On the Affine Isoperimetric Inequalities
Wuyang Yu; Gangsong Leng
2011-11-01
We obtain an isoperimetric inequality which estimate the affine invariant -surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of $_{-p}K$.
Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequality.
Zhang, Zengle; Zhou, Jiazu
2017-01-01
The Wulff isoperimetric inequality is a natural extension of the classical isoperimetric inequality (Green and Osher in Asian J. Math. 3:659-676 1999). In this paper, we establish some Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities. Those inequalities obtained are extensions of known Bonnesen-style inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style inequalities.
Isoperimetric Inequalities and Magnetic Fields at CERN
McInnes, Brett
2016-01-01
We discuss the generalization of the classical isoperimetric inequality to asymptotically hyperbolic Riemannian manifolds. It has been discovered that the AdS/CFT correspondence in string theory requires that such an inequality hold in order to be internally consistent. In a particular application, to the systems formed in collisions of heavy ions in particle colliders, we show how to formulate this inequality in terms of measurable physical quantities, the magnetic field and the temperature. Experiments under way at CERN in Geneva can thus be said to be testing an isoperimetric inequality.
Holography, probe branes and isoperimetric inequalities
Frank Ferrari
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In many instances of holographic correspondences between a d-dimensional boundary theory and a (d+1-dimensional bulk, a direct argument in the boundary theory implies that there must exist a simple and precise relation between the Euclidean on-shell action of a (d−1-brane probing the bulk geometry and the Euclidean gravitational bulk action. This relation is crucial for the consistency of holography, yet it is non-trivial from the bulk perspective. In particular, we show that it relies on a nice isoperimetric inequality that must be satisfied in a large class of Poincaré–Einstein spaces. Remarkably, this inequality follows from theorems by Lee and Wang.
Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality
Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.
2017-03-01
We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.
Generalized isoperimetric inequalities for extrinsic balls in minimal submanifolds
Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente
2002-01-01
The volume of an extrinsic ball in a minimal submanifold has a well defined lower bound when the ambient manifold has an upper bound on its sectional curvatures, see e.g. [2] and [10]. When this upper bound is non-positive, the second named author has shown an isoperimetric inequality for such do......The volume of an extrinsic ball in a minimal submanifold has a well defined lower bound when the ambient manifold has an upper bound on its sectional curvatures, see e.g. [2] and [10]. When this upper bound is non-positive, the second named author has shown an isoperimetric inequality...... for such domains, see [11]. This result again gives the comparison result for volumes alluded to above together with a characterization of the totally geodesic submanifolds of hyperbolic space forms. In the present paper we find a corresponding sharp isoperimetric inequality for minimal submanifolds in spaces...
Local Monotonicity and Isoperimetric Inequality on Hypersurfaces in Carnot groups
Francesco Paolo Montefalcone
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Let G be a k-step Carnot group of homogeneous dimension Q. Later on we shall present some of the results recently obtained in [32] and, in particular, an intrinsic isoperimetric inequality for a C2-smooth compact hypersurface S with boundary @S. We stress that S and @S are endowed with the homogeneous measures n????1 H and n????2 H , respectively, which are actually equivalent to the intrinsic (Q - 1-dimensional and (Q - 2-dimensional Hausdor measures with respect to a given homogeneous metric % on G. This result generalizes a classical inequality, involving the mean curvature of the hypersurface, proven by Michael and Simon [29] and Allard [1], independently. One may also deduce some related Sobolev-type inequalities. The strategy of the proof is inspired by the classical one and will be discussed at the rst section. After reminding some preliminary notions about Carnot groups, we shall begin by proving a linear isoperimetric inequality. The second step is a local monotonicity formula. Then we may achieve the proof by a covering argument.We stress however that there are many dierences, due to our non-Euclidean setting.Some of the tools developed ad hoc are, in order, a \\blow-up" theorem, which holds true also for characteristic points, and a smooth Coarea Formula for the HS-gradient. Other tools are the horizontal integration by parts formula and the 1st variation formula for the H-perimeter n????1H already developed in [30, 31] and then generalized to hypersurfaces having non-empty characteristic set in [32]. These results can be useful in the study of minimal and constant horizontal mean curvature hypersurfaces in Carnot groups.
An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates
Chasman, L M
2010-01-01
We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given $\\tau>0$, the free plate eigenvalues $\\omega$ and eigenfunctions $u$ are determined by the equation $\\Delta\\Delta u-\\tau\\Delta u = \\omega u$ together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term $|D^2u|^2$. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.
An isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone of free plates
Chasman, L M
2010-01-01
We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given $\\tau>0$, the free plate eigenvalues $\\omega$ and eigenfunctions $u$ are determined by the equation $\\Delta\\Delta u-\\tau\\Delta u = \\omega u$ together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term $|D^2u|^2$. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.
A spectral isoperimetric inequality for cones
Exner, Pavel; Lotoreichik, Vladimir
2016-11-01
In this note, we investigate three-dimensional Schrödinger operators with δ -interactions supported on C^2 -smooth cones, both finite and infinite. Our main results concern a Faber-Krahn-type inequality for the principal eigenvalue of these operators. The proofs rely on the Birman-Schwinger principle and on the fact that circles are unique minimizers for a class of energy functionals. The main novel idea consists in the way of constructing test functions for the Birman-Schwinger principle.
Best constants for the isoperimetric inequality in quantitative form
Cicalese, Marco
2011-01-01
We prove existence and regularity of minimizers for a class of functionals defined on Borel sets in $R^n$. Combining these results with a refinement of the selection principle introduced by the authors in arXiv:0911.0786, we describe a method suitable for the determination of the best constants in the quantitative isoperimetric inequality with higher order terms. Then, applying Bonnesen's annular symmetrization in a very elementary way, we show that, for $n=2$, the above-mentioned constants can be explicitly computed through a one-parameter family of convex sets known as ovals. This proves a further extension of a conjecture posed by Hall in J. Reine Angew. Math. 428 (1992).
Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science
JiaJin Wen
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$
Baudoin, Fabrice
2012-01-01
By adapting some ideas of M. Ledoux \\cite{ledoux2}, \\cite{ledoux-stflour} and \\cite{Led} to a sub-Riemannian framework we study Sobolev, Poincar\\'e and isoperimetric inequalities associated to subelliptic diffusion operators that satisfy the generalized curvature dimension inequality that was introduced by F. Baudoin and N. Garofalo in \\cite{Bau2}. Our results apply in particular on all CR Sasakian manifolds whose horizontal Webster-Tanaka-Ricci curvature is non negative, all Carnot groups with step two, and wide subclasses of principal bundles over Riemannian manifolds whose Ricci curvature is non negative.
A Variational Approach to the Isoperimetric Inequality for the Robin Eigenvalue Problem
Bucur, Dorin; Giacomini, Alessandro
2010-12-01
The isoperimetric inequality for the first eigenvalue of the Laplace operator with Robin boundary conditions was recently proved by Daners in the context of Lipschitz sets. This paper introduces a new approach to the isoperimetric inequality, based on the theory of special functions of bounded variation (SBV). We extend the notion of the first eigenvalue λ1 for general domains with finite volume (possibly unbounded and with irregular boundary), and we prove that the balls are the unique minimizers of λ1 among domains with prescribed volume.
Local Isoperimetric Inequalities for Sectors on Surfaces and Cones
Fernando GIM(E)NEZ; Javier Orengo VALVERDE
2007-01-01
On surfaces we give conditions under which the solution of a restricted local isoperimetric problem for sectors with small solid angle is the circular sector and we characterize these surfaces. Also we study this problem for general spherical cones on hypersurfaces in higher dimensional Riemannian manifolds.
A weighted isoperimetric inequality and applications to symmetrization
Brock F
1999-01-01
Full Text Available We prove an inequality of the form , where is a bounded domain in with smooth boundary, is a ball centered in the origin having the same measure as . From this we derive inequalities comparing a weighted Sobolev norm of a given function with the norm of its symmetric decreasing rearrangement. Furthermore, we use the inequality to obtain comparison results for elliptic boundary value problems.
Global income related health inequalities
Jalil Safaei
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health
Divergence operator and related inequalities
Acosta, Gabriel
2017-01-01
This Brief is mainly devoted to two classical and related results: the existence of a right inverse of the divergence operator and the so-called Korn Inequalities. It is well known that both results are fundamental tools in the analysis of some classic differential equations, particularly in those arising in fluid dynamics and elasticity. Several connections between these two topics and improved Poincaré inequalities are extensively treated. From simple key ideas the book is growing smoothly in complexity. Beginning with the study of these problems on star-shaped domains the arguments are extended first to John domains and then to Hölder α domains where the need of weighted spaces arises naturally. In this fashion, the authors succeed in presenting in an unified and concise way several classic and recent developments in the field. These features certainly makes this Brief useful for students, post-graduate students, and researchers as well.
An isoperimetric inequality for the Wiener sausage
Peres, Yuval
2011-01-01
Let $(\\xi(s))_{s\\geq 0}$ be a standard Brownian motion in $d\\geq 1$ dimensions and let $(D_s)_{s \\geq 0}$ be a collection of open sets in $\\R^d$. For each $s$, let $B_s$ be a ball centered at 0 with $\\vol(B_s) = \\vol(D_s)$. We show that $\\E[\\vol(\\cup_{s \\leq t}(\\xi(s) + D_s))] \\geq \\E[\\vol(\\cup_{s \\leq t}(\\xi(s) + B_s))]$, for all $t$. In particular, this implies that the expected volume of the Wiener sausage increases when a drift is added to the Brownian motion.
On Complexity of Isoperimetric Problems on Trees
Daneshgar, Amir
2010-01-01
This paper is aimed to investigate some computational aspects of different isoperimetric problems on weighted trees. In this regard, we consider different connectivity parameters called {\\it minimum normalized cuts}/{\\it isoperimteric numbers} defined through taking minimum of the maximum or the mean of the normalized outgoing flows from a set of subdomains of vertices, where these subdomains constitute a {\\it partition}/{\\it subpartition}. Following the main result of [A. Daneshgar, {\\it et. al.}, {\\it On the isoperimetric spectrum of graphs and its approximations}, JCTB, (2010)], it is known that the isoperimetric number and the minimum normalized cut both can be described as $\\{0,1\\}$-optimization programs, where the latter one does {\\it not} admit a relaxation to the reals. We show that the decision problem for the case of taking $k$-partitions and the maximum (called the max normalized cut problem {\\rm NCP}$^M$) as well as the other two decision problems for the mean version (referred to as {\\rm IPP}$^m$...
Inequalities relating to Lp-version of Petty's conjectured projection inequality
WANG Wei-dong; LENG Gang-song
2007-01-01
Petty's conjectured projection inequality is a famous open problem in the theory of convex bodies. In this paper, it is shown that an inequality relating to Lp-version of the Petty's conjectured projection inequality is developed by using the notions of the Lp-mixed volume and the Lp-dual mixed volume, the relation of the Lp-projection body and the geometric body Γ-pK, the Bourgain-Milman inequality and the Lp-BusemannPetty inequality. In addition, for each origin-symmetric convex body, by applying the Jensen inequality and the monotonicity of the geometric body Γ-pK, the reverses of Lp-version of the Petty's conjectured projection inequality and the Lp-Petty projection inequality are given, respectively.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities from entropic uncertainty relations
Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Walborn, Stephen P.; Cavalcanti, Eric G.; Howell, John C.
2013-06-01
We use entropic uncertainty relations to formulate inequalities that witness Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering correlations in diverse quantum systems. We then use these inequalities to formulate symmetric EPR-steering inequalities using the mutual information. We explore the differing natures of the correlations captured by one-way and symmetric steering inequalities and examine the possibility of exclusive one-way steerability in two-qubit states. Furthermore, we show that steering inequalities can be extended to generalized positive operator-valued measures, and we also derive hybrid steering inequalities between alternate degrees of freedom.
Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle
Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei
2010-01-01
In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)
Isoperimetric problems on time scales with nabla derivatives
Almeida, Ricardo; Torres, Delfim F. M.
2008-01-01
We prove a necessary optimality condition for isoperimetric problems under nabla-differentiable curves. As a consequence, the recent results of [M.R. Caputo, A unified view of ostensibly disparate isoperimetric variational problems, Appl. Math. Lett. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.aml.2008.04.004], that put together seemingly dissimilar optimal control problems in economics and physics, are extended to a generic time scale. We end with an illustrative example of application of our main result to a dyn...
Bilateral Hardy-type Inequalities
Mu Fa CHEN
2013-01-01
This paper studies the Hardy-type inequalities on the intervals (may be infinite) with two weights,either vanishing at two endpoints of the interval or having mean zero.For the first type of inequalities,in terms of new isoperimetric constants,the factor of upper and lower bounds becomes smaller than the known ones.The second type of the inequalities is motivated from probability theory and is new in the analytic context.The proofs are now rather elementary.Similar improvements are made for Nash inequality,Sobolev-type inequality,and the logarithmic Sobolev inequality on the intervals.
Devaux, Marion
2015-01-01
A key policy objective in OECD countries is to achieve adequate access to health care for all people on the basis of need. Previous studies have shown that there are inequities in health care services utilisation (HCSU) in the OECD area. In recent years, measures have been taken to enhance health care access. This paper re-examines income-related inequities in doctor visits among 18 selected OECD countries, updating previous results for 12 countries with 2006-2009 data, and including six new countries. Inequalities in preventive care services are also considered for the first time. The indirect standardisation procedure is used to estimate the need-adjusted HCSU and concentration indexes are derived to gauge inequalities and inequities. Overall, inequities in HCSU remain present in OECD countries. In most countries, for the same health care needs, people with higher incomes are more likely to consult a doctor than those with lower incomes. Pro-rich inequalities in dental visits and cancer screening uptake are also found in nearly all countries, although the magnitude of these varies among countries. These findings suggest that further monitoring of inequalities is essential in order to assess whether country policy objectives are achieved on a regular basis.
Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.
Sander K R van Zon
Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and
Isoperimetric inequality fortorsional rigidity in the complex plane
Salahudinov RG
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Suppose SZ is a simply connected domain in the complex plane. In (F.G. Avhadiev, Matem. Sborn., 189(12 (1998, 3–12 (Russian, Avhadiev introduced new geometrical functionals, which give two-sided estimates for the torsional rigidity of . In this paper we find sharp lower bounds for the ratio of the torsional rigidity to the new functionals. In particular, we prove that where is the torsional rigidity of , and is the conformal radius of at a point .
Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups
van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
2015-01-01
Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of
Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups
van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
2015-01-01
Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioec
The assumed relation between occupation and inequality in health
Madsen, Jacob; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Josephsson, Staffan
2016-01-01
Background: Occupational science and therapy scholars have argued that research on inequality in health is needed. Simultaneously, a knowledge gap between how to understand and take action on health inequalities exists in occupational science and therapy. Objective: To identify how inequality...... in health, high-risk areas of health, and engagement in health for low-income adult citizens have been described and conceptualized in contemporary occupational science and therapy literature. Material and methods: A structured literature review of 37 publications in occupational science and therapy...... on assumptions regarding the relation between occupation and inequality in health, and statements on the need to explore this relation. Conclusion: Basic theory and reasoning, as well as empirical studies, on inequality in health are missing in occupational science and therapy. Based on the findings...
The assumed relation between occupation and inequality in health
Madsen, Jacob Østergaard; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Josephsson, Staffan
2015-01-01
Background: Occupational science and therapy scholars have argued that research on inequality in health is needed. Simultaneously, a knowledge gap between how to understand and take action on health inequalities exists in occupational science and therapy. Objective: To identify how inequality...... in health, high-risk areas of health, and engagement in health for low-income adult citizens have been described and conceptualized in contemporary occupational science and therapy literature. Material and methods: A structured literature review of 37 publications in occupational science and therapy...... on assumptions regarding the relation between occupation and inequality in health, and statements on the need to explore this relation. Conclusion: Basic theory and reasoning, as well as empirical studies, on inequality in health are missing in occupational science and therapy. Based on the findings...
ISOPERIMETRIC PROBLEMS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS WITH FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVES
Ricardo Almeida; Rui A. C. Ferreira; Delfim F. M. Torres
2012-01-01
In this article,we study isoperimetric problems of the calculus of variations with left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Both situations when the lower bound of the variational integrals coincide and do not coincide with the lower bound of the fractional derivatives are considered.
Fractional isoperimetric Noether's theorem in the Riemann-Liouville sense
Frederico, Gastao S F
2012-01-01
We prove Noether-type theorems for fractional isoperimetric variational problems with Riemann-Liouville derivatives. Both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations are obtained. Illustrative examples, in the fractional context of the calculus of variations and optimal control, are discussed in detail.
Flat currents modulo p in metric spaces and filling radius inequalities
Ambrosio, Luigi
2010-01-01
We adapt the theory of currents in metric spaces, as developed by the first-mentioned author in collaboration with B. Kirchheim, to currents with coefficients in Z_p. We obtain isoperimetric inequalities mod(p) in Banach spaces and we apply these inequalities to provide a proof of Gromov's filling radius inequality which applies also to nonorientable manifolds. With this goal in mind, we use the Ekeland principle to provide quasi-minimizers of the mass mod(p) in the homology class, and use the isoperimetric inequality to give lower bounds on the growth of their mass in balls.
New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit
Xu Guanlei
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The uncertainty principle plays an important role in mathematics, physics, signal processing, and so on. Firstly, based on definition of the linear canonical transform (LCT and the traditional Pitt's inequality, one novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains is obtained, which is connected with the LCT parameters a and b. Then one novel logarithmic uncertainty principle is derived from this novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains, which is associated with parameters of the two LCTs. Secondly, from the relation between the original function and LCT, one entropic uncertainty principle and one Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the LCT domains are derived, which are associated with the LCT parameters a and b. The reason why the three lower bounds are only associated with LCT parameters a and b and independent of c and d is presented. The results show it is possible that the bounds tend to zeros.
Weakly linear systems of fuzzy relation inequalities: The heterogeneous case
Ignjatović, Jelena; Damljanović, Nada; Jančić, Ivana
2011-01-01
New types of systems of fuzzy relation inequalities and equations, called weakly linear, have been recently introduced in [J. Ignjatovi\\'c, M. \\'Ciri\\'c, S. Bogdanovi\\'c, On the greatest solutions to weakly linear systems of fuzzy relation inequalities and equations, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (2010) 3081--3113.]. The mentioned paper dealt with homogeneous weakly linear systems, composed of fuzzy relations on a single set, and a method for computing their greatest solutions has been provided. This method is based on the computing of the greatest post-fixed point, contained in a given fuzzy relation, of an isotone function on the lattice of fuzzy relations. Here we adapt this method for computing the greatest solutions of heterogeneous weakly linear systems, where the unknown fuzzy relation relates two possibly different sets. We also introduce and study quotient fuzzy relational systems and establish relationships between solutions to heterogeneous and homogeneous weakly linear systems. Besides, we point out ...
The relation and development of expenditure inequality and income inequality of Czech households
Malá Zdeňka
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on an analysis of income inequality and expenditure inequality of households in the Czech Republic for the period 2001 - 2009, based on data from the Statistics of Family Accounts. The basic methodological tool is the Gini coefficient and its decomposition according to individual categories of consumer expenditure. The conducted research reaches the conclusion that income inequality is higher than inequality in consumer expenditure, and income inequality for the analyzed period is growing at a higher rate than expenditure inequality. Tax-transfer tools effectively eliminate income inequality, but nevertheless inequality of disposable income exceeds the inequality of net monetary expenditure. As regards the mutual relationship of income inequality and expenditure inequality, expenditure inequality within a period of economic growth and boom copied the course of income inequality, while within a period of economic decline and recession both inequalities showed a completely different development. The main determinant affecting income inequality may be considered to be non-consumer expenditure, particularly expenditure for the acquisition of real estate.
Avent-Holt, Dustin; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald
2012-01-01
We examine the relational model of inequality using samples of employer-employee matched data from manufacturing plants in the United States and Japan. We argue that gender is a salient status characteristic in both the United States and Japan, but because of differences in gender politics, wage inequality will vary more across U.S. workplaces…
Avent-Holt, Dustin; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald
2012-01-01
We examine the relational model of inequality using samples of employer-employee matched data from manufacturing plants in the United States and Japan. We argue that gender is a salient status characteristic in both the United States and Japan, but because of differences in gender politics, wage inequality will vary more across U.S. workplaces…
A relational approach to durable poverty, inequality and power.
Mosse, David
2010-01-01
The article argues for what can be called a 'relational' approach to poverty: one that first views persistent poverty as the consequence of historically developed economic and political relations, and second, that emphasises poverty and inequality as an effect of social categorisation and identity, drawing in particular on the experience of adivasis ("tribals") and dalits ("untouchables") subordinated in Indian society. The approach follows Charles Tilly's Durable Inequality in combining Marxian ideas of exploitation and dispossession with Weberian notions of social closure. The article then draws on the work of Steven Lukes, Pierre Bourdieu and Arjun Appadurai to argue for the need to incorporate a multidimensional conception of power; including not only power as the direct assertion of will but also 'agenda-setting power' that sets the terms in which poverty becomes (or fails to become) politicised, and closely related to power as political representation. This sets the basis for discussion of the politics of poverty and exclusion.
Educational Inequality in Obesity-Related Mortality in Korea
2017-01-01
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02–2.19) to 6.50 (6.19–6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79–2.10) to 3.25 (3.05–3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:28145639
Educational Inequality in Obesity-Related Mortality in Korea.
Kim, Mi Hyun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ko, Hyeonyoung; Song, Yun Mi
2017-03-01
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02-2.19) to 6.50 (6.19-6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79-2.10) to 3.25 (3.05-3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Two new definitions on convexity and related inequalities
Tunc, Mevlut
2012-01-01
We have made some new definitions using the inequalities of Young' and Nesbitt'. And we have given some features of these new definitions. After, we established new Hadamard type inequalities for convex functions in the Young and Nesbitt sense.
Clustering Using Isoperimetric Number of Trees
Daneshgar, Amir; Razavi, Basir Shariat
2012-01-01
In this paper we propose a graph-based data clustering algorithm which is based on exact clustering of a minimum spanning tree in terms of a minimum isoperimetry criteria. We show that our basic clustering algorithm runs in $O(n \\log n)$ and with post-processing in $O(n^2)$ (worst case) time where $n$ is the size of the data set. We also show that our generalized graph model which also allows the use of potentials at vertices can be used to extract a more detailed pack of information as the {\\it outlier profile} of the data set. In this direction we show that our approach can be used to define the concept of an outlier-set in a precise way and we propose approximation algorithms for finding such sets. We also provide a comparative performance analysis of our algorithm with other related ones and we show that the new clustering algorithm (without the outlier extraction procedure) behaves quite effectively even on hard benchmarks and handmade examples.
Monomial geometric programming with an arbitrary fuzzy relational inequality
E. Shivanian
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an optimization model with geometric objective function is presented. Geometric programming is widely used; many objective functions in optimization problems can be analyzed by geometric programming. We often encounter these in resource allocation and structure optimization and technology management, etc. On the other hand, fuzzy relation equalities and inequalities are also used in many areas. We here present a geometric programming model with a monomial objective function subject to the fuzzy relation inequality constraints with an arbitrary function. The feasible solution set is determined and compared with some common results in the literature. A necessary and sufficient condition and three other necessary conditions are presented to conceptualize the feasibility of the problem. In general a lower bound is always attainable for the optimal objective value by removing the components having no effect on the solution process. By separating problem to non-decreasing and non-increasing function to prove the optimal solution, we simplify operations to accelerate the resolution of the problem.
Vector variational inequalities and their relations with vector optimization
Surjeet Kaur Suneja
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, K- quasiconvex, K- pseudoconvex and other related functions have been introduced in terms of their Clarke subdifferentials, where is an arbitrary closed convex, pointed cone with nonempty interior. The (strict, weakly -pseudomonotonicity, (strict K- naturally quasimonotonicity and K- quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential maps have also been defined. Further, we introduce Minty weak (MVVIP and Stampacchia weak (SVVIP vector variational inequalities over arbitrary cones. Under regularity assumption, we have proved that a weak minimum solution of vector optimization problem (VOP is a solution of (SVVIP and under the condition of K- pseudoconvexity we have obtained the converse for MVVIP (SVVIP. In the end we study the interrelations between these with the help of strict K-naturally quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential map.
Generalized Equilibrium Problems Related to Ky Fan Inequalities
Ionel Rovenţa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study a generalized equilibrium problem by using a nonsymmetric extension of Ky Fan’s inequality. As an application, we present a fixed point type algorithm inspired by a model from Tada and Takahashi (2007.
Some relations between duality theory for extremum problems and variational inequalities
Giandomenico Mastroeni
1994-11-01
Full Text Available After revisiting the well-known relationship with the minimax theory, some duality results for constrained extremum problems are related to variational inequalities. In particular, the connection with saddle point conditions and gap functions associated to the variational inequality are analysed.
A New Part-Metric-Related Inequality Chain and an Application
Xiaofan Yang
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Part-metric-related (PMR inequality chains are elegant and are useful in the study of difference equations. In this paper, we establish a new PMR inequality chain, which is then applied to show the global asymptotic stability of a class of rational difference equations.
Phase transition and entropy inequality of noncommutative black holes in a new extended phase space
Miao, Yan-Gang
2016-01-01
We analyze the thermodynamics of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini AdS black hole with the non-Gaussian smeared matter distribution by regarding a noncommutative parameter as an independent thermodynamic variable named as {\\em the noncommutative pressure}. In the new extended phase space that includes this noncommutative pressure and its conjugate variable, we reveal that the noncommutative pressure and the original thermodynamic pressure related to the negative cosmological constant make the opposite effects in the phase transition of the noncommutative black hole, i.e. the former takes a UV effect while the latter does an IR effect, respectively. In addition, by means of the reverse isoperimetric inequality, we indicate that only the black hole with the Gaussian smeared matter distribution holds the maximum entropy for a given thermodynamic volume among the noncommutative black holes with various matter distributions.
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
2016-01-01
This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...
Status Inequalities in Business Exchange Relations in Luxury Markets
M. Pocock (Miriam)
2017-01-01
markdownabstractIn this thesis we examine purchase exchanges between high status buyers and suppliers of lower status in luxury markets. While extant literature has treated status inequalities as an objective distinction in status rank, Study 1 on boat builders presents a novel approach towards
On some functional equations related to Steffensen's inequality
Bogdan Choczewski
2004-05-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem, proposed by the second author (cf. [1] of solving functional equations stemming from the Steffensen integral inequality (S, which is applicable in actuarial problems, cf. [4]. Imposing some regularity conditions we find solutions of two equations in two variables, one with two and another with three unknown functions.
On the relation between income inequality and happiness
Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina AV
In this paper, we revisit the association between happiness and inequality. We argue that the perceived fairness of the income generation process affects this association. Building on a two-period model of individual life-time utility maximization, we predict that persons with higher perceived...
Status Inequalities in Business Exchange Relations in Luxury Markets
M. Pocock (Miriam)
2017-01-01
markdownabstractIn this thesis we examine purchase exchanges between high status buyers and suppliers of lower status in luxury markets. While extant literature has treated status inequalities as an objective distinction in status rank, Study 1 on boat builders presents a novel approach towards conc
Inequity among human service professionals : Measurement and relation to burnout
vanDierendonck, D; Schaufeli, WB; Buunk, BP
1996-01-01
This research investigated the impact on burnout of inequity experienced by human service professionals. Two studies were conducted, among therapists working with inmates in a forensic psychiatric center (N = 112) and among staff members of an institute for the direct care of mentally disabled (N =
Public awareness of income-related health inequalities in Ontario, Canada
Shankardass Ketan
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Continued action is needed to tackle health inequalities in Canada, as those of lower income continue to be at higher risk for a range of negative health outcomes. There is arguably a lack of political will to implement policy change in this respect. As a result, we investigated public awareness of income-related health inequalities in a generally representative sample of Ontarians in late 2010. Methods Data were collected from 2,006 Ontario adults using a telephone survey. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with various statements asserting that there are or are not health inequalities in general and by income in Ontario, including questions pertaining to nine specific conditions for which inequalities have been described in Ontario. A multi-stage process using binary logistic regression determined whether awareness of health inequalities differed between participant subgroups. Results Almost 73% of this sample of Ontarians agreed with the general premise that not all people are equally healthy in Ontario, but fewer participants were aware of health inequalities between the rich and the poor (53%–64%, depending on the framing of the question. Awareness of income-related inequalities in specific outcomes was considerably lower, ranging from 18% for accidents to 35% for obesity. Conclusions This is the first province-wide study in Canada, and the first in Ontario, to explore public awareness on health inequalities. Given that political will is shaped by public awareness and opinion, these results suggest that greater awareness may be required to move the health equity agenda forward in Ontario. There is a need for health equity advocates, physicians and researchers to increase the effectiveness of knowledge translation activities for studies that identify and explore health inequalities.
Eliana Jimenez-Soto
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. METHODS: Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. FINDINGS: Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. CONCLUSION: Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key
The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China
Yang Wei
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.
Susan P Phillips
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. METHODS: Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 773 we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women and the work environment (for men in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.
A directed isoperimetric inequality with application to Bregman near neighbor lower bounds
Abdullah, Amirali; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh
2014-01-01
Bregman divergences $D_\\phi$ are a class of divergences parametrized by a convex function $\\phi$ and include well known distance functions like $\\ell_2^2$ and the Kullback-Leibler divergence. There has been extensive research on algorithms for problems like clustering and near neighbor search with respect to Bregman divergences, in all cases, the algorithms depend not just on the data size $n$ and dimensionality $d$, but also on a structure constant $\\mu \\ge 1$ that depends solely on $\\phi$ a...
On the relation between income inequality and happiness
Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina AV
social mobility, due to an increasing relevance of a disappointment effect resulting from unsuccessful individual investments. Using the World Values Survey data and a broad set of fairness measures, we find strong support for the negative (positive) association between fairness perceptions...... fairness will experience higher levels of life-time utility and are less in favor of income redistribution. In societies with a high level of actual social mobility, income inequality is perceived more positively with increased expected fairness. The opposite is expected for countries with low actual...... and the demand for more equal incomes (subjective well-being). We also find strong empirical support for the disappointment effect in low social mobility countries. In contrast, the results for high-mobility countries turn out to be ambiguous....
The relation between Hardy's non-locality and violation of Bell inequality
Xiang, Yang
2011-06-01
We give an analytic quantitative relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator. We find that Hardy's non-locality is a sufficient condition for the violation of Bell inequality, the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by information causality just corresponds to Tsirelson bound of Bell inequality and the upper bound of Hardy's non-locality allowed by the principle of no-signaling just corresponds to the algebraic maximum of Bell operator. Then we study the Cabello's argument of Hardy's non-locality (a generalization of Hardy's argument) and find a similar relation between it and violation of Bell inequality. Finally, we give a simple derivation of the bound of Hardy's non-locality under the constraint of information causality with the aid of the above derived relation between Hardy's non-locality and Bell operator.
Huisman Martijn
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background As reducing socio-economic inequalities in health is an important public health objective, monitoring of these inequalities is an important public health task. The specific inequality measure used can influence the conclusions drawn, and there is no consensus on which measure is most meaningful. The key issue raising most debate is whether to use relative or absolute inequality measures. Our paper aims to inform this debate and develop recommendations for monitoring health inequalities on the basis of empirical analyses for a broad range of developing countries. Methods Wealth-group specific data on under-5 mortality, immunisation coverage, antenatal and delivery care for 43 countries were obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys. These data were used to describe the association between the overall level of these outcomes on the one hand, and relative and absolute poor-rich inequalities in these outcomes on the other. Results We demonstrate that the values that the absolute and relative inequality measures can take are bound by mathematical ceilings. Yet, even where these ceilings do not play a role, the magnitude of inequality is correlated with the overall level of the outcome. The observed tendencies are, however, not necessities. There are countries with low mortality levels and low relative inequalities. Also absolute inequalities showed variation at most overall levels. Conclusion Our study shows that both absolute and relative inequality measures can be meaningful for monitoring inequalities, provided that the overall level of the outcome is taken into account. Suggestions are given on how to do this. In addition, our paper presents data that can be used for benchmarking of inequalities in the field of maternal and child health in low and middle-income countries.
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Salvucci, Vincenzo
2015-01-01
Changes in relative prices of commodities consumed in different shares across income groups can be expected to alter real income differentials between these groups. Using Mozambican household budget survey and price data from 2002/03 and 2008/09, we show that once relative price increases...... are accounted for, inequality of real consumption increases substantially. We obtain this result by constructing a price deflator that reflects divergent price dynamics of different product categories. Since the main factors driving this result prevail in other developing countries, it is likely that inequality...
Income inequality, social capital and self-inflicted injury and violence-related mortality
Huisman, M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.
2009-01-01
Background: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation of income inequality and indicators of social capital to self-inflicted injury mortality (suicide) and violence-related mortality, and to the share of total mortality that is due to these two causes of death in 35 developed count
Aisha Lofters
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. RESULTS: There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1% than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3% or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%. DISCUSSION: A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support
Lofters, Aisha; Slater, Morgan; Kirst, Maritt; Shankardass, Ketan; Quiñonez, Carlos
2014-01-01
Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1%) than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3%) or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%). A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support for equity-focused public policy, and knowledge
Income inequality and the developing child: Is it all relative?
Odgers, Candice L
2015-11-01
Children from low-income families are at heightened risk for a number of poor outcomes, including depression, antisocial behavior, poor physical health, and educational failure. Growing up in poverty is generally seen as toxic for children. However, less is known about how the "economic distance" between children and their peers influences behavior and health. This article examines how both poverty and the growing divide between low-income children and their peers may be influencing low-income children's life chances. Among wealthy nations, children in countries with higher levels of income inequality consistently fare worse on multiple indices of health, educational attainment, and well-being. New research also suggests that low-income children may be experiencing worse outcomes, and a form of "double disadvantage," when they live and attend school alongside more affluent versus similarly positioned peers. The role of subjective social status in explaining why some low-income children appear to suffer when growing up alongside more affluent peers is explored, alongside a call for additional research focused on how children come to understand, and respond to, their perceived social status. (PsycINFO Database Record
Hossein Amirian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The effect of socioeconomic inequity on major public health indices such as maternal and child mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries are less understood and needs to be evaluated through the concentration index.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, and 1400 households were enrolled through a stratified cluster random sampling method. The effect of inequity on health outcomes was investigated via a three-stage procedure including: (a definition of health outcomes; (b measuring socioeconomic status using an asset index; and (c measuring inequality of health outcome using concentration index (CI.Results: There was inequality for all outcomes of interest. The CI was negative for low birth weight, underweight, stunting, wasting, minor injuries, moderate injuries, consanguineous marriage, child with disability, short birth spacing, and adolescent pregnancy indicating the disproportionate concentration of the health outcomes among the poor. On the other hand, CI was positive for preterm birth, Nonexclusive breastfeeding, severe injuries, incomplete health care, cesarean section, and advanced maternal age indicating opposite conclusion.Conclusion: According to our results, there is a health inequality between the poor and the rich subgroups which may increase the risk of mothers and infant mortality and morbidity rates among the poor while the majority of the conditions related to the health outcomes are preventable.
Faber-Krahn Inequalities for the Robin-Laplacian: A Free Discontinuity Approach
Bucur, Dorin; Giacomini, Alessandro
2015-11-01
Isoperimetric inequalities for the principal eigenvalues of the Robin-Laplacian are interpreted as free discontinuity problems (of unusual type). We prove a full range of Faber-Krahn inequalities in a nonlinear setting and for non smooth domains, including the open case of the torsional rigidity. The key point of the analysis relies on regularity issues for free discontinuity problems in spaces of functions of bounded variation. As a byproduct, we obtain the best constants for a class of Poincaré inequalities with trace terms in.
Raittio, Eero; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna L
2017-09-11
This study aimed to analyse education-related inequality in restorative dental treatment need among adults aged 30 years and older living in Northern and Southern Finland in 2000 and 2011. Data were taken from the Health 2000 and 2011 population-based follow-up surveys, including information gathered by interviews and clinical dental examination. Final effective sample sizes were 2423 people in 2000 and 1192 people in 2011. Restorative dental treatment need was measured with number of decayed and/or fractured teeth (DT + FrT). Education-related inequality in number of DT + FrT and factors explaining it were analysed using the Poisson regression analysis, relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality. Average number of DT + FrT decreased from 2000 to 2011. Absolute and relative education-related inequalities in them decreased approximately 50% and 25% from 2000 to 2011, respectively. Tooth brushing frequency and time since last dental visit explained approximately 30%-40% of the education-related inequality. The contribution of time since last dental visit to the education-related inequality was smaller in 2011 than in 2000. It seems that, from 2000 to 2011, the need for restorative dental treatment decreased simultaneously with the education-related inequality in it among adults aged 30 years and older living in Northern and Southern Finland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keith, Pat M.; Schafer, Robert B.
1987-01-01
Compared the extent to which relative deprivation, based on general social comparisons and perceptions of equity/inequity derived from specific comparisons in an intimate relationship, influenced the psychological well-being of 130 couples in one-job families and 135 couples in two-job families. Relative deprivation and inequity were associated…
Bray, Hubert L
2009-01-01
In this thesis we describe how minimal surface techniques can be used to prove the Penrose inequality in general relativity for two classes of 3-manifolds. We also describe how a new volume comparison theorem involving scalar curvature for 3-manifolds follows from these same techniques.
Welfare state regimes and income-related health inequalities: A comparison of 23 European countries
T.A. Eikemo (Terje); C. Bambra (Clare); K. Joyce; E. Dahl
2008-01-01
textabstractObjective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of income-related health inequalities varies between welfare regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern and Eastern). Specifically, it examined whether the Scandinavian welfare state regime has s
Ackerson, Leland K; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
2012-10-01
Promoting awareness, increasing knowledge, and eliminating stigma is important for stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS. The relation of social determinants and communication inequalities with HIV/AIDS-related cognitive processes has not been studied previously in India. Gender-stratified Poisson regression models of 123,459 women and 73,908 men in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey were used to calculate relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals for these associations. Results indicated that there are significant inequalities in mass media use among different social classes. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about prevention and transmission of AIDS and negatively associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma. These associations attenuated when use of various mass media types were added to the models with television showing the strongest effect. Mass media may be helpful in reducing social disparities in HIV/AIDS outcomes.
Lower semicontinuity of mass under $C^0$ convergence and Huisken's isoperimetric mass
Jauregui, Jeffrey L
2016-01-01
Given a sequence of asymptotically flat 3-manifolds of nonnegative scalar curvature with outermost minimal boundary, converging in the pointed $C^0$ Cheeger--Gromov sense to an asymptotically flat limit space, we show that the total mass of the limit is bounded above by the liminf of the total masses of the sequence. In other words, total mass is lower semicontinuous under such convergence. In order to prove this, we use Huisken's isoperimetric mass concept, together with a modified weak mean curvature flow argument. We include a brief discussion of Huisken's work before explaining our extension of that work. The results are all specific to three dimensions.
Magnusson, Maria; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olafsdottir, Steingerdur
2014-01-01
Social inequalities in overweight and obesity (OWOB) have persisted in the affluent and reputedly egalitarian Nordic countries. In this review we examine associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and OWOB, and secular trends in such associations. Determinants and possible causes of the re......Social inequalities in overweight and obesity (OWOB) have persisted in the affluent and reputedly egalitarian Nordic countries. In this review we examine associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and OWOB, and secular trends in such associations. Determinants and possible causes...... of the relations are discussed together with opportunities to cope with OWOB as a public health problem. The findings show a persisting inverse social gradient. An interaction between SEP and gender is noted for adults in Denmark, Finland and Iceland and for children in Sweden. There are overall tendencies...... for increased inequality, however no consistent trend for an increased social gradient in OWOB. Reasons that increased inequality does not unequivocally mirror in a steepened social gradient in obesity may include methodological questions as well as societal efforts to counteract obesity. Multi-level efforts...
Kandek, Barbara; Kajling, Veronika
2017-01-01
Income inequality has been widely debated since the beginning of economic development. This topic is especially present in today’s economic world as the gap between the poor and rich only seem to widen, even in developed nations. Surprisingly, this is especially true for the United States where the top 1 percent own almost 50 percent of the nation’s income shares. Several studies have spoken on the impact inequality has on a nation, but few have commented on the effect it may have on a nation...
Raittio, Eero; Aromaa, Arpo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna Liisa
2016-07-01
Objectives In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate income-related inequality in the perceived oral health and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Materials and methods Three identical cross-sectional nationally representative postal surveys, concerning perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2157), in 2004 (n = 1814) and in 2007 (n = 1671). Three measures of perceived oral health were used: toothache or oral discomfort during the past 12 months, current need for dental care and self-reported oral health status. Concentration index was used to analyse the income-related inequalities. Its decomposition was used to study factors related to the inequalities. Results The proportion of respondents reporting need for dental care decreased from 2001 to 2007, while no changes were seen in reports of toothache or self-reported oral health status. Income-related inequalities in reports of toothache and perceived need for care widened, while the inequality in self-reported oral health remained stable. Most of the inequalities were related to income itself, perceived general health and the time since the last visit to dental care. Conclusions It seems that the income-related inequalities in perceived oral health remained or even widened after the reform.
Compressible Fluids Driven by Stochastic Forcing: The Relative Energy Inequality and Applications
Breit, Dominic; Feireisl, Eduard; Hofmanová, Martina
2017-03-01
We show the relative energy inequality for the compressible Navier-Stokes system driven by a stochastic forcing. As a corollary, we prove the weak-strong uniqueness property (pathwise and in law) and convergence of weak solutions in the inviscid-incompressible limit. In particular, we establish a Yamada-Watanabe type result in the context of the compressible Navier-Stokes system, that is, pathwise weak-strong uniqueness implies weak-strong uniqueness in law.
[Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].
Lima, B G
2000-03-01
Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.
Anna Maria D'Aristotile
2006-08-01
Full Text Available We consider sets of inequalities in Real Analysis and construct a topology such that inequalities usually called "limit cases" of certain sequences of inequalities are in fact limits - in the precise topological sense - of such sequences. To show the generality of the results, several examples are given for the notions introduced, and three main examples are considered: Sequences of inequalities relating real numbers, sequences of classical Hardy's inequalities, and sequences of embedding inequalities for fractional Sobolev spaces. All examples are considered along with their limit cases, and it is shown how they can be considered as sequences of one "big" space of inequalities. As a byproduct, we show how an abstract process to derive inequalities among homogeneous operators can be a tool for proving inequalities. Finally, we give some tools to compute limits of sequences of inequalities in the topology introduced, and we exhibit new applications.
Education-related inequity in healthcare with heterogeneous reporting of health
d’Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O’Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy
2011-01-01
Summary Reliance on self-rated health to proxy medical need can bias estimation of education-related inequity in healthcare utilization. We correct this bias both by instrumenting self-rated health with objective health indicators and by purging self-rated health of reporting heterogeneity that is identified from health vignettes. Using data on elderly Europeans, we find that instrumenting self-rated health shifts the distribution of visits to a doctor in the direction of inequality favouring the better educated. There is a further, and typically larger, shift in the same direction when correction is made for the tendency of the better educated to rate their health more negatively. PMID:21938140
Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin; McGuire, Alistair
2011-02-01
The issue of health inequalities has steadily gained attention in South Korea, as income inequality widened and social polarization increased following the country's economic crisis in the late 1990s. While official figures indicate a general trend of worsening mental health, with rapidly rising rates of suicide and depression in particular, the extent of socio-economic inequality with respect to mental health problems has not been well elucidated. This study aimed to measure income-related inequalities in depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korea and to trace their changes over a 10-year period (1998-2007). The concentration index approach was employed to quantify the degree of income-related inequalities, using four waves of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The study found persistent pro-rich inequality in depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts over the past decade (i.e., individuals with higher incomes were less likely to have these conditions). The inequalities actually doubled over this period. These findings imply a need for expanded social protection policies for the less privileged in the population.
Health inequality and non-monotonicity of the health related social welfare function.
Dutta, Indranil
2007-03-01
In a recent paper in this journal Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] have strongly argued for the use of a non-monotonic health related social welfare function. This note discusses both the limitations of the measure proposed by Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and the problems associated with their empirics. We are able to show how non-monotonicity may lead to paradoxical results and policies. Further we examine the empirics of Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and provide an alternative explanation to the observed patterns in the data that do not violate monotonicity. Finally we briefly mention why the Atkinson-Sen framework may be more appropriate as a way forward.
Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo
2009-12-01
There exist many recurrent neural networks for solving optimization-related problems. In this paper, we present a method for deriving such networks from existing ones by changing connections between computing blocks. Although the dynamic systems may become much different, some distinguished properties may be retained. One example is discussed to solve variational inequalities and related optimization problems with mixed linear and nonlinear constraints. A new network is obtained from two classical models by this means, and its performance is comparable to its predecessors. Thus, an alternative choice for circuits implementation is offered to accomplish such computing tasks.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sagioglou, Christina
2017-01-31
In most Western societies, wealth inequality is increasing, which in turn could increase people's belief that one's standing is relatively disadvantaged. Based on relative deprivation theory, we argue that such an experience of personal relative deprivation should causally lead to greater interpersonal hostility. Indeed, three experiments show that participants in a personal relative deprivation condition reported higher levels of aggressive affect and behaved more aggressively than participants in a personal relative gratification condition. Compared to a control condition, participants experiencing personal relative deprivation were more aggressive rather than participants experiencing personal relative gratification being less aggressive. However, personal relative deprivation increased aggressive behavior only toward targets that were the source for participants' experience of disadvantage, but it did not increase aggression toward neutral targets.
Bernhard Leubolt
2015-09-01
Full Text Available AbstractThis contribution focuses on the social production and reproduction of social inequalities in Brazil and South Africa. It aims at interlinking different theoretical perspectives and applying them to a comparative analysis of inequality-related policies. Resorting to strategic-relational institutionalism, the historical heritage of discourse formation and the institutionalization of inequality regimes in the two countries to inform the analysis of the more recent conjuncture will be analysed. While South Africa is an example of formal racist discrimination, the Brazilian inequality regime worked on more informal patterns. The different historical heritage influences current foci of equality-related policies, which tend to be dominantly anti-racist in South Africa, while focusing on poverty reduction in Brazil during the recent years. The latter experience tended more towards a discourse of a ‘common interest’ and was better able to institutionalize policies to reduce income inequalities. South Africa is still discursively divided into ‘two nations’. Social uplifting for Africans linked to the governing parties was only partially accompanied by improved living conditions for the poor majority of Africans. Both countries are significantly structured by the respective historical heritage concerning both the creation and the reduction of inequalities. The Brazilian ‘one nation’ discourse was more successful in promoting equality-related policies than its ‘two nations’ counterpart in South Africa. Despite important improvements, both countries are now in critical junctures and societal contradictions are beginning to create new crisis tendencies.
Narayana Delampady
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Methods Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. Results The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Conclusion Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality
Mukherjee, Subrata; Haddad, Slim; Narayana, Delampady
2011-01-07
In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality. Households in the most marginalised castes and with high health care
Cultural capital or relative risk aversion? Two mechanisms for educational inequality compared.
van de Werfhorst, Herman G; Hofstede, Saskia
2007-09-01
In this paper we empirically examined two explanatory mechanisms for educational inequality: cultural reproduction and relative risk aversion, using survey data taken from secondary school pupils in Amsterdam. Cultural reproduction theory seeks to explain class variations in schooling by cultural differences between social classes. Relative risk aversion theory argues that educational inequalities can be understood by between-class variation in the necessity of pursuing education at branching points in order to avoid downward mobility. We showed that class variations in early demonstrated ability are for a substantial part cultural: cultural capital - measured by parental involvement in highbrow culture - affected school performance at the primary and secondary level. However, relative risk aversion - operationalized by being concerned with downward mobility - strongly affects schooling ambitions, whereas cultural capital had no effect. Thus, we conclude that 'primary effects' of social origin on schooling outcomes are manifested through cultural capital and not through relative risk aversion (in addition to other potential sources of class variations such as genetics). Relative risk aversion, and not cultural capital, affects schooling ambitions, which is relevant for our understanding of secondary effects.
Kim, Chang-O
2016-10-26
This study aimed to evaluate whether social capital could alleviate health inequality against racial discrimination and identify the critical nature of social capital that generates health inequality differences within the social context of South Korea. Using the data of the 2009 National Survey of Multicultural Families, a nationally representative sample in which 40,430 foreign wives participated, the concentration index (CI) was used to measure the discrimination-related inequalities in self-rated health and was decomposed into contributing factors. The results showed a significant concentration of poor self-rated health unfavorable to foreign wives who were highly discriminated (CI 0.023, standard error [SE] 0.001, p social capital, no discrimination-related inequality in health was observed among the group of linking social capital (CI 0.008, SE 0.008, p .332). The total differential decomposition method showed two major factors that generate differences in health inequality between the groups of non-linking and linking social capital: protest against discrimination (35.8 %); experiences of discrimination (28.3 %). The present results indicated that linking social capital can be a useful resource of health resilience factor that equalizes discrimination-related health inequality among marriage migrant women in South Korea. This study provides additional evidence that social capital needs to be placed in its political context.
Education-related Inequity in Access and Utilization of Oral Health Care in Iran.
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Arsangjang, Shahram; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Anbari, Zohreh; Ghaderi, Ebrahim
2015-01-01
Oral health affects peoples' lives physically and psychologically and is related to general health, quality of life, and feelings of social well-being. As the educational level is an important predictor of healthy life and can affect healthcare utilization, this study aims to estimate the inequity related to the educational level of parents on the access and utilization of oral health care (OHC) in Qom, Iran. An analytical, cross-sectional study. Overall 281 children, six to seven years of age, were given a self-administrated questionnaire to fill. The sex, access to utilization of OHC, and educational level of the children's parents were questioned. The concentration (C) index was used as the inequity measure and statistical inference was conducted by chi square and the confidence interval of C. The mean age of the children was 6.48 ± 0.5 years. There was not statistically significant difference in the access and utilization rate of OHC between the two sexes (P > 0.05). There was an increasing trend in the utilization rate of OHC, because of the increased educational level of the parents. The C for access and utilization rate, for different levels of fathers' education was 0.055(-0.095 to 0.205) and 0.097(-0.068 to 0.261) and for mothers' educational level was 0.086(-0.068 to 0.241) and 0.091(-0.81 to 0.263), respectively. Our results did not show evidence of sex disparity in the access and utilization of OHC in Iranian children. Also the inequity related to the educational level in access and utilization of OHC was low and not considerable.
Education-related inequity in access and utilization of oral health care in Iran
Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Oral health affects peoples′ lives physically and psychologically and is related to general health, quality of life, and feelings of social well-being. As the educational level is an important predictor of healthy life and can affect healthcare utilization, this study aims to estimate the inequity related to the educational level of parents on the access and utilization of oral health care (OHC in Qom, Iran. Study Design: An analytical, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Overall 281 children, six to seven years of age, were given a self-administrated questionnaire to fill. The sex, access to utilization of OHC, and educational level of the children′s parents were questioned. The concentration (C index was used as the inequity measure and statistical inference was conducted by chi square and the confidence interval of C. Statistics: The mean age of the children was 6.48 ± 0.5 years. There was not statistically significant difference in the access and utilization rate of OHC between the two sexes (P > 0.05. There was an increasing trend in the utilization rate of OHC, because of the increased educational level of the parents. The C for access and utilization rate, for different levels of fathers′ education was 0.055(-0.095 to 0.205 and 0.097(-0.068 to 0.261 and for mothers′ educational level was 0.086(-0.068 to 0.241 and 0.091(-0.81 to 0.263, respectively. Conclusion: Our results did not show evidence of sex disparity in the access and utilization of OHC in Iranian children. Also the inequity related to the educational level in access and utilization of OHC was low and not considerable.
Padé approximant related to remarkable inequalities involving trigonometric functions
Gabriel Bercu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we, respectively, give simple proofs of some remarkable trigonometric inequalities, based on the Padé approximation method. We also obtain rational refinements of these inequalities. We are convinced that the Padé approximation method offers a general framework for solving many other similar inequalities.
The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures.
Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K
2017-03-28
In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001-2003 (N = 3105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hiyoshi, Ayako; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Shipley, Martin J; Brunner, Eric J
2014-03-01
The extent that risk factors, identified in Western countries, account for health inequalities in Japan remains unclear. We analysed a nationally representative sample (Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions surveyed in 2001 (n = 40,243)). The cross-sectional association between self-rated fair or poor health and household income and a theory-based occupational social class was summarised using the relative index of inequality [RII]. The percentage attenuation in RII accounted for by candidate contributory factors - material, psychosocial, social relational and behavioural - was computed. The results showed that the RII for household income based on self-rated fair or poor health was reduced after including the four candidate contributory factors in the model by 20% (95% CI 2.1, 43.6) and 44% (95% CI 18.2, 92.5) in men and women, respectively. The RII for the Japanese Socioeconomic Classification [J-SEC] was reduced, not significantly, by 22% (95% CI -6.3, 100.0) in men in the corresponding model, while J-SEC was not associated with self-rated health in women. Material factors produced the most consistent and strong attenuation in RII for both socioeconomic indicators, while the contributions attributable to behaviour alone were modest. Social relational factors consistently attenuated the RII for both socioeconomic indicators in men whereas they did not make an independent contribution in women. The influence of perceived stress was inconsistent and depended on the socioeconomic indicator used. In summary, social inequalities in self-rated fair or poor health were reduced to a degree by the factors included. The results indicate that the levelling of health across the socioeconomic hierarchy needs to consider a wide range of factors, including material and psychosocial factors, in addition to the behavioural factors upon which the current public health policies in Japan focus. The analyses in this study need to be replicated using a longitudinal study design
Relational trustworthiness: how status affects intra-organizational inequality in job autonomy.
Campos-Castillo, Celeste; Ewoodzie, Kwesi
2014-03-01
Recent accounts of trustworthiness have moved away from treating it as a stable, individual-level attribute toward viewing it as a variable situated in a relational context, but have not been formalized or supported empirically. We extend status characteristics theory (SCT) to develop formal propositions about relational trustworthiness. We posit that members of task- and collectively oriented groups (non-consciously) infer three qualities from their relative status that are commonly used to determine an individual's trustworthiness: ability, benevolence, and integrity. We apply our formalization to clarify ambiguities regarding intra-organizational job autonomy inequality, thereby linking SCT to broader disparities rooted in job autonomy. We analyze data from a vignette experiment and the General Social Survey to test incrementally how well our propositions generalize across different settings and populations. Results generally support our proposed links between status and intra-organizational job autonomy. We discuss implications for SCT in understanding broader patterns of inequalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On universal oracle inequalities related to high-dimensional linear models
Golubev, Yuri
2010-01-01
This paper deals with recovering an unknown vector $\\theta$ from the noisy data $Y=A\\theta+\\sigma\\xi$, where $A$ is a known $(m\\times n)$-matrix and $\\xi$ is a white Gaussian noise. It is assumed that $n$ is large and $A$ may be severely ill-posed. Therefore, in order to estimate $\\theta$, a spectral regularization method is used, and our goal is to choose its regularization parameter with the help of the data $Y$. For spectral regularization methods related to the so-called ordered smoothers [see Kneip Ann. Statist. 22 (1994) 835--866], we propose new penalties in the principle of empirical risk minimization. The heuristical idea behind these penalties is related to balancing excess risks. Based on this approach, we derive a sharp oracle inequality controlling the mean square risks of data-driven spectral regularization methods.
Shankar Prinja
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Morbidity is self reported at a higher rate among the rich than the poor. However, objective measures suggest the contrary. We examined the role of epidemiological transition in wealth related inequalities in self-reported morbidity (SRM. Methods: We analyzed data of two States, Bihar and Kerala, from 60 [th] Round of National Sample Survey (NSS. Bivariate analysis was performed to study the associations between various socio-demographic variables and self-reported morbidity. A prediction model based on hierarchical logistic regression was developed to identify determinants of self-reported morbidity. Results: In Bihar, acute morbidities (26 per 1000 were reported more often than chronic morbidities (19 per 1000 while in Kerala the reverse was true (89 acute and 123 chronic morbidities per 1000 person. In both the s0 tates, the rate of SRM showed an increasing trend from the poorest to the richest quintiles. The rising gradient in the odds of SRM across increasing socio-economic strata was more pronounced in Bihar [OR (richest=2.52; 1.85-3.42] as compared to Kerala [OR (richest =1.66; 1.37-2.0]. Moreover, this gradient was more on account of chronic diseases [OR (richest =2.7; 1.8-4.0] for Bihar; [OR (richest =1.6; 1.26-2.0 for Kerala] than the acute diseases [OR (richest =1.82; 1.1-2.9 for Bihar]; [OR (richest =1.4; 1.1-1.8 for Kerala]. Interpretation & conclusions: The present analysis shows that the epidemiologic transition results in higher prevalence and reporting of chronic ailments by the rich than the poor. This phenomenon is more evident in the early stages of transition. In later stages of transition, positional objectivity plays an important role to explain wealth related inequalities in SRM.
Jafar Hassanzadeh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate gender inequalities and their health associated factors in world countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken using data of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP and World Health Organization (WHO. The main variable in this study was gender inequality index (GII. All countries were stratified by WHO regions. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the linear correlation between GII and investigated factors by WHO regions. The mean of GII was greater in Africa and lower in Europe region. There was negative significant association between GII and life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling, prevalence of current tobacco smoking, high blood pressure and overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption rate, and cancer death rate. But there was positive significant association between GII and noncommunicable diseases death rates. In conclusion, gender inequalities, though decreasing over the past decades in world, remain notably greater in Africa and Eastern Mediterranean regions than in Europe. Gender inequality is also an important issue which is related to health factors. Hence, countries will need to focus on public health intervention and equal distribution of economic resources to reduce gender inequality in society.
Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth
Bjørnskov, Christian
2004-01-01
This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....
Mohamed Haiour; Salah Boulaaras
2011-11-01
In this paper we provide a maximum norm analysis of an overlapping Schwarz method on non-matching grids for quasi-variational inequalities related to impulse control problem with mixed boundary conditions. We provide that the discretization on every sub-domain converges in uniform norm. Furthermore, a result of approximation in uniform norm is given.
Kluwer, E.S.; Mikula, G.
2003-01-01
We offer a social psychological perspective on gender-related inequalities in close relationships and integrate two lines of research that have focused on the intrapersonal perceptions and interpersonal consequences respectively of the gendered division of labour. We start with a brief summary of
Kluwer, E.S.; Mikula, G.
2003-01-01
We offer a social psychological perspective on gender-related inequalities in close relationships and integrate two lines of research that have focused on the intrapersonal perceptions and interpersonal consequences respectively of the gendered division of labour. We start with a brief summary of re
Sakayanagi, Yoshihiro; Nakaura, Shigeki; Sampei, Mitsuji
The solvable condition of nonlinear H∞ control problems is given by the Hamilton Jacobi inequality (HJI). The state-dependent Riccati inequality (SDRI) is one of the approaches used to solve the HJI. The SDRI contains the state-dependent coefficient (SDC) form of a nonlinear system. The SDC form is not unique. If a poor SDC form is chosen, then there is no solution for the SDRI. In other words, there exist free parameters of the SDC form that affect the solvability of the SDRI. This study focuses on the free parameters of the SDC form. First, a representation of the free parameters of the SDC form is introduced. The solvability of an SDRI is a sufficient condition for that of the related HJI, and the free parameters affect the conservativeness of the SDRI approach. In addition, a new method for designing the free parameters that reduces the conservativeness of the SDRI approach is introduced. Finally, numerical examples to verify the effect of this method are presented.
The most elementary Bell inequalities
Sadiq, Muhamad; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan
2011-01-01
Every nontrivial Bell inequality can be associated to a graph with some special properties. The simplest of these graphs is the pentagon. In this sense, any Bell inequality associated to a pentagon can be regarded as elementary. We show that there are three of them: one is a primitive Bell inequality inside the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and, surprisingly, it is not maximally violated by maximally entangled states. The other two are maximally violated by maximally entangled states and are related to the Clauser-Horne inequality and the I3322 inequality, respectively. We report experimental violations of the three inequalities with pairs of photons entangled in polarization.
[Social class, health inequalities, and health-related behaviors of working people in Chile].
Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; González Rodríguez, María José; Baksai, Pamela Bernales; Vallebuona, Clelia; Borrell, Carme; Solar, Orielle
2013-05-01
To analyze links between social class and health-related indicators and behaviors in Chilean workers, from a neo-Marxian perspective. A cross-sectional study based on the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Health, and Quality of Life of Workers in Chile, done in 2009-2010 (n = 9 503). Dependent variables were self-perceived health status and mental health, examined using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Health-related behavior variables included tobacco use and physical activity. The independent variable was neo-Marxian social class. Descriptive analyses of prevalence were performed and odds ratio (OR) models and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. Medium employers (between 2 and 10 employees) reported a lower prevalence of poor health (21.6% [OR 0.68; 95%CI 0.46-0.99]). Unskilled managers had the lowest mental health risk (OR 0.43; 95%CI 0.21-0.88), with differences between men and women. Large employers (more than 10 employees) reported smoking the least, while large employers, expert supervisors, and semi-skilled workers engaged in significantly more physical activity. Large employers and expert managers have the best health-related indicators and behaviors. Formal proletarians, informal proletarians, and unskilled supervisors, however, have the worst general health indicators, confirming that social class is a key determinant in the generation of population health inequalities.
Erdem Cam
2006-12-01
Full Text Available In this article; salaries of "career occupations" dependent on act of number 657 İn Turkey and wages of labor dependent on act of number 4857(Labor Law are compared to state an example of income distribution inequality in Turkey. This study consists of three sections. In the first section, the importance of wage policy in income distribution policy is explained. In second section, wage formation and education and employment relations are taken İn hand İn the frame of assumptions of human capital theory. In the last section, wages of labor dependent on act of number 4857 and salaries of career occupations dependent on act of number 657 are compared in a state economics enterprise which displays activity in energy sector in Turkey.
Some Nonlinear Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales
Wei Nian Li; Weihong Sheng
2007-11-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales, which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions. The inequalities given here unify and extend some inequalities in (B G Pachpatte, On some new inequalities related to a certain inequality arising in the theory of differential equation, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 251 (2000) 736--751).
Brian C. Houle
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-03-01
Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.
The Macro Model of the Inequality Process and the Surging Relative Frequency of Large Wage Incomes
Angle, John
2008-03-01
Particles are randomly paired in the Inequality Process (IP), a particle system scattering a positive quantity, wealth. Each particle has a parameter, φ, the fraction of wealth lost in a loss whose probability is 0.5. The stationary distribution of the wealth of particles with φψ is approximated by a γ pdf, the IP's macro model, with shape and scale parameters expressed in terms of φψ. The model's dynamics are driven by the product, φtμt, where φt is the harmonic mean of the φ's in the population at time t and μt, the population mean of wealth at time t. This γ pdf model fits the annual distribution of annual wage income in the U.S. 1961-2003. These data also confirm that the time-series of scalar statistics of wage income that labor economists think are produced by the U.S. distribution of wage income being ``hollowed out'' (bimodal), the increasing dispersion of wage income and the surging relative frequency of large wage incomes, are produced by the distribution being stretched over larger wage incomes, as implied by the IP's macro model when φtμt increases. The IP's macro model includes wage income distribution dynamics into statistical mechanics. To appear in The Econophysics of Markets and Business Networks.
Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim
2011-01-01
While traces and techniques of power and contestation around the understanding and production of spaces are clearly recognized in the sociological and planning research literature, there has been little rigorous attention to how socio-spatial inequality is put at stake in strategic mobilization...... around particular spatial imaginaries. In an analysis of the German Spatial Planning Report, the paper examines how inequalities are represented in relation to space and movement in spatial strategy. The analysis shows how, in the report, the spatial dimension of the social is represented...... as a territorial container, in which the social merges into regional and national entities. Correspondingly, movement is only interpreted as a derived demand, ignoring its integrative aspect as precondition of participation and part of network capital. On the other hand, the spatiality of the economy...
Canada, Antonio
2011-01-01
Several different problems make the study of the so called Lyapunov type inequalities of great interest, both in pure and applied mathematics. Although the original historical motivation was the study of the stability properties of the Hill equation (which applies to many problems in physics and engineering), other questions that arise in systems at resonance, crystallography, isoperimetric problems, Rayleigh type quotients, etc. lead to the study of $L_p$ Lyapunov inequalities ($1\\leq p\\leq \\infty$) for differential equations. In this work we review some recent results on these kinds of questions which can be formulated as optimal control problems. In the case of Ordinary Differential Equations, we consider periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions at higher eigenvalues and by using a more accurate version of the Sturm separation theory, an explicit optimal result is obtained. Then, we establish Lyapunov inequalities for systems of equations. To this respect, a key point is the characterization of the be...
Rotational Heisenberg Inequalities
Bréchet, Sylvain; Reuse, François; Maschke, Klaus; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2015-01-01
Since their discovery in 1927, the Heisenberg Inequalities have become an icon of quantum mechanics. Often inappropriately referred to as the Uncertainty Principle, these inequalities relating the standard deviations of the position and momentum observables to Planck's constant are one of the cornerstones of the quantum formalism even if the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics remains still open to controversy nowadays. The Heisenberg Inequalities governing translational motion are w...
Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan
2010-11-01
In this paper, we briefly review theories and findings on migration and health from the health equity perspective, and then analyse migration-related health inequalities taking into account gender, social class and migration characteristics in the adult population aged 25-64 living in Catalonia, Spain. On the basis of the characterisation of migration types derived from the review, we distinguished between immigrants from other regions of Spain and those from other countries, and within each group, those from richer or poorer areas; foreign immigrants from low-income countries were also distinguished according to duration of residence. Further stratification by sex and social class was applied. Groups were compared in relation to self-assessed health in two cross-sectional population-based surveys, and in relation to indicators of socio-economic conditions (individual income, an index of material and financial assets, and an index of employment precariousness) in one survey. Social class and gender inequalities were evident in both health and socio-economic conditions, and within both the native and immigrant subgroups. Migration-related health inequalities affected both internal and international immigrants, but were mainly limited to those from poor areas, were generally consistent with their socio-economic deprivation, and apparently more pronounced in manual social classes and especially for women. Foreign immigrants from poor countries had the poorest socio-economic situation but relatively better health (especially men with shorter length of residence). Our findings on immigrants from Spain highlight the transitory nature of the 'healthy immigrant effect', and that action on inequality in socio-economic determinants affecting migrant groups should not be deferred.
Raquel Sosa Elízaga
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.
Rezaei, S; Karyani, A K; Fallah, R; Matin, B K
2016-04-19
This study aimed to evaluate inequalities in the geographical distribution of human and physical resources in the health sector of Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data from the Statistical Centre of Iran were used to calculate inequality measures (Gini coefficient and index of dissimilarity) over the years 2005-11. The highest Gini coefficient for human resources was observed for pharmacists in 2005 (0.75) and the lowest for paramedics in 2010 and 2011 (0.10). The highest indices of dissimilarity were also for pharmacists in 2005 (29%) and paramedics in 2011 (3%). For physical resources, the highest and lowest Gini coefficients were for rehabilitation centres in 2010 (0.59) and health houses in 2011 (0.12) respectively. Generally, inequalities in the distribution of health care resources were lower at the end of the study period, although there was potential for more equitable distribution of pharmacists, specialists, health houses and beds.
Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain
2014-05-06
Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.
Hou, Liming
2014-01-01
The primary goal of this paper is to examine what makes Chinese college students dissatisfied with entrance opportunities for higher education. Based on the author's survey data, we test two parameters which could be a potential cause of this dissatisfaction: 1) distributive inequality, which emphasizes the individual's dissatisfaction caused by…
Income Inequality Indices Interpreted as Measures of Relative Deprivation/Satisfaction
Imedio-Olmedo, Luis Jose; Parrado-Gallardo, Encarnacion M.; Barcena-Martin, Elena
2012-01-01
This paper considers different ways of making comparisons between individuals in terms of deprivation and/or satisfaction. This allows the Gini index, the Bonferroni index and the De Vergottini index to be interpreted as social deprivation measures as well as social satisfaction measures. The inequality measures that belong to the [beta] family,…
Skalická, Vera; van Lenthe, Frank; Bambra, Clare; Krokstad, Steinar; Mackenbach, Johan
2009-10-01
Previous studies have assessed the relative importance of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality, but research into the contribution of biomedical factors has been limited. Our study examines the relative contribution of (i) material, (ii) psychosocial, (iii) behavioural and (iv) biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic (educational and income) inequalities in mortality. Cohort study--baseline data from the Norwegian total county population-based HUNT 2 study linked to mortality data (1995/97 to 2003). In this analysis, 18 247 men and 18 278 women aged 24-80 without severe chronic disease at baseline were eligible. No socio-economic inequalities in mortality among women were found. In men, educational- and income-related inequalities in mortality were found with a relative risk for the lowest educational group of 1.67 (1.29-2.15) and the lowest income quartile of 2.03 (1.57-2.70). Together, the four explanatory factors reduced the relative risk of mortality of the lowest educational group to 1.18 (0.90-1.55) and the relative risk of mortality in the lowest income quartile was attenuated to 1.17 (0.83-1.63). Known biomedical factors contributed least to both educational and income inequalities in mortality. Material factors were the most important in explaining income inequalities in mortality amongst men, whereas psychosocial and behavioural factors were the most important in explaining educational inequalities. This suggests that improving the material, psychosocial and behavioural circumstances of men might bring more substantial reductions in relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality.
Jovanović-Gavrilović Biljana D.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Inequality can be analyzed from various aspects. In this paper our attention is drawn to economic inequality, most frequently manifested through income and wealth. The measurement of economic inequality is a complex task. The Lorenz curve and a number of numerical indices are applied, and let us mention the following ones: the Gini coefficient, the coefficient of variation, the Theil index and the Atkinson measure. These indices do satisfy the criteria (principles presenting, according to general consent an appropriate measure of economic inequality: anonymity (symmetry principle, population principle, relative income principle and the Dalton principle of transfer. In recent times, the problem of inequality has been attracting a lot of attention. The explanation should be sought in the widening of income differences (within individual countries and between them and also in new knowledge about the relationship between inequality and development. The attitude to inequality being determined mainly by the economic development level (as presented in the Kuznets hypothesis is gradually being replaced by the attitude to inequality being the determinant of income and its growth. Contrary to previous beliefs about the stronger income inequalities being favorable to the economic growth, more recent research has pointed to the fact that a more equal distribution of income through various channels, can possibly act as an efficient stimulus of growth.
HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY AND LOGARITHMIC HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY FOR AMBIGUITY FUNCTION
Tian Guji
2000-01-01
In this article we discuss the relation between Heisenberg's inequality and logarithmic Heisenberg's (entropy) inequality for ambiguity function. After building up a Heisenberg's inequality, we obtain a connection of variance with entropy by variational method. Using classical Taylor's expansion, we prove that the equality in Heisenberg's inequality holds if and only if the entropy of 2k - 1 order is equal to (2k - 1)!.
Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn;
2010-01-01
In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs).......In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs)....
Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim
2011-01-01
around particular spatial imaginaries. In an analysis of the German Spatial Planning Report, the paper examines how inequalities are represented in relation to space and movement in spatial strategy. The analysis shows how, in the report, the spatial dimension of the social is represented...... as a territorial container, in which the social merges into regional and national entities. Correspondingly, movement is only interpreted as a derived demand, ignoring its integrative aspect as precondition of participation and part of network capital. On the other hand, the spatiality of the economy...
Visible inequality breeds more inequality
Gaechter, Simon
2015-01-01
Experiments suggest that when people can see wealth inequality in their social network, this propels further inequality through reduced cooperation and reduced social connectivity. News & Views comment on Nishi et al, Nature 526, 2015, p. 426-429.
Polarisation and inequality in Malaysia: The future of Malay-Chinese relations
Noraini M. Noor
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract: This study examines the extent of polarisation and inequality in the two main ethnic groups in Malaysia, Malays and Chinese. After 50 years of independence and 37 years since the implementation of the New Economic Policy, the current study demonstrates that inter-group prejudice continues to be a problem. In a sample of 195 university students (Malays=97, Chinese=98 results from the Bogardus Social Distance Scale indicated that both groups exhibit more inter-group social distance than in-group distance. Differences in racial attitudes are also found, with Chinese being less prejudiced than Malays. Attitudes with regard to income, wealth and political inequality obtained show that while the Malays identifiy tolerance and understanding as ways of reducing tension between the groups, the Chinese ask for fairness. These results are discussed here with respect to both individual and socialstructural factors.
Regional Deprivation Index and Socioeconomic Inequalities Related to Infant Deaths in Korea.
Yun, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Ju; Son, Mia
2016-04-01
Deprivation indices have been widely used to evaluate neighborhood socioeconomic status and therefore examine individuals within their regional context. Although some studies on the development of deprivation indices were conducted in Korea, additional research is needed to construct a more valid and reliable deprivation index. Therefore, a new deprivation index, named the K index, was constructed using principal component analysis. This index was compared with the Carstairs, Townsend and Choi indices. A possible association between infant death and deprivation was explored using the K index. The K index had a higher correlation with the infant mortality rate than did the other three indices. The regional deprivation quintiles were unequally distributed throughout the country. Despite the overall trend of gradually decreasing infant mortality rates, inequalities in infant deaths according to the deprivation quintiles persisted and widened. Despite its significance, the regional deprivation variable had a smaller effect on infant deaths than did individual variables. The K index functions as a deprivation index, and we may use this index to estimate the regional socioeconomic status in Korea. We found that inequalities in infant deaths according to the time trend persisted. To reduce the health inequalities among infants in Korea, regional deprivation should be considered.
Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators
Ilyas Ali
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.
Rape and its relation to social disorganization, pornography and inequality in the USA.
Baron, L; Straus, M A
1989-01-01
A theoretical model seeks to integrate social disorganization and feminist theories of rape, reporting an empirical test of that model using data on rapes per 100,000 population known to the police in the 50 states of the United States. The model includes the following aspects of the social organization of the states: social disorganization (measured by a six item index), sexual inequality (measured by a status of women index to men), pornography (measured by a sex magazine circulation index for eight sexually explicit magazines) and the level of culturally legitimate violence (measured by a 12 item legitimate violence index using indicators like corporal punishment in schools. There were marked differences between states of the USA in the incidence of rape during the 1980-82. Path analysis was used to test the theoretical model, which posits rape as a function of the direct and indirect effects of social disorganization, sexual inequality, pornography, legitimate violence and seven control variables. The results show that all four variables play an important part in explaining differences between states in rape; and that together, the variables in the model explain 83 per cent of the state-to-state variation in rape. Women are in much greater danger of being raped in some American states than in others. Since the FBI began compiling statistics on rape, states like Alaska, Nevada, and California have consistently registered many more rapes per capita than North Dakota, Maine, and Iowa. What factors account for such differences between states? Could the variation in the rape rate be explained by four aspects of the social structure of states: (1) the proliferation of pornography (2) sexual inequality (3) culturally legitimate violence and (4) social disorganization. Each factor represents a theory which will be examined within the context of an integrated theory on rape.
Vilenkin-Like系统的不等式%Inequalities Relative to Vilenkin-Like System
张学英; 张传洲
2009-01-01
For bounded Vilenkin-Like system, the inequality is also true: ∑ ∞κ=1 κp-2‖(f)(k)‖p)1/p≤C‖f‖Hp,0
Inequalities for quantum skew information
Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank
2008-01-01
We study quantum information inequalities and show that the basic inequality between the quantum variance and the metric adjusted skew information generates all the multi-operator matrix inequalities or Robertson type determinant inequalities studied by a number of authors. We introduce an order...... relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information...... with respect to this order structure in the set of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations....
Koopman Carla
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.32 – 1.36 in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47 in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden
Social inequalities in "sickness"
van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten
2012-01-01
-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude......In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...
Depression-related work disability: socioeconomic inequalities in onset, duration and recurrence.
Jenni Ervasti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is a major cause of disability in working populations and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in disability is an important public health challenge. We examined work disability due to depression with four indicators of socioeconomic status. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 125 355 Finnish public sector employees was linked to national register data on work disability (>9 days due to depressive disorders (International Classification of Diseases, codes F32-F34 from January 2005 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were the onset of work disability due to depressive disorders and, among those with such disability, return to work after and recurrent episodes of work disability due to depression. RESULTS: We found a consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient in work disability due to depression. Lower occupational position, lower educational level, smaller residence size, and rented (vs. owner-occupied residence were all associated with an increased risk of work disability. Return to work was slower for employees with basic education (cumulative odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39 compared to those with higher education. Recurrent work disability episodes due to depression were less common among upper-grade non-manual workers (the highest occupational group than among lower-grade non-manual (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25 and manual (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26 workers. CONCLUSIONS: These data from Finnish public sector employees show persistent socioeconomic inequalities in work disability due to depression from 2005 to 2011 in terms of onset, recovery and recurrence.
Depression-related work disability: socioeconomic inequalities in onset, duration and recurrence.
Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna
2013-01-01
Depression is a major cause of disability in working populations and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in disability is an important public health challenge. We examined work disability due to depression with four indicators of socioeconomic status. A prospective cohort study of 125 355 Finnish public sector employees was linked to national register data on work disability (>9 days) due to depressive disorders (International Classification of Diseases, codes F32-F34) from January 2005 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were the onset of work disability due to depressive disorders and, among those with such disability, return to work after and recurrent episodes of work disability due to depression. We found a consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient in work disability due to depression. Lower occupational position, lower educational level, smaller residence size, and rented (vs. owner-occupied) residence were all associated with an increased risk of work disability. Return to work was slower for employees with basic education (cumulative odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39) compared to those with higher education. Recurrent work disability episodes due to depression were less common among upper-grade non-manual workers (the highest occupational group) than among lower-grade non-manual (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25) and manual (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26) workers. These data from Finnish public sector employees show persistent socioeconomic inequalities in work disability due to depression from 2005 to 2011 in terms of onset, recovery and recurrence.
Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B
2003-01-01
40% increased odds for multiple physical symptoms among less advantaged girls, to 90% increased odds of multiple psychological symptoms for less advantaged boys. Relationships with friends or teachers showed small social class differences, while strong and consistent social class differences were......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. Measures included family social class, indices of social relations to parents, friends, teachers, and school. SETTING: Random sample of 55 schools...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of 5205 students from grades 5, 7, and 9. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of lower socioeconomic position reported more physical and psychological symptoms. This ranged from...
Generalized quasi variational inequalities
Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
1996-12-31
In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.
Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Eikemo, Terje A; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulik, Margarete C; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle
2015-02-01
Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)
2013-07-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Recent Progresses in Characterising Information Inequalities
Terence Chan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a revision on some of the recent progresses made in characterising and understanding information inequalities, which are the fundamental physical laws in communications and compression. We will begin with the introduction of a geometric framework for information inequalities, followed by the first non-Shannon inequality proved by Zhang et al. in 1998 [1]. The discovery of this non-Shannon inequality is a breakthrough in the area and has led to the subsequent discovery of many more non-Shannon inequalities. We will also review the close relations between information inequalities and other research areas such as Kolmogorov complexity, determinantal inequalities, and group-theoretic inequalities. These relations have led to non-traditional techniques in proving information inequalities and at the same time made impacts back onthose related areas by the introduction of information-theoretic tools.
Social inequalities in 'sickness'
Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...
PING Yun-Xia; LIU Lie; ZHANG Chao-Min; CHENG Ze
2011-01-01
Violations of Bell inequality, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and entanglement in a two-mode three-level atomic system are investigated. It is shown that there are some states, which are entangled but do not violate Bell inequality in this system. Moreover, the relations of violations of Bell inequality, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, and entanglement are discussed in detail.
Queering the family? A multi-layered analysis of relations of inequality in transnational adoption.
De Graeve, Katrien
2014-06-01
This paper explores the tensions between the (equal) parental right claims in adopting countries and the global inequalities in class, race and geographical location that shape transnational adoption. It uses the story told by a Belgian couple who disguised their lesbian relationship from the authorities involved to explore the narratives of child, family and nation that undergird transnational adoption. The paper discusses the potential and limits of the creation of non-traditional families for producing greater equity and significant reinterpretations of kinship and the family script. Moreover, taking into account different layers of both oppression and privilege, it discusses the ethical implications of the (queer) liberal ideologies of parental rights and Western moral superiority that prevail in transnational adoption. It argues for a shift away from the desire to create non-biological and/or non-heterosexual forms of private nuclear kinship through transnational adoption to a more profound and critical re-thinking of the (transnational) care of children, with space and acceptance for profoundly different constellations of care.
On small deviations of stationary Gaussian processes and related analytic inequalities
Weber, Michel J G
2011-01-01
Let $ \\{X_j, j\\in \\Z\\}$ be a Gaussian stationary sequence having a spectral function $F$ of infinite type. Then for all $n$ and $z\\ge 0$,$$ \\P\\Big\\{\\sup_{j=1}^n |X_j|\\le z \\Big\\}\\le \\Big(\\int_{-z/\\sqrt{G(f)}}^{z/\\sqrt{G(f)}} e^{-x^2/2}\\frac{\\dd x}{\\sqrt{2\\pi}} \\Big)^n,$$ where $ G(f)$ is the geometric mean of the Radon Nycodim derivative of the absolutely continuous part $f$ of $F$. The proof uses properties of finite Toeplitz forms. Let $ \\{X(t), t\\in \\R\\}$ be a sample continuous stationary Gaussian process with covariance function $\\g(u) $. We also show that there exists an absolute constant $K$ such that for all $T>0$, $a>0$ with $T\\ge \\e(a)$, $$\\P\\Big\\{\\sup_{0\\le s,t\\le T} |X(s)-X(t)|\\le a\\Big\\} \\le \\exp \\Big \\{-{KT \\over \\e(a) p(\\e(a))}\\Big\\} ,$$ where $\\e (a)= \\min\\big\\{b>0: \\d (b)\\ge a\\big\\}$, $\\d (b)=\\min_{u\\ge 1}\\{\\sqrt{2(1-\\g((ub))}, u\\ge 1\\}$, and $ p(b) = 1+\\sum_{j=2}^\\infty {|2\\g (jb)-\\g ((j-1)b)-\\g ((j+1)b)| \\over 2(1-\\g(b))}$. The proof is based on some decoupling inequalities arising from Bras...
Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Krämer, Alexander; Khandoker, Aklimunnessa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Islam, Anwar
2011-08-01
To assess levels, trends and gaps between the poorest and the richest in selected health and human development indicators in Bangladesh. Data for selected indicators associated with sociodemographic characteristics among ever-married women, contraception use, child vaccination, antenatal care practices and health conditions were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1993-94, 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004 and 2007. Results for the whole sample and for the poorest and the richest wealth quintiles are presented. Positive trends were noted in urbanization, availability of electricity, age at first marriage, use of modern contraception, access to skilled antenatal care, child vaccination, knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and overweight and obesity. In contrast, negative trends were seen in factors such as literacy, infant and child mortality, fertility rate, home delivery and malnutrition and underweight. However, changes in these indicators differed between the poorest and richest quintiles. For instance, only the richest quintile experienced rapid urbanization, whereas illiteracy declined more among the poorest. Noteworthy gaps were found in almost all factors. Rich-poor gaps in urbanization, age at marriage, fertility, condom use, home delivery and overweight increased; in contrast, gaps in education, water and sanitation, use of contraception (except condoms) and child vaccination declined. Persistent inequities in Bangladesh endanger equitable and sustainable human development in the country. Pro-poor development strategies based on the principles of equity and quality should be implemented to narrow existing gaps and further promote holistic and equitable human development.
Handbook of functional equations functional inequalities
2014-01-01
As Richard Bellman has so elegantly stated at the Second International Conference on General Inequalities (Oberwolfach, 1978), “There are three reasons for the study of inequalities: practical, theoretical, and aesthetic.” On the aesthetic aspects, he said, “As has been pointed out, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, it is generally agreed that certain pieces of music, art, or mathematics are beautiful. There is an elegance to inequalities that makes them very attractive.” The content of the Handbook focuses mainly on both old and recent developments on approximate homomorphisms, on a relation between the Hardy–Hilbert and the Gabriel inequality, generalized Hardy–Hilbert type inequalities on multiple weighted Orlicz spaces, half-discrete Hilbert-type inequalities, on affine mappings, on contractive operators, on multiplicative Ostrowski and trapezoid inequalities, Ostrowski type inequalities for the Riemann–Stieltjes integral, means and related functional inequalities, Weighted G...
Origer, Alain; Le Bihan, Etienne; Baumann, Michèle
2014-09-01
To investigate social and economic inequalities in fatal overdose cases related to opioid and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence in a nested case-control study design. Overdose cases were individually matched with four controls, when available, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. 272 cases vs 1056 controls were analysed. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the respective impact of a series of socioeconomic variables. Being professionally active [OR=0.66 (95% CI 0.45-0.99)], reporting salary as main legal income source [OR=0.42 (95% CI 0.26-0.67)] and education attainment higher than primary school [OR=0.50 (95% CI 0.34-0.73)] revealed to be protective factors, whereas the professional status of the father or legal guardian of victims was not significantly associated to fatal overdoses. Socioeconomic inequalities in drug users impact on the occurrence of fatal overdoses. Compared to their peers, users of illicit drugs with lower socioeconomic profiles show increased odds of dying from overdose. However, actual and self-referred socioeconomic characteristics of drug users, such as educational attainment and employment, may have a greater predictive value of overdose mortality than the parental socioeconomic status. Education, vocational training and socio-professional reintegration should be part of drug-related mortality prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Dain, Sergio
2014-01-01
It is well known that the three parameters that characterize the Kerr black hole (mass, angular momentum and horizon area) satisfy several important inequalities. Remarkably, some of these inequalities remain valid also for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article recent results in this subject are reviewed.
Ernstsen Linda
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational
Krämer, Alexander; Khandoker, Aklimunnessa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Islam, Anwar
2011-01-01
Abstract Objective To assess levels, trends and gaps between the poorest and the richest in selected health and human development indicators in Bangladesh. Methods Data for selected indicators associated with sociodemographic characteristics among ever-married women, contraception use, child vaccination, antenatal care practices and health conditions were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1993–94, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004 and 2007. Results for the whole sample and for the poorest and the richest wealth quintiles are presented. Findings Positive trends were noted in urbanization, availability of electricity, age at first marriage, use of modern contraception, access to skilled antenatal care, child vaccination, knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and overweight and obesity. In contrast, negative trends were seen in factors such as literacy, infant and child mortality, fertility rate, home delivery and malnutrition and underweight. However, changes in these indicators differed between the poorest and richest quintiles. For instance, only the richest quintile experienced rapid urbanization, whereas illiteracy declined more among the poorest. Noteworthy gaps were found in almost all factors. Rich–poor gaps in urbanization, age at marriage, fertility, condom use, home delivery and overweight increased; in contrast, gaps in education, water and sanitation, use of contraception (except condoms) and child vaccination declined. Conclusion Persistent inequities in Bangladesh endanger equitable and sustainable human development in the country. Pro-poor development strategies based on the principles of equity and quality should be implemented to narrow existing gaps and further promote holistic and equitable human development. PMID:21836757
Zhan, Xingzhi
2002-01-01
The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.
Moor, Irene; Spallek, Jacob; Richter, Matthias
2017-06-01
Material, psychosocial and behavioural factors are important explanatory pathways for socioeconomic inequalities in health. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the available evidence on empirical studies and to analyse the relative contribution of these factors for explaining inequalities in self-rated health. The study was performed in compliance with PRISMA guidelines. The literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science (1996-2016) as well as by screening of reference lists of obtained articles. Two reviewers performed the search and critical appraisal of the studies. All studies that focus on explaining socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health, including at least 2 of the 3 main pathways and analysing the relative contribution of these approaches in separate and joint models, were included. Eleven publications were included. Separate analyses showed that material, psychosocial and behavioural factors contribute to the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health. However, the combined analyses revealed that material factors contributed most to differences in self-rated health because of their higher independent (direct) effect and additional shared (indirect) effect (through psychosocial and behavioural factors). These results were largely independent of age, gender and indicator of socioeconomic status. The evidence presented might be used for policymakers to identify and to justify prioritisation in terms of prevention and health promotion. The findings show that multiple factors are important for tackling social inequalities in health. Strategies for reducing these inequalities should focus on material/structural living conditions as they shape conditions of psychosocial resources and health behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana
2009-11-01
Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to
Remainder terms for some quantum entropy inequalities
Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H. [Department of Mathematics, Hill Center, Rutgers University, 110 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-0001 (United States)
2014-04-15
We consider three von Neumann entropy inequalities: subadditivity; Pinsker's inequality for relative entropy; and the monotonicity of relative entropy. For these we state conditions for equality, and we prove some new error bounds away from equality, including an improved version of Pinsker's inequality.
Social inequalities and health inequity in Morocco
Boutayeb Abdesslam
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the last census, Morocco has a population approaching 30 million people. The country has made good progress in the control of preventable childhood diseases but social inequalities and health inequities remain major problems for the third millennium. Despite the progress achieved during the last decade, the country still ranks at the 125th place according to the Human Development Index. This unpleasant position is mainly explained by illiteracy, education and health indicators. Method Our study was based mainly on annual reports and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, World Health Organisation (WHO, The Moroccan Health Ministry and related papers published in international journals. Results and discussion As indicated by the last Arab Human Development Reports (AHDR 2002, AHDR 2003, AHDR 2004 and implicitly confirmed by the "National Initiative for Human Development" (NIHD launched in May 2005 by the King of Morocco, many districts and shanty towns, urban or peri-urban, and a multitude of rural communes live in situations characterized by difficult access to basic social services of which education and health are examples. Conclusion Recent evidence showed that improved health is more than a consequence of development. It is a central input into economic and social development and poverty reduction. Serious initiatives for human development should consider the reduction of social inequalities and health inequities as a first priority. Otherwise, the eventual development achieved cannot be sustained.
Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K
2016-12-01
This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-07-01
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.
Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer
, and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between......High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms...
Olga M Klimecki
Full Text Available In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports, arousal (by means of skin conductance responses, physical effort (force exertion, and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic
Klimecki, Olga M.; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David
2016-01-01
In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG) as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an “unfair other” as opposed to a “fair other” and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports), arousal (by means of skin conductance responses), physical effort (force exertion), and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling) and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic traits can
Klimecki, Olga M; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David
2016-01-01
In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG) as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports), arousal (by means of skin conductance responses), physical effort (force exertion), and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling) and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic traits can have
Diderichsen, Finn
2016-01-01
Social investment policy has become a central response to the demographic and economic challenges facing European welfare states. This focus on investment in human capabilities and their efficient use is, however, challenged by health inequalities where education, health and employment...... are increasingly linked. This paper outlines the main principles of social investment policies (learning, activation and protection) and links them to a conceptual model of health inequalities and the policy entry-points tackling them by addressing the processes of social stratification, differential exposure...... investments in health so as to enable social investments to tackle the health divide....
Diderichsen, Finn
2016-01-01
Social investment policy has become a central response to the demographic and economic challenges facing European welfare states. This focus on investment in human capabilities and their efficient use is, however, challenged by health inequalities where education, health and employment...... are increasingly linked. This paper outlines the main principles of social investment policies (learning, activation and protection) and links them to a conceptual model of health inequalities and the policy entry-points tackling them by addressing the processes of social stratification, differential exposure...... investments in health so as to enable social investments to tackle the health divide....
Some Inequalities for Simplices and Their Applications
杨世国
2005-01-01
Using theory of distance geometry and analytic method, the problem on relations about the volumes of some simplices is studied, and some new inequalities for the volumes of simplices are established. As special cases, an inequality for the volume of the pedal simplex of a simplex and other inequalities for simplices are gotten.
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Salvucci, Vincenzo
2015-01-01
Changes in relative prices of commodities consumed in different shares across income groups can be expected to alter real income differentials between these groups. Using Mozambican household budget survey and price data from 2002/03 and 2008/09, we show that once relative price increases are acc...
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Salvucci, Vincenzo
2015-01-01
Changes in relative prices of commodities consumed in different shares across income groups can be expected to alter real income differentials between these groups. Using Mozambican household budget survey and price data from 2002/03 and 2008/09, we show that once relative price increases are acc...
Industrialization and inequality revisited
Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin
2016-01-01
, relative differences between socioeconomic groups remained virtually constant. The results also show that child mortality continued to be sensitive to short-term fluctuations in wages and that there were no socioeconomic differences in this response. We argue that the persistent inequality in living......This work combines economic and demographic data to examine inequality of living standards in Stockholm at the turn of the twentieth century. Using a longitudinal population register with occupational information, we utilize event-history models to show that despite absolute decreases in mortality...
The analysis and geometry of Hardy's inequality
Balinsky, Alexander A; Lewis, Roger T
2015-01-01
This volume presents advances that have been made over recent decades in areas of research featuring Hardy's inequality and related topics. The inequality and its extensions and refinements are not only of intrinsic interest but are indispensable tools in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Hardy inequalities on domains have a substantial role and this necessitates a detailed investigation of significant geometric properties of a domain and its boundary. Other topics covered in this volume are Hardy- Sobolev-Maz’ya inequalities; inequalities of Hardy-type involving magnetic fields; Hardy, Sobolev and Cwikel-Lieb-Rosenbljum inequalities for Pauli operators; the Rellich inequality. The Analysis and Geometry of Hardy’s Inequality provides an up-to-date account of research in areas of contemporary interest and would be suitable for a graduate course in mathematics or physics. A good basic knowledge of real and complex analysis is a prerequisite.
The Relation Between the Health Workforce distribution and Maternal and Child Health Inequalities
M.A. Sousa (Angelica)
2016-01-01
markdownabstractWeak health systems with a shortage of qualified staff, and lack of equipment and medicines impede the delivery of quality health care that is required to prevent maternal and newborn deaths and the attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Using the cases
The Relation Between the Health Workforce distribution and Maternal and Child Health Inequalities
M.A. Sousa (Angelica)
2016-01-01
markdownabstractWeak health systems with a shortage of qualified staff, and lack of equipment and medicines impede the delivery of quality health care that is required to prevent maternal and newborn deaths and the attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Using the cases
Brickman, Philip
1977-01-01
People's judgments of fairness are related to varying degrees of uncertainty about their own resulting positions in society. When task assignments were made on the basis of ability, college students were much more willing to endorse inequality when they did not know their positions than when they did. (Author/EVH)
Immigration and income inequality
Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain
Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...
Immigration and income inequality
Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain
Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...
Mackenbach, Johan P; Ivana Kulhánová; Matthias Bopp; Carme Borrell; Patrick Deboosere; Katalin Kovács; Caspar W N Looman; Mall Leinsalu; Pia Mäkelä; Pekka Martikainen; Gwenn Menvielle; Maica Rodríguez-Sanz; Jitka Rychtaříková; Rianne de Gelder
2015-01-01
Editors' Summary Background People have consumed alcoholic beverages throughout history, but, globally, about three million people die from alcohol-related causes every year. Alcohol consumption, particularly in higher amounts, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diseases of the heart and/or blood vessels), liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), injuries, and many other fatal and nonfatal health problems. Alcohol also affects the well-being and health of people around those who dri...
THE RELATION BETWEEN MILD LEG-LENGTH INEQUALITY AND ABLE-BODIED GAIT ASYMMETRY
Matthew K. Seeley
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The causes of able-bodied gait asymmetries are unclear. Mild ( 1 cm; n = 7. Statistically significant relationships were observed between LLI and the symmetry coefficient for knee joint moment (r = -0.48 and power (r = -0.51, and ankle joint moment (r = -0.41 and power (r = -0.42. Similarly, subjects with relatively large LLI exhibited significantly lower symmetry coefficients for knee joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.35, and ankle joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.22 than subjects with relatively small LLI. Degree of bilateral symmetry for knee and ankle joint kinetics appears to be related to LLI in able- bodied gait. This finding supports the idea that LLI is one cause of able-bodied gait asymmetries. Other factors, however, are also likely to contribute to these gait asymmetries; these may include other morphological asymmetries as well as asymmetrical neuromuscular input to the lower limb muscles
Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries.
Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph
2016-01-01
Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.
Health-related financial catastrophe, inequality and chronic illness in Bangladesh.
Md Mizanur Rahman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has a high proportion of households incurring catastrophic health expenditure, and very limited risk sharing mechanisms. Identifying determinants of out-of-pocket (OOP payments and catastrophic health expenditure may reveal opportunities to reduce costs and protect households from financial risk. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the determinants of high healthcare expenditure and healthcare- related financial catastrophe. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh, in 2011. Catastrophic health expenditure was estimated separately based on capacity to pay and proportion of non-food expenditure. Determinants of OOP payments and financial catastrophe were estimated using double hurdle and Poisson regression models respectively. RESULTS: On average households spent 11% of their total budgets on health, half the residents spent 7% of the monthly per capita consumption expenditure for one illness, and nearly 9% of households faced financial catastrophe. The poorest households spent less on health but had a four times higher risk of catastrophe than the richest households. The risk of financial catastrophe and the level of OOP payments were higher for users of inpatient, outpatient public and private facilities respectively compared to using self-medication or traditional healers. Other determinants of OOP payments and catastrophic expenses were economic status, presence of chronic illness in the household, and illness among children and adults. CONCLUSION: Households that received inpatient or outpatient private care experienced the highest burden of health expenditure. The poorest members of the community also face large, often catastrophic expenses. Chronic illness management is crucial to reducing the total burden of disease in a household and its associated increased risk of level of OOP payments and catastrophic expenses. Households can only be protected from these situations by
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-09-01
Living in the era of "big-data" information, we are ubiquitously inundated by overabundances of sizes-non-negative numerical values representing count, score, length, area, volume, duration, mass, energy, etc. Datasets of sizes display numerous types of statistical variability that are commonly quantified either by the standard deviation, or by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The standard deviation measures the sizes' Euclidean divergence from their mean, the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy measures the sizes' informational divergence from the benchmark of pure determinism, and both these gauges are one-dimensional. In this paper we overview a methodology that harnesses inequality in order to quantify statistical variability. The methodology follows a socioeconomic approach of measuring the sizes' inequality-their divergence from the benchmark of pure egalitarianism-and yields frameworks that gauge statistical variability in a multi-dimensional fashion. The aim of this overview is to serve both researchers and practitioners as a crash-introduction to the "harnessing inequality" methodology, and as a crash-manual to the implementation of this methodology.
关于Wulff流情形下的等周不等式的注记%Remark on Isoperimetric Inequalities in the Wullf Case
马磊; 曾春娜
2015-01-01
该文主要研究平面上Wulff流情形下的等周不等式.利用凸域的某些量在Wulff流情形下的变化规律(单调性、不变性),得到了Wulff-Gage等周不等式与曲率的Wulff-熵不等式的新的简单证明;进一步地,得到了一个新的Wulff流情形下的不等式.
Hooghiemstra, G.; Van Mieghem, P.
2015-01-01
In this article Gerard Hooghiemstra and Piet van Mieghem explain why the Gauss inequality is overshadowed by the Chebychev inequality. Furthermore, they present a proof of the Gauss inequality in modern notation.
Moslehian, Mohammad Sal
2011-01-01
There are several inequalities in the literature carrying the name of Ky Fan. We survey these well-known Ky Fan inequalities and some other significant inequalities generalized by Ky Fan and review some of their recent developments.
Hooghiemstra, G.; Van Mieghem, P.
2015-01-01
In this article Gerard Hooghiemstra and Piet van Mieghem explain why the Gauss inequality is overshadowed by the Chebychev inequality. Furthermore, they present a proof of the Gauss inequality in modern notation.
Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Lund, Crick
2017-05-01
Income inequality (II) and poverty are major challenges in South Africa (SA) yet little is known about their interaction on population mental health. We explored relationships between district II, household income (HHI) and depressive symptoms in national panel data. We used 3 waves (2008, 2010, 2012) of the SA National Income Dynamics Study (n=25936) in adjusted mixed effects logistic regression to assess if the relationship between HHI and depressive symptoms is dependent on level of II. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and District inequality ratios (P10P90) derived from HHI distributions in 53 districts. Lower HHI and increasing II were associated with depressive symptoms. The interaction term between HHI and II on depressive symptoms was significant (β=0.01, 95% CI: <0.01-0.01); with increasing II and decreasing HHI, depression risk increased. II widens income-related disparities in depression risk in SA, with policy implications for understanding socioeconomic determinants of mental health and informing global efforts to reduce disparities in high poverty and inequality contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fast and scalable inequality joins
Khayyat, Zuhair
2016-09-07
Inequality joins, which is to join relations with inequality conditions, are used in various applications. Optimizing joins has been the subject of intensive research ranging from efficient join algorithms such as sort-merge join, to the use of efficient indices such as (Formula presented.)-tree, (Formula presented.)-tree and Bitmap. However, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are notably very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms based on sorted arrays and space-efficient bit-arrays. We further introduce a simple method to estimate the selectivity of inequality joins which is then used to optimize multiple predicate queries and multi-way joins. Moreover, we study an incremental inequality join algorithm to handle scenarios where data keeps changing. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, a distributed version on top of Spark SQL, and an existing data cleaning system, Nadeef. By comparing our algorithms against well-known optimization techniques for inequality joins, we show our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Ferrant, Gaëlle
2010-01-01
The measurement of gender inequalities has become an important topic in the academic literature. First, appropriate indicators are needed to compare the relative situation of women in developing countries. Second, there is renewed attention given to the relationship between gender inequality and economic growth. Measuring gender inequalities contributes to knowing whether greater inequality promotes or hampers growth. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, the Gender Inequalities Index (GII...
O'Flaherty, Martin; Bishop, Jennifer; Redpath, Adam; McLaughlin, Terry; Murphy, David; Chalmers, James; Capewell, Simon
2009-01-01
Objective To examine recent trends and social inequalities in age specific coronary heart disease mortality.Design Time trend analysis using joinpoint regression.Setting Scotland, 1986-2006.Participants Men and women aged 35 years and over.Main outcome measures Age adjusted and age, sex, and deprivation specific coronary heart disease mortality.Results Persistent sixfold social differentials in coronary heart disease mortality were seen between the most deprived and the most affluent groups a...
Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality
V. Lepetyuk; C.A. Stoltenberg
2012-01-01
The rise in consumption inequality in response to the increase in income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality while the standard incomplete
Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality
Lepetyuk, V.; Stoltenberg, C.A.
2013-01-01
The rise in within-group consumption inequality in response to the increase in within-group income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality whil
Ideology and intergroup inequality : Emerging directions and trends
Kay, Aaron; Brandt, M.J.
2016-01-01
The authors propose that two guiding frameworks characterize psychological research on the relation between ideology and inequality. The first, called the product approach, focuses on ideologies directly concerned with intergroup relations, in which beliefs about inequality can be considered a
Hedblad Bo
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of relative scales in socioepidemiological studies has recently been criticized. The criticism is based mainly on the fact that the importance of different risk factors in explaining social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD varies, depending on which scale is used to measure social inequalities. The present study examines the importance of established risk factors, as opposed to low-grade inflammation, in explaining socioeconomic differences in the incidence of CVD, using both relative and absolute scales. Methods We obtained information on socioeconomic position (SEP, established risk factors (smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, and low-grade inflammation as measured by high-sensitive (hs C-reactive protein (CRP levels, in 4,268 Swedish men and women who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS. Data on first cardiovascular events, i.e., stroke or coronary event (CE, was collected from regional and national registers. Social inequalities were measured in relative terms, i.e., as ratios between incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP, and also in absolute terms, i.e., as the absolute difference in incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP. Results Those with low SEP had a higher risk of future CVD. Adjustment for risk factors resulted in a rather small reduction in the relative socioeconomic gradient, namely 8% for CRP (≥ 3 mg/L and 21% for established risk factors taken together. However, there was a reduction of 18% in the absolute socioeconomic gradient when looking at subjects with CRP-levels Conclusion C-reactive protein and established risk factors all contribute to socioeconomic differences in CVD. However, conclusions on the importance of "modern" risk factors (here, CRP, as opposed to established risk factors, in the association between SEP and CVD depend on the scale on which social inequalities are measured. The one-sided use of the relative
Educational Inequality in English Primary Education
Richards, Colin
2008-01-01
This paper summarises some English research findings related to educational inequality, particularly in inner urban schools. It documents how differences related to relative poverty are reflected in patterns of educational attainment as revealed by national tests results. It considers and evaluates how the issue of educational inequality in…
Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.
Mikkelson, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D
2007-05-16
Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.
Isoperimetric Pentagonal Tilings
Chung, Ping Ngai; Li, Yifei; Mara, Michael; Morgan, Frank; Plata, Isamar Rosa; Shah, Niralee; Vieira, Luis Sordo; Wikner, Elena
2011-01-01
We identify least-perimeter unit-area tilings of the plane by convex pentagons, namely tilings by Cairo and Prismatic pentagons, find infinitely many, and prove that they minimize perimeter among tilings by convex polygons with at most five sides.
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier
2016-01-01
Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job...
Manuela Pfinder
2014-01-01
Full Text Available There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.59, 4.86 and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24. Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.
Pfinder, Manuela
2014-01-08
There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.
H1N1, globalization and the epidemiology of inequality.
Sparke, Matthew; Anguelov, Dimitar
2012-07-01
This paper examines the lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in relation to wider work on globalization and the epidemiology of inequality. The media attention and economic resources diverted to the threats posed by H1N1 were significant inequalities themselves when contrasted with weaker responses to more lethal threats posed by other diseases associated with global inequality. However, the multiple inequalities revealed by H1N1 itself in 2009 still provide important insights into the future of global health in the context of market-led globalization. These lessons relate to at least four main forms of inequality: (1) inequalities in blame for the outbreak in the media; (2) inequalities in risk management; (3) inequalities in access to medicines; and (4) inequalities encoded in the actual emergence of new flu viruses.
A Toy Penrose Inequality and its Proof
Bengtsson, Ingemar
2016-01-01
We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: A shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.
A toy Penrose inequality and its proof
Bengtsson, Ingemar; Jakobsson, Emma
2016-12-01
We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: a shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.
When does inequality freeze an economy?
Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio
2016-07-01
Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.
Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile
In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....
[Economic growth and health inequities].
Tapia Granados, José A
2013-01-01
This essay reviews the relation between health inequities and economic growth. The general meaning of these and ancillary concepts (economic development, health inequalities) is briefly reviewed. Some studies illustrating different hypotheses on the long-run historical evolution of health inequalities are presented, and three case studies -the United States in 1920-1940 and in recent years, Finland during the expansion of the 1980s and the recession of the 1990s- are reviewed to demonstrate the evolution of health inequalities during the periods of expansion and recession in markets economies that conform to the so-called business cycle. Health inequities between ethnic groups and social classes are often found in modern societies, and some of these disparities seem to be widening. Periods of economic expansion do not seem favorable for the lessening of health inequalities. Contrarily, and counter-intuitively, evidence rather suggests that it is during periods of recession that gaps in health between privileged and disadvantaged groups tend to narrow.
Eigenvalues, inequalities and ergodic theory
无
2000-01-01
This paper surveys the main results obtained during the period 1992-1999 on three aspects mentioned in the title. The first result is a new and general variational formula for the lower bound of spectral gap (i.e. the first non-trivial eigenvalue) of elliptic operators in Euclidean space, Laplacian on Riemannian manifolds or Markov chains (§1). Here, a probabilistic method -coupling method is adopted. The new formula is a dual of the classical variational formula. The last formula is actually equivalent to Poincaré inequality. To which, there are closely related logarithmic Sobolev inequality, Nash inequality, Liggett inequality and so on. These inequalities are treated in a unified way by using Cheeger's method which comes from Riemannian geometry. This consists of §2. The results on these two aspects are mainly completed by the author joint with F. Y. Wang. Furthermore, a diagram of the inequalities and the traditional three types of ergodicity is presented (§3). The diagram extends the ergodic theory of Markov processes. The details of the methods used in the paper will be explained in a subsequent paper under the same title.
Bui Thanh
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.
2012-01-01
Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health. PMID:23095733
Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.
Safaei, Jalil
2007-09-01
This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.
Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations
W.M. Kalmijn (Wim); L.R. Arends (Lidia)
2010-01-01
textabstractWhat is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations,
Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces
Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2012-02-28
In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.
MULTIVARIATE WEIGHTED BERNSTEIN-TYPE INEQUALITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Cao Feilong; Lin Shaobo
2012-01-01
Bernstein inequality played an important role in approximation theory and Fourier analysis.This article first introduces a general system of functions and the socalled multivariate weighted Bernstein,Nikol'skiǐ,and Ul'yanov-type inequalities.Then,the relations among these three inequalities are discussed.Namely,it is proved that a family of functions equipped with Bernstein-type inequality satisfies Nikol'skiǐ-type and Ul'yanov-type inequality.Finally,as applications,some classical inequalities are deduced from the obtained results.
Inequalities for Dual Quermassintegrals of Mixed Intersection Bodies
Zhao Chang-jian; Leng Gang-song
2005-02-01
In this paper, we first introduce a new concept of dual quermassintegral sum function of two star bodies and establish Minkowski’s type inequality for dual quermassintegral sum of mixed intersection bodies, which is a general form of the Minkowski inequality for mixed intersection bodies. Then, we give the Aleksandrov–Fenchel inequality and the Brunn–Minkowski inequality for mixed intersection bodies and some related results. Our results present, for intersection bodies, all dual inequalities for Lutwak’s mixed prosection bodies inequalities.
Kondo, Naoki; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Takeda, Yasuhisa; Yamagata, Zentaro
2008-09-01
Relative deprivation has been hypothesized as one of the pathways accounting for the link between income inequality and health. We tested this hypothesis in a large national sample of men and women in Japan. Our survey included a probability sample of 22,871 men and 24,243 women aged 25-64, from whom information was gathered on demographic variables, household income, occupation or employment status, and self-rated health. Our measure of relative deprivation was the Yitzhaki Index, which calculates the deprivation suffered by each individual as a function of the aggregate income shortfall for each person relative to everyone else with higher incomes in that person's reference group. We modeled several alternative reference groups, including others with the same occupation, others of the same age group, and others living in the same geographic area (prefecture), as well as combinations of these. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that higher relative deprivation was associated with worse self-rated health. Even after controlling for absolute income as well as other sociodemographic factors, the odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) for poor health ranged from 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-1.16) to 1.18 (95% CI: 1.11-1.26) for men and from 1.10 (95% CI: 1.04-1.16) to 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09-1.23) for women per 1 million increase in the Yitzhaki Index. As such, relative income deprivation is associated with poor self-rated health independently of absolute income, and relative deprivation may be a mechanism underlying the link between income inequality and population health.
Moment Inequality and Holder Inequality for BSDEs
Sheng-jun Fan
2009-01-01
Under the Lipschitz and square integrable assumptions on the generator g of BSDEs,this paper proves that if g is positively homogeneous in(y,z)and is decreasing in y,then the Moment inequality for BSDEs with generator g holds in general,and if g is positively homogeneous and sub-additive in(y,z),then the Holder inequality and Minkowski inequality for BSDEs with generator g hold in general.
Kudriavtcev, Iurii
2015-01-01
We explore the possibility to give a classical explanation to the specifics and physical sense of de Broglie matter waves when studying the microparticle as an object of non zero size, from the point of view of the special theory of relativity. We show that the particularities of de Broglie matter waves and the results of the experimental verifications of Bell inequalities for the pairs of entangled photons are naturally interpreted as the results of implementation of the conclusions of the special theory of relativity to the microparticles. We conclude that it is appropriate to go back to the search of the new means of realistic description of the nature proposed by Einstein and his realistic worldview that states that the world studied by the science is real and every part of it at any moment of time has objective physical characteristics.
Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities
Rowntree, Rebecca V.
2009-01-01
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…
Regional Educational Inequality and Political Instability.
Monchar, Philip Harris
1981-01-01
From a study of 46 nations over the period 1957 to 1973, it is argued that regional educational inequality indicates the presence of other regional social, political, and economic inequalities, and it is all of these factors together that generate feelings of relative deprivation and the pursuant political instability. (Author/SJL)
Generalized geometrically convex functions and inequalities.
Noor, Muhammad Aslam; Noor, Khalida Inayat; Safdar, Farhat
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce and study a new class of generalized functions, called generalized geometrically convex functions. We establish several basic inequalities related to generalized geometrically convex functions. We also derive several new inequalities of the Hermite-Hadamard type for generalized geometrically convex functions. Several special cases are discussed, which can be deduced from our main results.
Mills, Melinda
2009-01-01
Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has disintegrat
Immigration and income inequality
Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke
2010-01-01
During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....
The Popularization of an Inequality
侯林波
2012-01-01
Cauchy inequality is an important one in the inequal-ity theory , the inequality is beautiful, perfect and symmetrical, with a broad theoretical and practical application value. We will use the Cauchy inequality to prove an example in the colleges for nationality preparatory text, so we will have an inequality problems promotion, some more widely the results.
Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning
Switzer, J. Matt
2014-01-01
Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…
Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth
Bjørnskov, Christian
This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...
Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries
Mackenbach, Johan P; Stirbu, Irina; Roskam, Albert-Jan R;
2008-01-01
intervention. The magnitude of inequalities in self-assessed health also varied substantially among countries, but in a different pattern. CONCLUSIONS: We observed variation across Europe in the magnitude of inequalities in health associated with socioeconomic status. These inequalities might be reduced...... by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behavior, or access to health care....
Characterizations of Lojasiewicz inequalities and applications
Bolte, Jerome; Ley, Olivier; Mazet, Laurent
2008-01-01
The classical Lojasiewicz inequality and its extensions for partial differential equation problems (Simon) and to o-minimal structures (Kurdyka) have a considerable impact on the analysis of gradient-like methods and related problems: minimization methods, complexity theory, asymptotic analysis of dissipative partial differential equations, tame geometry. This paper provides alternative characterizations of this type of inequalities for nonsmooth lower semicontinuous functions defined on a metric or a real Hilbert space. In a metric context, we show that a generalized form of the Lojasiewicz inequality (hereby called the Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz inequality) relates to metric regularity and to the Lipschitz continuity of the sublevel mapping, yielding applications to discrete methods (strong convergence of the proximal algorithm). In a Hilbert setting we further establish that asymptotic properties of the semiflow generated by $-\\partial f$ are strongly linked to this inequality. This is done by introducing the not...
Zhang, Ye; Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.
2017-01-01
Socioeconomic status-related factors have been associated with access to kidney transplantation, yet few studies have investigated both individual income and education as determinates of access to kidney transplantation. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effects of both individual income and education on access to kidney transplantation, controlling for both medical and non-medical factors. We linked the Swedish Renal Register to national registers for a sample of adult patients who started Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) in Sweden between 1 January 1995, and 31 December 2013. Using uni- and multivariate logistic models, we studied the association between pre-RRT income and education and likelihood of receiving kidney transplantation. For non-pre-emptive transplantation patients, we also used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to assess the association between treatment and socioeconomic factors. Among the 16,215 patients in the sample, 27% had received kidney transplantation by the end of 2013. After adjusting for covariates, the highest income group had more than three times the chance of accessing kidney transplantation compared with patients in the lowest income group (odds ratio (OR): 3.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73–3.80). Patients with college education had more than three times higher chance of access to kidney transplantation compared with patients with mandatory education (OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 2.77–3.66). Neither living in the county of the transplantation center nor gender was shown to have any effect on the likelihood of receiving kidney transplantation. For non-pre-emptive transplantation patients, the results from Cox models were similar with what we got from logistic models. Sensitive analyses showed that results were not sensitive to different conditions. Overall, socioeconomic status-related inequities exist in access to kidney transplantation in Sweden. Additional studies are needed to explore the possible
Morse Inequalities for Orbifold Cohomology
A. Hepworth, Richard
2009-01-01
This paper begins the study of Morse theory for orbifolds, or more precisely for differentiable Deligne-Mumford stacks. The main result is an analogue of the Morse inequalities that relates the orbifold Betti numbers of an almost-complex orbifold to the critical points of a Morse function on the ...
Saul D. Hoffman; Ivo Bicanic; Oriana Vukoja
2010-01-01
In this paper, we examine wage inequality and wage differentials in Croatia from 1970 to 2008. We focus especially on changing income inequality related to educational and vocational attainment, changing income inequality within those groups, and how these two components of inequality were affected by the economic transformation from Socialism to capitalism. We find that income inequality between groups was relatively stable, while overall inequality trended upward in the post-transformation ...
Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth? Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?
Pablo Serra
1993-03-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of inequality on the rate of growth of an economy. We assume that it is easier for an individual to achieve a given level of human capiral the higher society's average level of human capiral. Agents with above average human capital find it relatively more costly to acquire additional human capital, while agents with below average human capital find it relatively cheaper to acquire additional human capital. The existence of such an externality implies that even when where is no income inequality agents will behave inefficiently. In order to achieve the optimal growth rate, a lump sum tax must be combined with a subsidy to investment in education. When incomes are heterogenous, we show that income convergence is attained in the long run. We also show that the effect of inequality on the growth rate of an economy depends on the functional form of the externality. When the externality junction is concave, income dispersion reduces the rate of growth. On the other hand, when the externality function is convex, the effect is ambiguous. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?
Integral inequalities similar to Gronwall inequality
Hassane Khellaf
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we establish some nonlinear integral inequalities for functions of one variable, with a further generalization functions with n independent variables. We apply our results to a system of nonlinear differential equations for functions of one variable and to the nonlinear hyperbolic partial integrodifferential equation in $n$-independent variables. These results extend the Gronwall type inequalities obtained by Pachpatte [6] and Oguntuase [5].
Ranft Ulrich
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Germany re-unified in 1990, substantial social and economic changes have happened in East Germany, the former socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these socio-economic changes in East Germany on the association between social status, measured by parental educational level, and health-related living conditions of children during the ten-year period after re-unification. Methods In total, 25,864 6-year-old school beginner children (51.2% male and 48.8% female participated in cross-sectional studies which have been repeated every year from 1991 to 2000 in East Germany. Parental educational level as a social indicator was the independent variable. Dependent variables included not employed parents, small living space and health-related living conditions (e. g. damp housing, single oven heating and living at busy road. The relationships were described by odds ratios using logistic regression. Results A large overall effect of parental educational level on health-related living conditions was observed. The time trends showed that the situation regarding small living space, damp housing conditions and single oven heating improved from 1991 to 2000, while regarding not employed parents (1996–2000 and living at busy road (1991–2000 did not, but even deteriorated. 6-year old children with low parental educational level, who lived at the time of re-unification, were often under damp housing conditions and with single oven heating at homes. Nevertheless, this social inequality has almost vanished ten years later. In contrast, we found an increasing gap between low and high parental educational level with respect to the proportion of parents who were not employed (22%: 4% gain, or lived under cramped housing conditions (22%: 37% reduction, or close to a busy road (7% gain: 2% reduction. Conclusion The social inequalities which already existed under the socialist
F. M. Dannan
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In 2016 Prof. Fozi M. Dannan from Damascus, Syria, proposed an interesting inequality for three positive numbers with unit product. It became widely known but was not proved yet in spite of elementary formulation. In this paper we prove this inequality together with similar ones, its proof occurred to be rather complicated. We propose some proofs based on different ideas: Lagrange multipliers method, geometrical considerations, Klamkin–type inequalities for symmetric functions, usage of symmetric reduction functions of computer packages. Also some corollaries and generalizations are considered, they include cycle inequalities, triangle geometric inequalities, inequalities for arbitrary number of values and special forms of restrictions on numbers, applications to cubic equations and symmetric functions.
Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian
2005-01-01
The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...
Research inequality in nanomedicine
Woodson, T. (Thomas)
2012-01-01
The 10-90 gap is an idea in the healthcare literature that less than 10% of all research funding goes to solving health problems that are 90% of the global disease burden. This paper examines whether there is inequality in nanotechnology healthcare research (nanomedicine). To understand the inequality in nanomedicine, I conducted a bibliometric review of Web of Science and PubMed databases. Overall there is not large inequality in nanomedicine research. The bibliometric analysis shows that mo...
Xie, Y.
2014-01-01
Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244
Kino, Shiho; Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael
2017-05-23
Modifiable health-related behaviours tend to cluster among most vulnerable sectors of the population, particularly those at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This study aimed to identify the clusters of health-related behaviours in 27 European countries and to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in these clusters. Data were from Eurobarometer 72.3-2009, a cross-sectional survey of 27 European countries. The analyses were conducted in 2016. The main sections of the survey included questions pertaining to sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, and use of services. In this study, those aged 18 years and older were included. We selected five health-related behaviours, namely smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, frequent fresh fruit consumption, physical activity and dental check-ups. Socioeconomic position was indicated by education, subjective social status and difficulty in paying bills. Latent class analysis was conducted to explore the clusters of these five behaviours. Multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the relationships between the clusters and socioeconomic positions adjusting for age, gender, marital status and urbanisation. The eligible total population was 23,842. Latent class analysis identified three clusters; healthy, moderate and risky clusters in this European population. Individuals with the lowest socioeconomic position were more likely to have risky and moderate clusters than healthy cluster compared to those with the highest socioeconomic position. There were clear socioeconomic gradients in clusters of health-related behaviours. The findings highlight the importance of adopting interventions that address multiple health risk behaviours and policies that tackle the social determinants of health-related behaviours.
Bohr Inequality for Multiple Op erators
LIAN Tie-yan; TANG Wei
2016-01-01
An absolute value equation is established for linear combinations of two operators. When the parameters take special values, the parallelogram law of operator type is given. In addition, the operator equation in literature [3] and its equivalent deformation are obtained. Based on the equivalent deformation of the operator equation and using the properties of conjugate number as well as the operator, an absolute value identity of multiple operators is given by means of mathematical induction. As Corollaries, Bohr inequalities are extended to multiple operators and some related inequalities are reduced to, such as inequalities in [2] and [3].
Optimal Financial Knowledge and Wealth Inequality.
Lusardi, Annamaria; Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Mitchell, Olivia S
2017-04-01
We show that financial knowledge is a key determinant of wealth inequality in a stochastic lifecycle model with endogenous financial knowledge accumulation, where financial knowledge enables individuals to better allocate lifetime resources in a world of uncertainty and imperfect insurance. Moreover, because of how the U.S. social insurance system works, better-educated individuals have most to gain from investing in financial knowledge. Our parsimonious specification generates substantial wealth inequality relative to a one-asset saving model and one where returns on wealth depend on portfolio composition alone. We estimate that 30-40 percent of retirement wealth inequality is accounted for by financial knowledge.
Towards information inequalities for generalized graph entropies.
Lavanya Sivakumar
Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the problem of establishing relations between information measures for network structures. Two types of entropy based measures namely, the Shannon entropy and its generalization, the Rényi entropy have been considered for this study. Our main results involve establishing formal relationships, by means of inequalities, between these two kinds of measures. Further, we also state and prove inequalities connecting the classical partition-based graph entropies and partition-independent entropy measures. In addition, several explicit inequalities are derived for special classes of graphs.
Unemployment Insurance and Inequality
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...
Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.
Fosu, Augustin Kwasi
2010-01-01
Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.
Does inequality in health impede economic growth?
Grimm, Michael
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the effects of inequality in health on economic growth in low and middle income countries. The empirical part of the paper uses an original cross-national panel data set covering 62 low and middle income countries over the period 1985 to 2007. I find a substantial and relatively robust negative effect of health inequality on income levels and income growth controlling for life expectancy, country and time fixed-effects and a large number of other effects that have been shown to matter for growth. The effect also holds if health inequality is instrumented to circumvent a potential problem of reverse causality. Hence, reducing inequality in the access to health care and to health-related information can make a substantial contribution to economic growth.
Migration and regional inequality
Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah
2017-01-01
rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...
Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.
2008-01-01
In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...
functional-differential inequalities
Ludwik Byszewski
1995-01-01
Full Text Available A theorem about a system of strong impulsive degenerate nonlinear parabolic functional-differential inequalities in an arbitrary parabolic set is proved. As a consequence of the theorem, some theorems about impulsive degenerate nonlinear parabolic differential inequalities and the uniqueness of a classical solution of an impulsive degenerate nonlinear parabolic differential problem are established.
Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn
1996-01-01
of the study is to analyse the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances in explaining inequalities in health. It is based on a theoretical framework which presupposes that inequalities in health are likely to be explained by a complicated process involving a multitude of factors...
Robertson, Peter J.
2014-01-01
Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…
Inequalities for inscribed simplexes
YANG Shiguo
2004-01-01
The problem on the geometrc inequalities involving ann-dimensional simplex and its inscribed simplex is studied. An inequality is established, which reveals that the difference between the squared circumradius of then-dimensional simplex and the squared distance between its circumcenter and barycenter times the squared circumradius of its inscribed simplex is not less than the 2(n-1)th power ofnn times its squared inradius, and is equal to when the simplex is regular and its inscribed siplex is a tangent point one. Deduction from this inequality reaches a generalization ofn-dimensional Euler inequality indicating that the circumradius of the simplex is not less than then-fold inradius. Another inequality is derived to present the relationship between the circumradius of the n-dimensional simplex and the circumradius and inradius of its pedal simplex.
Keane, Elaine
2011-01-01
This paper explores the social class-differentiated behaviours of access and traditional-entry students, based on a three-year constructivist grounded theory study with 45 undergraduates at an Irish university. The participant groups behaved significantly differently within the socio-relational realm, engaging in various forms of distancing…
Salonna, Ferdinand; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Sleskova, Maria; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
2008-01-01
Background: Lower socioeconomic position is generally associated with higher rates of smoking and alcohol consumption and lower levels of physical activity. Health-related behaviour is usually established during late childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study is to explore changes in health-re
Coefficient inequalities for starlikeness and convexity
Ali Rosihan M.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available For an analytic function $f(z=z+\\sum_{n=2}^\\infty a_n z^n$ satisfying the inequality $\\sum_{n=2}^\\infty n(n-1|a_n|\\leq \\beta$, sharp bound on $\\beta$ is determined so that $f$ is either starlike or convex of order $\\alpha$. Several other coefficient inequalities related to certain subclasses are also investigated.
Does Income Inequality Lead to Terrorism?
Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel
2016-01-01
We analyze the effect of income inequality on terrorism for a sample of 114 countries between 1985 and 2012. We provide evidence, robust to various methodological changes (e.g., different dependent variables, instrumental-variable approaches), that higher levels of income inequality are associated with more terrorism. Consistent with relative deprivation theory, we argue that this effect is a direct consequence of frustration over the distribution of income within a society, resulting in terr...
Inequalities with applications to engineering
Cloud, Michael J; Lebedev, Leonid P
2014-01-01
This book offers a concise introduction to mathematical inequalities for graduate students and researchers in the fields of engineering and applied mathematics. It begins by reviewing essential facts from algebra and calculus and proceeds with a presentation of the central inequalities of applied analysis, illustrating a wide variety of practical applications. The text provides a gentle introduction to abstract spaces, such as metric, normed, and inner product spaces. It also provides full coverage of the central inequalities of applied analysis, such as Young's inequality, the inequality of the means, Hölder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Chebyshev's inequality, Jensen's inequality, and the triangle inequality. The second edition features extended coverage of applications, including continuum mechanics and interval analysis. It also includes many additional examples and exercises with hints and full solutions that may appeal to upper-level undergraduate and graduate...
[Social inequalities in maternal health].
Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C
2015-10-01
Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.
Karl Gauffin
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912, which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.
Gauffin, Karl; Hjern, Anders; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Emma
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is to estimate the cumulative effect of childhood household dysfunction (CHD) on alcohol related illness and death later in life and to test the interaction between CHD and socioeconomic background. The study utilised Swedish national registers including data of a Swedish national cohort born 1973-82 (n = 872,912), which was followed from age 18 to 29-40 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for alcohol related illness or death in young adulthood. The CHD measure consisted of seven indicators: parental alcohol/drug misuse, mental health problems, criminality, death, divorce, social assistance, and child welfare interventions. Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was indicated by parental occupational status. Outcomes were alcohol related inpatient hospital care, specialised outpatient care or deaths. Using the highest socioeconomic group without CHD experience as a reference, those in the same socioeconomic group with one indicator of CHD had HRs of 2.1 [95% CI: 1.7-2.5], two CHD indicators 5.6 [4.4-7.1], three or more indicators 9.4 [7.1-12.4] for retrieving inpatient care. Socioeconomic disadvantage further increased the risks-those with low socioeconomic background and three CHD indicators or more had a HR of 12.5 [10.9-14.3]. Testing for interaction suggests that the combined HRs deviates from additivity [Synergy index: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9]. The results for outpatient care were similar, but not as pronounced. In conclusion, this Swedish national cohort study shows that childhood household dysfunction is strongly and cumulatively associated to alcohol related illness later in life and that it interacts with socioeconomic disadvantage.
Socioeconomic health inequalities among a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents
Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B
2003-01-01
To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities.......To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities....
American inequality and its consequences
Burtless, Gary; Jencks, Christopher
2003-01-01
Income inequality has risen sharply in the United States over the past generation, reaching levels not seen since before World War II. But while almost two-thirds of Americans agree with the statement that 'income differences in the United States are too large', policies aimed at reducing income differences command relatively little popular support. In most rich countries sizeable majorities 'agree strongly' that the government ought to guarantee each citizen a minimum standard of living. Onl...
Inequalities for the quantum privacy
Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.
2016-02-01
In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.
POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Guiga Housseima
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.
Integral and discrete inequalities and their applications
Qin, Yuming
2016-01-01
This book focuses on one- and multi-dimensional linear integral and discrete Gronwall-Bellman type inequalities. It provides a useful collection and systematic presentation of known and new results, as well as many applications to differential (ODE and PDE), difference, and integral equations. With this work the author fills a gap in the literature on inequalities, offering an ideal source for researchers in these topics. The present volume is part 1 of the author’s two-volume work on inequalities. Integral and discrete inequalities are a very important tool in classical analysis and play a crucial role in establishing the well-posedness of the related equations, i.e., differential, difference and integral equations.
Oracle inequalities and minimax rates for non-local means and related adaptive kernel-based methods
Arias-Castro, Ery; Willett, Rebecca
2011-01-01
This paper describes a novel theoretical characterization of the performance of non-local means (NLM) for noise removal. NLM has proven effective in a variety of empirical studies, but little is understood fundamentally about how it performs relative to classical methods based on wavelets or how various parameters (e.g., patch size) should be chosen. For cartoon images and images which may contain thin features and regular textures, the error decay rates of NLM are derived and compared with those of linear filtering, oracle estimators, variable-bandwidth kernel methods, Yaroslavsky's filter and wavelet thresholding estimators. The trade-off between global and local search for matching patches is examined, and the bias reduction associated with the local polynomial regression version of NLM is analyzed. The theoretical results are validated via simulations for 2D images corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise.
INEQUITY AND INEQUALITY IN HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, 1997
Ni Ketut Aryastami
2012-10-01
Full Text Available So far, limited research has been done on inequity and inequality in health care utilisation in Indonesia. As anywhere else in the world, wealth and education are unequally distributed over the population. Need of health care is a major determinant which should affect use to health services. Using data from the 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey and the concentration index approach, models of access to preventive care in children age 12-23 months, pregnancy related care for mothers as well as curative care for children five years old or less is estimated. Asset scores are used to analyse whether health care utilisation of children and mothers is correlated to household wealth. Significant inequity has been found in the utilisation of health care by wealth. Access to preventive care for children immunisation and pregnancy related care (tetanus injection, first visit for antenatal care, place for antenatal care, place for delivery, professional assistance for delivery as well as curative care (medical treatment for diarrhoea and ARJ tend to be significantly different by household wealth. Wealthier mothers use more health services than poorer mothers do. An exception to this rule is treatment for diarrhoea and ARI. This may be explained by measurement error. Need (health care, urban-rural residence and education are confounding that are found to reduce the concentration indices for use. Horizontal equity principle is violated, in the sense that mothers in equal need are found to be treated unequally.
Xin Wen
2009-01-01
In this paper we give proof of three binomial coefficient inequalities. These inequalities are key ingredients in [Wen and Jin, J. Comput. Math. 26, (2008), 1-22] to establish the L1-error estimates for the upwind difference scheme to the linear advection equations with a piecewise constant wave speed and a general interface condition, which were further used to establish the L1-error estimates for a Hamiltonian-preserving scheme developed in [Jin and Wen, Commun. Math. Sci. 3, (2005), 285-315] to the Liouville equation with piecewise constant potentials [Wen and Jin, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 46, (2008), 2688-2714].
王小平
2015-01-01
本文利用1997－2012年的中国省际财政收入数据，采用不平等指标对地方财政收入的空间非均衡进行度量和分解；运用相对剥夺理论的基尼系数子群分解方法，对地方财政收入空间非均衡进行度量和分解；并采用财政收入流动性方法，对地方财政收入空间非均衡的动态演变进行分析。结果表明：地方财政收入空间非均衡总体呈现缩小趋势，子群间差异是地方财政收入空间非均衡的主要来源，其中东部对中部的相对剥夺对地方财政收入总体差异贡献最大；地方财政收入流动性总体呈现减弱趋势，地方财政收入变动有助于缩小地方财政收入空间非均衡。%In this paper , by using Chinese provincial fiscal revenues in 1997 -2012 data, using inequality index to measure the space of local fiscal revenue inequality and decomposition ;By using the theory of relative deprivation of gini coef-ficient subgroup decomposition method , the local fiscal revenue inequality measurement and decomposition space ;And adopt fiscal income mobility method , the disequilibrium of the local fiscal revenue space dynamic evolution is analyzed .The results show that the local fiscal revenue overall showed a trend of narrow space inequality , differences between subgroups is the main source of local fiscal revenue space inequality , the relative deprivation of middle eastern the largest contribution to the overall differences of local fiscal revenue;Overall showed a trend of weakening the local finance income mobility , local fiscal revenue changes help narrow space inequality local fiscal revenue .
INEQUALITIES FOR MIXED INTERSECTION BODIES
YUAN SHUFENG; LENG GANGSONG
2005-01-01
In this paper, some properties of mixed intersection bodies are given, and inequalities from the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory (such as the dual Minkowski inequality, the dual Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequalities and the. dual Brunn-Minkowski inequalities) are established for mixed intersection bodies.
Mateus Habermann
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.
Holck, Lotte
2016-01-01
/methodology/approach: – The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer...... the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality. Originality/value: – Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro...
EXTENSIONS OF SOME INEQUALITIES
无
2001-01-01
By using a simple analytic method the following inequalities are proved:(bx+y-ax+y)/(bx-ax)≥[(x+y)/x][(a+b)/2]y,for 0＜a＜b,x≥1,y＞0,x+y≥2;(bx+y-ax+y)/(bx-ax)＜[(x+y)/x][(a+b)/2]y,for0＜a＜b,0＜x＜1,y＞0,x+y≤2.These inequalities are the extensions of inequalities of Qi Feng, Xu Senlin and Zheng Lin. And a conjection of Qi Feng is proved not true.
Variational inequalities and fixed point problems : a survey
Renu Chugh
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The variational inequality problem provides a broad unifying setting for the study of optimization, equilibrium and related problems and serves as a useful computational framework for the solution of a host of problems in very diverse applications. Variational inequalities have been a classical subject in mathematical physics, particularly in the calculus of variations associated with the minimization of infinite-dimensional functionals. This paper presents a survey of main results related to variational inequalities and fixed point problems defined on real Hilbert spaces and Banach spaces. Keywords: Fixed Point Problem, Inverse-Strongly-Monotone Mappings, Monotone Mappings, Projection Mappings, Variational Inequality Problem.
Inequalities in oral health: the role of sociology.
Gibson, L B; Blake, M; Baker, S
2016-06-01
This paper seeks to identify an important point of contact between the literature on inequalities in oral health and the sociology of power. The paper begins by exploring the problem of social inequalities in oral health from the point of view of human freedom. It then goes on to briefly consider why inequalities in oral health matter before providing a brief overview of current approaches to reducing inequalities in oral health. After this the paper briefly introduces the problem of power in sociology before going on to outline why the problem of power matters in the problem of inequalities in oral health. Here the paper discusses how two key principles associated with the social bond have become central to how we think about health related inequalities. These principles are the principle of treating everyone the same (the principle of autonomy) and the related principle of allowing everyone to pursue their own goals (the principle of intimacy). These principles are outlined and subsequently discussed in detail with application to debates about interventions to reduce oral health related inequalities including that of water fluoridation. The paper highlights how the 'Childsmile' programme in Scotland appears to successfully negotiate the tensions inherent in attempting to do something about inequalities in oral health. It then concludes by highlighting some of the tensions that remain in attempting to alleviate oral health related inequalities.
Bloomfield, Kim; Grittner, Ulrike; Kramer, Stephanie; Gmel, Gerhard
2006-01-01
We investigated the presence of social inequalities of alcohol use and misuse using educational attainment as an indicator of socio-economic status in 15 countries: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Israel, Brazil, and Mexico. Study surveys were independently conducted and the data centrally analysed. Most samples were national. Survey modes and sample sizes varied. The age range was restricted to between 25 and 59 years of age. Socio-economic status was measured by educational level. Multiple logistic regressions were employed to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios for men and women in each country by educational level for current drinking status, heavy drinking (>or=20 g ethanol per day for women, >or=30 g a day for men), heavy episodic (binge) drinking, and alcohol-related problems (using AUDIT). Men and women demonstrated similar patterns in inequalities with regard to current drinking status within a country. In Germany, The Netherlands, France, Switzerland, and Austria higher educated women were most likely to drink heavily, while among men the lower educated were more at risk in most countries. For heavy episodic drinking, almost no significant differences were evident among women, but for men a social gradient was observable with lower educated being more at risk in several countries. Among five countries with data from the AUDIT, men of lower education in Finland, Czech Republic, and Hungary had higher risks to report problems. Nordic countries shared a common pattern in social inequalities as did two Latin American countries, while a mixed picture was observed for middle European countries. Social inequalities in the two Latin American countries display a pattern emerging in other research on developing countries: namely that those in the higher educated groups are more likely to consume alcohol in a risky manner. Patterns in the distribution of social inequalities are not universal. Social
N. Carella
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A new unconditional inequality of the totient function is contributed to the literature. This result is associated with various unsolved problems about the distribution of prime numbers.
Bray, H L; Bray, Hubert L.; Chrusciel, Piotr T.
2003-01-01
In 1973, R. Penrose presented an argument that the total mass of a space-time which contains black holes with event horizons of total area $A$ should be at least $\\sqrt{A/16\\pi}$. An important special case of this physical statement translates into a very beautiful mathematical inequality in Riemannian geometry known as the Riemannian Penrose inequality. This inequality was first established by G. Huisken and T. Ilmanen in 1997 for a single black hole and then by one of the authors (H.B.) in 1999 for any number of black holes. The two approaches use two different geometric flow techniques and are described here. We further present some background material concerning the problem at hand, discuss some applications of Penrose-type inequalities, as well as the open questions remaining.
Stiglitz, Joseph E.
1973-01-01
The author argues that the educational system is not the cause of inequality, raising the question of whether it is possible or even desirable to use the educational system to promote greater equality. (EH)
Stiglitz, Joseph E.
1973-01-01
The author argues that the educational system is not the cause of inequality, raising the question of whether it is possible or even desirable to use the educational system to promote greater equality. (EH)
Hisako, KAI; Shigeyuki, Hamori
2009-01-01
This paper examines the relationship microfinance and inequality by providing a cross-country empirical study of 61 developing countries. Microfinance plays an important role in the financial market in many developing countries. Although microfinance is expected to significantly affect macro variables, we lack enough empirical research on Impact Analysis at the macro level, such as the effect of microfinance on inequality. We expect microfinance to have an equalizing effect, and provide a fir...
Inequalities for Humbert functions
Ayman Shehata
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is motivated by an open problem of Luke’s theorem. We consider the problem of developing a unified point of view on the theory of inequalities of Humbert functions and of their general ratios are obtained. Some particular cases and refinements are given. Finally, we obtain some important results involving inequalities of Bessel and Whittaker’s functions as applications.
Quantum steering without inequalities
Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Su, Hong-Yi; Cabello, Adan; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H
2012-01-01
We show that, for any two-qubit state, quantum steering can be proven without testing the violation of steering inequalities. We show that steerability is proven if Bob's normalized conditional states after Alice's measurements are pure. This method, which may be seen as the quantum steering analog of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like tests of Bell nonlocality without Bell inequalities, offers advantages with respect to the existing methods for experimentally testing quantum steering.
MEASUREMENT OF HEALTH INEQUALITY
NICOLETA CARAGEA
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Health inequality is met everywhere in the world, including in countries with a high level of economic development, or those with strong social protection systems. In this paper I analyzed certain methods to measure health inequalities between population groups and also I presented some empirical results regarding health disparities between European Union countries. My research is focussed on three health areas: health status of population, access to health care services and resource allocation and population spending on health care.
Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke
2014-01-01
Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...
Sun, Siao; Fang, Chuanglin; Lv, Jinyan
2017-10-01
Given a limited volume of freshwater resources and increasing water demand in China, a relatively equal final water use distribution among different provinces is necessary to mitigate water scarcity faced by a great proportion of population. In this study, the Gini coefficient is used to measure inequality of provincial water footprints (WFs), which are computed based on the China multi-regional input-output table in 30 provinces. The inequality analysis indicates that in China, albeit improved equality of the WF via virtual water (VW) transfers in comparison to the real water use, provincial WFs still present inequality (with Gini coefficient 0.22). Inequality decomposition techniques are used to examine the main sectoral contributor and drivers of WF inequality. The decomposition of inequality in the total WF by sectoral water use types indicates that agricultural WF is the largest contributor, contributing 45.7% of the total inequality, followed by industrial WF (36.9%), tertiary WF (11.1%) and domestic water use (6.3%). Inequality decomposition in the total WF by drivers shows that the effect of natural water availability is insignificant. The main drivers of inequality in agricultural WF are real water use and water use efficiency, with the inter-class effect overwhelming inter-class effect based on classification according to these factors. Inequality in industrial and tertiary WFs is mainly driven by real water use and economic level. Policy inferences are given towards a more equal distribution of WF.
Grogan Sarah C
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up. Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s; and the development of
Explaining inequity in the use of institutional delivery services in selected countries.
Do, Mai; Soelaeman, Rieza; Hotchkiss, David R
2015-04-01
Wealth-related disparities in the use of reproductive health services remain a substantial problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Very few studies have attempted to explain such inequalities through decomposition of the contributions made by various individual- and household-level factors. This study aims to: (1) assess the degree of wealth-related inequality and inequity in the use of institutional delivery services in selected low- and middle-income countries, and (2) to explain wealth-related inequity through decomposition by the contributions made by various components, including health insurance coverage. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys in three countries: Ghana, Rwanda, and the Philippines. Concentration indices are used to calculate inequality and horizontal inequity in service utilization. Multivariate methods are used to decompose inequity. Findings indicate a moderate to high degree of inequity in institutional delivery service use in all study countries. The study provides some evidence of the contribution of health insurance to increased wealth-related inequity in the use of institutional delivery services, although having health insurance was also associated with increased utilization of services. Results suggest that increased health insurance coverage does not automatically translate to lower wealth-related inequity in service utilization. Inequities in service utilization exist if there are still inequities in the health insurance status. The study advocates for expanding health insurance coverage, particularly among the poor to reduce inequity in insurance coverage and increase service utilization.
Lq Inequalities and Operator Preserving Inequalities
M.Bidkham∗; S.Ahmadi
2014-01-01
Let Pn be the class of polynomials of degree at most n. Rather and Shah [15] proved that if P∈Pn and P(z) 6=0 in|z|0 and 0≤q<∞,|B[P(Rz)]|q≤|RnB[zn]+λ0|q|1+zn|q |P(z)|q, where B is a Bn-operator. In this paper, we prove some generalization of this result which in particular yield-s some known polynomial inequalities as special. We also consider an operator Dαwhich maps a polynomial P(z) into DαP(z):=nP(z)+(α−z)P′(z) and obtain exten-sions and generalizations of a number of well-known Lq inequalities.
Hardy type inequalities on time scales
Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H
2016-01-01
The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...
窦井波; 钮鹏程
2008-01-01
本文建立一类与广义Baouendi-Grushin向量场联系的Hardy不等式.采用的技巧是延伸欧氏空间上的散度定理推出的基本积分不等式和选定适当的向量场.Hardy不等式相应的最佳常数也得到证明.本文结果包括了已有广义Baouendi-Grushin向量场的Hardy不等式.作为应用,讨论了由Baouendi-Grushin向量场构成-退化次椭圆算子的一些性质和刻画了这类向量场构成的非线性算子的一个正解.%In this paper we establish a class of Hardy inequalities related to the gen- eralized Baouendi-Grushin vector fields from another view. Our technique is based on an extension of an elementary integral inequality in the Euclidean space by the generalized di- vergence theorem, and then the choice of suitable vector fields. The best constant is also discussed. Our results contain the well known Hardy inequalities for the class of vector fields. As immediate consequences, we discuss some properties for p-degenerate subelliptic opera- tor and characterize a positive solutions of the nonlinear operator constructed by generalized Baouendi-Grnshin vector fields.
Summarizing health inequalities in a Balanced Scorecard. Methodological considerations.
Auger, Nathalie; Raynault, Marie-France
2006-01-01
The association between social determinants and health inequalities is well recognized. What are now needed are tools to assist in disseminating such information. This article describes how the Balanced Scorecard may be used for summarizing data on health inequalities. The process begins by selecting appropriate social groups and indicators, and is followed by the measurement of differences across person, place, or time. The next step is to decide whether to focus on absolute versus relative inequality. The last step is to determine the scoring method, including whether to address issues of depth of inequality.
NEW CONSERVATION LAWS OF ENERGY AND C-D INEQUALITIES IN CONTINUA WITH MICROSTRUCTURE
戴天民
2001-01-01
Existing fundamental laws, balance equations and Clausius- Duhem inequalities in continua with microstructure are systematically restudied, and the incomplete formulations of conservation laws of energy and related C-D inequalities are pointed out. Some remarks on existing results are made, and new conservation laws of energy and related C-D inequalities are presented.
Biondi, Franco; Qeadan, Fares
2008-04-01
Paleorecords provide information on past environmental variability, and help define ecological reference conditions by means of changes in their characteristics (accumulation rate, geochemical composition, density, etc.). A measure of temporal dissimilarity, which has traditionally been used in dendrochronology and is called "mean sensitivity," only focuses on first-order time-series lags. In this paper mean sensitivity was extended to all possible lags to derive a mean sensitivity function (MSF). The MSF is equivalent to a one-dimensional form of the paired relative madogram, a tool used in geostatistics to quantify spatial dependence. We then showed that the sum of madograms for all possible time-series lags is encapsulated by a single parameter, the Gini coefficient. This parameter has long been used by econometricians, social scientists, and ecologists as a synthetic, quantitative measure of inequality and diversity. Considering the connection between the MSF and the madogram, and the convenience of summarizing data heterogeneity with a single number, the Gini coefficient is therefore particularly appropriate for succinctly evaluating the diversity of paleorecords. An example of this application is provided by focusing on public domain dendrochronological data for the western conterminous United States.
Generalizations of Steffensen’s inequality via some Euler-type identities
Pečarić Josip
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Using Euler-type identities some new generalizations of Steffensen’s inequality for n–convex functions are obtained. Moreover, the Ostrowski-type inequalities related to obtained generalizations are given. Furthermore, using inequalities for the Čebyšev functional in terms of the first derivative some new bounds for the remainder in identities related to generalizations of Steffensen’s inequality are proven.
Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information
Schneeloch, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Broadbent, Curtis J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Rochester Theory Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Howell, John C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)
2014-02-01
We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.
Improving Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities with state information
Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.
2014-02-01
We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.
Utility and limitations of measures of health inequities: a theoretical perspective.
Alonge, Olakunle; Peters, David H
2015-01-01
This paper examines common approaches for quantifying health inequities and assesses the extent to which they incorporate key theories necessary for explicating the definition of health inequity. The first theoretical analysis examined the distinction between inter-individual and inter-group health inequalities as measures of health inequities. The second analysis considered the notion of fairness in health inequalities from different philosophical perspectives. To understand the extent to which different measures of health inequities incorporate these theoretical explanations, four criteria were used to assess each measure: 1) Does the indicator demonstrate inter-group or inter-individual health inequalities or both; 2) Does it reflect health inequalities in relation to socioeconomic position; 3) Is it sensitive to the absolute transfer of health (outcomes, services, or both) or income/wealth between groups; 4) Could it be used to capture inequalities in relation to other population groupings (other than socioeconomic status)? The measures assessed include: before and after measures within only the disadvantaged population, range, Gini coefficient, Pseudo-Gini coefficient, index of dissimilarity, concentration index, slope and relative indices of inequality, and regression techniques. None of these measures satisfied all the four criteria, except the range. Whereas each measure quantifies a different perspective in health inequities, using a measure within only the disadvantaged population does not measure health inequities in a meaningful way, even using before and after changes. For a more complete assessment of how programs affect health inequities, it may be useful to use more than one measure.
[Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].
Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A
1999-01-01
The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality.
Recurring Mean Inequality of Random Variables
Wang Mingjin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A multidimensional recurring mean inequality is shown. Furthermore, we prove some new inequalities, which can be considered to be the extensions of those established inequalities, including, for example, the Polya-Szegö and Kantorovich inequalities .
REFINEMENTS OF THE FAN-TODD'S INEQUALITIES
庄国基
2002-01-01
Refinements to inequalities oninner product spaces are presented. In this respect, inequalities dealt with in this paper are: Cauchy's inequality, Bessel's inequality, Fan-Todd's inequality and Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality. In each case, a strictly increasing function is put forward, which lies between the smaller and the larger quantities of each inequality. As a result,an improved condition for equality of the Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality is deduced.
Children's and Adolescents' Developing Perceptions of Gender Inequality
Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.
2007-01-01
Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…
Are UNDP Indices Appropriate to Capture Gender Inequalities in Europe?
Permanyer, Inaki
2013-01-01
This study critically investigates the suitability of United Nations' composite indices and other related measures--among which the Gender Inequality Index just released in 2010--to capture gender inequalities in the context of "highly developed" countries, focusing on the case of Europe. Our results indicate that many of the gender gaps…
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…
On a more accurate Hardy-Mulholland-type inequality
Bicheng Yang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract By using weight coefficients, technique of real analysis, and Hermite-Hadamard’s inequality, we give a more accurate Hardy-Mulholland-type inequality with multiparameters and a best possible constant factor related to the beta function. The equivalent forms, the reverses, the operator expressions, and some particular cases are also considered.
New report highlights epidemic of tobacco and global health inequalities
A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tob
Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems
Curtain, RF
2001-01-01
We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov funct
Two New Sharp Ostrowski-Grüss Type Inequalities
Zheng Liu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use a variant of the Grüss inequality to derive two new sharp Ostrowski-Grüss type inequalities related to a perturbed trapezoidal type rule and a perturbed generalized interior point rule, respectively, which provide improvements of some previous results in the literatures.
Children's and Adolescents' Developing Perceptions of Gender Inequality
Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.
2007-01-01
Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…
Are UNDP Indices Appropriate to Capture Gender Inequalities in Europe?
Permanyer, Inaki
2013-01-01
This study critically investigates the suitability of United Nations' composite indices and other related measures--among which the Gender Inequality Index just released in 2010--to capture gender inequalities in the context of "highly developed" countries, focusing on the case of Europe. Our results indicate that many of the gender gaps…
To what extent does immigration affect inequality?
Berman, Yonatan; Aste, Tomaso
2016-11-01
The current surge in income and wealth inequality in most western countries, along with the continuous immigration to those countries demand a quantitative analysis of the effect immigration has on economic inequality. This paper presents a quantitative analysis framework providing a way to calculate this effect. It shows that in most cases, the effect of immigration on wealth and income inequality is limited, mainly due to the relative small scale of immigration waves. For a large scale flow of immigrants, such as the immigration to the US, the UK and Australia in the past few decades, we estimate that 10 % ÷ 15 % of the wealth and income inequality increase can be attributed to immigration. The results demonstrate that immigration could possibly decrease inequality substantially, if the characteristics of the immigrants resemble the characteristics of the destination middle class population in terms of wealth or income. We empirically found that the simple linear relation ΔS = 0.18 ρ roughly describes the increase in the wealth share of the top 10 % due to immigration of a fraction ρ of the population.
Nasfi Fkili Wahiba
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is intended to test the effect of trade openness on inequality of wage distribution in Tunisia. The study through econometric estimates showed that the impact of openness on inequality is remarkable in the period marked by an intensive integration into the global economy. However, investment in human capital can have a positive effect and leas to reduce wage disparities. Opening to the world economy is able to achieve positive economic performance, except that one of the challenges for Tunisia is to find the best equilibrium between the benefits and costs of this policy. Globalization can be beneficial for the economy, but the debate is open about its impact on the social level, many are those who accuse it of increasing disparities and inequalities between workers.
Measuring Inequality and Segregation
Roberto, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
In this paper, I introduce the Divergence Index, a conceptually intuitive and methodologically rigorous measure of inequality and segregation. The index measures the difference between a distribution of interest and another empirical, theoretical, or normative distribution. The Divergence Index provides flexibility in specifying a theoretically meaningful basis for evaluating inequality. It evaluates how surprising an empirical distribution is given a theoretical distribution that represents equality. I demonstrate the unique features of the new measure, as well as deriving its mathematical equivalence with Theil's Inequality Index and the Information Theory Index. I compare the dynamics of the measures using simulated data, and an empirical analysis of racial residential segregation in the Detroit, MI, metro area. The Information Theory Index has become the gold standard for decomposition analyses of segregation. I show that although the Information Theory Index can be decomposed for subareas, it is misleadi...
Tackling Health Inequalities Locally
Diderichsen, Finn; Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild Gundersen
issues are all relevant here. Can we identify obstacles to and means of promoting the involvement of local policymakers within education, social care, labourmarket, environment etc. in a coordinated effort to tackle health inequalities in a Scandinavian context? The present report is the result......The Scandinavian countries and their welfare policies have long been known for their ability to reduce income inequality while boosting economic growth. Recent research from OECD has indicated that the Scandinavian countries are indeed examples of a more general positive relationship between...... equality and growth (64). Health equity has been anexplicit political goal in Scandinavia for decades. Nevertheless, in the health domain, average improvement has not been followed by reduced inequality – at least not between socioeconomic groups. It has in other words turned out to be a challenge...
Present status of the Penrose inequality
Mars, Marc [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)
2009-10-07
The Penrose inequality gives a lower bound for the total mass of a spacetime in terms of the area of suitable surfaces that represent black holes. Its validity is supported by the cosmic censorship conjecture, and therefore its proof (or disproof) is an important problem in relation with gravitational collapse. The Penrose inequality is a very challenging problem in mathematical relativity and it has received continuous attention since its formulation by Penrose in the early seventies. Important breakthroughs have been made in the last decade or so, with the complete resolution of the so-called Riemannian Penrose inequality and a very interesting proposal to address the general case by Bray and Khuri. In this review, the most important results on this field will be discussed and the main ideas behind their proofs will be summarized, with the aim of presenting what is the status of our present knowledge in this topic. (topical review)
Cultural capital and social inequality in health.
Abel, T
2008-07-01
Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.
An Inequality for Bounded Functions
Kouba, Omran
2012-01-01
In this note we prove optimal inequalities for bounded functions in terms of their deviation from their mean. These results extend and generalize some known inequalities due to Thong (2011) and Perfetti (2011)
The Growth-Inequality Association:
Bjørnskov, Christian
2008-01-01
This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...
[Inequalities in health in Italy].
Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo
2004-01-01
for both sexes, with the steepest gradient observed among adults of working age, although differences persist also among the elderly. The causes of death found to be most highly correlated with social inequality, and largely responsible for the increasing inequality over the last decade, are those associated with addiction and exclusion (drug, alcohol and violence related deaths), with smoking (lung cancer) and with safety in the workplace and on the roads (accidents). Similar gradients and trends have been observed with different outcomes, such as self-reported morbidity, disability and cancer incidence (chapter 1.1, Section I). Reproductive outcomes confiirm this picture: compared to women belonging to the upper classes, those women in low conditions experience more spontaneous abortions and their children suffer from higher infant mortality and low birth weight. This is a critical issue since poor infant health, particularly for metabolic and respiratory pathologies, affects health in adult life. There is now substantive evidence showing that also socioeconomic circumstances at birth or during adolescence may have a strong impact on adult health (chapter 1.2, Section I). Differences in harmful lifestyles, such as smoking, heavy drinking, drug use, unhealthy diet, obesity and physical inactivity, have a similar effect. The only exception is smoking among women, which is positively correlated with socioeconomic status; however, since women in the upper classes have a greater tendency to quit smoking, the gradient will soon be reversed (chapter 1.7, Section I). On the other hand, most of these behaviours do not follow from free and conscious individual choice; they are a form of adaptation to chronic stress originating in the work-place (chapter 1.4, Section I), or to particularly unfavourable events and conditions, such as unemployment (chapter 1.5, Section I) or lack of family and social support (chapter 1.6, Section I). Poor socioeconomic circumstances are the
Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Bruce, Donald J; Erwin, Paul C
2016-09-01
Prior studies have examined the association between income inequality and overall infant mortality rates (IMR). We examine effects of income inequality on racial inequities in IMR over the period 1992-2007 in the U.S. Race-specific state IMR data were obtained from 1992 to 2007, from which absolute and relative IMR inequities were calculated. Fixed and random effects models, adjusted for state-level median income, percent poverty, percent high school graduates, and unemployment rate, were used to determine contemporaneous and lagged state-level associations between income inequality and racial IMR inequities. Racial IMR inequities varied significantly across the U.S. Contemporaneous income inequality was negatively associated with white IMR only. Two-year lagged income inequality was negatively associated with black IMR and had the most pronounced effect on racial inequities in IMR. Future studies should consider lagged effects of income inequality on IMR and other health outcomes, and should examine other potential societal conditions that may account for state-level variations in racial IMR inequities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trends in Global Gender Inequality
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
2010-01-01
This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance
Bjørnskov, Christian
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequalit......, proxied by the political ideology of the median voter, exerts an independent influence....
Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance
Bjørnskov, Christian
2004-01-01
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequalit......, proxied by the political ideology of the median voter, exerts an independent influence....
Should Less Inequality in Education Lead to a More Equal Income Distribution?
Foldvari, Peter; van Leeuwen, Bas
2011-01-01
In this paper, we revisit the question whether inequality in education and human capital is closely related to income inequality. Using the most popular functional forms describing the relationship between, first, output and human capital and, second, education and human capital, we find that the effect of inequality in schooling on income…
Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination as Sources of Depression among U.S. Women.
Belle, Deborah; Doucet, Joanne
2003-01-01
Poverty, inequality, and discrimination endanger women's well-being. Poverty is a consistent predictor of depression in women. Economic inequalities relate to reduced life expectancy and various negative physical health consequences. Discrimination maintains inequalities, lessens economic security, and exposes women to unmerited contempt.…
Should Less Inequality in Education Lead to a More Equal Income Distribution?
Foldvari, Peter; van Leeuwen, Bas
2011-01-01
In this paper, we revisit the question whether inequality in education and human capital is closely related to income inequality. Using the most popular functional forms describing the relationship between, first, output and human capital and, second, education and human capital, we find that the effect of inequality in schooling on income…
Income Inequality in Rural India: Decomposing the Gini by Income Sources
Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff
2011-01-01
This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...
Lightning fast and space efficient inequality joins
Khayyat, Zuhair
2015-09-01
Inequality joins, which join relational tables on inequality conditions, are used in various applications. While there have been a wide range of optimization methods for joins in database systems, from algorithms such as sort-merge join and band join, to various indices such as B+-tree, R*-tree and Bitmap, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are usually very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms. We put columns to be joined in sorted arrays and we use permutation arrays to encode positions of tuples in one sorted array w.r.t. the other sorted array. In contrast to sort-merge join, we use space efficient bit-arrays that enable optimizations, such as Bloom filter indices, for fast computation of the join results. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, and a distributed version on top of Spark SQL. We have compared against well known optimization techniques for inequality joins and show that our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster.
Lightning Fast and Space Efficient Inequality Joins
Khayyat, Zuhair
2015-09-01
Inequality joins, which join relational tables on inequality conditions, are used in various applications. While there have been a wide range of optimization methods for joins in database systems, from algorithms such as sort-merge join and band join, to various indices such as B+-tree,R*-tree and Bitmap, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are usually very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms. We put columns to be joined in sorted arrays and we use permutation arrays to encode positions of tuples in one sorted array w.r.t. the other sorted array. In contrast to sort-merge join, we use space effcient bit-arrays that enable optimizations, such as Bloom filter indices, for fast computation of the join results. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, and a distributed version on top of Spark SQL. We have compared against well known optimization techniques for inequality joins and show that our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster.
Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories.
Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V
2015-01-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose-response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population.
Mathematical and physical meaning of the Bell inequalities
Santos, Emilio
2016-09-01
It is shown that the Bell inequalities are closely related to the triangle inequalities involving distance functions amongst pairs of random variables with values \\{0,1\\}. A hidden variables model may be defined as a mapping between a set of quantum projection operators and a set of random variables. The model is noncontextual if there is a joint probability distribution. The Bell inequalities are necessary conditions for its existence. The inequalities are most relevant when measurements are performed at space-like separation, thus showing a conflict between quantum mechanics and local realism (Bell's theorem). The relations of the Bell inequalities with contextuality, the Kochen-Specker theorem, and quantum entanglement are briefly discussed.
Prevalence of educational inequalities in obesity between 1970 and 2003 in France.
Singh-Manoux, A; Gourmelen, J; Lajnef, M; Sabia, S; Sitta, R; Menvielle, G; Melchior, M; Nabi, H; Lanoe, J-L; Guéguen, A; Lert, F
2009-09-01
This paper examines trends in obesity rates and education-related absolute and relative inequalities in obesity over the last 40 years in France. Data are drawn from the French Decennial Health Surveys of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2003. The difference in obesity rates between the least- and most-educated, the Slope Index of Inequality, is used to estimate absolute inequalities in obesity. The ratio of the corresponding rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, reveals the relative inequalities in obesity. Obesity rates were similar in men and women, but educational inequalities were greater in women. Obesity rates were similar over the first three surveys but increased for all in the 2003 survey. This increase was accompanied by increases in absolute inequalities in men (P = 0.04) from a Slope Index of Inequality of 4.80% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.27, 7.32) to 8.64% (95% CI = 5.97, 11.32) and women (P = 0.004) from 8.90% (95% CI = 6.18, 11.63) to 14.57% (95% CI = 11.83, 17.32). Relative inequalities in obesity remained stable over the 40 years. Recent increase in obesity rates in France is accompanied by increases in absolute education-related inequalities, while relative inequalities have remained stable; this suggests that obesity rates have increased at a much faster rate in the low-education groups.
Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.
2013-01-01
We argue that perceived fairness of the income generation process affects the association between income inequality and subjective well-being, and that there are systematic differences in this regard between countries that are characterized by a high or, respectively, low level of actual fairness...
Inequalities in network structures
Whitmeyer, Joseph M.; Wittek, Rafael
We use a model of continuous attachments in networks to generate propositions concerning inequalities in network structures, and test the propositions on data from organizational settings. Our network model, inspired by that of [Gould, Roger 2002. The origins of status hierarchies: A formal theory
Inequality and Political Clientelism
Markussen, Thomas
Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism on the ba...... affected by economic inequality....
Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlation-increasing switches and...
Arjona Castilla, Ver??nica; L??pez Mu??oz, Mar??a
2014-01-01
The Organic Law for the Improvement of the Educational Quality (LOMCE) supposes a step back in the development of education. The huge number of critics about this reform gives us a guideline to comment and value some weaknesses of this law. Through the explanation of two main topics: gender segregation and privatization of schools, one can see the negative effect that LOMCE hides: inequality.
Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke
2014-01-01
Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and
Melamed, David; North, Michael S.
2010-01-01
Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…
Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke
2014-01-01
Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and m
Inequalities in network structures
Whitmeyer, Joseph M.; Wittek, Rafael
2010-01-01
We use a model of continuous attachments in networks to generate propositions concerning inequalities in network structures, and test the propositions on data from organizational settings. Our network model, inspired by that of [Gould, Roger 2002. The origins of status hierarchies: A formal theory a
Carmichael, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35751405X; Dilli, Selin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370724267; Rijpma, Auke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314174982
2014-01-01
Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and m
Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
Cubic Diophantine Inequalities
Hong Ze LI
2001-01-01
Let λ1,λ2,…,λ7 be real numbers satisfying λi ≥ 1. In this paper, we prove there are integers x1…,x7 such that the inequalities │λ1x13+λ2x23+…λ7x37│＜1 and 0 ＜hold simultaneously.
Asymptotic Markov inequality on Jordan arcs
Totik, V.
2017-03-01
Markov's inequality for the derivative of algebraic polynomials is considered on C^2-smooth Jordan arcs. The asymptotically best estimate is given for the kth derivative for all k=1,2,\\dots . The best constant is related to the behaviour around the endpoints of the arc of the normal derivative of the Green's function of the complementary domain. The result is deduced from the asymptotically sharp Bernstein inequality for the kth derivative at inner points of a Jordan arc, which is derived from a recent result of Kalmykov and Nagy on the Bernstein inequality on analytic arcs. In the course of the proof we shall also need to reduce the analyticity condition in this last result to C^2-smoothness. Bibliography: 21 titles.
Geometric inequalities in spherically symmetric spacetimes
Csukás, Károly Zoltán
2016-01-01
ADM mass is usually preferred against using quasi-local notions of mass in deriving geometric inequalities. We are interested in testing if usage of quasi-local mass provide any benefits. In spherical symmetry there is a highly accepted notion: the Misner-Sharp mass. It is closely related to the energy contained within a 2-surface and its null-expansions, which are used to determine if a surface is trapped. We use it to investigate inequalities between black hole's, Cauchy surface's and normal body's measurable parameters. There are investigations involving quasi-local charge and area. Our aim is to involv quasi-local mass too. This method support wide range of known inequalities and provide some new ones involving mass.
Conference on Inequalities and Applications : Dedicated to the Memory of Wolfgang Walter
Gilányi, Attila; Losonczi, László; Plum, Michael
2012-01-01
Inequalities arise as an essential component in various mathematical areas. Besides forming a highly important collection of tools, e.g. for proving analytic or stochastic theorems or for deriving error estimates in numerical mathematics, they constitute a challenging research field of their own. Inequalities also appear directly in mathematical models for applications in science, engineering, and economics. This edited volume covers divers aspects of this fascinating field. It addresses classical inequalities related to means or to convexity as well as inequalities arising in the field of ordinary and partial differential equations, like Sobolev or Hardy-type inequalities, and inequalities occurring in geometrical contexts. Within the last five decades, the late Wolfgang Walter has made great contributions to the field of inequalities. His book on differential and integral inequalities was a real breakthrough in the 1970’s and has generated a vast variety of further research in this field. He also organize...
Health inequality - determinants and policies
Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manual, Celie;
2012-01-01
The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy....... The review seeks to identify the causes of this social inequality. The analysis finds 12 areas of great importance for the inequality in health. This is i.e. early child development, schooling and education, the health behavior of the population, and the role of the health system. Within each of the 12 areas...
Wealth inequality: The physics basis
Bejan, A.; Errera, M. R.
2017-03-01
"Inequality" is a common observation about us, as members of society. In this article, we unify physics with economics by showing that the distribution of wealth is related proportionally to the movement of all the streams of a live society. The hierarchical distribution of wealth on the earth happens naturally. Hierarchy is unavoidable, with staying power, and difficult to efface. We illustrate this with two architectures, river basins and the movement of freight. The physical flow architecture that emerges is hierarchical on the surface of the earth and in everything that flows inside the live human bodies, the movement of humans and their belongings, and the engines that drive the movement. The nonuniform distribution of wealth becomes more accentuated as the economy becomes more developed, i.e., as its flow architecture becomes more complex for the purpose of covering smaller and smaller interstices of the overall (fixed) territory. It takes a relatively modest complexity for the nonuniformity in the distribution of wealth to be evident. This theory also predicts the Lorenz-type distribution of income inequality, which was adopted empirically for a century.
General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement
Kim, Jeong San
2012-06-01
Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.
Evolving Polygons Revisited: Inequalities and Computer Graphing
Abramovich, Sergei; Brouwer, Peter
2009-01-01
This paper was developed with the goal of enhancing the mathematical preparation of secondary school teachers in the technological paradigm. It shows how two-variable inequalities can be utilized as models for the construction of geometric objects using the software Graphing Calculator 3.5 (produced by Pacific Tech) as a relation grapher. An…
Monitoring gender remuneration inequalities in academia using ...
Gender remuneration inequalities at universities have been studied in various parts of the world. In South ... illustrate, for our case study, that rank, age, research output and qualifications are related to ... proportion of women entering the academic profession. ..... the biplot axes may be used to read off values for all variables.
Banking and regional inequality in Brazil: an empirical note
Marcos Lima Marcelo Resende
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates a neglected aspect of regional inequality in Brazil, namely regional inequalities related to financial flows. A synthetic regional financial inequality index is proposed and calculated in a semester basis over the 02-1994/02-2000 period. The inequality measure attempts to capture to what extent deposits in a given state translate into credit operations in that locality. Two main results emerge. First, non-negligible inequality patterns emerge when one considers the segment of private banks and those are consistent with an important proportion of states with a predominantly exporting pattern, for which deposits surpasses loans in that locality. Second, if one focus on the segment of public banks, an opposite pattern appears, that is consistent with decision patterns that might have, in part, a regional development motivation.
Variations on R. Schwartz's inequality for the Schwarzian derivative
Tabachnikov, Serge
2010-01-01
R. Schwartz's inequality provides an upper bound for the Schwarzian derivative of a parameterization of a circle in the complex plane and on the potential of Hill's equation with coexisting periodic solutions. We prove a discrete version of this inequality and obtain a version of the planar Blaschke-Santalo inequality for not necessarily convex polygons. We consider a centro-affine analog of L\\"uk\\H{o}'s inequality for the average squared length of a chord subtending a fixed arc length of a curve -- the role of the squared length played by the area -- and prove that the central ellipses are local minima of the respective functionals on the space of star-shaped centrally symmetric curves. We conjecture that the central ellipses are global minima. In an appendix, we relate the Blaschke-Santalo and Mahler inequalities with the asymptotic dynamics of outer billiards at infinity.
Rawls and Piketty: the philosophical aspects of economic inequality
Goran Sunajko
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses a key contemporary problem, that of inequality. Certainly, the most visible inequality today is economic inequality, which is not only a characteristic found today, but is also the result of a long historical development. The problem arises when inequality becomes artificial (produces itself and thus becomes a matter of social sciences and humanities. At this point, the question of economic inequality becomes a non-economic issue and thus opens the possibility of formulating such principles that will be able to reduce the issue to a minimum. This paper discusses this possibility, while referring to Thomas Piketty’s book on capital in relation to John Rawls’s principles of justice to which Piketty refers to.
Socio-economic inequality of immunization coverage in India.
Lauridsen, Jørgen; Pradhan, Jalandhar
2011-08-05
To our knowledge, the present study provides a first time assessment of the contributions of socioeconomic determinants of immunization coverage in India using the recent National Family Health Survey data. Measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health and health care, and understanding the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions, are critical for health intervention strategies and for achieving equity in health care. A decomposition approach is applied to quantify the contributions from socio-demographic factors to inequality in immunization coverage. The results reveal that poor household economic status, mother's illiteracy, per capita state domestic product and proportion of illiterate at the state level is systematically related to 97% of predictable socioeconomic inequalities in full immunization coverage at the national level. These patterns of evidence suggest the need for immunization strategies targeted at different states and towards certain socioeconomic determinants as pointed out above in order to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in immunization coverage.JEL Classification: I10, I12.
Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states
Lahelma, Eero; Kivelä, Katariina; Roos, Eva
2002-01-01
This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural...... not strongly influenced by changes in other structural inequalities, in particular labour market inequalities. Institutional arrangements in the Nordic welfare states, including social benefits and services, were cut during the recession but nevertheless broadly remained, and are likely to have buffered......'development influenced health inequalities by employment status and educational attainment, i.e. whether the trends in health inequalities were similar or dissimilar between the Nordic countries. The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1986/87 and 1994/95 in the four countries. Limiting long...
From equation to inequality using a function-based approach
Verikios, Petros; Farmaki, Vassiliki
2010-06-01
This article presents features of a qualitative research study concerning the teaching and learning of school algebra using a function-based approach in a grade 8 class, of 23 students, in 26 lessons, in a state school of Athens, in the school year 2003-2004. In this article, we are interested in the inequality concept and our aim is to investigate if and how our approach could facilitate students to comprehend inequality and to solve problems related to this concept. Data analysis showed that, in order to comprehend the new concept, the students should make a transition from equation to inequality. The role of the situation context proved decisive in this transition and in making sense of involved symbols. Also, students used function representations as problem-solving strategies in problems that included inequalities. However, the extension of the function-based approach in solving an abstract equation or inequality proved problematic for the students.
Gender (inequality among employees in elder care: implications for health
Elwér Sofia
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (inequality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (inequality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (inequality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.
Baten, J.; Juif, D.T.
2014-01-01
We create a new dataset to test the influence of land inequality on long-run human capital formation in a global cross-country study and assess the importance of land inequality relative to income inequality. Our results show that early land inequality has a detrimental influence on math and science
Baten, J.; Juif, D.T.
2014-01-01
We create a new dataset to test the influence of land inequality on long-run human capital formation in a global cross-country study and assess the importance of land inequality relative to income inequality. Our results show that early land inequality has a detrimental influence on math and science
Tackling Health Inequalities Locally
Diderichsen, Finn; Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild Gundersen
of this study. It is based on three sources: 1. Interviews with policymakers (administrators and politicians) within healthcare administrations, childhood/education, and labour market administrations from September 2014 to March 2015*. 2. Textual analysis of available policy documents from regions...... of translating small inequalities in wealth into small inequalities in health. Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have legislation that indifferent ways offers local governments key roles in public health. This is partly due to local governments’ responsibility for many policy areas of great relevance to health...... state model, including its health policy, as an area of Nordic collaboration (104). However, realising the principle of health (equity) in all policiesis no simple matter. The national authorities and local government federations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have therefore initiated various activities...
Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.
2008-01-01
In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...... responses for the single stimuli. It has been pointed out that fast guesses (e.g. anticipatory responses) interfere with this test, and a correction procedure ('kill-the-twin' procedure) has been suggested. In this note we formally derive this procedure and extend it to the case in which redundant stimuli...... are presented with onset asynchrony. We demonstrate how the kill-the-twin procedure is used in a statistical test of the race model prediction....
陈建芮; 乌力吉; 王晓民
2012-01-01
Variational inequality is a very important field in applied mathematics and it is a key problem to obtain its solution efficiently and rapidly. The equivalent relation of variational inequality problem KKT conditions and smooth equations with constraint is first obtained, and then it is transformed to a constrained optimal problem, which can be solved by using the corresponding Levenberg - Marquardt algorithm. Under the condition without gradient matrix nonsingular, it is shown that the algorithm is global convergent. The algorithm is local super - linear convergent or quadratically convergent under the appropriate condition.%建立变分不等式问题KKT条件与光滑带约束方程组的等价关系,进而转化为约束优化问题.利用Levenberg - Marquardt方法给出求解变分不等式问题的算法,在不要求梯度矩阵非奇异的条件下得到了算法的全局收敛性.该算法在一定条件下是局部超线性或二次收敛的.
Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein
2013-06-06
It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.
Lydian Veldhuis
2013-06-01
Full Text Available It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582 and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82, and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55. Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood health.
A Generalization of Holder's Inequality and Some Probability Inequalities
1992-01-01
The main result of this article is a generalization of the generalized Holder inequality for functions or random variables defined on lower-dimensional subspaces of $n$-dimensional product spaces. It will be seen that various other inequalities are included in this approach. For example, it allows the calculation of upper bounds for the product measure of $n$-dimensional sets with the help of product measures of lower-dimensional marginal sets. Furthermore, it yields an interesting inequality...
Some integral inequalities on time scales
Adnan Tuna; Servet Kutukcu
2008-01-01
In this article, we study the reverse Holder type inequality and Holder in-equality in two dimensional case on time scales. We also obtain many integral inequalities by using H(o)lder inequalities on time scales which give Hardy's inequalities as spacial cases.
On Hardy-type integral inequalities
冷拓; 冯勇
2013-01-01
The Hardy integral inequality is one of the most important inequalities in analysis. The present paper establishes some new Copson-Pachpatte (C-P) type inequal-ities, which are the generalizations of the Hardy integral inequalities on binary functions.
Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank
2016-01-01
We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454
ON THE C.CHANG TYPE INEQUALITY OF ALGEBROID FUNCTIONS
Sun Daochun; Gao Zongsheng
2011-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the growth relations between algebroid functions and their derivatives, and extend famous C. Chang inequality (see [1, 4]) of meromorphic functions to algebroid functions.
Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.
Burns, J K
2015-04-01
The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health
Conference on Inequalities and Applications
Losonczi, László; Gilányi, Attila; Páles, Zsolt; Plum, Michael
2009-01-01
Inequalities continue to play an essential role in mathematics. Perhaps, they form the last field comprehended and used by mathematicians in all areas of the discipline. Since the seminal work Inequalities (1934) by Hardy, Littlewood and Pólya, mathematicians have laboured to extend and sharpen their classical inequalities. New inequalities are discovered every year, some for their intrinsic interest whilst others flow from results obtained in various branches of mathematics. The study of inequalities reflects the many and various aspects of mathematics. On one hand, there is the systematic search for the basic principles and the study of inequalities for their own sake. On the other hand, the subject is the source of ingenious ideas and methods that give rise to seemingly elementary but nevertheless serious and challenging problems. There are numerous applications in a wide variety of fields, from mathematical physics to biology and economics. This volume contains the contributions of the participants of th...
Improvement of AczÃƒÂ©l's Inequality and Popoviciu's Inequality
Shanhe Wu
2007-06-01
Full Text Available We generalize and sharpen AczÃƒÂ©l's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality by means of two classical inequalities, a unified improvement of AczÃƒÂ©l's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality is given. As application, an integral inequality of AczÃƒÂ©l-Popoviciu type is established.
Non-commutative Nash inequalities
Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California 91125 (United States)
2016-01-15
A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L{sub p} spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups.
Sandeep Mishra; Son Hing, Leanne S.; Lalumière, Martin L.
2015-01-01
Inequality has been associated with risk-taking at the societal level. However, this relationship has not been directly investigated at the individual level. Risk-sensitivity theory predicts that decision makers should increase risk-taking in situations of disparity between one’s present state and desired state. Economic inequality creates such a disparity. In two experiments, we examined whether imposed economic inequality affects risk-taking. In Experiment 1, we examined whether victims of ...
Agglomeration, Inequality and Economic Growth
David Castells; Vicente Royuela
2014-01-01
The impact of income inequality on economic growth is dependent on several factors, including the time horizon considered, the initial level of income and its initial distribution. Yet, as growth and inequality are also uneven across space, it is also pertinent to consider the effects of the geographical agglomeration of economic activity. Moreover, it would also seem pertinent to consider not just the levels of inequality and agglomeration, but also the changes they undergo (i.e., their with...
Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel
2014-05-23
This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future.
Utility and limitations of measures of health inequities: a theoretical perspective
Olakunle Alonge
2015-09-01
Full Text Available What is already known on this subject?Various measures have been used in quantifying health inequities among populations in recent times; most of these measures were derived to capture the socioeconomic inequalities in health. These different measures do not always lend themselves to common interpretation by policy makers and health managers because they each reflect limited aspects of the concept of health inequities.What does this study add?To inform a more appropriate application of the different measures currently used in quantifying health inequities, this article explicates common theories underlying the definition of health inequities and uses this understanding to show the utility and limitations of these different measures. It also suggests some key features of an ideal indicator based on the conceptual understanding, with the hope of influencing future efforts in developing more robust measures of health inequities. The article also provides a conceptual ‘product label’ for the common measures of health inequities to guide users and ‘consumers’ in making more robust inferences and conclusions.This paper examines common approaches for quantifying health inequities and assesses the extent to which they incorporate key theories necessary for explicating the definition of health inequity. The first theoretical analysis examined the distinction between inter-individual and inter-group health inequalities as measures of health inequities. The second analysis considered the notion of fairness in health inequalities from different philosophical perspectives. To understand the extent to which different measures of health inequities incorporate these theoretical explanations, four criteria were used to assess each measure: 1 Does the indicator demonstrate inter-group or inter-individual health inequalities or both; 2 Does it reflect health inequalities in relation to socioeconomic position; 3 Is it sensitive to the absolute transfer of
Income inequality and obesity prevalence among OECD countries.
Su, Dejun; Esqueda, Omar A; Li, Lifeng; Pagán, José A
2012-07-01
Using recent pooled data from the World Health Organization Global Infobase and the World Factbook compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, this study assesses the relation between income inequality and obesity prevalence among 31 OECD countries through a series of bivariate and multivariate linear regressions. The United States and Mexico well lead OECD countries in both obesity prevalence and income inequality. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the inclusion or exclusion of these two extreme cases can fundamentally change the findings. When the two countries are included, the results reveal a positive correlation between income inequality and obesity prevalence. This correlation is more salient among females than among males. Income inequality alone is associated with 16% and 35% of the variations in male and female obesity rates, respectively, across OECD countries in 2010. Higher levels of income inequality in the 2005-2010 period were associated with a more rapid increase in obesity prevalence from 2002 to 2010. These associations, however, virtually disappear when the US and Mexico have been excluded from the analysis. Findings from this study underscore the importance of assessing the impact of extreme cases on the relation between income inequality and health outcomes. The potential pathways from income inequality to the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the cases of the US and Mexico warrant further research.
Unification of multiqubit polygamy inequalities
Kim, Jeong San
2012-03-01
I establish a unified view of polygamy of multiqubit entanglement. I first introduce a two-parameter generalization of the entanglement of assistance, namely, the unified entanglement of assistance for bipartite quantum states, and provide an analytic lower bound in two-qubit systems. I show a broad class of polygamy inequalities of multiqubit entanglement in terms of the unified entanglement of assistance that encapsulates all known multiqubit polygamy inequalities as special cases. I further show that this class of polygamy inequalities can be improved into tighter inequalities for three-qubit systems.
Reverse Triangle Inequalities for Potentials
Pritsker, I. E.; Saff, E. B.
2013-01-01
We study the reverse triangle inequalities for suprema of logarithmic potentials on compact sets of the plane. This research is motivated by the inequalities for products of supremum norms of polynomials. We find sharp additive constants in the inequalities for potentials, and give applications of our results to the generalized polynomials. We also obtain sharp inequalities for products of norms of the weighted polynomials $w^nP_n, deg(P_n)\\le n,$ and for sums of suprema of potentials with ex...
HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY IN SOBOLEV SPACES
无
2000-01-01
Using the correspondence between psedodifferential operator and its symbol,the authors obtain Heisenberg's inequality in Sobolev spaces and therefore a kind of quantitative representation of uncertainty principle.
The Oxford handbook of economic inequality. - Paperback
Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Smeeding, T.M.
2011-01-01
The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on economic inequality in highly-developed countries. This comprehensive and authoritative volume contains twenty-seven original contributions on topics ranging from gender to
A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities
Xiao-Ming Zhang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.
A Double Inequality for Gamma Function
Xiaoming Zhang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Using the Alzer integral inequality and the elementary properties of the gamma function, a double inequality for gamma function is established, which is an improvement of Merkle's inequality.
[Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection].
Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira
2012-09-01
Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies, based on the fact that the determination of health complaints is complex and multidimensional. From this perspective, social inequality has gained prominence as an explanatory factor for the health conditions of populations. The scope of this article is to discuss the different concepts that underpin the selection of the indicators used in epidemiological studies and examine the psychosocial effects on human beings caused by social inequality. A literature review of epidemiological studies that used social inequality and social capital indicators was conducted for a better understanding of health problems, as well as an investigation in the fields of sociology and social psychology. The research revealed that there is some controversy surrounding the effect of social inequality on health, possibly because these indicators are predominantly based on income and individual consumption capacity. Likewise, social capital indicators at cognitive and structural levels are too limited to understand the dynamism of social relations. Accordingly, further studies are needed for the construction of social indicators capable of examining the complexity of modern societies.
Assessing Educational Unfair Inequalities at a Regional Level in Colombia
Luis Fernando Gamboa
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This document aims to provide evidence regarding the existence of different patterns in equality of opportunities in academic achievement during the last fifteen years in Colombia. The outcomes selected for measuring inequality are the scores obtained on the national test Saber 11 in math as well as reading. It is found that inequality has increased during this period, and that this trend is common for all the metropolitan areas included in the analysis. Most of the increase found comes from factors related to the school market. It is found that inequality of opportunities is higher than 20% in almost all the studied areas.
Equilibrium models and variational inequalities
Konnov, Igor
2007-01-01
The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...
Bulled, Nicola; Singer, Merrill; Dillingham, Rebecca
2014-01-01
Diarrhoea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years. Moreover, morbidity as a result of diarrhoea is high particularly in marginalised communities. Frequent bouts of diarrhoea have deleterious and irreversible effects on physical and cognitive development. Children are especially vulnerable given their inability to mount an active immune response to pathogen exposure. Biological limitations are exacerbated by the long-term effects of poverty, including reduced nutrition, poor hygiene and deprived home environments. Drawing from available literature, this paper uses syndemic theory to explore the role of adverse biosocial interactions in increasing the total disease burden of enteric infections in low-resources populations and assesses the limitations of recent global calls to action. The syndemic perspective describes situations in which adverse social conditions, including inequality, poverty and other forms of political and economic oppression, play a critical role in facilitating disease-disease interactions. Given the complex micro- and macro-nature of childhood diarrhoea, including interactions between pathogens, disease conditions and social environments, the syndemic perspective offers a way forward. While rarely the focus of health interventions, technologically advanced biomedical strategies are likely to be more effective if coupled with interventions that address the social conditions of disparity.
Obesity and inequities. Guidance for addressing inequities in overweight and obesity
Robertson, Aileen
socioeconomic population groups. There is a strong relationship between obesity and low socioeconomic status, especially for women. Reducing health inequities is a key strategic objective of Health 2020 – the European policy framework for health and well-being endorsed by the 53 Member States of the WHO......ABSTRACT This policy guidance aims to support European policy-makers to improve the design, implementation and evaluation of interventions and policies to reduce inequities in overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity in Europe is rising in many countries, and rising fastest in low...... to reduce the unequal distribution of obesity in Europe, through approaches which address the social determinants of obesity and the related health, social and economic consequences ofthe obesity inequity gradient....
Long-term employment and health inequalities in Canadian communities.
Safaei, Jalil
2008-01-01
This study examines the long-term unemployment rate and various health outcomes across Canadian communities to estimate employment-related health inequalities in these communities. The study uses cross-sectional community-level health data along with data on the long-term employment rate for various communities across Canada to quantify health inequalities among these communities. The health outcomes that are considered in this study include total and disease specific mortality rates; health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, injuries, and self rated health; and life expectancies at birth and at age 65. Health inequalities are estimated using the concentration index, which is used to measure health inequalities along socioeconomic dimensions. The concentration index is estimated by a regression of weighted relative health (ill health) over weighted cumulative relative rank of the populations. All the estimates are provided separately for males and females. The findings of the study support the existence of inequalities in community health outcomes as related to the long-term employment rates in those communities. Communities with lower long term employment rates (higher unemployment rates) have poorer health outcomes in terms of higher mortality rates, worse health conditions, and shorter life expectancies. Health inequalities related to long-term employment have important policy implications. They call for policies that would increase and maintain long term employment rates as part of a broader socioeconomic approach to health. Long term employment ensures income security and prevents the psychosocial experiences leading to mental and physical ill health.
Intelligent comparisons analytic inequalities
Anastassiou, George A
2016-01-01
This monograph presents recent and original work of the author on inequalities in real, functional and fractional analysis. The chapters are self-contained and can be read independently, they include an extensive list of references per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied and pure mathematics, especially in ordinary and partial differential equations and fractional differential equations. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, as well as Science and Engineering University libraries. .
Chomba, Susan Wangui; Kariuki, Juliet; Lund, Jens Friis;
2016-01-01
The extent to which REDD+ initiatives should be a mechanism to address poverty and provide other co-benefits apart from carbon storage, is hotly debated. Here, we examine the benefit distribution policy and practice of a prominent REDD+ project in Kenya with the aim of understanding the extent...... policy of the project maps onto the existing unequal land distribution, it reinforces inequality. By illustrating how current, well-intended, REDD+ efforts inadvertently come to entrench a long process of dispossession of marginalized people, we call attention to the pivotal importance that historical...
Developed Matrix inequalities via Positive Multilinear Mappings
Dehghani, Mahdi; Kian, Mohsen; Seo, Yuki
2015-01-01
Utilizing the notion of positive multilinear mappings, we give some matrix inequalities. In particular, Choi--Davis--Jensen and Kantorovich type inequalities including positive multilinear mappings are presented.
On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications
Ray, Partha
2010-01-01
By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.
Brandolini, L; Gigante, G; Travaglini, G
2011-01-01
The classical Koksma Hlawka inequality does not apply to functions with simple discontinuities. Here we state a Koksma Hlawka type inequality which applies to piecewise smooth functions $f\\chi_{\\Omega}$, with $f$ smooth and $\\Omega $ a Borel subset of $[0,1]^{d}$.
Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in…
Inequality and riots: experimental evidence
K. Abbink; D. Masclet; D. Mirza
2009-01-01
We study the relationship between inequality and inter-groups conflicts (riots), focussing on social inequality. Disadvantaged societal groups experience discrimination and thus have limited access to some social and labour resources like education or employment. The aim of our paper is twofold. Fir
Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary…
Difference functional inequalities and applications
Anna Szafrańska
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the difference inequalities generated by initial boundary value problems for hyperbolic nonlinear differential functional systems. We apply this result to investigate the stability of constructed difference schemes. The proof of the convergence of the difference method is based on the comparison technique, and the result for difference functional inequalities is used. Numerical examples are presented.
Non-commutative Hardy inequalities
Hansen, Frank
2009-01-01
We extend Hardy's inequality from sequences of non-negative numbers to sequences of positive semi-definite operators if the parameter p satisfies 1 1. Applications to trace functions are given. We introduce the tracial geometric mean...... and generalize Carleman's inequality....
Social inequality and hip fracture
Harvey, N. C.; Hansen, L.; Judge, A.
2015-01-01
Social inequality appears to be increasing in many countries. We explored whether risk of hip fracture was associated with markers of inequality and whether these relationships changed with time, using data from Danish Health Registries. Methods: All patients 60 years or older with a primary hip...
The Geography of Gender Inequality.
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.
Inequality constrained normal linear models
Klugkist, I.G.
2005-01-01
This dissertation deals with normal linear models with inequality constraints among model parameters. It consists of an introduction and four chapters that are papers submitted for publication. The first chapter introduces the use of inequality constraints. Scientists often have one or more theories
Social and diagnostic inequality in health.
Bringedal, Berit; Tufte, Per Arne
2012-11-01
Empirical studies of social inequalities in health commonly take the diagnosing of disease for granted. Social inequalities in health are seen as the result of social processes, yet the diagnosis itself is rarely considered to contribute to such inequality. We argue that the influence of sociocultural and cognitive bias in the diagnosing process follows a social pattern, such that certain diagnoses are disproportionally over- or underrepresented in different socioeconomic groups due to interpretive bias of underlying symptoms. Norwegian data on sick leave for diffuse musculoskeletal and diffuse psychiatric disease in 2006 were analysed to study the distribution of the two diagnoses in different status groups. Socioeconomic status was measured by years of education. Diagnoses and occupational codes were based on national registers; diagnoses in accordance with the International Classification of Primary Care second edition. We compared occupations in technical sectors to occupations in the health sector and the relative number of cases of sick leave controlled for years of education, gender, occupational sector, and diagnosis. Data were analysed by cross-tabulation, ratio of diffuse psychiatric/musculoskeletal diseases, and logistic regression. The ratio of diffuse psychiatric/musculoskeletal diseases increases with education and decreases if the employee works in a technical job. The results challenge the traditional explanation that job features alone can explain the distribution of disease and suggest that a part of the persistent social inequality in health can be caused by the diagnosing process. In order to reach a better understanding of the processes behind the social inequalities in health, the diagnosing process itself should also be studied.
Kleinberg, Robert
2012-01-01
Consider a gambler who observes a sequence of independent, non-negative random numbers and is allowed to stop the sequence at any time, claiming a reward equal to the most recent observation. The famous prophet inequality of Krengel, Sucheston, and Garling asserts that a gambler who knows the distribution of each random variable can achieve at least half as much reward, in expectation, as a "prophet" who knows the sampled values of each random variable and can choose the largest one. We generalize this result to the setting in which the gambler and the prophet are allowed to make more than one selection, subject to a matroid constraint. We show that the gambler can still achieve at least half as much reward as the prophet; this result is the best possible, since it is known that the ratio cannot be improved even in the original prophet inequality, which corresponds to the special case of rank-one matroids. Generalizing the result still further, we show that under an intersection of p matroid constraints, the ...
Certain Inequalities Involving the Fractional q-Integral Operators
Dumitru Baleanu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We establish some inequalities involving Saigo fractional q-integral operator in the theory of quantum calculus by using the two parameters of deformation, q1 and q2, whose special cases are shown to yield corresponding inequalities associated with Riemann-Liouville and Kober fractional q-integral operators, respectively. Furthermore, we also consider their relevance with other related known results.
Earnings inequality, returns to education and immigration into Ireland
Barrett, Alan; Fitz Gerald, John; Nolan, Brian
2000-01-01
Increasing earnings inequality has been an important feature of the US and UK labour markets in recent years. The increase appears to be related to an increased demand for skilled labour and an increase in the returns to education. In this paper we examine what has happened to earnings inequality and the returns to education in Ireland between 1987 and 1997. We find that while both increased between 1987 and 1994, the increases slowed dramatically between 1994 and 1997. This is somewhat surpr...
Trade Liberalization and Welfare Inequality: a Demand-Based Approach
Tarasov, Alexander
2008-01-01
There is strong evidence that different income groups consume different bundles of goods. This evidence suggests that trade liberalization can affect welfare inequality within a country via changes in the relative prices of goods consumed by different income groups (the price effect). In this paper, I develop a framework that enables us to explore the role of the price effect in determining welfare inequality. There are two core elements in the model. First, I assume that heterogenous in inco...
Koumandos, Stamatis; Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg
2012-01-01
Turán type inequalities for the partial sums of the generating functions of the Bernoulli and Euler numbers are established. They are shown to follow from a general result relating Turán inequalities of partial sums with Turán inequalities of the corresponding remainders in any Maclaurin expansion...
What commodities and countries impact inequality in the global food system?
Carr, Joel A.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Suweis, Samir; Seekell, David A.
2016-09-01
The global distribution of food production is unequal relative to the distribution of human populations. International trade can increase or decrease inequality in food availability, but little is known about how specific countries and commodities contribute to this redistribution. We present a method based on the Gini coefficient for evaluating the contributions of country and commodity specific trade to inequality in the global food system. We applied the method to global food production and trade data for the years 1986-2011 to identify the specific countries and commodities that contribute to increasing and decreasing inequality in global food availability relative to food production. Overall, international trade reduced inequality in food availability by 25%-33% relative to the distribution of food production, depending on the year. Across all years, about 58% of the total trade links acted to reduce inequality with ˜4% of the links providing 95% of the reduction in inequality. Exports from United States of America, Malaysia, Argentina, and Canada are particularly important in decreasing inequality. Specific commodities that reduce inequality when traded include cereals and vegetables. Some trade connections contribute to increasing inequality, but this effect is mostly concentrated within a small number of commodities including fruits, stimulants, and nuts. In terms of specific countries, exports from Slovenia, Oman, Singapore, and Germany act to increase overall inequality. Collectively, our analysis and results represent an opportunity for building an enhanced understanding of global-scale patterns in food availability.
Plug Iris
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported large socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention, but it is unclear whether these can be attributed to inequalities in access or quality of health care, or to confounding influences such as inequalities in background risk of diseases. We therefore studied whether inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention vary between countries in patterns which differ from those observed for other (non-amenable causes of death. More specifically, we hypothesized that, as compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use and less strongly with inequalities in common risk factors for disease such as smoking. Methods Cause-specific mortality data for people aged 30–74 years were obtained for 14 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-standardized mortality rates and relative risks comparing a lower with a higher educational group. Survey data on health care use and behavioural risk factors for people aged 30–74 years were obtained for 12 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-and sex-adjusted odds ratios comparing a low with a higher educational group. Patterns of association were explored by calculating correlation coefficients. Results In most countries and for most amenable causes of death substantial inequalities in mortality were observed, but inequalities in mortality from amenable causes did not vary between countries in patterns that are different from those seen for inequalities in non-amenable mortality. As compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are not more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use. Inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are also not less strongly associated with common risk factors such as smoking. Conclusions We did not find
Measurement of gender inequality in neighbourhoods of Québec, Canada
Tamambang Lum
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies have measured gender inequality at levels lower than the country. We sought to develop neighbourhood indicators of gender inequality, and assess their ability to capture variability in gender inequality across Québec, Canada. Methods Aggregate 2001 census data for 11,564 neighbourhoods were obtained for men and women. Twelve indicators of gender inequality representing demographic/household characteristics, education, income, work/leisure, and political participation were selected. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality scores were computed for each indicator, and examined across parts of Québec (metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, rural areas. Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the ability of indicators to capture heterogeneity in gender inequality across neighbourhoods. Results Male-dominant neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present for average employment income, labour force participation, employment rate, and employment in managerial positions. Female-dominant gender inequality tended to be present for divorce, single-headed households, and participation in unpaid housework, child and elderly care. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to vary across metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, and rural areas. Gender inequality scores also varied within these geographic areas. For example, there was greater income-related gender inequality in high than low income neighbourhoods. Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the variation in gender inequality across neighbourhoods was greater than expected with chance alone. Conclusion Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present in Québec, and varied across parts of the province. Greater awareness of and research on neighbourhood-level gender inequality may be warranted to inform gender policies in Québec and other nations.
Measurement of gender inequality in neighbourhoods of Québec, Canada.
Tamambang, Lum; Auger, Nathalie; Lo, Ernest; Raynault, Marie-France
2011-11-16
Few studies have measured gender inequality at levels lower than the country. We sought to develop neighbourhood indicators of gender inequality, and assess their ability to capture variability in gender inequality across Québec, Canada. Aggregate 2001 census data for 11,564 neighbourhoods were obtained for men and women. Twelve indicators of gender inequality representing demographic/household characteristics, education, income, work/leisure, and political participation were selected. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality scores were computed for each indicator, and examined across parts of Québec (metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, rural areas). Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the ability of indicators to capture heterogeneity in gender inequality across neighbourhoods. Male-dominant neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present for average employment income, labour force participation, employment rate, and employment in managerial positions. Female-dominant gender inequality tended to be present for divorce, single-headed households, and participation in unpaid housework, child and elderly care. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to vary across metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, and rural areas. Gender inequality scores also varied within these geographic areas. For example, there was greater income-related gender inequality in high than low income neighbourhoods. Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the variation in gender inequality across neighbourhoods was greater than expected with chance alone. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present in Québec, and varied across parts of the province. Greater awareness of and research on neighbourhood-level gender inequality may be warranted to inform gender policies in Québec and other nations.
Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage
Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E
2012-01-01
The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage...... at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups....
An Analysis of Inequality of Economic Opportunity in Thailand
Montchai Pinitjitsamut
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to understand the socioeconomic and family backgrounds that affect individual economic opportunity in term of labor income on and above average income in different regions of Thailand. The results present that both age and marital status have positive impact to individual’s economic opportunity. Because it related to the necessity in personal family life. People works in Bangkok not necessary to get economic opportunity greater than others. Most inequality indicators show the inequality situation in Thailand still not as high as expectation. However, ordinary person usually get only less than 50% (0.4855 opportunity to get earning equal or more the average. Also, the society should concern the inequality of economic opportunity in optimal level which make equality parameter not greater than 0.5. This will create the mechanism to minimize the level of inequality, as a whole.
Labour market inequalities and the role of institutions
Mirella Damiani
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A large body of studies has documented the changing wage structure and increasing inequalities that in the last decades have characterised many OECD countries. The importance of these topics has been addressed by the workshop on "Comparing Inequalities" organised by the Italian Association for Comparative Economic Studies (AISSEC, and held in Assisi in June 2010. One session of the workshop was devoted to "Labour Market Institutions and Wage Inequalities: a Comparative Perspective". This special issue, which includes a selection of papers that were originally presented at the workshop, offers contributions which can be helpful to obtain an enriched view of ongoing changes and a broader spectrum of plausible explanations. In this paper a short appraisal of the large economic literature on wage inequality and institutions is offered with the main aim to clarify how the papers collected in this symposium contribute to related literature and in which directions they move
[Mental income inequality: a "virus" which affects health and happiness].
Bouffard, Léandre; Dubé, Micheline
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of income inequality on various indexes of mental health and on happiness in wealthy nations. Initially, the unequal distribution of income is documented in wealthy nations, especially in the United States of America. After the World War II, income equality was at a level never reached before, but since the eighties, income inequality has raised dramatically in many industrialized countries. The 2008 crisis has worsened the situation in many of them, particularly in the United States. Furthermore, prejudices have increased against women, Blacks, Spanish-speakers and those who receive social welfare. A selective review of the literature is made in order to document the impact of income inequality on a few indicators of mental health (from WHO, UN, UNICEF, OCDE and World Bank) and on happiness, defined here as life satisfaction. Income inequality is positively related to the following indexes: Index of Mental Illness from the WHO (0.73), Index of the United Nations' Office on Drug Consumption (0.63) and a composite Index of ten psychosocial problems, constituted by Wilkinson and Pickett, 2013 (0.87). On the other hand, income inequality is negatively associated to the UNICEF Index of Child Well-Being (-0.71). Furthermore, the level of anxiety and of depression is higher in countries where income inequality is greater. The correlation between happiness and income inequality in the 23 wealthy nations is -0.48; this correlation becomes -0.41 after control of the effect of the GNP (Gross National Product). These results support the idea that it is relative income - not absolute income - which matters in the evaluation of our life and of our happiness. In underdeveloped nations, any increase in GNP promotes the well-being of the citizens; whereas in wealthy nations, it is the equality of the distribution that is more important. Many arguments supporting the causal relation from income inequality to psychosocial
Bell's Inequalities for Any Spin
González-Robles, V. M.
John Ju Sakurai's classical book in quantum mechanics makes a very illuminative presentation that studies entangled states in a two spin s=1/2 particles system in a singlet state. A Bell's inequality emerges as a consequence. Bell's inequality is a relationship among observables that discriminates between Einstein's locality principle and the nonlocal point of view of orthodox quantum mechanics. Following Sakurai's style we propose, by making natural induction, a generalization for Bell's inequality for any two spin-s particles in a singlet state (s integer or half-integer). This inequality is expressed as a function of a θ parameter, which is a measure of the angle between two possible directions in which the spin is measured. Besides the expression for this general inequality we have found that - (a) for any finite half-integer spin Bell's inequality is violated for some interval of the θ-parameter. The right limit of this interval is fixed and equal to π/2, while the left one comes closer and closer to this value as spin number grows. A function fit shows clearly that the size of this θ-interval over which Bell's inequality is violated diminishes asymptotically to zero as 1/s1/2; (b) an analogous behavior for any finite integer spin. For large spins the disagreement between Einstein's locality principle and the nonlocal point of view in orthodox quantum mechanics disappears.
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
The Oxford handbook of economic inequality
Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Smeeding, T.M.
2009-01-01
The essential guide for students and researchers interested in economic inequality Contains 27 original research contributions from the top names in economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a new and challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
Recurring Mean Inequality of Random Variables
Mingjin Wang
2008-06-01
Full Text Available A multidimensional recurring mean inequality is shown. Furthermore, we prove some new inequalities, which can be considered to be the extensions of those established inequalities, including, for example, the Polya-SzegÃƒÂ¶ and Kantorovich inequalities .
The Oxford handbook of economic inequality
W. Salverda; B. Nolan; T.M. Smeeding
2009-01-01
The essential guide for students and researchers interested in economic inequality Contains 27 original research contributions from the top names in economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a new and challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on e
Dybbroe, Betina; Kappel, Nanna
The overall purpose of the research we want to present, is to discuss how social inequality in health can both be maintained and strengthened- and changed through the health system and health efforts. Our contribution provides a view of a special point of intersection in which the health system....... The health system has certain goals, rationalities and conditions for practice based on the medical paradigm, institutional logics, professional cultures and New Public. The health needs of the socially marginalised are, on the other hand, woven into complex social issues in which social and health aspects...... cannot be separated. Their conditions and needs are different and separate from the way the health system perceives of the “average” patient, and this is demonstrated in the encounter between this group of citizens and the health system. We will present short examples of how the health and welfare goals...
Dybbroe, Betina; Kappel, Nanna
The overall purpose of the research we want to present, is to discuss how social inequality in health can both be maintained and strengthened- and changed through the health system and health efforts. Our contribution provides a view of a special point of intersection in which the health system...... – as a system and organisation – meets the everyday life perspectives and experiences of socially marginalised people. The group of people in focus are drug users, and they are here regarded from their everyday life, as people who are, in principle, strangers to, and outside the system that they meet...... cannot be separated. Their conditions and needs are different and separate from the way the health system perceives of the “average” patient, and this is demonstrated in the encounter between this group of citizens and the health system. We will present short examples of how the health and welfare goals...
Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks.
Nishi, Akihiro; Shirado, Hirokazu; Rand, David G; Christakis, Nicholas A
2015-10-15
Humans prefer relatively equal distributions of resources, yet societies have varying degrees of economic inequality. To investigate some of the possible determinants and consequences of inequality, here we perform experiments involving a networked public goods game in which subjects interact and gain or lose wealth. Subjects (n = 1,462) were randomly assigned to have higher or lower initial endowments, and were embedded within social networks with three levels of economic inequality (Gini coefficient = 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4). In addition, we manipulated the visibility of the wealth of network neighbours. We show that wealth visibility facilitates the downstream consequences of initial inequality-in initially more unequal situations, wealth visibility leads to greater inequality than when wealth is invisible. This result reflects a heterogeneous response to visibility in richer versus poorer subjects. We also find that making wealth visible has adverse welfare consequences, yielding lower levels of overall cooperation, inter-connectedness, and wealth. High initial levels of economic inequality alone, however, have relatively few deleterious welfare effects.
Simplest proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality: a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate of what exactly the Bell inequality means, since the hypothesis at the basis of the proof become extremely transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Floud, Sarah; Balkwill, Angela; Moser, Kath; Reeves, Gillian K; Green, Jane; Beral, Valerie; Cairns, Benjamin J
2016-10-13
Some recent research has suggested that health-related behaviours, such as smoking, might explain much of the socio-economic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In a large prospective study of UK women, we investigated the associations between education and area deprivation and CHD risk and assessed the contributions of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) to these inequalities. After excluding women with heart disease, stroke or cancer at recruitment, 1,202,983 women aged 56 years (SD 5 years) on average, were followed for first coronary event (hospital admission or death) and for CHD mortality. Relative risks of CHD were estimated by Cox regression, and the extent to which any association could be accounted for by smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and BMI was assessed by calculating the percentage reduction in the relevant likelihood-ratio (LR) statistic after adjustment for these factors, separately and together. A total of 71,897 women had a first CHD event (hospital admission or death) and 6032 died from CHD during 12 years follow-up. In analyses adjusted by age, birth cohort and region of residence only, lower levels of education and greater deprivation were associated with higher risks of CHD (P heterogeneity deprivation and for deprivation were found within every level of education. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and BMI accounted for most of the associations (adjustment for all four factors together reduced the LR statistics for education and for deprivation by 76 % and 71 %, respectively, for first CHD event; and by 87 % and 79 %, respectively, for CHD mortality). Of these four factors, adjustment for smoking resulted in the largest reduction in the LR statistic. Given the large reduction in the predictive values of education and deprivation after adjustment for only four health-related behavioural factors recorded just at recruitment, residual confounding might plausibly
Study of Effective Factors on Income Inequality Decrease in Rural Areas of Iran
Ali Bagherzadeh
2012-03-01
Full Text Available According to the Ahlowalia hypothesis (1995, the growth oftotal factor productivity (TFP beside infrastructure investmentsof government lead to income inequality decrease in ruralareas of countries. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effects of public investments such as agriculturalR&E, road, education and irrigation on income inequality inrural areas of Iran. In order to get results, we used ARDLmethod and time series data of 1980 to 2008. However, thisresearch attempts to survey the direction of causality betweenthe income inequality and total factor productivity (TFP inIran. Empirical results show there is a negative relation betweenincome inequality and agricultural TFP in rural areas of Iran.Hence, additional investments on rural education and agriculturalR&E have significance and different impacts on income inequality.Findings showed Ahlowalia hypothesis developed forthe relation among income inequality, TFP and investment inelectricity is not rejected in case of Iran`s rural areas.
Multilevel survival analysis of health inequalities in life expectancy
Merlo Juan
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of individuals is determined by multiple factors operating at both micro and macro levels and the interactive effects of them. Measures of health inequalities should reflect such determinants explicitly through sources of levels and combining mean differences at group levels and the variation of individuals, for the benefits of decision making and intervention planning. Measures derived recently from marginal models such as beta-binomial and frailty survival, address this issue to some extent, but are limited in handling data with complex structures. Beta-binomial models were also limited in relation to measuring inequalities of life expectancy (LE directly. Methods We propose a multilevel survival model analysis that estimates life expectancy based on survival time with censored data. The model explicitly disentangles total health inequalities in terms of variance components of life expectancy compared to the source of variation at the level of individuals in households and parishes and so on, and estimates group differences of inequalities at the same time. Adjusted distributions of life expectancy by gender and by household socioeconomic level are calculated. Relative and absolute health inequality indices are derived based on model estimates. The model based analysis is illustrated on a large Swedish cohort of 22,680 men and 26,474 women aged 6569 in 1970 and followed up for 30 years. Model based inequality measures are compared to the conventional calculations. Results Much variation of life expectancy is observed at individual and household levels. Contextual effects at Parish and Municipality level are negligible. Women have longer life expectancy than men and lower inequality. There is marked inequality by the level of household socioeconomic status measured by the median life expectancy in each socio-economic group and the variation in life expectancy within each group. Conclusion Multilevel
Health inequalities after austerity in Greece.
Karanikolos, Marina; Kentikelenis, Alexander
2016-05-31
Since the beginning of economic crisis, Greece has been experiencing unprecedented levels of unemployment and profound cuts to public budgets. Health and welfare sectors were subject to severe austerity measures, which have endangered provision of as well as access to services, potentially widening health inequality gap. European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data show that the proportion of individuals on low incomes reporting unmet medical need due to cost doubled from 7 % in 2008 to 13.9 % in 2013, while the relative gap in access to care between the richest and poorest population groups increased almost ten-fold. In addition, austerity cuts have affected other vulnerable groups, such as undocumented migrants and injecting drug users. Steps have been taken in attempt to mitigate the impact of the austerity, however addressing the growing health inequality gap will require persistent effort of the country's leadership for years to come.
Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality
Kupczynski, Marian
2014-01-01
The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.
Gender inequality and gender differences in authoritarianism.
Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J
2012-10-01
Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.
Digital inequalities and different experiences of ageing
Givskov, Cecilie
of such - actually means to different people. My research is based on the assumption that people’s access to (and use of) media is integral to the power relations of current social and cultural transformations. In order to contribute to user-centered and practice-based understandings of why and how media matters...... - interlink with the participation in private and public social networks. The analysis focuses on the meaning of the everyday media ensemble for social participation by looking into material, emotional and rational aspects of the media use. In my presentation I will elaborate on my method, the results......The complexity of the emerging digital media environment inevitably raises questions about digital literacy and social inequality. However, a major shortcoming of the existing research on digital inequality in later life is that it tells us little to nothing about how and why media actually matters...
Analytic inequalities and their applications in PDEs
Qin, Yuming
2017-01-01
This book presents a number of analytic inequalities and their applications in partial differential equations. These include integral inequalities, differential inequalities and difference inequalities, which play a crucial role in establishing (uniform) bounds, global existence, large-time behavior, decay rates and blow-up of solutions to various classes of evolutionary differential equations. Summarizing results from a vast number of literature sources such as published papers, preprints and books, it categorizes inequalities in terms of their different properties.
[Lessons from the theories of justice on ways to tackle health inequalities].
Trannoy, A
2013-08-01
We survey the burgeoning literature on inequality of opportunity in health. We focus on ways to tackle health inequalities. We are of the opinion that the main contribution so far of this literature is in inviting us to choose a new indicator of the relative success of the public policy, which aims at reducing health inequalities. This indicator is the part of explained health inequalities due to lifestyles. We can defend the use of this indicator on the basis of a value judgment but we will restrain us to do so here. Our argument is mainly positive. It resorts on the fact that, so far, we do not know how to tackle health inequalities coming from differences in lifestyles. These inequalities seem more irreducible than inherited health inequalities, as the Great Britain example shows us. When these inequalities are quite high in proportion of total explained inequalities, it means that we are not so far from a public health policy, which is going to reach his main objective in reducing health inequalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Changes in Job Structure and Rising Wage Inequality in Urban China, 1995-2007
Xing, Chunbing
2012-01-01
We use household surveys from 1995, 2002, and 2007 to examine how changes in job structure contributed to China¡¯s rising urban wage inequality, considering three job characteristics: occupation, industry, and firm ownership. The explanatory power of job structure for wage inequality increased between 1995 and 2007. Both the change in relative number of jobs (composition effect) and the change in between-job and within-job wage gaps (price effect) contributed to rising wage inequality. Price ...
Poverty and health sector inequalities.
Wagstaff, Adam
2002-01-01
Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities.
[Social inequality in home care].
Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A
2013-06-01
Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.
The Split Variational Inequality Problem
Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon
2010-01-01
We propose a new variational problem which we call the Split Variational Inequality Problem (SVIP). It entails finding a solution of one Variational Inequality Problem (VIP), the image of which under a given bounded linear transformation is a solution of another VIP. We construct iterative algorithms that solve such problems, under reasonable conditions, in Hilbert space and then discuss special cases, some of which are new even in Euclidean space.
Inequality of opportunity in India
Singh, Ashish
2010-01-01
The paper associates inequality of opportunities with outcome differences that can be accounted by pre-determined circumstances which lie beyond the control of an individual, such as parental education, parental occupation, caste, religion and place of birth. The overall opportunity share estimates (parametric) of total consumption expenditure inequality due to a set of circumstances comprising of caste, religion, geographical region, parental education and parental occupation vary from 16% t...
Corruption, Inequality and Economic Growth
Ambar, Rabnawaz
2015-01-01
Corruption is worst curse of social system, which ruins all values of community and derails badly. It causes inequality in the whole chain, due to which some parties get too much profit, while other becomes miserable, leading to several street crimes as well as moral devaluations. Due to corruption and inequality, the economic growth is poorly affected, leading to imbalance in the society, causing lack of demand in the market, opportunities of labor and misbehavior of customers. Public can no...
Geometric inequalities methods of proving
Sedrakyan, Hayk
2017-01-01
This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .
Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James
2015-04-18
Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes.
Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities
Benoit Lorel
2008-03-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.
The entropy power inequality for quantum systems
Koenig, Robert
2012-01-01
When two independent analog signals, X and Y are added together giving Z=X+Y, the entropy of Z, H(Z), is not a simple function of the entropies H(X) and H(Y), but rather depends on the details of X and Y's distributions. Nevertheless, the entropy power inequality (EPI), which states that exp [2H(Z)] \\geq exp[2H(X) + exp[2H(Y)], gives a very tight restriction on the entropy of Z. This inequality has found many applications in information theory and statistics. The quantum analogue of adding two random variables is the combination of two independent bosonic modes at a beam splitter. The purpose of this work is to give a detailed outline of the proof of two separate generalizations of the entropy power inequality to the quantum regime. Our proofs are similar in spirit to standard classical proofs of the EPI, but some new quantities and ideas are needed in the quantum setting. Specifically, we find a new quantum de Bruijin identity relating entropy production under diffusion to a divergence-based quantum Fisher i...
Radial fractional Laplace operators and Hessian inequalities
Ferrari, Fausto
2012-01-01
In this paper we deduce a formula for the fractional Laplace operator $(-\\Delta)^{s}$ on radially symmetric functions useful for some applications. We give a criterion of subharmonicity associated with $(-\\Delta)^{s}$, and apply it to a problem related to the Hessian inequality of Sobolev type: $$\\int_{\\mathbb{R}^n}|(-\\Delta)^{\\frac{k}{k+1}} u|^{k+1} dx \\le C \\int_{\\mathbb{R}^n} - u \\, F_k[u] \\, dx, $$ where $F_k$ is the $k$-Hessian operator on $\\mathbb{R}^n$, $1\\le k < \\frac{n}{2}$, under some restrictions on a $k$-convex function $u$. In particular, we show that the class of $u$ for which the above inequality was established in \\cite{FFV} contains the extremal functions for the Hessian Sobolev inequality of X.-J. Wang \\cite{W1}. This is proved using logarithmic convexity of the Gaussian ratio of hypergeometric functions which might be of independent interest.
Inequality in Human Development Index and suicide death in Iran: A National Register–Based Study
Yousef Veisani
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Pay attention to the effects of inequality in health outcomes has steadily risen during recent years. It is necessary step to achieve the goal of health for all (HFA in the coming decades. At the moment, our knowledge about the inequality and suicide is limited. Human Development Index (HDI is summary measures that we can demonstrate current inequalities regarded to health outcomes. We have reanalyzed the national data by Statistical Centre of Iran for HDI and Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization for suicide to explicate of inequality in suicide death in Iran. Our results showed an inverse correlation between HDI and suicide death, so that deaths from suicide was more occurred in provinces with lower HDI. Therefore, results in current study showed a positive inequality in suicide in relation with HDI in Iran. According to this, we suggested that regional studies will be conducted to detect subgroups with a high suicide risk as well as components of HDI that cause inequality.
Religion and gender inequality: The status of women in the societies of world religions
Klingorová Kamila
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The status of women in society is very diverse worldwide. Among many important traits associated with the differentiation of gender inequality is religion, which itself must be regarded as a fluid concept with interpretations and practices ‘embedded’ and thus varying with respect to cultural and historical relations. Admitting the complexity of the issues, some religious norms and traditions can contribute to the formation of gender inequalities and to subordinate the role of women in society. Using an exploratory quantitative analysis, the influence of religiosity on gender inequality in social, economic and political spheres is examined. Three categories of states have emerged from the analysis: (a states where the majority of inhabitants are without religious affiliation, which display the lowest levels of gender inequality; (b Christian and Buddhist societies, with average levels of gender inequality; and (c states with the highest levels of gender inequality across the observed variables, whose inhabitants adhere to Islam and Hinduism.
[Inequality, poverty and obesity].
Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana
2010-06-01
National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity.
Recent developments in quantitative graph theory: information inequalities for networks.
Matthias Dehmer
Full Text Available In this article, we tackle a challenging problem in quantitative graph theory. We establish relations between graph entropy measures representing the structural information content of networks. In particular, we prove formal relations between quantitative network measures based on Shannon's entropy to study the relatedness of those measures. In order to establish such information inequalities for graphs, we focus on graph entropy measures based on information functionals. To prove such relations, we use known graph classes whose instances have been proven useful in various scientific areas. Our results extend the foregoing work on information inequalities for graphs.
Social determinants of inequalities in child undernutrition in Bangladesh: A decomposition analysis.
Huda, Tanvir M; Hayes, Alison; El Arifeen, Shams; Dibley, Michael J
2017-03-08
Socioeconomic inequalities in child undernutrition remain one of the main challenges in Bangladesh. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for such inequalities across different population groups. However, no study has examined the relative contribution of different social determinants to the socioeconomic inequality in child undernutrition in Bangladesh. Our objective is to measure the extent of socioeconomic-related inequalities in childhood stunting and identify the key social determinants that potentially explain these inequalities in Bangladesh. We used data for children younger than 5 years of age for this analysis from 2 rounds of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2004 and 2014. We examined the socioeconomic inequality in stunting using the concentration curve and concentration index. We then decomposed the concentration index into the contributions of individual social determinants. We found significant inequality in stunting prevalence. The negative concentration index of stunting indicated that stunting was more concentrated among the poor than among the well-off. Our results suggest that inequalities in stunting increased between 2004 and 2014. Household economic status, maternal and paternal education, health-seeking behavior of the mothers, sanitation, fertility, and maternal stature were the major contributors to the disparity in stunting prevalence in Bangladesh. Equity is a critical component of sustainable development goals. Health policymakers should work together across sectors and develop strategies for effective intersectoral actions to adequately address the social determinants of equity and reduce inequalities in stunting and other health outcomes.
Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Kunst, Anton E; Bopp, Matthias; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle; Kovács, Katalin; Artnik, Barbara; Kalediene, Ramune; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mackenbach, Johan P
2012-11-01
Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5% at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.
Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.
Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas
2017-05-30
To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend<0.001). Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Inequality, Poverty, Insecurity
Ilona
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.
SUSTAINABILITY OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN INCOMES DISTRIBUTION
Bogdan Ion Boldea
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The problem of inequality in incomes distribution is a present one, much discussed. Economic growth is considered an essential force to reduce the level of poverty by increasing the labor demand and finally the wages within the economy. But the extent to which poverty is reduced as a result of economic growth depends mostly on the initial inequalities in income and on how the distribution of income changes with economic growth. A lot of researches are focused on studying the evolution of inequality in incomes distribution and others have attempted to explore the relationship between income inequality and economic growth. There are also studies which try to identify the main factors which have impact on inequality in incomes distribution. The objective of this study is to put in discussion another possible factor that affects the variability on inequality of incomes distribution â€“ economic growth variability. As background research, until now, we did not find any studies which are investigating this possible relation between inequality of incomes distribution and economic growth variability. To provide some empirical evidences for a positive impact of social output volatility on inequality of incomesâ€™ distribution we are involving a small sample of 27 developing countries for an observation time span between 1995 and 2006. The values of the Gini coefficient reported in World Income Inequality Database are used as dependent variable. As a first step in testing our research hypothesis, we are involving a static panel data model with pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects (FE and random effects (RE estimators. The F statistics tests the null hypothesis of same specific effects for all countries. If we accept the null hypothesis, we could use the OLS estimator. The Hausman test can decide which model is better: random effects (RE versus fixed effects (FE. The FE model was selected because it avoids the inconsistency due to
Pagan, Jose A.; Cardenas, Gilberto
1997-01-01
Relative earnings of young Mexican American workers declined during 1986-92, influenced by recession-induced changes in the U.S. earnings structure and new immigration laws. Although Mexican American females experienced significantly greater occupational segregation than males, structural changes in labor demand worked to reduce the gender…
Perceptions of inequity in the workplace: Exploring the link with unauthorised absenteeism
Jessie Banks
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Orientation: The focus of this study was the relationship between perceptions of inequity and specific withdrawal behaviours. Research purpose: The purpose of the investigation was to explore possible relationships between workers’ perceptions of inequity in the workplace, intentions toward withdrawal behaviour and unauthorised absenteeism.Motivation for the study: There is very little South African research on the correlates of perceived inequity in the workplace. This study attempted to address the gap by exploring specific withdrawal behaviours as possible correlates of perceived inequity.Research design, approach and method: Using a small-scale survey design, the researchers measured intentions towards withdrawal behaviour and recorded rates of absenteeism in a sample of 110 employees from a variety of automotive manufacturing companies in the KwaZulu-Natal area.Main findings: The researchers did not find a relationship between perceptions of inequity and unauthorised absenteeism but did find one between perceptions of inequity and future withdrawal behaviours.Practical/managerial implications: The high levels of perceptions of inequity amongst the workers and the finding that workers were more likely to engage in withdrawal behaviours in the future if they perceived unequal treatment in the workplace are worrying issues for the companies involved.Contribution/value-add: The scale that the researchers developed to measure perceptions of inequity shows preliminary evidence of construct validity. The results suggest that employers need to monitor levels of perceived inequity especially in relation to future withdrawal behaviour.
Gender Asymmetry in Family Migration: Occupational Inequality or Interspousal Comparative Advantage?
Shauman, Kimberlee A.
2010-01-01
This paper examines gender inequality in the determinants of job-related long-distance migration among married dual-earner couples during the 1980s and 1990s. The analysis tested the structural explanation, which attributes gender asymmetry in family migration to structural inequality in the labor market, and the comparative advantage explanation…
An improvement of an inequality of Ochem and Rao concerning odd perfect numbers
Zelinsky, Joshua
2017-01-01
Let $\\Omega(n)$ denote the total number of prime divisors of $n$ (counting multiplicity) and let $\\omega(n)$ denote the number of distinct prime divisors of $n$. Various inequalities have been proved relating $\\omega(N)$ and $\\Omega(N)$ when $N$ is an odd perfect number. We improve on these inequalities. In particular, we show that if $3 \
Mathematics and Science Inequalities in the United Kingdom: When Elitism, Sexism and Culture Collide
Boaler, Jo; Altendorff, Lori; Kent, Geoff
2011-01-01
An examination of gender, social class and ethnicity performance and participation patterns in different UK countries shows that inequities occur in relation to gender, class and ethnicity but that the patterns of inequity look quite different in the three domains. Achievement is equal for different genders but many more males take mathematics…
Generalizations of Euler Inequality in the n-dimensional Euclidean Space
WANG Wen; YANG Shi-guo
2012-01-01
The relation between the circum-radius and the in-radius of an n-dimensional simplex in En is studied.Two new generalizations of Euler inequality for the n-dimensional simplex are established.Besides,we obtain some stronger generalizations of Euler inequality for the n-dimensional simplex than previously known results.
Bayesian Evaluation of Inequality and Equality Constrained Hypotheses for Contingency Tables
Klugkist, Irene; Laudy, Olav; Hoijtink, Herbert
2010-01-01
In this article, a Bayesian model selection approach is introduced that can select the best of a set of inequality and equality constrained hypotheses for contingency tables. The hypotheses are presented in terms of cell probabilities allowing researchers to test (in)equality constrained hypotheses in a format that is directly related to the data.…
T.A. Eikemo (Terje); M. Huisman (Martijn); F. Perlman (Francesca); K. Ringdal (Kristen)
2010-01-01
textabstractBackground: An important gap in our knowledge of social inequalities in health is the former Yugoslavia, a region of culturally and historically diverse countries, with recent conflict. The aim of the present paper is to investigate relative and absolute inequalities in self-assessed hea
Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Espelt, Albert; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Costa, Giuseppe; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Gnavi, Roberto; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulhanova, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtarikova, Jitka; Mackenbach, Johan P
2015-05-01
To evaluate educational inequalities in diabetes mortality in Europe in the 2000s, and to assess whether these inequalities differ between genders. Data were obtained from mortality registries covering 14 European countries. To determine educational inequalities in diabetes mortality, age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated. To assess whether the association between education and diabetes mortality differs between genders, diabetes mortality was regressed on gender, educational rank and 'gender × educational rank'. An inverse association between education and diabetes mortality exists in both genders across Europe. Absolute educational inequalities are generally larger among men than women; relative inequalities are generally more pronounced among women, the relative index of inequality being 2.8 (95 % CI 2.0-3.9) in men versus 4.8 (95 % CI 3.2-7.2) in women. Gender inequalities in diabetes mortality are more marked in the highest than the lowest educated. Education and diabetes mortality are inversely related in Europe in the 2000s. This association differs by gender, indicating the need to take the socioeconomic and gender dimension into account when developing public health policies.
Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody
2014-01-01
Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality.
Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Huisman, Martijn; Perlman, Francesca; Ringdal, Kristen
2010-01-01
Background: An important gap in our knowledge of social inequalities in health is the former Yugoslavia, a region of culturally and historically diverse countries, with recent conflict. The aim of the present paper is to investigate relative and absolute inequalities in self-assessed health in forme
Measuring socio-economic inequality in illhealth using permanent income
T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom)
2001-01-01
textabstractIn Belgium, income-related inequality in ill-health seems to favour the rich, meaning that the rich are generally in better health than the poor are. Restricting the analysis to subsamples of the Belgian population, slightly modifies the conclusion, i.e. there is no income-related inequa
Dependency denied: health inequalities in the neo-liberal era.
Peacock, Marian; Bissell, Paul; Owen, Jenny
2014-10-01
The ways in which inequality generates particular population health outcomes remains a major source of dispute within social epidemiology and medical sociology. Wilkinson and Pickett's The Spirit Level (2009), undoubtedly galvanised thinking across the disciplines, with its emphasis on how income inequality shapes the distribution of health and social problems. In this paper, we argue that their focus on income inequality, whilst important, understates the role of neoliberal discourses and practises in making sense of contemporary inequality and its health-related consequences. Many quantitative studies have demonstrated that more neoliberal countries have poorer health compared to less neoliberal countries, but there are few qualitative studies which explore how neoliberal discourses shape accounts and experiences and what protections and resources might be available to people. This article uses findings from a qualitative psycho-social study employing biographical-narrative interviews with women in Salford (England) to understand experiences of inequality as posited in The Spirit Level. We found evidence for the sorts of damages resulting from inequality as proposed in The Spirit Level. However, in addition to these, the most striking finding was the repeated articulation of a discourse which we have termed "no legitimate dependency". This was something both painful and damaging, where dependency of almost any sort was disavowed and responsibility was assumed by the self or "othered" in various ways. No legitimate dependency, we propose, is a partial (and problematic) internalisation of neoliberal discourses which becomes naturalised and unquestioned at the individual level. We speculate that these sorts of discourses in conjunction with a destruction of protective resources (both material and discursive), lead to an increase in strain and account in part for well-known damages consequent on life in an unequal society. We conclude that integrating understandings
Tightness of correlation inequalities with no quantum violation
Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Sainz, Ana Belén; Murta, Gláucia; Augusiak, Remigiusz
2017-01-01
We study the faces of the set of quantum correlations, i.e., the Bell and noncontextuality inequalities without any quantum violation. First, we investigate the question of whether every proper (facet-defining) Bell inequality for two parties, other than the trivial ones from positivity, normalization, and no-signaling, can be violated by quantum correlations, i.e., whether the classical Bell polytope or the smaller correlation polytope share any facets with their respective quantum sets. To do this, we develop a recently derived bound on the quantum value of linear games based on the norms of game matrices to give a simple sufficient condition to identify linear games with no quantum advantage. Additionally we show how this bound can be extended to the general class of unique games. We then show that the paradigmatic examples of correlation Bell inequalities with no quantum violation, namely the nonlocal computation games, do not constitute facet-defining Bell inequalities, not even for the correlation polytope. We also extend this to an arbitrary prime number of outcomes for a specific class of these games. We then study the faces in the simplest Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell scenario of binary dichotomic measurements, and identify edges in the set of quantum correlations in this scenario. Finally, we relate the noncontextual polytope of single-party correlation inequalities with the cut polytope CUT(∇ G ) , where G denotes the compatibility graph of observables in the contextuality scenario and ∇ G denotes the suspension graph of G . We observe that there exist facet-defining noncontextuality inequalities with no quantum violation, and furthermore that this set of inequalities is beyond those implied by the consistent exclusivity principle.
New dimensions of educational inequality
Weiss, Felix; Roksa, Josipa
2016-01-01
Expansion of an educational system is often accompanied by differentiation. In the U.S., expansion of higher education included an increasing reliance on work. For a growing proportion of students, including those of traditional college-going age, going to college also involved going to work....... This raises a crucial question of whether this form of differentiation has altered the patterns of inequality in higher education. While growing proportions of disadvantaged students are entering higher education, are they increasingly depending on work during their studies? We address this question using...... while enrolled in college in two time periods. Presented analyses reveal a substantial amount of stability in social class inequality over time, with a modest increase in inequality among students attending four-year institutions full-time. Implications of these findings for policy and research...
Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking across 35 countries
Moor, Irene; Rathmann, Katharina; Lenzi, Michela
2015-01-01
socioeconomic status and adolescent weekly smoking can largely be explained by an unequal distribution of family- and school-related factors. Focusing on the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent school achievement can help to better understand inequalities in adolescent smoking behaviour.......BACKGROUND: Tobacco-related heath inequalities are a major public health concern, with smoking being more prevalent among lower socioeconomic groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms leading to socioeconomic inequalities in smoking among 15-year-old adolescents by examining...... the mediating role of psychosocial factors in the peer group, family and school environment. METHODS: Data were derived from the international WHO-collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, including 52 907 15-year-old students from 35 European and North American countries...
SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES
Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing
2005-01-01
In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.
Concentration inequalities for sums and martingales
Bercu, Bernard; Rio, Emmanuel
2015-01-01
The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of historical and recent results on concentration inequalities for sums of independent random variables and for martingales. The first chapter is devoted to classical asymptotic results in probability such as the strong law of large numbers and the central limit theorem. Our goal is to show that it is really interesting to make use of concentration inequalities for sums and martingales. The second chapter deals with classical concentration inequalities for sums of independent random variables such as the famous Hoeffding, Bennett, Bernstein and Talagrand inequalities. Further results and improvements are also provided such as the missing factors in those inequalities. The third chapter concerns concentration inequalities for martingales such as Azuma-Hoeffding, Freedman and De la Pena inequalities. Several extensions are also provided. The fourth chapter is devoted to applications of concentration inequalities in probability and statistics.
Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces
Astashkin, S V [Samara State University, Samara (Russian Federation)
2014-12-31
We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.
Inequalities between similarities for numerical data
Warrens, Matthijs J.
2016-01-01
Similarity measures are entities that can be used to quantify the similarity between two vectors with real numbers. We present inequalities between seven well known similarities. The inequalities are valid if the vectors contain non-negative real numbers.
New Integral Inequalities through Invexity with Applications
Shahid Qaisar
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain some inequalities of Simpson’s inequality type for functions whose derivatives absolute values are quasi-preinvex function. Applications to some special means are considered.
Some integral inequalities for logarithmically convex functions
Mevlüt Tunç
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The main aim of the present note is to establish new Hadamard like integral inequalities involving log-convex function. We also prove some Hadamard-type inequalities, and applications to the special means are given.
Global interpersonal inequality: Trends and measurement
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...
The sociogeometry of inequality: Part I
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-05-01
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices-the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we shift from the notion of Lorenz curves to the notion of Lorenz sets, define inequality indices in terms of Lorenz sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of Lorenz sets. In particular, three principle diameters of Lorenz sets are established as meaningful quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality-thus indeed providing a geometric quantification of socioeconomic inequality.
The theories on inequality: class theory
Ali Arslan
2006-11-01
Full Text Available This stduy aims to analyse class theory and its major expansions. In addition, the problems and dilemmas of class theory are discussed. Social inequality, either socially or economically, is one of the most common features of capitalist societies. Some people or some social groups have more money, more prestige, more privilege and more influence on the decision making process. Two main strategies have been used for analysing and explaining inequalities. The first and most popular strategy is “class theory” which stresses ownership and control to explain class differentiation. It concentrates on the inequalities based mainly on the ownership or non-ownership of economic resources. Class theory was fathered by Karl Marx and especially developed by Marxist writers. Class analysts focus on identification of classes as the major social forces of society. There are two main schools of thought in class theory with their variations within each school: a Marxist Class Theory, b Weberian Class Theory If the Marxist class analysis and Weberian class analysis are examined it will be seen that, two approaches are incompatible and it is impossible to synthesise them. Nevertheless, Hindess sees Weber’s view as the correction of and supplement to Marx’s ideas rather than an alternative. When the ideas of Marx and Weber are compared, it will be clearly seen that both Marx and Weber explain classes in relation to the economy. Nevertheless, while Marx defines classes in terms of the relations of production, Weber defines them in relation to the market.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Two-Point Fuzzy Ostrowski Type Inequalities
Muhammad Amer Latif
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequalities are proved for fuzzy Hölder and fuzzy differentiable functions. The two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequality for M-lipshitzian mappings is also obtained. It is proved that only the two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequality for M-lipshitzian mappings is sharp and as a consequence generalize the two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequalities obtained for fuzzy differentiable functions.
Sources of income inequality in Ireland
Madden, David
1996-01-01
This paper analyses inequality in Ireland via a decomposition of the Gini coefficient by source of income. Using data from the Irish Household Budget Survey of 1987, seventeen components of disposable income are identified and their contribution to inequality evaluated. Their contribution to inequality at the margin is also calculated. The paper also examines how policy changes addressing inequality can be assessed in terms of their effect upon both equality and output via an abbreviated soci...
PAC-Bayesian Inequalities for Martingales
Seldin, Yevgeny; Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolò; Shawe-Taylor, John; Auer, Peter
2011-01-01
We present a set of high-probability inequalities that control the concentration of weighted averages of multiple (possibly uncountably many) simultaneously evolving and interdependent martingales. We also present a comparison inequality that bounds expectation of a convex function of martingale difference type variables by expectation of the same function of independent Bernoulli variables. This inequality is applied to derive a tighter analog of Hoeffding-Azuma inequality.
Bell's inequality without alternative settings
Cabello, A
2003-01-01
A suitable generalized measurement described by a four-element positive operator valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality.
Homotopy Method for Variational Inequalities
无
2001-01-01
@@Solving a finite-dimensional variational inequality is to find a vector x* ∈ X Rn such that where X is a nonempty, closed and convex subset of Rn and F is a mapping from Rn to itself,denoted by VI(X, F). The variational inequality problem (VIP) has had many successful practical applications in the last three decades. It has been used to formulate and investigate equilibrium models arising in economics, transportation, regional science and operations research. So far, a large number of existence conditions have been developed in the literature. Harker and Pang[1] gave excellent surveys of theories, methods and applications of VIPs.
Educational Inequalities and Opportunity in Economic Perspective.
Bowman, Mary Jean
1991-01-01
Discusses educational equality and inequality from an economist's perspective. Considers human capital theory and interpretation of life cycles in learning and earning. Addresses schooling and experience components of changes in the inequality of earned incomes, educational expansion, and inequalities in schooling. Explores the roles of skill…
The geometry of violation of Bell's inequality
Weihan Tan(谭维翰); Qizhi Guo(郭奇志)
2003-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to deduce an analytical expression for the violation of Bell's inequality by quantum theory and plane trigonometry, and expound the violation and maximal violation of the first,second type Bell's inequality in detail. Further, we find out the sufficient conditions for the region in which Bell's inequalities are violated.
The intergenerational Inequality of Health in China
Eriksson, Tor; Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng
2014-01-01
. The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition further indicates that 15% to 27% of the rural–urban inequality of child health is attributable to the endowed inequality from their parents' health. An important policy implication of our study is that the increasing inequality of income and opportunity in China can...
M.P. García-Gómez (Pilar); E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); T.M. Bago d'Uva (Teresa)
2014-01-01
textabstractWe apply the theory of inequality of opportunity to the measurement of inequity in mortality. Using a rich data set linking records of mortality and health events to survey data on lifestyles for the Netherlands (1998-2007), we test the sensitivity of estimated inequity to different
Inequalities for polars of mixed projection bodies
LENG Gangsong; ZHAO Changjian; HE Binwu; LI Xiaoyan
2004-01-01
In 1993 Lutwak established some analogs of the Brunn-Minkowsi inequality and the Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for mixed projection bodies. In this paper, following Lutwak, we give their polars forms. Further, as applications of our methods, we give a generalization of Pythagorean inequality for mixed volumes.
M.P. García-Gómez (Pilar); E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); T.M. Bago d'Uva (Teresa)
2014-01-01
textabstractWe apply the theory of inequality of opportunity to the measurement of inequity in mortality. Using a rich data set linking records of mortality and health events to survey data on lifestyles for the Netherlands (1998-2007), we test the sensitivity of estimated inequity to different norm
Noncommutative and vector-valued Rosenthal inequalities
Dirksen, S.
2011-01-01
This thesis is dedicated to the study of a class of probabilistic inequalities, called Rosenthal inequalities. These inequalities provide two-sided estimates for the p-th moments of the sum of a sequence of independent, mean zero random variables in terms of a suitable norm on the sequence itself. R
Nonlinear Inequalities and Entropy-Concurrence Plane
Bovino, F A
2006-01-01
Nonlinear inequalities based on the quadratic Renyi entropy for mixed two-qubit states are characterized on the Entropy-Concurrence plane. This class of inequalities is stronger than Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequalities and, in particular, are violated "in toto" by the set of Type I Maximally-Entangled-Mixture States (MEMS I).
Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419
Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina
2008-01-01
What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…
Multiple inequalities, intersectionality and the European Union
Verloo, M.M.T.
2006-01-01
The European Union (EU), a pioneer in gender equality policies, is moving from predominantly attending to gender inequality, towards policies that address multiple inequalities. This article argues that there are tendencies at EU level to assume an unquestioned similarity of inequalities, to fail to