basins and the movement of freight. The physical flow architecture that emerges is hierarchical on the surface of the earth and in everything that flows inside the live human bodies, the movement of humans and their belongings, and the engines that drive the movement. The nonuniform distribution of wealth becomes more accentuated as the economy becomes more developed, i.e., as its flow architecture becomes more complex for the purpose of covering smaller and smaller interstices of the overall (fixed) territory. It takes a relatively modest complexity for the nonuniformity in the distribution of wealth to be evident. This theory also predicts the Lorenz-type distribution of income inequality, which was adopted empirically for a century.

  11. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  12. Monitoring gender remuneration inequalities in academia using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... age, research output and qualifications are related to remuneration. The CVA biplots show narrowing, widening and constant gender remuneration gaps in diffferent faculties. Keywords: alpha-bag, academia, biplot, canonical variate analysis, gender inequality, multivariate, wage gap. ORiON Vol. 24 (1) 2008: pp. 49-73 ...

  13. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  14. Two-party Bell inequalities derived from combinatorics via triangular elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avis, David; Imai, Hiroshi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Yuuya

    2005-01-01

    We establish a relation between the two-party Bell inequalities for two-valued measurements and a high-dimensional convex polytope called the cut polytope in polyhedral combinatorics. Using this relation, we propose a method, triangular elimination, to derive tight Bell inequalities from facets of the cut polytope. This method gives two hundred million inequivalent tight Bell inequalities from currently known results on the cut polytope. In addition, this method gives general formulae which represent families of infinitely many Bell inequalities. These results can be used to examine general properties of Bell inequalities

  15. Bell's inequalities and physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylinski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Bell's theory proves the nonlocal character of quantum mechanics alien to the theory of relativity, which shows how essential were the objections of Einstein against quantum mechanics. Since the experiment on Bell's inequalities favours quantum mechanics, this forces one to revise the notion of physical reality. According to Heisenberg one should distinguish between the quantum-potential reality of relations and the classical-actual reality of events. The hypothesis of internal space-time put forward in previous papers supplies the geometrical framework of such a philosophy. Consequently, relations between the constituents of isolated systems precede the space-time events, which fact essentially modifies the meaning of quantum nonlocality and the physical reality itself. 19 refs. (author)

  16. EFFORTS AND INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITIES IN THE BOLIVIAN LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Rico Encinas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equitable distribution of income, along with human development indices, is among the factors that differentiate developed from developing countries. In this paper, efforts and other variables related to the circumstances of individuals were quantified and analyzed together with traditional determinants in order to explain inequality in the working population of Bolivia. We estimated econometric models by merging the extended Mincer equation with John Roemer’s theory of Inequality of Opportunity. We find that efforts are important determinants of the levels of wage inequality in the country as well as regional development, labor informality, gender and ethnicity. In this sense, the paper separates the part of wage inequality that may be attributed to situations that are beyond the control of individuals and that can be attributed to conscious decisions. Micro simulations determined that it would be possible to reduce inequality by as much as 21% if it gives people the chance to make similar efforts to improve their wages.

  17. Rawls and Piketty: the philosophical aspects of economic inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Sunajko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a key contemporary problem, that of inequality. Certainly, the most visible inequality today is economic inequality, which is not only a characteristic found today, but is also the result of a long historical development. The problem arises when inequality becomes artificial (produces itself and thus becomes a matter of social sciences and humanities. At this point, the question of economic inequality becomes a non-economic issue and thus opens the possibility of formulating such principles that will be able to reduce the issue to a minimum. This paper discusses this possibility, while referring to Thomas Piketty’s book on capital in relation to John Rawls’s principles of justice to which Piketty refers to.

  18. Gender (inequality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwér Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (inequality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (inequality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (inequality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  19. Inequalities in health and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavio-Mannila, E

    1986-01-01

    Gender inequalities in health are studied in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden on the basis of survey data on morbidity and symptoms of anxiety, and of mental hospitalization statistics. Women have higher rates of illness than men in countries where, and in periods when, they have to a great extent stayed at home as full-time housewives. Participation in paid economic activity and the resulting economical independence thus seems to be beneficial to women's health on the macro-level of society. On the micro-level of individual families, inequality in morbidity by gender is smaller in families with two economical providers than in families where the wife stays at home. The anxiety rates of employed wives are, however, relatively high compared with those of men and non-employed wives. Only in Sweden is the mental health of employed wives good, perhaps because of supportive social policies favouring women's work outside the home. The strain involved in combining family and work among women thus becomes manifest in the appearance of symptoms of anxiety but not in physical morbidity nor mental hospitalization.

  20. Tackling Health Inequalities Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild Gundersen

    of this study. It is based on three sources: 1. Interviews with policymakers (administrators and politicians) within healthcare administrations, childhood/education, and labour market administrations from September 2014 to March 2015*. 2. Textual analysis of available policy documents from regions...... of translating small inequalities in wealth into small inequalities in health. Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have legislation that indifferent ways offers local governments key roles in public health. This is partly due to local governments’ responsibility for many policy areas of great relevance to health...... state model, including its health policy, as an area of Nordic collaboration (104). However, realising the principle of health (equity) in all policiesis no simple matter. The national authorities and local government federations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have therefore initiated various activities...

  1. Inequalities in health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    would have been expected on the assumption of additivity of the singular effects of these variables. It is suggested that it is necessary to highlight in further research the complex interactions and pathways between factors associated with health outcomes to improve our understanding of the causal...... of the study is to analyse the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances in explaining inequalities in health. It is based on a theoretical framework which presupposes that inequalities in health are likely to be explained by a complicated process involving a multitude of factors....... At the same time, differential exposures and differential responses to risk factors between socio-economic classes for certain health outcomes are determined. The joint effect on general health status, seven years later, of being a manual worker and having reported psychosomatic symptoms is 113% greater than...

  2. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  3. Globalization, Inequality, and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Badinger; Elisabeth Nindl

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the determinants of corruption, focussing on the role of globalization and inequality. The estimates for a panel of 102 countries over the period 1995-2005 point to three main results: i) Detection technologies, reflected in a high level of development, human capital, and political rights reduce corruption, whereas natural resource rents increase corruption. ii) Globalization (in terms of both trade and financial openness) has a neg...

  4. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  5. Financial Globalization and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Kunieda, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how financial globalization and financial development affect income inequality within a country. We demonstrate that when a country is financially closed to the world market, the Gini coefficient is monotonically decreasing with respect to the degree of financial development, whereas when a country becomes so small due to financial globalization that financial development in the country does not affect the world interest rate, the Gini coefficient is monotonically incr...

  6. On the measurement of the (multidimensional) inequality of health distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    a standard mathematical structure. We single out two families of (absolute and relative) multidimensional health inequality indices, inspired by the classical normative approach to income inequality measurement. We also discuss how to extend the analysis to deal with the related problem of health deprivation......Health outcomes are often described according to two dimensions: quality of life and quantity of life. We analyze the measurement of inequality of health distributions referring to these two dimensions. Our analysis relies on a novel treatment of the quality-of-life dimension, which might not have...

  7. Global carbon inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Munoz Castillo, Raul; Sun, Laixiang; Xue, Jinjun

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  8. A Story of Large Land Owners and Math Skills: Inequality and Human Capital Formation in the Long-Run Development, 1820-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baten, J.; Juif, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We create a new dataset to test the influence of land inequality on long-run human capital formation in a global cross-country study and assess the importance of land inequality relative to income inequality. Our results show that early land inequality has a detrimental influence on math and science

  9. More on operator Bellman inequality | Mirzapour | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a Bellman inequality involving operator means for operators acting on a Hilbert space. We also give some Bellman inequalities concerning sesquilinear forms. Finally, we re ne the Jensen's operator inequality and use it for obtaining a re nement of the Bellman operator inequality. Keywords: Bellman inequality ...

  10. Some New Ostrowski Type Inequalities via Fractional Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Farid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We have found a new version of well known Ostrowski inequality in a very simple and antique way via Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals. Also some related results have been derived.

  11. An isoperimetric problem for point interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 22 (2005), s. 4795-4802 ISSN 0305-4470 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : eigenvalues * Laplacians Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2005

  12. Conference on Inequalities and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Losonczi, László; Gilányi, Attila; Páles, Zsolt; Plum, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Inequalities continue to play an essential role in mathematics. Perhaps, they form the last field comprehended and used by mathematicians in all areas of the discipline. Since the seminal work Inequalities (1934) by Hardy, Littlewood and Pólya, mathematicians have laboured to extend and sharpen their classical inequalities. New inequalities are discovered every year, some for their intrinsic interest whilst others flow from results obtained in various branches of mathematics. The study of inequalities reflects the many and various aspects of mathematics. On one hand, there is the systematic search for the basic principles and the study of inequalities for their own sake. On the other hand, the subject is the source of ingenious ideas and methods that give rise to seemingly elementary but nevertheless serious and challenging problems. There are numerous applications in a wide variety of fields, from mathematical physics to biology and economics. This volume contains the contributions of the participants of th...

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health than less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, trends in these inequalities among Scandinavian children a...

  14. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health

  15. Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0355 YIP Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Greg Ver Steeg UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES Final Report 10/26...performance report PI: Greg Ver Steeg Young Investigator Award Grant Title: Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Grant #: FA9550-12-1-0417 Reporting...October 20, 2015 Final Report for “Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks” Greg Ver Steeg Abstract This effort studied new methods to understand the effect

  16. Non-commutative Nash inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastoryano, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L p spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups

  17. Against inequality Contra la desigualdad

    OpenAIRE

    Dugger William

    1998-01-01

    William Dugger questions the conventional idea that inequality is necessary for economic development through a historical and institutional examination of five of the major systems of inequality currently existing: racism, sexism, classism, jingoism, and antisemitismo It puts forward various reasons to justify that redistribution is not the solution; that inequality is pathological, cumula tive, and social; that it rests on myth and that current economic doctrine is a mythological
    ...

  18. The Geography of Gender Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset ...

  19. Globalization and Income Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Florian; Fuest, Clemens; Potrafke, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    This paper re-examines the link between globalization and income inequality. We use data for 140 countries over the period 1970-2014 and employ an IV approach to deal with the endogeneity of globalization measures. We find that the link between globalization and income inequality differs across different groups of countries. There is a robust positive relationship between globalization and inequality in the transition countries including China and most countries of Middle and Eastern Europe. ...

  20. Improvement of Aczél's Inequality and Popoviciu's Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhe Wu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We generalize and sharpen Aczél's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality by means of two classical inequalities, a unified improvement of Aczél's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality is given. As application, an integral inequality of Aczél-Popoviciu type is established.

  1. Gender inequality and economic growth in Spain: an exploratory analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Martín, Rafael; Guijarro Garvi, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the geometric variant of the Gender-Related Development Index with that of the Human Development Index for Spanish provinces (EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics-3, NUTS-3) in 1959, 1981, and 1999. The main objective is to carry out an exploratory analysis of the relationship between these indices and two alternative indices of gender inequality--the Relative Status of Women and the Gender Inequality Index. An analysis of the relationship between thes...

  2. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state

  3. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Koji [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-26

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state.

  4. Income inequality and obesity prevalence among OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dejun; Esqueda, Omar A; Li, Lifeng; Pagán, José A

    2012-07-01

    Using recent pooled data from the World Health Organization Global Infobase and the World Factbook compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, this study assesses the relation between income inequality and obesity prevalence among 31 OECD countries through a series of bivariate and multivariate linear regressions. The United States and Mexico well lead OECD countries in both obesity prevalence and income inequality. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the inclusion or exclusion of these two extreme cases can fundamentally change the findings. When the two countries are included, the results reveal a positive correlation between income inequality and obesity prevalence. This correlation is more salient among females than among males. Income inequality alone is associated with 16% and 35% of the variations in male and female obesity rates, respectively, across OECD countries in 2010. Higher levels of income inequality in the 2005-2010 period were associated with a more rapid increase in obesity prevalence from 2002 to 2010. These associations, however, virtually disappear when the US and Mexico have been excluded from the analysis. Findings from this study underscore the importance of assessing the impact of extreme cases on the relation between income inequality and health outcomes. The potential pathways from income inequality to the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the cases of the US and Mexico warrant further research.

  5. Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality. PMID:26388653

  6. [Gender inequalities in occupational health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucía; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender inequalities in employment and working conditions, the work-life balance, and work-related health problems in a sample of the employed population in Spain in 2007, taking into account social class and the economic sector. Gender inequalities were analyzed by applying 25 indicators to the 11,054 workers interviewed for the VI edition of the National Working Conditions Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), stratifying by occupational social class and economic sector. More women than men worked without a contract (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.51-2.21) and under high-effort/low-reward conditions (1.14:1.05-1.25). Women also experienced more sexual harassment (2.85:1.75-4.62), discrimination (1.60:1.26-2.03) and musculoskeletal pain (1.38:1.19-1.59). More men than women carried out shift work (0.86:0.79-0.94), with high noise levels (0.34:0.30-0.40), and high physical demands (0.58:0.54-0.63). Men also suffered more injuries due to occupational accidents (0.67:0.59-0.76). Women white-collar-workers were more likely than their male counterparts to have a temporary contract (1.34:1.09-1.63), be exposed to psychosocial hazards and discrimination (2.47:1.49-4.09) and have occupational diseases (1.91:1.28-2.83). Gender inequalities were higher in the industry sector. There are substantial gender inequalities in employment, working conditions, and work-related health problems in Spain. These gender inequalities are influenced by social class and the economic sector, and should be considered in the design of public policies in occupational health. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.

  8. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  9. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Konnov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  10. p-adic probability interpretation of Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, A.

    1995-01-01

    We study the violation of Bell's inequality using a p-adic generalization of the theory of probability. p-adic probability is introduced as a limit of relative frequencies but this limit exists with respect to a p-adic metric. In particular, negative probability distributions are well defined on the basis of the frequency definition. This new type of stochastics can be used to describe hidden-variables distributions of some quantum models. If the hidden variables have a p-adic probability distribution, Bell's inequality is not valid and it is not necessary to discuss the experimental violations of this inequality. ((orig.))

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Stirbu, Irina; Roskam, Albert-Jan R

    2008-01-01

    , such as tuberculosis and hypertension. Data on self-assessed health, smoking, and obesity according to education and income were obtained from health or multipurpose surveys. For each country, the association between socioeconomic status and health outcomes was measured with the use of regression-based inequality...... by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behavior, or access to health care.......BACKGROUND: Comparisons among countries can help to identify opportunities for the reduction of inequalities in health. We compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality and self-assessed health among 22 countries in all parts of Europe. METHODS: We obtained data on mortality according...

  12. Global carbon inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubacek, Klaus [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Masaryk University, Department of Environmental Studies, Brno (Czech Republic); Baiocchi, Giovanni [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD (United States); Feng, Kuishuang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Munoz Castillo, Raul [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Interamerican Development Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Sun, Laixiang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); SOAS, University of London, London (United Kingdom); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Xue, Jinjun [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya (Japan); Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  13. The Grothendieck inequality revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Blei, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The classical Grothendieck inequality is viewed as a statement about representations of functions of two variables over discrete domains by integrals of two-fold products of functions of one variable. An analogous statement is proved, concerning continuous functions of two variables over general topological domains. The main result is the construction of a continuous map \\Phi from l^2(A) into L^2(\\Omega_A, \\mathbb{P}_A), where A is a set, \\Omega_A = \\{-1,1\\}^A, and \\mathbb{P}_A is the uniform probability measure on \\Omega_A.

  14. Obesity and inequities. Guidance for addressing inequities in overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    ABSTRACT This policy guidance aims to support European policy-makers to improve the design, implementation and evaluation of interventions and policies to reduce inequities in overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity in Europe is rising in many countries, and rising fastest in low...... socioeconomic population groups. There is a strong relationship between obesity and low socioeconomic status, especially for women. Reducing health inequities is a key strategic objective of Health 2020 – the European policy framework for health and well-being endorsed by the 53 Member States of the WHO...... to reduce the unequal distribution of obesity in Europe, through approaches which address the social determinants of obesity and the related health, social and economic consequences ofthe obesity inequity gradient....

  15. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Sbardella

    Full Text Available Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  16. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  17. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Angelica; Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  18. Income Inequality and Happiness: An Inverted U-Shaped Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghuo; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers. This hypothesis is tested in a longitudinal dataset on the United States and a cross-national dataset on several European countries. In both datasets, the Gini coefficient (a common index of a society's income inequality) and its quadratic term were significant predictors of personal happiness. Further examinations of the quadratic relationships showed that the signal effect was only presented in the European data, while the jealousy effect was presented in both datasets. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the relationship between income inequality and personal happiness.

  19. Income Inequality and Happiness: An Inverted U-Shaped Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghuo Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers. This hypothesis is tested in a longitudinal dataset on the United States and a cross-national dataset on several European countries. In both datasets, the Gini coefficient (a common index of a society’s income inequality and its quadratic term were significant predictors of personal happiness. Further examinations of the quadratic relationships showed that the signal effect was only presented in the European data, while the jealousy effect was presented in both datasets. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the relationship between income inequality and personal happiness.

  20. Income inequality, trust, and population health in 33 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J

    2010-11-01

    I examined the association between income inequality and population health and tested whether this association was mediated by interpersonal trust or public expenditures on health. Individual data on trust were collected from 48 641 adults in 33 countries. These data were linked to country data on income inequality, public health expenditures, healthy life expectancy, and adult mortality. Regression analyses tested for statistical mediation of the association between income inequality and population health outcomes by country differences in trust and health expenditures. Income inequality correlated with country differences in trust (r = -0.51), health expenditures (r = -0.45), life expectancy (r = -0.74), and mortality (r = 0.55). Trust correlated with life expectancy (r = 0.48) and mortality (r = -0.47) and partly mediated their relations to income inequality. Health expenditures did not correlate with life expectancy and mortality, and health expenditures did not mediate links between inequality and health. Income inequality might contribute to short life expectancy and adult mortality in part because of societal differences in trust. Societies with low levels of trust may lack the capacity to create the kind of social supports and connections that promote health and successful aging.

  1. Marketization, occupational segregation, and gender earnings inequality in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangye; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes a large sample of the 2005 population mini-census data and prefecture-level statistics of China to investigate gender earnings inequality in the context of economic marketization, paying special attention to the changing role of occupational segregation in the process. We approximate marketization by employment sectors and also construct an index of marketization at the prefecture level. Results show that, despite the tremendous economic growth, marketization has exacerbated gender earnings inequality in urban China's labor markets. Gender earnings inequality is the smallest in government/public institutions, followed by public enterprises, and then private enterprises. The gender inequality also increases with the prefecture's level of marketization. Multilevel analyses show that occupational segregation plays an important role in affecting gender earnings inequality: the greater the occupational segregation, the more disadvantaged women are relative to men in earnings in a prefecture's labor market. Moreover, the impact of occupational segregation on gender earnings inequality increases with the prefectural level of marketization. These findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of gender earnings inequality and have important implications for policy to promote gender equality in urban China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  3. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary…

  4. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  5. The Geography of Gender Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.

  6. The Geography of Gender Inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Fisher

    Full Text Available Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.

  7. Bell inequalities for random fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Peter [Physics Department, Yale University, CT 06520 (United States)

    2006-06-09

    The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not satisfied for random field models in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.

  8. Bell inequalities for random fields

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not usually satisfied for random fields in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.

  9. Microscopic and macroscopic bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Bell inequalities, being derived for micro-systems, cannot be tested by (macroscopic) experiments without additional assumptions. A macroscopic definition of local realism is proposed which might be the starting point for deriving Bell inequalities testable without auxiliary assumptions. (orig.)

  10. Nonlocal interactions and Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garuccio, A.; Selleri, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that natural extensions of the local hidden variable theories to include nonlocal effects still lead to a full validity of Bell's inequality. It is conjectured that the essential point expressed by this inequality is not locality, but the wave-particle dualism

  11. Strongly nonlinear parabolic variational inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, F E; Brézis, H

    1980-02-01

    An existence and uniqueness result is established for a general class of variational inequalities for parabolic partial differential equations of the form partial differentialu/ partial differentialt + A(u) + g(u) = f with g nondecreasing but satisfying no growth condition. The proof is based upon a type of compactness result for solutions of variational inequalities that should find a variety of other applications.

  12. Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahelma, Eero; Kivelä, Katariina; Roos, Eva

    2002-01-01

    -standing illness and perceived health were analysed by age, gender, employment status and educational attainment. First, age-adjusted overall prevalence percentages were calculated. Second, changes in the magnitude of relative health inequalities were studied using logistic regression analysis. Within each country......This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural......'development influenced health inequalities by employment status and educational attainment, i.e. whether the trends in health inequalities were similar or dissimilar between the Nordic countries. The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1986/87 and 1994/95 in the four countries. Limiting long...

  13. Universal patterns of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2010-07-01

    Probability distributions of money, income and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end, in agreement with the empirical data for the USA. We show that the increase in income inequality in the USA originates primarily from the increase in the income fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income. Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990, 2000 and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality of energy consumption.

  14. Measuring resource inequalities. The concepts and methodology for an area-based Gini coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, A.; Jackson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Although inequalities in income and expenditure are relatively well researched, comparatively little attention has been paid, to date, to inequalities in resource use. This is clearly a shortcoming when it comes to developing informed policies for sustainable consumption and social justice. This paper describes an indicator of inequality in resource use called the AR-Gini. The AR-Gini is an area-based measure of resource inequality that estimates inequalities between neighbourhoods with regard to the consumption of specific consumer goods. It is also capable of estimating inequalities in the emissions resulting from resource use, such as carbon dioxide emissions from energy use, and solid waste arisings from material resource use. The indicator is designed to be used as a basis for broadening the discussion concerning 'food deserts' to inequalities in other types of resource use. By estimating the AR-Gini for a wide range of goods and services we aim to enhance our understanding of resource inequalities and their drivers, identify which resources have highest inequalities, and to explore trends in inequalities. The paper describes the concepts underlying the construction of the AR-Gini and its methodology. Its use is illustrated by pilot applications (specifically, men's and boys' clothing, carpets, refrigerators/freezers and clothes washer/driers). The results illustrate that different levels of inequality are associated with different commodities. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of some possible policy implications of the AR-Gini. (author)

  15. How education determine wage inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Student Ionuț Constantin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems the economy of the past 50 years has been generated by the increase to differences in income between workers with a level of preparedness higher compared to those with a poor level of training. There is a view that education can lead to greater inequality of income. Analyzing the current situation of increasing inequalities in most developed societies in which there is a high level of education, with schools that are financed by public funds, we can reach the conclusion that a labor force educated young will be associated with an increase in inequality of income, so education does not reduce social inequality, reducing inequality is necessary for the education of the active population is high but one uniform

  16. Inequalities, assessment and computer algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary curricula. We consider the formal mathematical processes by which such inequalities are solved, and we consider the notation and syntax through which solutions are expressed. We review the extent to which current CAS can accurately solve these inequalities, and the form given to the solutions by the designers of this software. Finally, we discuss the functionality needed to deal with students' answers, i.e. to establish equivalence (or otherwise) of expressions representing unions of intervals. We find that while contemporary CAS accurately solve inequalities there is a wide variety of notation used.

  17. (Mis)perceptions of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P; Norton, Michael I

    2017-12-01

    Laypeople's beliefs about the current distribution of outcomes such as income and wealth in their country influence their attitudes toward issues ranging from taxation to healthcare - but how accurate are these beliefs? We review the burgeoning literature on (mis)perceptions of inequality. First, we show that people on average misperceive current levels of inequality, typically underestimating the extent of inequality in their country. Second, we delineate potential causes of these misperceptions, including people's overreliance on cues from their local environment, leading to their erroneous beliefs about both the overall distributions of wealth and income and their place in those distributions. Third, we document that these (mis)perceptions of inequality - but not actual levels of inequality - drive behavior and preferences for redistribution. More promisingly, we review research suggesting that correcting misperceptions influences preferences and policy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Noise nuisance and health inequalities in Belgium: a population study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, C; Lorant, V

    2009-01-01

    Context Lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to live in contaminated environments. This may partly explain socioeconomic health inequalities. Aims Does noise nuisance contribute to socio-economic inequalities in subjective health? Method This research is based on the last Belgian census data carried out in 2001. We work on a 10% sample of the Belgian population. The data are processed through bivariate and multivariate analyses. We model poor subjective health in relation to exposure to...

  19. Inheritance and wealth inequality: Evidence from population registers

    OpenAIRE

    Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We use new population-wide register data on inheritances and wealth in Sweden to estimate the causal impact of inheritances on wealth inequality. We find that inheritances reduce relative wealth inequality (e.g., the Gini coefficient falls by 5–10 percent) but that absolute dispersion increases. Examining different parts of the wealth distribution, we find that the top decile's wealth share decreases substantially, whereas the wealth share of the bottom half increases from a negative to a pos...

  20. Income inequality, gene expression, and brain maturation during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Nadine; Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Income inequality is associated with poor health and social outcomes. Negative social comparisons and competition may involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in underlying some of these complex inter-relationships. Here we investigate brain maturation, indexed by age-related decreases in cortical thickness, in adolescents living in neighborhoods with differing levels of income inequality and household income. We examine whether inter-regi...

  1. Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process?

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \\gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then inc...

  2. Inequality or injustice in water use for food?

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, J. A.; Seekell, David A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2015-01-01

    The global distributions of water availability and population density are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources. Is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water, and the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring 'virtual water' embedded in plant and animal commodities. We defined human welfare benc...

  3. Certain Inequalities Involving the Fractional q-Integral Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Baleanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some inequalities involving Saigo fractional q-integral operator in the theory of quantum calculus by using the two parameters of deformation, q1 and q2, whose special cases are shown to yield corresponding inequalities associated with Riemann-Liouville and Kober fractional q-integral operators, respectively. Furthermore, we also consider their relevance with other related known results.

  4. Decomposing Educational Inequalities in Child Mortality: A Temporal Trend Analysis of Access to Water and Sanitation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bohra, Tasneem; Benmarhnia, Tarik; McKinnon, Britt; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of inequality in health and mortality have largely focused on income-based inequality. Maternal education plays an important role in determining access to water and sanitation, and inequalities in child mortality arising due to differential access, especially in low- and middle-income countries such as Peru. This article aims to explain education-related inequalities in child mortality in Peru using a regression-based decomposition of the concentration index of child mortalit...

  5. Socioeconomic inequality in neonatal mortality in countries of low and middle income: a multicountry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Britt; Harper, Sam; Kaufman, Jay S; Bergevin, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) in countries of low and middle income have been only slowly decreasing; coverage of essential maternal and newborn health services needs to increase, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Our aim was to produce comparable estimates of changes in socioeconomic inequalities in NMR in the past two decades across these countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for countries in which a survey was done in 2008 or later and one about 10 years previously. We measured absolute inequalities with the slope index of inequality and relative inequalities with the relative index of inequality. We used an asset-based wealth index and maternal education as measures of socioeconomic position and summarised inequality estimates for all included countries with random-effects meta-analysis. 24 low-income and middle-income countries were eligible for inclusion. In most countries, absolute and relative wealth-related and educational inequalities in NMR decreased between survey 1 and survey 2. In five countries (Cameroon, Nigeria, Malawi, Mozambique, and Uganda), the difference in NMR between the top and bottom of the wealth distribution was reduced by more than two neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths per year. By contrast, wealth-related inequality increased by more than 1·5 neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths per year in Ethiopia and Cambodia. Patterns of change in absolute and relative educational inequalities in NMR were similar to those of wealth-related NMR inequalities, although the size of educational inequalities tended to be slightly larger. Socioeconomic inequality in NMR seems to have decreased in the past two decades in most countries of low and middle income. However, a substantial survival advantage remains for babies born into wealthier households with a high educational level, which should be considered in global efforts to further reduce NMR. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Copyright © 2014 Mc

  6. Measurement of gender inequality in neighbourhoods of Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamambang Lum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies have measured gender inequality at levels lower than the country. We sought to develop neighbourhood indicators of gender inequality, and assess their ability to capture variability in gender inequality across Québec, Canada. Methods Aggregate 2001 census data for 11,564 neighbourhoods were obtained for men and women. Twelve indicators of gender inequality representing demographic/household characteristics, education, income, work/leisure, and political participation were selected. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality scores were computed for each indicator, and examined across parts of Québec (metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, rural areas. Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the ability of indicators to capture heterogeneity in gender inequality across neighbourhoods. Results Male-dominant neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present for average employment income, labour force participation, employment rate, and employment in managerial positions. Female-dominant gender inequality tended to be present for divorce, single-headed households, and participation in unpaid housework, child and elderly care. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to vary across metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, and rural areas. Gender inequality scores also varied within these geographic areas. For example, there was greater income-related gender inequality in high than low income neighbourhoods. Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the variation in gender inequality across neighbourhoods was greater than expected with chance alone. Conclusion Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present in Québec, and varied across parts of the province. Greater awareness of and research on neighbourhood-level gender inequality may be warranted to inform gender policies in Québec and other nations.

  7. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  8. Health Inequalities in Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2017-01-01

    The existence of social inequalities in health is well established. One strand of research focuses on inequalities in health within a single country. A separate and newer strand of research focuses on the relationship between inequality and average population health across countries. Despite the theorization of (presumably variable) social conditions as “fundamental causes” of disease and health, the cross-national literature has focused on average, aggregate population health as the central outcome. Controversies currently surround macro-structural determinants of overall population health such as income inequality. We advance and redirect these debates by conceptualizing inequalities in health as cross-national variables that are sensitive to social conditions. Using data from 48 World Values Survey countries, representing 74% of the world’s population, we examine cross-national variation in inequalities in health. The results reveal substantial variation in health inequalities according to income, education, sex, and migrant status. While higher socioeconomic position is associated with better self-rated health around the globe, the size of the association varies across institutional context, and across dimensions of stratification. There is some evidence that education and income are more strongly associated with self-rated health than sex or migrant status. PMID:29104292

  9. Inequality and poverty in the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2010-01-01

    Denmark has experienced high levels of employment since the mid-1990s, and the unemployment rate in 2008 was the lowest since the 1970s. Paradoxically, the levels of relative poverty and inequality increased during the same period. This paradox only applies to poverty studies based on median...... disposal income, but this approach is the most widespread in Danish research. However, there is general agreement concerning the increasing inequality and that groups such as young people, ethnic minorities and those relying on social assistance are increasingly at risk. Contrary to theories...... of globalisation and demographical changes in the Danish case, the rising inequality appears to be especially driven by the housing and stock markets. The so-called ‘financial crisis’ has affected both of these markets deeply, which could have an impact on any further developments in inequality. Conversely...

  10. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage......The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across...

  11. Testing Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris

    1991-01-01

    Testing Bell's inequalities described in the paper 'On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox' the conclusions were extremely clear and completely convincing, but there was something special about this paper: it led to two contradictory conclusions. The first part showed that EPR correlations predicted by quantum mechanics are so strong that one can hardly avoid the conclusion that quantum mechanics should be completed by some supplementary parameters (the so-called 'hidden-variables'). But the second part demonstrated that the hidden-variables description in fact contradicts some predictions of quantum mechanics, which is to say both theories predict different results. At the end of the sixties, there was no experimental result to answer the question. The contradiction discovered by John Bell is so subtle that it was necessary to design and build specific experiments. The problems of such experiments are discussed. (R.P.) 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. [Mental income inequality: a "virus" which affects health and happiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Léandre; Dubé, Micheline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of income inequality on various indexes of mental health and on happiness in wealthy nations. Initially, the unequal distribution of income is documented in wealthy nations, especially in the United States of America. After the World War II, income equality was at a level never reached before, but since the eighties, income inequality has raised dramatically in many industrialized countries. The 2008 crisis has worsened the situation in many of them, particularly in the United States. Furthermore, prejudices have increased against women, Blacks, Spanish-speakers and those who receive social welfare. A selective review of the literature is made in order to document the impact of income inequality on a few indicators of mental health (from WHO, UN, UNICEF, OCDE and World Bank) and on happiness, defined here as life satisfaction. Income inequality is positively related to the following indexes: Index of Mental Illness from the WHO (0.73), Index of the United Nations' Office on Drug Consumption (0.63) and a composite Index of ten psychosocial problems, constituted by Wilkinson and Pickett, 2013 (0.87). On the other hand, income inequality is negatively associated to the UNICEF Index of Child Well-Being (-0.71). Furthermore, the level of anxiety and of depression is higher in countries where income inequality is greater. The correlation between happiness and income inequality in the 23 wealthy nations is -0.48; this correlation becomes -0.41 after control of the effect of the GNP (Gross National Product). These results support the idea that it is relative income - not absolute income - which matters in the evaluation of our life and of our happiness. In underdeveloped nations, any increase in GNP promotes the well-being of the citizens; whereas in wealthy nations, it is the equality of the distribution that is more important. Many arguments supporting the causal relation from income inequality to psychosocial

  13. Is inequality at the heart of it? Cross-country associations of income inequality with cardiovascular diseases and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hoorn, Stephen Vander; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-04-01

    Despite a number of cross-national studies that have examined the associations between income inequality and broad health outcomes such as life expectancy and all-cause mortality, investigations of the cross-country relations between income inequality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity, mortality, and risk factors are sparse. We analyzed the cross-national relations between income inequality and age-standardized mean body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP), obesity prevalence, smoking impact ratio (SIR), and age-standardized and age-specific disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, controlling for multiple country-level factors and specifying 5- to 10-year lag periods. In multivariable analyses primarily limited to industrialized countries, countries in the middle and highest (vs. lowest) tertiles of income inequality had higher absolute age-standardized obesity prevalences in both sexes. Higher income inequality was also related to higher mean SBP in both sexes, and higher SIR in women. In analyses of larger sets of countries with available data, positive associations were observed between higher income inequality and mean BMI, obesity prevalence, and CHD DALYs and mortality rates. Associations with stroke outcomes were inverse, yet became positive with the inclusion of eastern bloc and other countries in recent economic/political transition. China was also identified to be an influential data point, with the positive associations with stroke mortality rates becoming attenuated with its inclusion. Overall, our findings are compatible with harmful effects of income inequality at the national scale on CVD morbidity, mortality, and selected risk factors, particularly BMI/obesity. Future studies should consider income inequality as an independent contributor to variations in CVD burden globally.

  14. The Oxford handbook of economic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Smeeding, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential guide for students and researchers interested in economic inequality Contains 27 original research contributions from the top names in economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a new and challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on

  15. Jensen's operator inequality and its converses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Pecaric, Josip; Peric, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities......We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities...

  16. Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…

  17. Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Shirado, Hirokazu; Rand, David G; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-10-15

    Humans prefer relatively equal distributions of resources, yet societies have varying degrees of economic inequality. To investigate some of the possible determinants and consequences of inequality, here we perform experiments involving a networked public goods game in which subjects interact and gain or lose wealth. Subjects (n = 1,462) were randomly assigned to have higher or lower initial endowments, and were embedded within social networks with three levels of economic inequality (Gini coefficient = 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4). In addition, we manipulated the visibility of the wealth of network neighbours. We show that wealth visibility facilitates the downstream consequences of initial inequality-in initially more unequal situations, wealth visibility leads to greater inequality than when wealth is invisible. This result reflects a heterogeneous response to visibility in richer versus poorer subjects. We also find that making wealth visible has adverse welfare consequences, yielding lower levels of overall cooperation, inter-connectedness, and wealth. High initial levels of economic inequality alone, however, have relatively few deleterious welfare effects.

  18. From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James

    2015-04-18

    Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. The effects of income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candidate Ionuţ Constantin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over time have been addressed many possible effects arising from inequalities of income. Criticism for each of these effects were immediate, most of them claiming that the selection of samples used to demonstrate the assumptions made were „carefully” selected in order to achieve the target and that there is not a direct relationship between income inequality (their increment and these effects. Of the many effects that income inequalities have, identified in the literature, this paper will analyze three of them, namely: economic growth, human capital and social cohesion.

  1. Health Inequalities Among Korean Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsuk Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social status might be a determinant of occupational health inequalities. This study analyzed the effects of social status on both work environments and health outcomes. Methods: The study sample consisted of 27,598 wage employees aged 15 years and older from among the Korean Working Condition Survey participants in 2011. Work environments included atypical work, physical risks, ergonomic risks, work demands, work autonomy, social supports, and job rewards. Health outcomes comprised general health, health and safety at risk because of work, the World Health Organization-5 Well-being Index, work-related musculoskeletal disease, and work-related injury. Multivariable logistic-regression models were used to identify the associations between social status and work environments and health outcomes. Results: Employees in the demographically vulnerable group had lower occupational status compared with their counterparts. Low social status was largely related to adverse work environments. Especially, precarious employment and manual labor occupation were associated with both adverse work environments and poor health outcomes. Conclusion: Precarious and manual workers should take precedence in occupational health equity policies and interventions. Their cumulative vulnerability, which is connected to demographics, occupational status, adverse work environments, or poor health outcomes, can be improved through a multilevel approach such as labor market, organizations, and individual goals. Keywords: employee health, health equity, social status

  2. Gender inequality and gender differences in authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J

    2012-10-01

    Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.

  3. Digital inequalities and different experiences of ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    of such - actually means to different people. My research is based on the assumption that people’s access to (and use of) media is integral to the power relations of current social and cultural transformations. In order to contribute to user-centered and practice-based understandings of why and how media matters......The complexity of the emerging digital media environment inevitably raises questions about digital literacy and social inequality. However, a major shortcoming of the existing research on digital inequality in later life is that it tells us little to nothing about how and why media actually matters...... to different older people and how this intersects with dis- or empowerment in later life and social segmentation. The way people use (digital) media in everyday life therefore constitutes a critical access-point to the study of differences in ageing as well as to the study of what literacy - or the lack...

  4. Bell inequalities in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yibing; Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng

    2007-01-01

    We review in this paper the research status on testing the completeness of Quantum mechanics in High Energy Physics, especially on the Bell Inequalities. We briefly introduce the basic idea of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen paradox and the results obtained in photon experiments. In the content of testing the Bell inequalities in high energy physics, the early attempts of using spin correlations in particle decays and later on the mixing of neutral mesons used to form the quasi-spin entangled states are covered. The related experimental results in K 0 and B 0 systems are presented and discussed. We introduce the new scheme, which is based on the non-maximally entangled state and proposed to implement in φ factory, in testing the Local Hidden Variable Theory. And, we also discuss about the possibility of realising it to the tau charm factory. (authors)

  5. Inequality in Fetal Autopsy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Tiandrazana, Rémi-Claude; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Costopoulos, André

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in use of fetal autopsy is poorly understood, despite the importance of autopsy in establishing the cause of stillbirth for future prevention. We examined fetal autopsy rates between linguistic minorities in Quebec, Canada, and assessed trends over three decades. Using registry data on 11,992 stillbirths from 1981-2011, we calculated fetal autopsy rates for Francophones, Anglophones, and Allophones by decade. We found lower fetal autopsy rates for Allophones (54.4%) than Francophones (68.5%) and Anglophones (63.4%), but rates decreased over time for all language groups. After 2000, Allophones had 25% higher risk of non-autopsy relative to Francophones, with 8.8 fewer autopsies for every 100 stillbirths. Allophones who were not autopsied had 32% higher risk of having an undetermined cause of death. Inequality in use of fetal autopsy may be widespread for minorities in Canada. Efforts to decrease stillbirth in minorities may require policies to increase autopsy rates.

  6. Changes in socioeconomic inequality in Indonesian children's cognitive function from 2000 to 2007: a decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Maika

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children's cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. METHODS: Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS were used. Study participants were children aged 7-14 years (n = 6179 and n = 6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. The relative concentration index (RCI was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. RESULTS: Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI = 0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36 in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20 in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%, use of improved sanitation (25% and per capita expenditures (18% were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children's cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children's cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia.

  7. Changes in socioeconomic inequality in Indonesian children's cognitive function from 2000 to 2007: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brinkman, Sally; Harper, Sam; Satriawan, Elan; Lynch, John W

    2013-01-01

    Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children's cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) were used. Study participants were children aged 7-14 years (n = 6179 and n = 6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). The relative concentration index (RCI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI = 0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36) in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20) in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%), use of improved sanitation (25%) and per capita expenditures (18%) were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children's cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children's cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia.

  8. Multilevel survival analysis of health inequalities in life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlo Juan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of individuals is determined by multiple factors operating at both micro and macro levels and the interactive effects of them. Measures of health inequalities should reflect such determinants explicitly through sources of levels and combining mean differences at group levels and the variation of individuals, for the benefits of decision making and intervention planning. Measures derived recently from marginal models such as beta-binomial and frailty survival, address this issue to some extent, but are limited in handling data with complex structures. Beta-binomial models were also limited in relation to measuring inequalities of life expectancy (LE directly. Methods We propose a multilevel survival model analysis that estimates life expectancy based on survival time with censored data. The model explicitly disentangles total health inequalities in terms of variance components of life expectancy compared to the source of variation at the level of individuals in households and parishes and so on, and estimates group differences of inequalities at the same time. Adjusted distributions of life expectancy by gender and by household socioeconomic level are calculated. Relative and absolute health inequality indices are derived based on model estimates. The model based analysis is illustrated on a large Swedish cohort of 22,680 men and 26,474 women aged 65–69 in 1970 and followed up for 30 years. Model based inequality measures are compared to the conventional calculations. Results Much variation of life expectancy is observed at individual and household levels. Contextual effects at Parish and Municipality level are negligible. Women have longer life expectancy than men and lower inequality. There is marked inequality by the level of household socioeconomic status measured by the median life expectancy in each socio-economic group and the variation in life expectancy within each group. Conclusion Multilevel

  9. Correlations in star networks: from Bell inequalities to network inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Renou, Marc Olivier; Gisin, Nicolas; Brunner, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The problem of characterizing classical and quantum correlations in networks is considered. Contrary to the usual Bell scenario, where distant observers share a physical system emitted by one common source, a network features several independent sources, each distributing a physical system to a subset of observers. In the quantum setting, the observers can perform joint measurements on initially independent systems, which may lead to strong correlations across the whole network. In this work, we introduce a technique to systematically map a Bell inequality to a family of Bell-type inequalities bounding classical correlations on networks in a star-configuration. Also, we show that whenever a given Bell inequality can be violated by some entangled state ρ , then all the corresponding network inequalities can be violated by considering many copies of ρ distributed in the star network. The relevance of these ideas is illustrated by applying our method to a specific multi-setting Bell inequality. We derive the corresponding network inequalities, and study their quantum violations. (paper)

  10. Homogenization of variational inequalities for obstacle problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrakov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Results on the convergence of solutions of variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities are defined by a non-linear monotone operator of the second order with periodic rapidly oscillating coefficients and a sequence of functions characterizing the obstacles. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting variational inequalities are obtained. Derivation methods for such inequalities are presented. Connections between the limiting variational inequalities and two-scale and macroscale minimization problems are established in the case of potential operators.

  11. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  12. Income inequality in today's China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-05-13

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.

  13. Non-commutative Hardy inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    We extend Hardy's inequality from sequences of non-negative numbers to sequences of positive semi-definite operators if the parameter p satisfies 1 1. Applications to trace functions are given. We introduce the tracial geometric mean...

  14. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  15. Health inequalities--gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska, Antonina

    2012-01-01

    Health inequalities have become recently one of the major concerns of European health policy. Observed differences in health status of men and women are also frequently discussed within this framework, and are becoming a subject of growing interest of researchers. Clinical and epidemiological researches document male-female health differences, trying to explain them within bio-medical model. However, apart of biological (sex) divergence, health inequalities reflect differences in social roles, social status and culturally established patterns and stereotypes of femininity and masculinity (gender differences). The article, using sociological perspective, attempts to show that observed differences in man's and women's health may be attributable to the differing sociocultural and structural arrangements, social support and lifestyle factors of both genders. As a result, many of these differences are of inequality character. Another dimension of inequality discussed in this article is the way man and women are treated by the institution of medicine.

  16. [Social inequality in home care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A

    2013-06-01

    Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.

  17. Bell's inequalities and Kolmogorov's axioms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After recalling proofs of the Bell inequality based on the assumptions of separability and of noncontextuality, the most general noncontextual contrapositive conditional probabilities consistent with the Aspect experiment are constructed. In general these probabilities are not all positive.

  18. Chebyshev splines and Kolmogorov inequalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagdasarov, Sergey

    1998-01-01

    .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.2 Cases of the complete solution of the Kolmogorov problem... 0.2 Kolmogorov - Landau problem in the Sobolev class W~+l(I) ... 0.2.1 Inequalities...

  19. Estimates of Inequality Indices Based on Simple Random, Ranked Set, and Systematic Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Pooja; Arora, Sangeeta; Mahajan, Kalpana K.

    2013-01-01

    Gini index, Bonferroni index, and Absolute Lorenz index are some popular indices of inequality showing different features of inequality measurement. In general simple random sampling procedure is commonly used to estimate the inequality indices and their related inference. The key condition that the samples must be drawn via simple random sampling procedure though makes calculations much simpler but this assumption is often violated in practice as the data does not always yield simple random ...

  20. Navigating Troubled Waters. An analysis of how urban water regimes in the global South reproduce inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Nastar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    This research is an attempt to conceptualize the underlying forces behind persistent and ubiquitous problems of inequality in access to water in cities of the global south. Inequality in water access is hypothesized to result from urban water regimes that tend to prioritize the right to water access or to provide preferential terms of access for some groups in society, while marginalizing others. By employing a critical realist approach, different theories in relation to inequality are app...