WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative isomer masses

  1. Complete Hexose Isomer Identification with Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gabe; Pohl, Nicola L. B.

    2015-04-01

    The first analytical method is presented for the identification and absolute configuration determination of all 24 aldohexose and 2-ketohexose isomers, including the D and L enantiomers for allose, altrose, galactose, glucose, gulose, idose, mannose, talose, fructose, psicose, sorbose, and tagatose. Two unique fixed ligand kinetic method combinations were discovered to create significant enough energetic differences to achieve chiral discrimination among all 24 hexoses. Each of these 24 hexoses yields unique ratios of a specific pair of fragment ions that allows for simultaneous determination of identification and absolute configuration. This mass spectrometric-based methodology can be readily employed for accurate identification of any isolated monosaccharide from an unknown biological source. This work provides a key step towards the goal of complete de novo carbohydrate analysis.

  2. The Search for High Spin State Isomers in the Atomic Mass Region 178-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellahrah, M.S.; Arfa, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Isomers for elements far a way from line of stability are a new field for research to produce artificial isomers that can store considerable amount of energy in small amount of mass without the dangerous hazards on life and environment. These isomers could have very short life time or very long one 10th and 100th of years. It will be possible to get the stored energy by stimulated emission . The purpose of this work to use a theorical model based on Bcs method to find out the possible isomers in the mass reg on 178-192 even -even isotopes so that experimentalists can concentrate their research on these predicted isomers.

  3. Differentiation of 2- and 6-isomers of (2-dimethylaminopropylbenzofuran by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shevyrin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reliable identification of new psychoactive substances of 2-(2-methylaminopropylbenzofuran and 6-(2-methylaminopropylbenzofuran is problematic when analyzing by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method. It found that these two isomers can be reliably differentiated by MS/MS spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation of their protonated molecules.

  4. Hydrocarbons and fuels analyses with the supersonic gas chromatography mass spectrometry--the novel concept of isomer abundance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Gordin, Alexander; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-06-27

    Hydrocarbon analysis with standard GC-MS is confronted by the limited range of volatile compounds amenable for analysis and by the similarity of electron ionization mass spectra for many compounds which show weak or no molecular ions for heavy hydrocarbons. The use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (Supersonic GC-MS) significantly extends the range of heavy hydrocarbons that can be analyzed, and provides trustworthy enhanced molecular ion to all hydrocarbons. In addition, unique isomer mass spectral features are obtained in the ionization of vibrationally cold hydrocarbons. The availability of molecular ions for all hydrocarbons results in the ability to obtain unique chromatographic isomer distribution patterns that can serve as a new method for fuel characterization and identification. Examples of the applicability and use of this novel isomer abundance analysis (IAA) method to diesel fuel, kerosene and oil analyses are shown. It is suggested that in similarity to the "three ions method" for identification purposes, three isomer abundance patterns can serve for fuel characterization. The applications of the Supersonic GC-MS for engine motor oil analysis and transformer oil analysis are also demonstrated and discussed, including the capability to achieve fast 1-2s sampling without separation for oil and fuel fingerprinting. The relatively fast analysis of biodiesel is described, demonstrating the provision of molecular ions to heavy triglycerides. Isomer abundance analysis with the Supersonic GC-MS could find broad range of applications including petrochemicals and fuel analysis, arson analysis, environmental oil/fuel spill analysis, fuel adulteration analysis and motor oil analysis.

  5. Optimizing recoil-isomer tagging with the Argonne fragment mass analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnsworthy, A.B.; Lister, C.J.; Regan, P.H.; Blank, B.B.; Cullen, I.J.; Gros, S.; Henderson, D.J.; Jones, G.A.; Liu, Z.; Seweryniak, D.; Shumard, B.R.; Thompson, N.J.; Williams, S.J.; Zhu, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new focal plane detector arrangement for the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) has been built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. This set-up is particularly sensitive for performing Recoil-Isomer Tagging on nuclei with isomeric states with lifetimes in the microsecond range. Recoiling nuclei from fusion-evaporation reactions at the target position are dispersed by their ratio of mass to charge (A/q) by the FMA and stopped in low pressure gas (air) at the focal plane. Subsequent gamma decays from isomeric states in the reaction products are observed using Ge detectors. A constant gas flow through the focal plane chamber efficiently removes longer-lived beta-decaying species from sight of the detectors. This set-up has been commissioned successfully with the microsecond isomer in 80 Rb, populated via the 52 Cr( 32 S, 3pn) reaction at 135 MeV

  6. Preferential alkali metal adduct formation by cis geometrical isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acids allows for efficient discrimination from their trans isomers during ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makola, MM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available distinguish between various isomers of flavonoid glycosides, but were able to obtain structural information such as the site of glycosylation on the flavonoid. The metal binding of catechol-containing molecules has also been known for a long time... with serious biological and chemical implications.[34] In mass spectrometry studies, the metal binding/chelation by catechol-containing flavonoids has been noted and used to discriminate between closely related molecules.[35] In the current study...

  7. Self-assembly of triangular metallomacrocycles using unsymmetrical bisterpyridine ligands: isomer differentiation via TWIM mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yen-Peng; He, Yun-Jui; Lee, Yin-Hsuan; Chan, Yi-Tsu

    2015-03-21

    Three unsymmetrical, 60°-bended bisterpyridine ligands with varying phenylene spacer lengths have been synthesized via the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. Their self-assembly processes were found to be strongly dependent on the ligand geometry. Upon complexation with Zn(II) ions, only 2,4''-di(4'-terpyridinyl)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl underwent self-selection to give a trinuclear metallomacrocycle with perfect heteroleptic connectivity and the other two afforded a mixture of constitutional isomers. The metallosupramolecular assemblies were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI MS), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In particular, the identification of isomeric architecture was accomplished using tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) coupled with traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIM MS).

  8. Isomer-specific analysis of nonylphenols with estrogenic activity and their distribution in aquatic environment in relation to endocrine disrupters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.S.; Katase, T.; Inoue, T. [Nihon Univ., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan). College of Bioresource Sciences; Horii, Y.; Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Makino, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Fujimoto, Y. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). College of Pharmacy

    2004-09-15

    The effect of estrogen-exposure on levels of a larval storage protein of Balanus amphitrite, cypris major protein (CMP), which is related to barnacle vitellin, has been examined at low concentrations (0.01-1.0 {mu}g/l) of 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) (1.0 {mu}g/l) from egg hatching until the nauplius cypris stage. Eventually, the exposure to 0.01 {mu}g/l of NP led to a ca. 50% increase in the optical density of the CMP. There are theoretically ca. 170 kinds of isomers of NP, based on the structure of the nonyl side chain in NP. We fractionated a commercial NP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to give six fractions (Fr. 1- Fr. 6). Fr. 3 - Fr. 5 were further separated to afford 14 fractions by using gas chromatograph equipped with a preparative fraction collector (GC-PFC) and 11 NP isomers were identified by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The chemical structures of 11 isomers (NP1 to NP14) were characterized and estrogenicities of the selected isomers were tested in recombinant yeast screen system. The 4-(1,1-dimethyl-2-ethyl-pentyl)- phenol (NP7) was found to exhibit the highest estrogenic activity corresponding to 1.9 x 10{sup -3} that of E2. The NP4 and 6 were structurally in diastereomer. The individual isomer of NP in aquatic samples taken from Ariake Sea and Tokyo, Japan was analyzed by steam distillation extraction in the present study.

  9. Determination of melatonin and its isomer in foods by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Yılmaz, Cemile; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to develop a reliable analytical method for the determination of melatonin and its isomers in various food products. The method entails ethanol extraction of solid samples (or dilution of liquid samples) prior to liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadruple mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of target analytes. The method was in-house validated and successfully applied to various food matrices. Recovery of melatonin from different matrices were found to be 86.0 ± 3.6%, 76.9 ± 5.4%, 98.6 ± 6.4%, and 67.0 ± 4.5% for beer, walnut, tomato and sour cherry samples, respectively. No melatonin could be detected in black and green tea, sour cherry, sour cherry concentrate, kefir (a fermented milk drink) and red wine while the highest amount of melatonin (341.7 ± 29.3 pg/g) was detected in crumb. The highest amounts of melatonin isomer were detected in yeast-fermented foods such as 170.7 ± 29.9 ng/ml in red wine, 14.3 ± 0.48 ng/ml in beer, and 15.7 ± 1.4 ng/g in bread crumb. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry--a method to differentiate isomers by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-12-01

    In this report, a method for in-source hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange at atmospheric pressure is reported. The method was named atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (APPI HDX MS). H/D exchange was performed by mixing samples dissolved in toluene with CH3OD solvent and analyzing the mixture using atmospheric pressure photo ionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). The APPI HDX spectra obtained with contact times between the analyte solution and methanol-OD (CH3OD) of atmospheric pressure. H/D exchange can be performed in any laboratory with a mass spectrometer and a commercial APPI source. Using this method, multiple H/D exchanges of aromatic hydrogen and/or H/D exchange of active hydrogen were observed. These results demonstrated that H/D exchange can be used to distinguish between isomers containing primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, as well as pyridine and pyrrole functional groups.

  11. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Steve; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  12. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhou; Qiu-Nan Tong; Zhang Cong-Cong; Hu Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are performed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Compared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible. (paper)

  13. UV-induced bond modifications in thymine and thymine dideoxynucleotide: structural elucidation of isomers by differential mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jacques, Antony; Anichina, Janna; Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R; Bohme, Diethard K

    2010-07-15

    Differential mobility spectrometry has been applied to reveal the occurrence of isomerization of thymine nucleobase and of thymine dideoxynucleotide d(5'-TT-3') due to bond redisposition induced by UV irradiation at 254 nm of frozen aqueous solutions of these molecules. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of electrosprayed photoproducts of the thymine solution suggest the presence of two isomers (the so-called cyclobutane and 6,4-photoproducts) in addition to the proton-bound thymine dimer, and these were separated using differential mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry (DMS/MS) techniques with water as the modifier. Similar experiments with d(5'-TT-3') revealed the formation of a new isomer of deprotonated thymine dideoxynucleotide upon UV irradiation that was easily distinguished using DMS/MS with isopropanol as the modifier. The results reinforce the usefulness of DMS/MS in isomer separation.

  14. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacman, Gabriel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Arthur W. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Worton, David R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Kimmel, Joel R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Nah, Theodora [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hohaus, Thorsten [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Gonin, Marc [Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Kroll, Jesse H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Goldstein, Allen H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. In this study, we use vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally “unresolved complex mixture” by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved on the basis of tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. Lastly, the classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  15. Selective detection of isomers with photoionization mass spectrometry for studies of hydrocarbon flame chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Terrill A.; Nakajima, Koichi; Mostefaoui, Toufik A.; Qi, Fei; McIlroy, Andrew; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Law, Matthew E.; Poisson, Lionel; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2003-01-01

    We report the first use of synchrotron radiation, continuously tunable from 8 to 15 eV, for flame-sampling photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS). Synchrotron radiation offers important advantages over the use of pulsed vacuum ultraviolet lasers for PIMS; these include superior signal-to-noise, soft ionization, and access to photon energies outside the limited tuning ranges of current VUV laser sources. Near-threshold photoionization efficiency measurements were used to determine the absolute concentrations of the allene and propyne isomers of C 3 H 4 in low-pressure laminar ethylene-oxygen and benzene-oxygen flames. Similar measurements of the isomeric composition of C 2 H 4 O species in a fuel-rich ethylene-oxygen flame revealed the presence of substantial concentrations of ethenol (vinyl alcohol) and acetaldehyde. Ethenol has not been previously detected in hydrocarbon flames. Absolute photoionization cross sections were measured for ethylene, allene, propyne, and acetaldehyde, using propene as a calibration standard. PIE curves are presented for several additional reaction intermediates prominent in hydrocarbon flames

  16. Log mirror symmetry between the lifetime and the excitation energy of the 9/2+ isomer in mass ∼ 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Kumar, S.; Hasan, Z.; Kumar, D.; Koranga, B.S.; Rohitash; Negi, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the systematically study of 9/2 + isomer in mass ∼ 80, will be explored in such a way that lead to a dependence on the number of neutrons and protons in the active shell (N p N n ). An attempt has been made to understand general systematics and the role of the g 9/2 orbit rather than to reproduce exact agreement between theory and experiment

  17. New isomers in the neutron-rich A∼190 mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caamano, M.

    2002-02-01

    Previously unobserved isomeric states in 188 Ta, 190 W, 192 Re, 193 Re, 195 Os, 197 Ir, 198 Ir, 200 Pt, 201 Pt, 202 Pt and 203 Au, with half-lives ranging from 10 ns to 290 μs have been populated and studied using a fragmentation reaction in conjunction with a forward focussing spectrometer. In most cases, this provided the first ever spectroscopic data made available for the nucleus, and 200 Pt presented the first new seniority 4 state, on the basis of γ-γ coincidences, following a fragmentation reaction. Half-lives have been measured and tentative level schemes have been drawn for each isomer, spins and parities being consistent with blocked BCS calculations, hindrance factors, systematics and the relative intensities of γ-rays and X-rays (where possible). Isomeric ratios have been measured, values ranging from 1 % to 64 %. Potential Energy Surface calculations were performed in parallel to the blocked BCS calculations, in order to provide deformation parameters, excitation energies and quasiparticle configurations. Ground state (or lowest level) shape calculations reveal a change from axially symmetric, through triaxial, to spherical shapes across the data set, from 188 Ta to 203 Au, as 208 Pb is approached. Weisskopf hindrance factors provide evidence for the erosion of the goodness of the K-quantum number, compatible with soft or axially symmetric shapes. The prolate-oblate phase transition region, with respect to tungsten, osmium and platinum, shows 195 Os to be the pivotal nucleus in the osmium isotopic chain, with a calculated triaxial ground state. On comparison with the systematics of the region, results obtained for 190 W show evidence for a Z ≤ 74 sub-shell closure, analogous to that at Z = 64. Finally, new isotopes, 167 Tb, 170 Dy and 199 Ir were discovered. (author)

  18. Revisiting shape selectivity in liquid chromatography for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - six-ring and seven-ring Cata-condensed PAH isomers of molecular mass 328 Da and 378 Da.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    The relationship of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) retention on a polymeric C 18 stationary phase and the shape of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated for three-ring to seven-ring cata-condensed isomers. We report the first RPLC separation for six-ring and seven-ring cata-condensed PAH isomers. Correlations of LC retention and shape parameters (length-to-breath ratio, L/B and thickness, T) were investigated for 2 three-ring isomers (molecular mass 178 Da), 5 four-ring isomers (molecular mass 228 Da), 11 five-ring isomers (molecular mass 278 Da), 17 six-ring isomers (molecular mass 328 Da), and 20 seven-ring isomers (molecular mass 378 Da). Significant linear correlations were found for all isomer groups (r = 0.71 to 0.94). Nonplanarity of the PAH isomers was found to influence retention (i.e., nonplanar isomers eluting earlier than expected based on L/B) and linear correlations of retention vs. T for isomer groups containing nonplanar isomers were significant (r = 0.71 to 0.86). Graphical abstract.

  19. Mass-spectrometry-directed analysis and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloid cis/trans isomers in Gynura japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lianxiang; Xiong, Aizhen; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Wenzhi; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-08-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are highly hepatotoxic natural chemicals that produce irreversible chronic and acute hepatotoxic effects on human beings. Purification of large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is necessary for toxicity studies. In this study, an efficient method for targeted analysis and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloid cis/trans isomers from herbal materials was developed for the first time. Targeted analysis of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids was performed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (precursor ion scan and daughter ion scan), and the purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was achieved with a mass-directed auto purification system. The extraction and preparative liquid chromatography conditions were optimized. The developed method was applied to analysis of Gynura japonica (Thunb.) Juel., a herbal medicine traditionally used for detumescence and relieving pain but is potentially hepatotoxic as it contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Twelve pyrrolizidine alkaloids (six cis/trans isomer pairs) were identified with reference compounds or characterized by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and five individual pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including (E)-seneciphylline, seneciphylline, integerrimine, senecionine, and seneciphyllinine, were prepared from G. japonica roots with high efficiency. The results of this work provide a new technique for the preparation of large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloid reference substances, which will also benefit toxicological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and treatments for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced toxicity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Online Ozonolysis Combined with Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Provides a New Platform for Lipid Isomer Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poad, Berwyck L.; Zheng, Xueyun; Mitchell, Todd A.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin M.; Blanksby, Stephen J.

    2017-12-21

    One of the most significant challenges in contemporary lipidomics lies in the separation and identification of lipid isomers that differ only in site(s) of unsaturation or geometric configuration of the carbon-carbon double bonds. While analytical separation techniques including ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and liquid chromatography (LC) can separate isomeric lipids under appropriate conditions, conventional tandem mass spectrometry cannot provide unequivocal identification. To address this challenge, we have implemented ozone-induced dissociation (OzID) in-line with LC, IMS and high resolution mass spectrometry. Modification of an IMS- capable quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was undertaken to allow the introduction of ozone into the high-pressure trapping ion funnel region preceding the IMS cell. This enabled the novel LC-OzID-IMS-MS configuration where ozonolysis of ionized lipids occurred rapidly (10 ms) without prior mass-selection. LC-elution time alignment combined with accurate mass and arrival time extraction of ozonolysis products facilitated correlation of precursor and product ions without mass-selection (and associated reductions in duty cycle). Unsaturated lipids across 11 classes were examined using this workflow in both positive and negative ion modalities and in all cases the positions of carbon-carbon double bonds were unequivocally assigned based on predictable OzID transitions. Under these conditions geometric isomers exhibited different IMS arrival time distributions and distinct OzID product ion ratios providing a means for discrimination of cis/trans double bonds in complex lipids. The combination of OzID with multidimensional separations shows significant promise for facile profiling of unsaturation patterns within complex lipidomes.

  1. Identification of Apo- Carotenoids' Crocin and Crocetin Isomers in Saffron Crude Extracts by HPLC Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and High Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraddin Hosseinpour azad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main metabolites in saffron are the Apo- carotenoids’ Crocin and Crocetin. Color intensity and quality of saffron mostly depend on the presence of Crocins that are glycosylated steric form of Crocetin by glycosyltransferase enzyme. The aim of this study is the characterization of these metabolites in methanolic and chloroformic extracts of saffron stigmas during anthesis stage by LC-APCI-MS. Identification of cis and trans isomers of Crocin and Crocetin was done by three parameters such as mass spectra registered in the negative ion mode, retention time and absorption ratio related to each metabolites. The variability of these parameters made it possible to detect the Crocins isomer with regard to the attached position and the number of UDP- glucose and Gentiobiosyl molecules to Crocetin structure. Crocins was the mainly detected components as there are polar components that are classified in the carotenoeids groups and the strified form of Crocetin Glucose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl and Gentiobiose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-Glucose. Also doubly charged ions were found for trans-isomers of Crocin-4, due to the high symmetry of their molecules. Based on the data gathered, the applied chromatograph Machin in this project is accurate and it is most sensitive tools to investigate about plants’ natural components like saffron, also the used APCI-MS in negative ions mode is the most efficient method to distinguish different steric forms of Crocin based on the ion’s fragments related to united reduction of glycosyl and gentiobiosyl as well as molecular fractions.

  2. Ion Mobility Separations of Isomers based upon Long Path Length Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Baker, Erin S. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Aly, Noor A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Hamid, Ahmed M. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Zhang, Xing [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Garimella, Sandilya V. B. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Webb, Ian K. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Prost, Spencer A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Sandoval, Jeremy A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Norheim, Randolph V. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Anderson, Gordon A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Tolmachev, Aleksey V. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA

    2016-07-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based multi-omic measurements, including proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and glycomics, are increasingly transforming our ability to characterize and understand biological systems, but, presently have limitations due to the chemical diversity and range of abundances of biomolecules in complex samples. Advances addressing these challenges increasingly are based upon the ability to quickly separate, react and otherwise manipulate sample components for analysis by MS. Here we report on a new approach using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) to enable long serpentine path ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations followed by MS analyses. This approach provides previously unachieved mobility biomolecule isomer separations for biomolecular species, in conjunction with more effective ion utilization, and producing a basis for the improved characterization of very small samples.

  3. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  4. Absolute and relative reliability of isokinetic and isometric trunk strength testing using the IsoMed-2000 dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the between day reliability of isokinetic and isometric peak torque (PT) during trunk measurement on an isokinetic device (IsoMed 2000). Test-retest-protocol on five separate days. Fifteen healthy sport students (8 female and 7 male) aged 21 to 26. PT was assessed in isometric back extension and flexion as well as right and left rotation. Isokinetic strength was captured at a speed of 60°/s and 150°/s for all tasks. For none of the assessed parameters a meaningful variation in PT during test days was observed. Relative reliability (ICC = 0.85-0.96) was excellent for all tasks. Estimates of absolute reliability as Coefficient of Variation (CoV) and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM in Nm/kg lean body mass) remained stable for isometric (6.9% strength measurement in flexion and extension or trunk rotation in either isometric or isokinetic condition is highly reliable. Therefore, it seems possible to elucidate changes which are smaller than 10% due to intervention programs when a preceding familiarization condition was applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  6. Chromatographic resolution of closely related species in pharmaceutical chemistry: dehalogenation impurities and mixtures of halogen isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Erik L; Zhuang, Ping; Chen, Yadan; Makarov, Alexey A; Schafer, Wes A; McGachy, Neil; Welch, Christopher J

    2014-01-07

    In recent years, the use of halogen-containing molecules has proliferated in the pharmaceutical industry, where the incorporation of halogens, especially fluorine, has become vitally important for blocking metabolism and enhancing the biological activity of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals from associated isomers or dehalogenation impurities can sometimes be quite difficult. In an attempt to identify the best current tools available for addressing this important problem, a survey of the suitability of four chromatographic method development platforms (ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), core shell HPLC, achiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and chiral SFC) for separating closely related mixtures of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals and their dehalogenated isosteres is described. Of the 132 column and mobile phase combinations examined for each mixture, a small subset of conditions were found to afford the best overall performance, with a single UHPLC method (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing either phosphoric or perchloric acid with 150 mM sodium perchlorate) affording excellent separation for all samples. Similarly, a survey of several families of closely related halogen-containing small molecules representing the diversity of impurities that can sometimes be found in purchased starting materials for synthesis revealed chiral SFC (Chiralcel OJ-3 and Chiralpak IB, isopropanol or ethanol with 25 mM isobutylamine/carbon dioxide) as well as the UHPLC (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 and the Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing phosphoric acid) as preferred methods.

  7. The hypertrehalosemic neuropeptides of cicadas are structural isomers-evidence by ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Simone; Marco, Heather; Gäde, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    It has been known for more than 20 years that the neurosecretory glands of the cicadas, the corpora cardiaca, synthesize two isobaric peptides with hypertrehalosemic activity. Both decapeptides have exactly the same amino acid sequence (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH 2 ) and mass but differ in their retention time in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. A synthetic peptide with the same sequence elutes together with the second more hydrophobic peptide peak of the natural cicada extract. It is not clear what modification is causing the described observations. Therefore, in the current study, ion mobility separation in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to investigate this phenomenon as it was sensitive to changes in conformation. It detected different drift times in buffer gas for both the intact peptides and some of their fragment ions. Based on the ion mobility and fragment ion intensity of the corresponding ions, it is concluded that the region Pro 6 -Ser 7 -Trp 8 contains a structural feature differing from the L-amino acids present in the known peptide. Whether the conformer is the result of racemization or other biochemical processes needs to be further investigated.

  8. Fundamental Issues Related to the Origin of Melatonin and Melatonin Isomers during Evolution: Relation to Their Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Xian Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin and melatonin isomers exist and/or coexist in living organisms including yeasts, bacteria and plants. The levels of melatonin isomers are significantly higher than that of melatonin in some plants and in several fermented products such as in wine and bread. Currently, there are no reports documenting the presence of melatonin isomers in vertebrates. From an evolutionary point of view, it is unlikely that melatonin isomers do not exist in vertebrates. On the other hand, large quantities of the microbial flora exist in the gut of the vertebrates. These microorganisms frequently exchange materials with the host. Melatonin isomers, which are produced by these organisms inevitably enter the host’s system. The origins of melatonin and its isomers can be traced back to photosynthetic bacteria and other primitive unicellular organisms. Since some of these bacteria are believed to be the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts these cellular organelles may be the primary sites of melatonin production in animals or in plants, respectively. Phylogenic analysis based on its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT, indicates its multiple origins during evolution. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin and its isomer are also present in the domain of archaea, which perhaps require these molecules to protect them against hostile environments including extremely high or low temperature. Evidence indicates that the initial and primary function of melatonin and its isomers was to serve as the first-line of defence against oxidative stress and all other functions were acquired during evolution either by the process of adoption or by the extension of its antioxidative capacity.

  9. Mass relation for neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu; Barr

    2000-08-07

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m(&mgr;)/m(tau)) = 3(m(s)/m(b)) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10). This new relation is (m(nu(&mgr;))/m(nu(tau))) = 16(m(c)/m(t)), which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  10. Mass Relation for Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K. S.; Barr, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m μ /m τ ) =3(m s /m b ) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10) . This new relation is (m ν μ /m ν τ )=16(m c /m t ) , which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Seniority isomers in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Isacker, P

    2011-01-01

    Seniority isomers are nuclear states with an electromagnetic decay that is hindered by selection rules related to the seniority quantum number. A simple analysis is presented of their possible formation with reference to the nickel isotopes 70–76 Ni and the N = 50 isotones from molybdenum to cadmium. It is shown that the existence of seniority isomers in a j = 9/2 shell is predominantly governed by the quadrupole pairing matrix element of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The analysis is generalized to shells with larger j.

  12. The mass-lifetime relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent "AstroNote," I described a simple exercise on the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars as an example of exposing students in a general education science course of lower mathematical level to the use of quantitative skills such as collecting and analyzing data. Here I present another attempt at a meaningful experience for such students that again involves both the gathering and analysis of numerical data and comparison with accepted result, this time on the relationship of the mass and lifetimes of main sequence stars. This experiment can stand alone or be used as an extension of the previous mass-luminosity relationship experiment.

  13. Fast quantitation of opioid isomers in human plasma by differential mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry via SPME/open-port probe sampling interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Schneider, Bradley B; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Arnold, Don W; Covey, Thomas R; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-10-23

    Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative approaches typically require a thorough sample clean-up and a decent chromatographic step in order to achieve needed figures of merit. However, in most cases, such processes are not optimal for urgent assessments and high-throughput determinations. The direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) to MS has shown great potential to shorten the total sample analysis time of complex matrices, as well as to diminish potential matrix effects and instrument contamination. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the open-port probe (OPP) as a direct and robust sampling interface to couple biocompatible-SPME (Bio-SPME) fibres to MS for the rapid quantitation of opioid isomers (i.e. codeine and hydrocodone) in human plasma. In place of chromatography, a differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) device was implemented to provide the essential selectivity required to quantify these constitutional isomers. Taking advantage of the simplified sample preparation process based on Bio-SPME and the fast separation with DMS-MS coupling via OPP, a high-throughput assay (10-15 s per sample) with limits of detection in the sub-ng/mL range was developed. Succinctly, we demonstrated that by tuning adequate ion mobility separation conditions, SPME-OPP-MS can be employed to quantify non-resolved compounds or those otherwise hindered by co-extracted isobaric interferences without further need of coupling to other separation platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative analysis of modified proteins and their positional isomers by tandem mass spectrometry: human histone H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, James J; Mizzen, Craig A; Kelleher, Neil L

    2006-07-01

    Here we show that fragment ion abundances from dissociation of ions created from mixtures of multiply modified histone H4 (11 kDa) or of N-terminal synthetic peptides (2 kDa) correspond to their respective intact ion abundances measured by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Isomeric mixtures of modified forms of the same protein are resolved and quantitated with a precision of relative ratios of their fragment ions, with intact protein ions created by electrospray greatly easing many of the systematic biases that more strongly affect small peptides (e.g., differences in ionization efficiency and ion m/z values). The ion fragmentation methods validated here are directly extensible to intact human proteins to derive quantitative information on the highly related and often isomeric protein forms created by combinatorial arrays of posttranslational modifications.

  15. Ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction/gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Herrador, Eva; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    The direct coupling between ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is proposed for the rapid and simple determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes isomers (BTEX) in water samples. The extraction procedure exploits not only the high affinity of the selected ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-octyl-imidazolium hexaflourophosphate) to these aromatic compounds but also its special properties like viscosity, low vapour pressure and immiscibility with water. All the variables involved in the extraction process have been studied in depth. The developed method allows the determination of these single-ring compounds in water under the reference concentration level fixed by the international legislation. In this case, limits of detection were in the range 20 ng L(-1) (obtained for benzene) and 91 ng L(-1) (for o-xylene). The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as RSD (n=5), varied between 3.0% (o-xylene) and 5.2% (toluene).

  16. Characterization of Nα-Fmoc-protected dipeptide isomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)): effect of protecting group on fragmentation of dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, M; Raju, B; Srinivas, R; Sureshbabu, V V; Vishwanatha, T M; Hemantha, H P

    2011-07-30

    A series of positional isomeric pairs of Fmoc-protected dipeptides, Fmoc-Gly-Xxx-OY/Fmoc-Xxx-Gly-OY (Xxx=Ala, Val, Leu, Phe) and Fmoc-Ala-Xxx-OY/Fmoc-Xxx-Ala-OY (Xxx=Leu, Phe) (Fmoc=[(9-fluorenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl) and Y=CH(3)/H), have been characterized and differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(n)). In contrast to the behavior of reported unprotected dipeptide isomers which mainly produce y(1)(+) and/or a(1)(+) ions, the protonated Fmoc-Xxx-Gly-OY, Fmoc-Ala-Xxx-OY and Fmoc-Xxx-Ala-OY yield significant b(1)(+) ions. These ions are formed, presumably with stable protonated aziridinone structures. However, the peptides with Gly- at the N-terminus do not form b(1)(+) ions. The [M+H](+) ions of all the peptides undergo a McLafferty-type rearrangement followed by loss of CO(2) to form [M+H-Fmoc+H](+). The MS(3) collision-induced dissociation (CID) of these ions helps distinguish the pairs of isomeric dipeptides studied in this work. Further, negative ion MS(3) CID has also been found to be useful for differentiating these isomeric peptide acids. The MS(3) of [M-H-Fmoc+H](-) of isomeric peptide acids produce c(1)(-), z(1)(-) and y(1)(-) ions. Thus the present study of Fmoc-protected peptides provides additional information on mass spectral characterization of the dipeptides and distinguishes the positional isomers. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to estimate the percentage of new feather mass grown for moult regression models? ... As an alternative, it is here tested if feather mass indices may be sufficient replacements for species-specific feather masses. Thirty-five species of birds with known primary ...

  18. Mutagenic activities of a chlorination by-product of butamifos, its structural isomer, and their related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoshita, Masahiro; Kosaka, Koji; Endo, Osamu; Asami, Mari; Aizawa, Takako

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of 5-methyl-2-nitrophenol (5M2NP), a chlorination by-product of butamifos, its structural isomer 2-methyl-5-nitrophenol (2M5NP), and related compounds were evaluated by the Ames assay. The mutagenic activities of 5M2NP and 2M5NP were negative or not particularly high. However, those of their chlorinated derivatives were increased in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 and the overproducer strains YG1026, and YG1029 in the absence and/or presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S9 mix), particularly for YG1029. The mutagenic activities of 6-chloro-2-methyl-5-nitrophenol (6C2M5NP) in YG1029 in the absence and presence of S9 mix were 70000 and 110000 revertants mg(-1), respectively. When nitro functions of 6C2M5NP and 4-chloro-5-methyl-2-nitrophenol (4C5M2NP) were reduced to amino functions, their mutagenic activities were markedly decreased. The mutagenic activities of 5M2NP and 4C5M2NP were lower than those of 2M5NP and 6C2M5NP, respectively. Thus, it was shown that substituent position is a key factor for the mutagenic activities of methylnitrophenols (MNPs) and related compounds. The mutagenic activities of the extracts of 2M5NP in chlorination increased early during the reaction time and then decreased. The main chlorination by-product contributing to the mutagenic activities of the extracts of 2M5NP in chlorination was 6C2M5NP. The results of chlorination of 2M5NP suggested that MNPs were present as their dichlorinated derivatives or further chlorination by-products in drinking water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Substitution effects on the absorption spectra of nitrophenolate isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Marius; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Suhr Kirketerp, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Rubio, Angel

    2012-10-05

    Charge-transfer excitations highly depend on the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor groups. Nitrophenolates are simple examples of charge-transfer systems where the degree of coupling differs between ortho, meta and para isomers. Here we report the absorption spectra of the isolated anions in vacuo to avoid the complications of solvent effects. Gas-phase action spectroscopy was done with two different setups, an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer. The results are interpreted on the basis of CC2 quantum chemical calculations. We identified absorption maxima at 393, 532, and 399 nm for the para, meta, and ortho isomer, respectively, with the charge-transfer transition into the lowest excited singlet state. In the meta isomer, this π-π* transition is strongly redshifted and its oscillator strength reduced, which is related to the pronounced charge-transfer character, as a consequence of the topology of the conjugated π-system. Each isomer's different charge distribution in the ground state leads to a very different solvent shift, which in acetonitrile is bathochromic for the para and ortho, but hypsochromic for the meta isomer.

  20. Novel liquid chromatography method based on linear weighted regression for the fast determination of isoprostane isomers in plasma samples using sensitive tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszyk, Justyna; Kot, Jacek; Tkachenko, Yurii; Woźniak, Michał; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Kot-Wasik, Agata

    2017-04-15

    A simple, fast, sensitive and accurate methodology based on a LLE followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of four regioisomers (8-iso prostaglandin F 2α , 8-iso-15(R)-prostaglandin F 2α , 11β-prostaglandin F 2α , 15(R)-prostaglandin F 2α ) in routine analysis of human plasma samples was developed. Isoprostanes are stable products of arachidonic acid peroxidation and are regarded as the most reliable markers of oxidative stress in vivo. Validation of method was performed by evaluation of the key analytical parameters such as: matrix effect, analytical curve, trueness, precision, limits of detection and limits of quantification. As a homoscedasticity was not met for analytical data, weighted linear regression was applied in order to improve the accuracy at the lower end points of calibration curve. The detection limits (LODs) ranged from 1.0 to 2.1pg/mL. For plasma samples spiked with the isoprostanes at the level of 50pg/mL, intra-and interday repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 3.5% and 0.1 to 5.1%, respectively. The applicability of the proposed approach has been verified by monitoring of isoprostane isomers level in plasma samples collected from young patients (n=8) subjected to hyperbaric hyperoxia (100% oxygen at 280kPa(a) for 30min) in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of the methyl substitution on the combustion of two methylheptane isomers: Flame chemistry using vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2015-04-16

    Alkanes with one or more methyl substitutions are commonly found in liquid transportation fuels, so a fundamental investigation of their combustion chemistry is warranted. In the present work, stoichiometric low-pressure (20 Torr) burner-stabilized flat flames of 2-methylheptane and 3-methylheptane were investigated. Flame species were measured via time-of-flight molecular-beam mass spectrometry, with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation as the ionization source. Mole fractions of major end-products and intermediate species (e.g., alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes, and dienes) were quantified axially above the burner surface. Mole fractions of several free radicals were also measured (e.g., CH3, HCO, C2H3, C3H3, and C3H5). Isomers of different species were identified within the reaction pool by an energy scan between 8 and 12 eV at a distance of 2.5 mm away from the burner surface. The role of methyl substitution location on the alkane chain was determined via comparisons of similar species trends obtained from both flames. The results revealed that the change in CH3 position imposed major differences on the combustion of both fuels. Comparison with numerical simulations was performed for kinetic model testing. The results provide a comprehensive set of data about the combustion of both flames, which can enhance the erudition of both fuels combustion chemistry and also improve their chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  2. Quantitative analysis of 15N-labeled positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of their dansyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Juan C

    2011-05-15

    The enteral metabolisms of glutamine and citrulline are intertwined because, while glutamine is one of the main fuel sources for the enterocyte, citrulline is one of its products. It has been shown that the administration of (15)N-labeled glutamine results in the incorporation of the (15)N label into citrulline, but it is not clear which of the three nitrogen groups of citrulline is actually labeled. To determine the (15)N-enrichment of the positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline, a rapid liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed. The amino acids were analyzed as their dansyl derivatives. The product ion resulting from the loss of NH(3) from the omega carbon allows for the determination of the enrichment of the ureido (citrulline) or amido groups (glutamine). The protonated pyrrolidine (citrulline) or 5-oxopyrrolidine (glutamine) product ion contains the 2-N (amino group) and is used to determine its enrichment. The method described showed no ion suppression and a wide dynamic range ranging from 1.3 picomoles to 2 nanomoles for citrulline. Background samples and standards resulted in enrichments not different from those theoretically expected. The enrichment curves for the different glutamine and citrulline isotopomers were linear (R(2)  > 0.998) over the range of enrichments studied. The method developed provides an additional insight into the metabolism of glutamine and citrulline tracing the precursor-product relationship between these two amino acids. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Excess molar volume along with viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity for binary mixtures of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene with four octane isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Lei; Qin, Xiaomei; Wu, Xi; Xu, Li; Guo, Yongsheng; Fang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary mixtures of JP-10 with octane isomers are studied as model hydrocarbon fuels. • Density, viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity are determined. • Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations are calculated and correlated. - Abstract: The fundamental physical properties including density, viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity, have been measured for binary mixtures of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (JP-10) with four octane isomers (n-octane, 3-methylheptane, 2,4-dimethylhexane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) over the whole composition range at temperatures T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and pressure p = 0.1 MPa. The values of excess molar volume (V m E ), viscosity deviation (Δη), refractive index deviation (Δn D ) and relative permittivity deviation (Δε r ) are then calculated. All of the values of V m E and Δη are observed to be negative, while those of Δn D and Δε r are close to zero. The effects of temperature and composition on the variation of V m E values are discussed. The negative values of V m E and Δη are conductive to high-density and low-resistance of fuels, which is favorable for the design and preparation of advanced hydrocarbon fuels

  4. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  5. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P; Chantelot, S; Moisson, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  6. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P.; Chantelot, S.; Moisson, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  7. [Simultaneous separation and detection of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate by RP-HPLC and structure confirmation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yue-Qiu; Wang, Yan; Shi, Min-Jian

    2013-08-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous separation and detection of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B by RP-HPLC and drug quality standard was established. The structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate have been confirmed. Reference European Pharmacopoeia EP7.0 version, British Pharmacopoeia 2012 version, National Drug Standards of China (WS 1-XG-2002), domestic and international interrelated literature were referred to select the composition of mobile phase. The experimental parameters including salt concentration, pH, addition quantities of organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate were optimized. Finally, the assay was conducted on a Durashell-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.01 mol x mL(-1) ammonium perchlorate (add ammonia to adjust the pH value to 8.2) -methanol (48 : 52) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The column temperature was 50 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. The MS, NMR, UV and RP-HPLC were used to confirm the structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Under the optimized separation conditions, the calibration curves of 18 alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B showed good linearity within the concentration of 0.50-100 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 9). The detection limits for 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B were 0.15, 0.10, 0.10, 0.15 microg x mL(-1) respectively. The method is sensitive, reproducible and the results are accurate and reliable. It can be used for chiral resolution of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18Pbeta-glycyrrhizinic acid, and detection content of principal component and

  8. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  9. Quadratic mass relations in topological bootstrap theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Uschersohn, J.

    1980-01-01

    From the requirement of reality of discontinuities of scattering amplitudes at the spherical level of the topological bootstrap theory, a large number of mass relations for hadrons is derived. Quadratic mass formulas for the symmetry-breaking pattern of both mesons and baryon is obtained and their relation to conventional models of symmetry breaking is briefly discussed

  10. [Absolute and relative strength-endurance of the knee flexor and extensor muscles: a reliability study using the IsoMed 2000-dynamometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnberger, J; Wiesinger, H P; Stöggl, T; Kösters, A; Müller, E

    2012-09-01

    Isokinetic devices are highly rated in strength-related performance diagnosis. A few years ago, the broad variety of existing products was extended by the IsoMed 2000-dynamometer. In order for an isokinetic device to be clinically useful, the reliability of specific applications must be established. Although there have already been single studies on this topic for the IsoMed 2000 concerning maximum strength measurements, there has been no study regarding the assessment of strength-endurance so far. The aim of the present study was to establish the reliability for various methods of quantification of strength-endurance using the IsoMed 2000. A sample of 33 healthy young subjects (age: 23.8 ± 2.6 years) participated in one familiarisation and two testing sessions, 3-4 days apart. Testing consisted of a series 30 full effort concentric extension-flexion cycles of the right knee muscles at an angular velocity of 180 °/s. Based on the parameters Peak, Torque and Work for each repetition, indices of absolute (KADabs) and relative (KADrel) strength-endurance were derived. KADabs was calculated as the mean value of all testing repetitions, KADrel was determined in two ways: on the one hand, as the percentage decrease between the first and the last 5 repetitions (KADrelA) and on the other, as the negative slope derived from the linear regression equitation of all repetitions (KADrelB). Detection of systematic errors was performed using paired sample t-tests, relative and absolute reliability were examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1) and standard error of measurement (SEM%), respectively. In general, for extension measurements concerning KADabs and - in an weakened form - KADrel high ICC -values of 0.76-0.89 combined with clinically acceptable values of SEM% of 1.2-5.9 % could be found. For flexion measurements this only applies to KADabs, whereas results for KADrel turned out to be clearly weaker with ICC- and SEM% values of 0.42-0.62 and 9

  11. Nuclear isomers and their possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear isomers are the long lived excited states of nuclei having half-lives much larger than the half-lives of normal excited states. They are also known as the meta-stable states of atomic nuclei which are formed in nuclear reactions or, in radioactive decay of nuclei. Typical half-lives of isomers may range from nanoseconds to years. One of the most direct applications of nuclear isomers is in nuclear medicine. Radioisotopes are being widely used for imaging and therapeutic applications. They are particularly suitable for Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) imaging, where a single and relatively low energy γ ray photon is emitted. The most common example is "9"9"mTc (T_1_/_2 = 6 hours) which decays via a 142 keV γ ray photon. Examples of other isomers that are used in medical applications will be presented. Relatively long-lived isomers, such as "1"9"3"mPt and "1"9"5"mPt, for example, are being used in certain cancer treatments. Because of the high multi-pole order of the decaying transitions, most of the decays occur via internal conversion electrons, with subsequent emission of Auger electrons that can be used to kill various cancer cells. There are also some cases where the isomer decays by positron emission and is used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging

  12. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-01-01

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015

  13. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar, E-mail: ajainfph@iitr.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario-L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  14. Definitions of mass in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, M.A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the textbook on special relativity by Taylor and Wheeler (Space-time Physics. San Francisco. W H Freeman) in which the concept of relativistic mass is not used but momentum and energy are defined as γm 0 ν and γm 0 c 2 . The two approaches are compared and the particular problem of inelastic collisions between two particles with zero coefficient of restitution is used to demonstrate that the Taylor Wheeler definition of the rest mass of a system may lead to lack of clarity of thought, and even error. Alternative definitions of the rest mass of a system are proposed. (U.K.)

  15. Separation of Opiate Isomers Using Electrospray Ionization and Paper Spray Coupled to High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicke, Nicholas E.; Belford, Michael

    2015-05-01

    One limitation in the growing field of ambient or direct analysis methods is reduced selectivity caused by the elimination of chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We explored the use of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), an ambient pressure ion mobility technique, to separate the closely related opiate isomers of morphine, hydromorphone, and norcodeine. These isomers cannot be distinguished by tandem mass spectrometry. Separation prior to MS analysis is, therefore, required to distinguish these compounds, which are important in clinical chemistry and toxicology. FAIMS was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and ionization was performed using either a pneumatically assisted heated electrospray ionization source (H-ESI) or paper spray, a direct analysis method that has been applied to the direct analysis of dried blood spots and other complex samples. We found that FAIMS was capable of separating the three opiate structural isomers using both H-ESI and paper spray as the ionization source.

  16. Axion: Mass -- Dark Matter Abundance Relation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The axion is a hypothetical particle which would explain why QCD is approximately T-conserving, and is also an excellent Cold Dark Matter candidate. It should be possible to make a clean theoretical prediction relating the dark matter density in axions and the axion mass (under reasonable assumptions about inflation). But the axion's early-Universe dynamics, which establish its density as dark matter, are unexpectedly rich in a way which is only starting to yield to quantitative numerical study.

  17. Accumulation of D- vs. L-isomers of alanine and leucine in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Schmall, B.; Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Kleinert, E.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that tumor tissue may accumulate some D-amino acids preferentially over the L-isomers. In order to investigate the potential use of carbon-11 labeled amino acid isomers for in vivo tumor studies with positron emission tomography in patients, the tissue distributions of alanine and leucine, substrates for the A-type and L-type amino acid transport systems, respectively, were studied in Copenhagen rates bearing the Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma. The authors have previously reported differences in the accumulation of A-type vs. L-type amino acids in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma and normal tissues. All compounds were labeled with C-14 in the carboxyl position with specific activities of 30.0-56.6 mCi/mmol. Higher levels of C-14 activity (Relative Concentration (RC)=dpm found per gm tissue + dpm inject per gm animal mass) were observed in tumor tissue using D-alanine (0.71) compared to L- (0.21) or DL-alanine (0.27) at 45 min post-injection. While tumor/prostate and tumor/liver ratios were above 2 for all three substrates, tumor/blood and tumor/muscle were above one for only the D-isomer. Comparisons made with D-, L-, and DL-leucine also demonstrated a higher level of RC in tumor tissue with the D-isomer (0.84) vs. the L-(0.66) and DL-leucine (0.63). In this case, however, tumor/blood, tumor/prostate, and tumor/muscle ratios were above one for all three substrates, while tumor/liver ratios were below one. These results support the observation of a preferential accumulation of D-amino acids in tumor tissue over the natural L-isomers. Observed differences in the accumulation of the isomers in normal tissues are discussed

  18. Identification of the Related Substances in Ampicillin Capsule by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MSn was used to separate and identify related substances in ampicillin capsule. The fragmentation behaviors of related substances were used to identify their chemical structures. Finally, a total of 13 related substances in ampicillin capsule were identified, including four identified components for the first time and three groups of isomers on the basis of the exact mass, fragmentation behaviors, retention time, and chemical structures in the literature. This study avoided time-consuming and complex chemosynthesis of related substances of ampicillin and the results could be useful for the quality control of ampicillin capsule to guarantee its safety in clinic. In the meantime, it provided a good example for the rapid identification of chemical structures of related substances of drugs.

  19. Squark and slepton mass relations in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Hall, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, assuming universal scalar masses at large energies, there are four intragenerational relations between the masses of the squarks and sleptons for each light generation. In this paper we study the scalar mass relations which follow only from the assumption that at large energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle. Two new intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. In addition, a third mass relation is found which relates the Higgs boson masses, the masses of the third generation scalars, and the masses of the scalars of the lighter generations. Verification of a fourth mass relation, involving only the charged slepton masses, provides a signal for SO(10) unification

  20. Dehydration of Methylcyclohexanol Isomers in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory and Product Analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Dehydrations of "cis"- and "trans"-2-methylcyclohexanol mixtures were carried out with 60% sulfuric acid at 78-80 [degrees]C as a function of time and the products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. The compounds identified in the reaction mixtures include alkenes, 1-, 3-, and 4-methylcyclohexenes and…

  1. UV laser induced photochemistry of nitrobenzene and nitrotoluene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmidis, C.; Clark, A.; Deas, R.M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Marshall, A.; Singhal, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The photofragmentation of nitrobenzene and the isomers of nitrotoluene in the gas phase are studied in the wavelength region 210-270 nm using a pulsed UV laser in conjunction with a time of flight mass spectrometer. Laser induced mass spectra are analysed and compared with those produced by the electron impact (EI) technique. The generation of the observed fragment ions is explained by invoking different fragmentation pathways followed by these molecules. Observed differences in the mass spectra of the o-, m-, and p-nitrotoluene isomers are discussed as a possible way for a laser based method for their identification. (author)

  2. Discrimination of Isomers of Released N- and O-Glycans Using Diagnostic Product Ions in Negative Ion PGC-LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Christopher; Lin, Chi-Hung; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Packer, Nicolle H.

    2018-03-01

    Profiling cellular protein glycosylation is challenging due to the presence of highly similar glycan structures that play diverse roles in cellular physiology. As the anomericity and the exact linkage type of a single glycosidic bond can influence glycan function, there is a demand for improved and automated methods to confirm detailed structural features and to discriminate between structurally similar isomers, overcoming a significant bottleneck in the analysis of data generated by glycomics experiments. We used porous graphitized carbon-LC-ESI-MS/MS to separate and detect released N- and O-glycan isomers from mammalian model glycoproteins using negative mode resonance activation CID-MS/MS. By interrogating similar fragment spectra from closely related glycan isomers that differ only in arm position and sialyl linkage, product fragment ions for discrimination between these features were discovered. Using the Skyline software, at least two diagnostic fragment ions of high specificity were validated for automated discrimination of sialylation and arm position in N-glycan structures, and sialylation in O-glycan structures, complementing existing structural diagnostic ions. These diagnostic ions were shown to be useful for isomer discrimination using both linear and 3D ion trap mass spectrometers when analyzing complex glycan mixtures from cell lysates. Skyline was found to serve as a useful tool for automated assessment of glycan isomer discrimination. This platform-independent workflow can potentially be extended to automate the characterization and quantitation of other challenging glycan isomers. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. More than 170 polyunsaturated tocopherol-related compounds in a vitamin E capsule: Countercurrent chromatographic enrichment, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and preliminary identification of the potential artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Simon; Kröpfl, Alexander; Vetter, Walter

    2016-12-09

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols (usually summed up as vitamin E) are a class of structurally related natural antioxidants. Commonly, only some of the eight classic representatives (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols) are found with varied composition in food. In this study we fractionated 230mg oil from commercial vitamin E supplement capsules by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of silylated CCC fractions showed that these eight isomers represented only about 70% of total tocopherol compounds. Detailed analysis enabled the detection of 161T 3 isomers (α-, γ- and δ-T 3 ) along with 18 tetra- and several penta-unsaturated isomers (tocools), two tocomonoenol isomers, and several degradation products with shorter isoprenoid side chain (apo-tocools). Altogether, over 170 tocool compounds, most likely artefacts which originated from an inappropriate oil refining process were described in this study. Silver ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag + -HPLC) was used to separate one fraction rich in γ-T 3 into four peaks each consisting of at least five peaks according to GC/MS. About ten γ-T 3 isomers were also detected in rice bran oils from one producer bought retail in Germany. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Leptoquarks: Neutrino masses and related accelerator signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Hirsch, M.; Kovalenko, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Leptoquark-Higgs interactions induce mixing between leptoquark (LQ) states with different chiralities once the electroweak symmetry is broken. In such LQ models Majorana neutrino masses are generated at 1-loop order. Here we calculate the neutrino mass matrix and explore the constraints on the parameter space enforced by the assumption that LQ-loops explain current neutrino oscillation data. LQs will be produced at the CERN LHC, if their masses are at or below the TeV scale. Since the fermionic decays of LQs are governed by the same Yukawa couplings, which are responsible for the nontrivial neutrino mass matrix, several decay branching ratios of LQ states can be predicted from measured neutrino data. Especially interesting is that large lepton flavor violating rates in muon and tau final states are expected. In addition, the model predicts that, if kinematically possible, heavier LQs decay into lighter ones plus either a standard model Higgs boson or a Z 0 /W ± gauge boson. Thus, experiments at the LHC might be able to exclude the LQ mechanism as an explanation of neutrino data.

  5. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Singh, B.

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in 152 Dy was predicted for β 2 -0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of γ-ray transitions in 152 DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of γ-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra

  6. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Singh, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in {sup 152}Dy was predicted for {beta}{sub 2}-0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 152}DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra.

  7. Standard molar enthalpies of formation and of sublimation of the terphenyl isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Lima, Luis M. Spencer S.

    2008-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline phases of ortho, meta and para-terphenyl isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, measured by mini-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence of the vapour pressure of the crystals with the temperature, thus deriving their standard molar enthalpies of sublimation by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Combining the standard molar enthalpies of formation and sublimation of the crystalline terphenyls, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for the three isomers. Results are provided in a table. The results show small but detectable isomerization enthalpies between the terphenyls, indicating the following relative enthalpic stabilities: m- > p- ∼ o-terphenyl

  8. An Isomer-Specific Approach to Endocrine-Disrupting Nonylphenol in Infant Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Klaus; Räcker, Torsten; Böhme, Roswitha

    2017-02-15

    Nonylphenols (NPs) are persistent endocrine disruptors that are priority hazardous substances of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Their presence in the environment has caused growing concern regarding their impact on human health. Recent studies have shown that nonylphenol is ubiquitous in commercially available foodstuffs and is also present in human blood. The isomer distribution of 4-nonylphenol was analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry in 44 samples of infant food. Our study shows that the distribution of nonylphenol isomers is dependent on the foodstuff analyzed. Although some isomer groups prevail, different distributions are frequent. Variations are even found in the same food group. Nonylphenol is a complex mixture of isomers, and the estrogenic potentials of each of these isomers are very different. Consequently, to determine the potential toxicological impact of NP in food, an isomer-specific approach is necessary.

  9. The universal relation of galactic chemical evolution: the origin of the mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Dima, Gabriel I.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Silverman, John D.; Kashino, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mass-metallicity relation for z ≲ 1.6. The mass-metallicity relation follows a steep slope with a turnover, or 'knee', at stellar masses around 10 10 M ☉ . At stellar masses higher than the characteristic turnover mass, the mass-metallicity relation flattens as metallicities begin to saturate. We show that the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation depends only on the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass. The relationship between metallicity and the stellar mass normalized to the characteristic turnover mass is independent of redshift. We find that the redshift-independent slope of the mass-metallicity relation is set by the slope of the relationship between gas mass and stellar mass. The turnover in the mass-metallicity relation occurs when the gas-phase oxygen abundance is high enough that the amount of oxygen locked up in low-mass stars is an appreciable fraction of the amount of oxygen produced by massive stars. The characteristic turnover mass is the stellar mass, where the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is unity. Numerical modeling suggests that the relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is a redshift-independent, universal relationship followed by all galaxies as they evolve. The mass-metallicity relation originates from this more fundamental universal relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio. We test the validity of this universal metallicity relation in local galaxies where stellar mass, metallicity, and gas mass measurements are available. The data are consistent with a universal metallicity relation. We derive an equation for estimating the hydrogen gas mass from measurements of stellar mass and metallicity valid for z ≲ 1.6 and predict the cosmological evolution of galactic gas masses.

  10. Enhanced E3 transitions and mixed configurations for core excited isomers in 210At and 211At

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Steed, C.A.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, S.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Bark, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    The lifetime and branching ratio of the 19 + isomer in 210 At have been measured. Its enhanced E3 decay and g-factor, and those of the related 39/2 - isomer in 211 At are compared with the results of a semi-empirical shell model calculation which includes couplings to the 3 - octupole vibration, resulting in mixed configurations. Lifetimes were also obtained for the 15 - isomer in 210 At, and he 29/2 + isomer in 209 At

  11. Process for separating the ortho- and para- isomers of hydroxymandelic acid or a salt thereof, the isomers thus obtained, the use of the ortho-isomer for the preparation of eddha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, A.J.; Van Bekkum, H.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9414746 (A1) The invention relates to a method for separating the ortho- and para-isomers of hydroxymandelic acid or a salt thereof. For that purpose the starting material is a solid mixture of these ortho- and para-isomers in the alkali metal salt form. This mixture is extracted with

  12. Issues related to the Fermion mass problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz Adam

    1998-09-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Each illustrates a different aspect of the fermion mass issue in elementary particle physics. In the first part, the possibility of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of uniform magnetic and electric fields is investigated. The system is studied nonperturbatively with the use of basis functions compatible with the external field configuration, the parabolic cylinder functions. It is found that chiral symmetry, broken by a uniform magnetic field, is restored by electric field. Obtained result is nonperturbative in nature: even the tiniest deviation of the electric field from zero restores chiral symmetry. In the second part, heavy quarkonium systems are investigated. To study these systems, a phenomenological nonrelativistic model is built. Approximate solutions to this model are found with the use of a specially designed Pade approximation and by direct numerical integration of Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with experimental measurements of respective meson masses. Good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results is found. Advantages and shortcommings of the new approximation method are analysed. In the third part, an extension of the standard model of elementary particles is studied. The extension, called the aspon model, was originally introduced to cure the so called strong CP problem. In addition to fulfilling its original purpose, the aspon model modifies the couplings of the standard model quarks to the Z boson. As a result, the decay rates of the Z boson to quarks are altered. By using the recent precise measurements of the decay rates Z → bb and Z /to [/it c/=c], new constraints on the aspon model parameters are found.

  13. Study of nano - second isomers near 146Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Ray, I.; Pradhan, M.K.; Goswami, A.; Banerjee, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Dey, Gautam; Krishichayan; Kshetri, R.; Ganguly, S.; Raut, R.; Ray Basu, M.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Basu, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclei near 146 Gd show rich variety in their excitation spectra. Spectra exhibiting characteristics of extreme single particle, multi-particle-hole excitation, magnetic bands to strong collectivity manifested through superdeformation, and triaxial superdeformation have been widely studied. In the present work, a few isomers in the mass ≅150 region using the RF - gamma coincidence data are studied

  14. Comparative computational study of interaction of C60-fullerene and tris-malonyl-C60-fullerene isomers with lipid bilayer: relation to their antioxidant effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine E Bozdaganyan

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress induced by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS has been implicated in the etiology of many human diseases. It has been reported that fullerenes and some of their derivatives-carboxyfullerenes-exhibits a strong free radical scavenging capacity. The permeation of C60-fullerene and its amphiphilic derivatives-C3-tris-malonic-C60-fullerene (C3 and D3-tris-malonyl-C60-fullerene (D3-through a lipid bilayer mimicking the eukaryotic cell membrane was studied using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The free energy profiles along the normal to the bilayer composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC for C60, C3 and D3 were calculated. We found that C60 molecules alone or in clusters spontaneously translocate to the hydrophobic core of the membrane and stay inside the bilayer during the whole period of simulation time. The incorporation of cluster of fullerenes inside the bilayer changes properties of the bilayer and leads to its deformation. In simulations of the tris-malonic fullerenes we discovered that both isomers, C3 and D3, adsorb at the surface of the bilayer but only C3 tends to be buried in the area of the lipid headgroups forming hydrophobic contacts with the lipid tails. We hypothesize that such position has implications for ROS scavenging mechanism in the specific cell compartments.

  15. Quark mass relations to four-loop order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquard, Peter; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present results for the relation between a heavy quark mass defined in the on-shell and MS scheme to four-loop order. The method to compute the four-loop on-shell integral is briefly described and the new results are used to establish relations between various short-distance masses and the MS quark mass to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy. These relations play an important role in the accurate determination of the MS heavy quark masses.

  16. Can voltammetry distinguish glycan isomers?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2015), s. 241-244 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : oligosaccharide isomers * Os(VI) complexes * chemical modification Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2015

  17. Simple relation among the charged lepton masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi; Yasue, Masaki.

    1992-10-01

    It is suggested that the first and second generations of quarks and leptons can be taken as almost and quasi Nambu-Goldstone fermions, respectively. As a result, derived are simple relations such as m τ ≅(m μ 3 /m e ) 1/2 , which are well satisfied experimentally. (author)

  18. A new high-spin isomer in {sup 195}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Rana, T.K.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Asgar, Md.A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Madhavan, N.; Bala, I.; Gehlot, J.; Gurjar, R.K.; Jhingan, A.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Nath, S.; Singh, R.P.; Varughese, T. [Inter University Acclerator Centre, New Delhi (India); Basu, K.; Bhattacharjee, S.S.; Ghugre, S.S.; Raut, R.; Sinha, A.K. [UGC-DAE-CSR Kolkata Centre, Kolkata (India); Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2015-11-15

    A new high-spin isomer has been identified in {sup 195}Bi at the focal plane of the HYbrid Recoil mass Analyser (HYRA) used in the gas-filled mode. The fusion evaporation reactions {sup 169}Tm ({sup 30}Si, x n) {sup 193,} {sup 195}Bi were used with the beam energies on targets of 168 and 146MeV for 6n and 4n channels, respectively. The evaporation residues, separated from the fission fragments, and their decays were detected at the focal plane of HYRA using MWPC, Si-Pad and clover HPGe detectors. The half-life of the new isomer in {sup 195}Bi has been measured to be 1.6(1) μs. The configuration of the new isomer has been proposed and compared with the other isomers in this region. The Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculations for the three-quasiparticle configurations corresponding to the new isomer suggest an oblate deformation for this isomeric state. The same calculations for different configurations in {sup 195}Bi and for the even-even {sup 194}Pb core indicate that the proton i{sub 13/2} orbital has a large shape driving effect towards oblate shape in these nuclei. (orig.)

  19. Development of high-spin isomer beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaohong

    2000-01-01

    The physical motivations with high-spin isomer beams were introduced. Taking HSIB of RIKEN as an example, the methods to produce, separate, transport and purity high-spin isomer beams were described briefly, and the detection of γ rays emitted from the reactions induced by the high-spin isomer beams was presented. Finally, the progress to develop the high-spin isomers in the N = 83 isotones as second beams was stressed

  20. Estimation of unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the estimations of the unknown nuclear masses by means of the generalized mass relations is presented. One discusses the new hypotheses supplementing the original general Garvey-Kelson scheme, reviewing the generalized mass relations and formulae, according to the present status of this new formalism. A critical discussions is given of the reliability of these new Garvey-Kelson type extrapolation procedures. (author)

  1. Mechanics of extended masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harte, Abraham I

    2012-01-01

    The 'external' or 'Right' motion of extended bodies is studied in general relativity. Compact material objects of essentially arbitrary shape, spin, internal composition and velocity are allowed as long as there is no direct (non-gravitational) contact with other sources of stress-energy. Physically reasonable linear and angular momenta are proposed for such bodies and exact equations describing their evolution are derived. Changes in the momenta depend on a certain 'effective metric' that is closely related to a non-perturbative generalization of the Detweiler-Whiting R-field originally introduced in the self-force literature. If the effective metric inside a self-gravitating body can be adequately approximated by an appropriate power series, the instantaneous gravitational force and torque exerted on it is shown to be identical to the force and torque exerted on an appropriate test body moving in the effective metric. This result holds to all multipole orders. The only instantaneous effect of a body's self-field is to finitely renormalize the 'bare' multipole moments of its stress-energy tensor. The MiSaTaQuWa expression for the gravitational self-force is recovered as a simple application. A gravitational self-torque is obtained as well. Lastly, it is shown that the effective metric in which objects appear to move is approximately a solution to the vacuum Einstein equation if the physical metric is an approximate solution to Einstein's equation linearized about a vacuum background. (paper)

  2. Garvey-Kelson mass relations and n-p interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zaochun; Meng Jie; Chen Yongshou

    2001-01-01

    Two Garvey-Kelson mass relations are found to be directly related to the n-p interaction. In the case of the same nuclear core, the neutron-proton interaction energy between two neutrons and one proton ε 2n-1p is experimentally found to be close to that between one neutron and two protons ε 1n-2p , which is equivalent to the first Garvey-Kelson mass relation. The sum of ε 2n-1p and ε 1n-2p is close to the n-p interaction energy between two neutrons and two protons ε 2n-2p , which leads to the second Garvey-Kelson mass relation. An explanation of these two n-p interaction relations is presented. It is shown that both of these mass relations hold more accurately when the core is an even-even core

  3. Treatment of isomers in nucleosynthesis codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Fiebiger, Stefan; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Kausch, Tanja; Köppchen, Christoph; Kurtulgil, Deniz; Langer, Christoph; Thomas, Benedikt; Weigand, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The decay properties of long-lived excited states (isomers) can have a significant impact on the destruction channels of isotopes under stellar conditions. In sufficiently hot environments, the population of isomers can be altered via thermal excitation or de-excitation. If the corresponding lifetimes are of the same order of magnitude as the typical time scales of the environment, the isomers have to be treated explicitly. We present a general approach to the treatment of isomers in stellar nucleosynthesis codes and discuss a few illustrative examples. The corresponding code is available online at http://exp-astro.de/isomers/.

  4. A high-spin isomer at high excitation energy in the neutron deficient nucleus $^{152}$Dy

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, J F W; Chmielewska, D; De Meijer, R J

    1976-01-01

    A T/sub 1/2/=60+or-5 ns isomer at E/sub x/ approximately=5 MeV is found in the /sup 154/Gd( alpha ,6n)/sup 152/Dy reaction. The possible spin values are 15relatively strong transitions populating the isomer are observed. The isomer may be interpreted as a four-quasi-particle state situated on the yrast line. The regular level sequence above the isomer may then be an evidence for a decoupled rotational band built on top of this state. (10 refs).

  5. Mass relations for two-dimensional classical configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataru-Mihai, P.

    1980-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional sigma-nonlinear models as a framework mass relations for classical configurations of instanton/soliton type are derived. Our results suggest an interesting differential-geometric interpretation of the mass of a classical configuration in terms of the topological characteristics of an associated manifold. (orig.)

  6. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to ...

  7. Calorimetric study of bromoacetophenone isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A calorimetric study of bromoacetophenone isomers was performed. • Enthalpies of formation were derived by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. • Enthalpies of phase transition were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. • Cox scheme was applied for the estimation of Δ f H m o (g) for the compounds. • The values of Δ f H m o (g) were compared with literature values for similar compounds. - Abstract: The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 2′-, 3′- and 4′-bromoacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion in oxygen, to yield CO 2 (g) and HBr·600H 2 O (l) at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies associated with phase transitions of the isomers studied at T = 298.15 K, were obtained by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of all the bromoacetophenone isomers in the gaseous phase at T = 298.15 K were derived from the experimental results. The gas-phase enthalpies of formation were also estimated by the empirical scheme developed by Cox and the values obtained were compared with the experimental ones. The results are interpreted in terms of the energetic increments for the introduction of the substituents in the benzene ring

  8. IsoMS: automated processing of LC-MS data generated by a chemical isotope labeling metabolomics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Tseng, Chiao-Li; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang

    2014-05-20

    A chemical isotope labeling or isotope coded derivatization (ICD) metabolomics platform uses a chemical derivatization method to introduce a mass tag to all of the metabolites having a common functional group (e.g., amine), followed by LC-MS analysis of the labeled metabolites. To apply this platform to metabolomics studies involving quantitative analysis of different groups of samples, automated data processing is required. Herein, we report a data processing method based on the use of a mass spectral feature unique to the chemical labeling approach, i.e., any differential-isotope-labeled metabolites are detected as peak pairs with a fixed mass difference in a mass spectrum. A software tool, IsoMS, has been developed to process the raw data generated from one or multiple LC-MS runs by peak picking, peak pairing, peak-pair filtering, and peak-pair intensity ratio calculation. The same peak pairs detected from multiple samples are then aligned to produce a CSV file that contains the metabolite information and peak ratios relative to a control (e.g., a pooled sample). This file can be readily exported for further data and statistical analysis, which is illustrated in an example of comparing the metabolomes of human urine samples collected before and after drinking coffee. To demonstrate that this method is reliable for data processing, five (13)C2-/(12)C2-dansyl labeled metabolite standards were analyzed by LC-MS. IsoMS was able to detect these metabolites correctly. In addition, in the analysis of a (13)C2-/(12)C2-dansyl labeled human urine, IsoMS detected 2044 peak pairs, and manual inspection of these peak pairs found 90 false peak pairs, representing a false positive rate of 4.4%. IsoMS for Windows running R is freely available for noncommercial use from www.mycompoundid.org/IsoMS.

  9. Internet: A New Tool for Mass Communication and Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Internet as a tool for mass communication and public relations is emphasized and the use of Internet for such purposes in librarianship and infor­mation studies is explained.

  10. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.

  11. The Image of Public Relations in Mass Comm Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Carolyn

    1982-01-01

    Compared public relations sections in 12 introductory mass communication texts and found a confusion about the relationship of advertising and public relations, a lack of historical background, and an antipublic relations stance. Journal available from Communication Research Associates, 7100 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 500, College Park, MD 20740; sc…

  12. Relative scale and the strength and deformability of rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.

    1996-09-01

    The strength and deformation of rocks depend strongly on the degree of fracturing, which can be assessed in the field and related systematically to these properties. Appropriate Mohr envelopes obtained from the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system and the Hoek-Brown criterion for outcrops and other large-scale exposures of fractured rocks show that rock-mass cohesive strength, tensile strength, and unconfined compressive strength can be reduced by as much as a factor often relative to values for the unfractured material. The rock-mass deformation modulus is also reduced relative to Young's modulus. A "cook-book" example illustrates the use of RMR in field applications. The smaller values of rock-mass strength and deformability imply that there is a particular scale of observation whose identification is critical to applying laboratory measurements and associated failure criteria to geologic structures.

  13. Relativistic gravitational potential and its relation to mass-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voracek, P.

    1979-01-01

    From the general theory of relativity a relation is deduced between the mass of a particle and the gravitational field at the position of the particle. For this purpose the fall of a particle of negligible mass in the gravitational field of a massive body is used. After establishing the relativistic potential and its relationship to the rest mass of the particle, we show, assuming conservation of mass-energy, that the difference between two potential-levels depends upon the value of the radial metric coefficient at the position of an observer. Further, it is proved that the relativistic potential is compatible with the general concept of the potential also from the standpoint of kinematics. In the third section it is shown that, although the mass-energy of a body is a function of the distance from it, this does not influence the relativistic potential of the body itself. From this conclusion it follows that the mass-energy of a particle in a gravitational field is anisotropic; isotropic is the mass only. Further, the possibility of an incidental feed-back between two masses is ruled out, and the law of the composition of the relativistic gravitational potentials is deduced. Finally, it is shown, by means of a simple model, that local inhomogeneities in the ideal fluid filling the Universe have negligible influence on the total potential in large regions. (orig.)

  14. Scalar mass relations and flavor violations in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1996-01-01

    Supersymmetry provides the most promising solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. For supersymmetry to stablize the hierarchy, it must be broken at the weak scale. The combination of weak scale supersymmetry and grand unification leads to a successful prediction of the weak mixing angle to within 1% accuracy. If supersymmetry is a symmetry of nature, the mass spectrum and the flavor mixing pattern of the scalar superpartners of all the quarks and leptons will provide important information about a more fundamental theory at higher energies. We studied the scalar mass relations which follow from the assumption that at high energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle; these will serve as important tests of grand unified theories. Two intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. A third relation is also found which relates the Higgs masses and the masses of all three generation scalars. In a realistic supersymmetric grand unified theory, nontrivial flavor mixings are expected to exist at all gaugino vertices. This could lead to important contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment, the decay mode p → K 0 μ + , weak scale radiative corrections to the up-type quark masses, and lepton flavor violating signals such as μ → eγ. These also provide important probes of physics at high energy scales. Supersymmetric theories involving a spontaneously broken flavor symmetry can provide a solution to the supersymmetric flavor-changing problem and an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings. We studied the possibilities and the general conditions under which some fermion masses and mixings can be obtained radiatively. We also constructed theories of flavor in which the first generation fermion masses arise from radiative corrections while flavor-changing constraints are satisfied. 69 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Induced γ emission for nuclear isomer long-lived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianli; Hao Fanhua

    2007-06-01

    It is pointed that the induced 7 emission for long lived isomer 178m2 Hf by low energy X rays has been a topic subject in the nuclear field recently. The background and development status are described. A principle for T ray transitions induced by X rays and the theoretical about magnificent induced emission have been related. In addition, the possible method of 178m2 Hf produce has been introduced also. Although the argument has existed for the experimental results of induced 7 emission, it can push forward in solving energy crisis and in future military field after controlling effectively the releasing of high excited energy for isomer. (authors)

  16. Atlas of nuclear isomers and their systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika

    2015-01-01

    Isomers can be viewed as a separate class of nuclei and offer interesting possibilities to study the behavior of nuclei under varied conditions of excitation energy, spin, life-time and particle configuration. We have completed a horizontal evaluation of nuclear isomers and the resulting data set contains a wealth of information which offers new insights in the nuclear structure of a wide range of configurations, nuclei approaching the drip lines etc. We now have reliable data on approximately 2460 isomers having a half-life ≥ 10 ns. A few of the systematics of the properties of nuclear isomers like excitation energy, half-life, spin, abundance etc. will be presented. The data set of semi-magic isomers strongly supports the existence of seniority isomers originating from the higher spin orbitals. (author)

  17. Deriving mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation without light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Youshan; Dai, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Relativity requires that a particle's momentum and energy are the same functions of the particle's velocity in all inertial frames. Using the fact that momentum and energy must transform linearly between reference frames, we present a novel derivation of the mass-energy equivalence, namely, the relation that the energy is proportional to the moving mass, with no postulate about the existence of light or its properties. We further prove the mass-velocity relation without relying on momentum and energy conservation or on the Lorentz transformation. It is demonstrated that neither conservation laws nor the Lorentz transformation are necessary to establish those relations, and that those relations have a wider scope of validity than that of the conservation laws and the invariance of the speed of light.

  18. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global...... with wide-held HST imaging could provide a sensitive test of the normalization and intrinsic scatter of the relation, resulting in a powerful and expedient way of measuring masses of clusters of galaxies. In addition, as M(r)/r las derived from lensing) is dependent on the cosmological model at high...

  19. Job-Related Stress among Mass Communication Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.; Wearden, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Questions 600 full-time faculty members teaching journalism and/or mass communication about job-related stress. Finds faculty members suffer from job-related stress; differences exist in the way men and women view, experience, and cope with stress; anxiety and stress are shared by teachers at all grade levels; and times when faculty and students…

  20. Hadronic mass-relations from topological expansion and string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Hadronic mass-relations from topological expansion and string model are derived. For this purpose the space- time picture of hadron interactions at high energies corresponding to planar diagrams of topological expansion is considered. Simple relations between intercepts and slopes of Regge trajectories based on the topological expansion and q anti q-string picture of hadrons are obtained [ru

  1. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  2. High spin isomer beam line at RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Wu, H.Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear high spin states have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. For the production of high spin states, fusion reactions are usually used. The orbital angular momentum brought in the reaction is changed into the nuclear spin of the compound nucleus. However, the maximum induced angular momentum is limited in this mechanism by the maximum impact parameter of the fusion reaction and by the competition with fission reactions. It is, therefore, difficult to populate very high spin states, and as a result, large {gamma}-detector arrays have been developed in order to detect subtle signals from such very high spin states. The use of high spin isomers in the fusion reactions can break this limitation because the high spin isomers have their intrinsic angular momentum, which can bring the additional angular momentum without increasing the excitation energy. There are two methods to use the high spin isomers for secondary reactions: the use of the high spin isomers as a target and that as a beam. A high spin isomer target has already been developed and used for several experiments. But this method has an inevitable shortcoming that only {open_quotes}long-lived{close_quotes} isomers can be used for a target: {sup 178}Hf{sup m2} (16{sup +}) with a half-life of 31 years in the present case. By developing a high spin isomer beam, the authors can utilize various short-lived isomers with a short half-life around 1 {mu}s. The high spin isomer beam line of RIKEN Accelerator Facility is a unique apparatus in the world which provides a high spin isomer as a secondary beam. The combination of fusion-evaporation reaction and inverse kinematics are used to produce high spin isomer beams; in particular, the adoption of `inverse kinematics` is essential to use short-lived isomers as a beam.

  3. THE METALLICITIES OF LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES AND THE SCATTER IN THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Bresolin, F.; Kewley, L. J.; Coil, A. L.; Davé, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, we quantify the metallicities of low-mass galaxies by constructing the most comprehensive census to date. We use galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey and estimate metallicities from their optical emission lines. We also use two smaller samples from the literature that have metallicities determined by the direct method using the temperature sensitive [O III]λ4363 line. We examine the scatter in the local mass-metallicity (MZ) relation determined from ∼20,000 star-forming galaxies in the SDSS and show that it is larger at lower stellar masses, consistent with the theoretical scatter in the MZ relation determined from hydrodynamical simulations. We determine a lower limit for the scatter in metallicities of galaxies down to stellar masses of ∼10 7 M ☉ which is only slightly smaller than the expected scatter inferred from the SDSS MZ relation and significantly larger than what has been previously established in the literature. The average metallicity of star-forming galaxies increases with stellar mass. By examining the scatter in the SDSS MZ relation, we show that this is mostly due to the lowest metallicity galaxies. The population of low-mass, metal-rich galaxies have properties that are consistent with previously identified galaxies that may be transitional objects between gas-rich dwarf irregulars and gas-poor dwarf spheroidals and ellipticals.

  4. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  5. Heme isomers substantially affect heme's electronic structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Inspection of heme protein structures in the protein data bank reveals four isomers of heme characterized by different relative orientations of the vinyl side chains; remarkably, all these have been reported in multiple protein structures. Density functional theory computations explain this as du...

  6. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BH ∼>10 8 M sun ) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L 2 O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH -σ * relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ * seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH -σ * relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH -σ * relation in this low-mass regime.

  7. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  8. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global tempe...... redshift, the relation represents a new tool for determination of cosmological parameters, notably the cosmological constant Lambda....

  9. Implications of the dwarfs spheroidal galaxy mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the mass-metallicity relation among dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in terms of a model which assumes that the internal chemical evolution of the dwarf spheroidals was promoted by supernova activity. The model can be used to explain the observed dwarf spheroidal mass-metallicity relation assuming the present mass of these systems M sub s is proportional to their initial masses M as M sub s varies according to a power-law index of exp 7/4. It is inferred from the power-law dependence of M on the proto-cloud radius that the most massive dwarf spheroids were formed from the densest clouds. The observed slope of the mass-metallicity relation for dwarf spheroidal galaxies is found to be significantly different from theoretical estimates of this slope for elliptical galaxies. It is suggested that the difference may imply that spheroidal dwarfs and elliptical galaxies had different formation histories, confirming Kormendy's (1985) observations of differences in the brightness and luminosity trends. 54 references

  10. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)indole positional isomers in forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kenneth R; Power, John D; McDermott, Seán D; O'Brien, John E; Talbot, Brian N; Barry, Michael G; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API, 5-IT) was reported by Norwegian authorities to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) via the Early Warning System (EWS). The 3- isomer, 3-(2-aminopropyl)indole (3-API, AMT, alpha-methyltryptamine), has been available on the recreational drugs market for a somewhat longer time, having first been reported to the EMCDDA by Finnish authorities in 2001. Both isomers are available from online vendors of 'legal highs'. Recently, three forensic drug cases (two tablets and one powder) were presented for routine analysis and the active constituent was tentatively identified as an API isomer. The six positional isomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-(2-aminopropyl)indoles) were synthesized and analyses by a combination gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed that these could be readily discriminated thus facilitating the identification of 3-API in the tablets and 5-API in the powder. With exception of 5- and 6-APIs, which co-eluted, it was found possible to separate the isomers by GC without derivatization. LC separation also proved to be a feasible method for the discrimination of the isomers. Although the 2- and 7- isomers were not fully resolved by LC, it was found possible to distinguish them using their product ion spectra as the 2- isomer produced the m/z 132 fragment ion formed by loss of vinylamine, whereas the 7- isomer formed m/z 158 through loss of methylamine. In the synthesis 2-API, a novel tricyclic by-product was formed in an annulation reaction where the reaction solvent, tetrahydrofuran, was incorporated into the molecule. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. ON THE FORMATION AND ISOMER SPECIFIC DETECTION OF PROPENAL (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CHO) AND CYCLOPROPANONE (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O) IN INTERSTELLAR MODEL ICES—A COMBINED FTIR AND REFLECTRON TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Borsuk, Aleca; Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI, 96822 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The formation routes of two structural isomers—propenal (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O)—were investigated experimentally by exposing ices of astrophysical interest to energetic electrons at 5.5 K thus mimicking the interaction of ionizing radiation with interstellar ices in cold molecular clouds. The radiation-induced processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and via temperature programmed desorption exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with single photon ionization in the post irradiation phase. To selectively probe which isomer(s) is/are formed, the photoionization experiments were conducted with 10.49 and 9.60 eV photons. Our studies provided compelling evidence on the formation of both isomers—propenal (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O)—in ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4})—carbon monoxide (CO) ices forming propenal and cyclopropanone at a ratio of (4.5 ± 0.9):1. Based on the extracted reaction pathways, the cyclopropanone molecule can be classified as a tracer of a low temperature non-equilibrium chemistry within interstellar ices involving most likely excited triplet states, whereas propenal can be formed at ultralow temperatures, but also during the annealing phase via non-equilibrium as well as thermal chemistry (radical recombination). Since propenal has been detected in the interstellar medium and our laboratory experiments demonstrate that both isomers originated from identical precursor molecules our study predicts that the hitherto elusive second isomer—cyclopropanone—should also be observable toward those astronomical sources such as Sgr B2(N) in which propenal has been detected.

  12. Isomer-specific combustion chemistry in allene and propyne flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Nils; Miller, James A. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Westmoreland, Phillip R. [Department of Chem. Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kasper, Tina [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, Juan; Cool, Terrill A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A combined experimental and modeling study is performed to clarify the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in flames fueled by the C{sub 3}H{sub 4} isomers allene and propyne. To this end, mole fraction profiles of several flame species in stoichiometric allene (propyne)/O{sub 2}/Ar flames are analyzed by means of a chemical kinetic model. The premixed flames are stabilized on a flat-flame burner under a reduced pressure of 25 Torr (=33.3 mbar). Quantitative species profiles are determined by flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry, and the isomer-specific flame compositions are unraveled by employing photoionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The temperature profiles are measured by OH laser-induced fluorescence. Experimental and modeled mole fraction profiles of selected flame species are discussed with respect to the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in both flames. The emphasis is put on main reaction pathways of fuel consumption, of allene and propyne isomerization, and of isomer-specific formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species. The present model includes the latest theoretical rate coefficients for reactions on a C{sub 3}H{sub 5} potential [J.A. Miller, J.P. Senosiain, S.J. Klippenstein, Y. Georgievskii, J. Phys. Chem. A 112 (2008) 9429-9438] and for the propargyl recombination reactions [Y. Georgievskii, S.J. Klippenstein, J.A. Miller, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 4259-4268]. Larger peak mole fractions of propargyl, allyl, and benzene are observed in the allene flame than in the propyne flame. In these flames virtually all of the benzene is formed by the propargyl recombination reaction. (author)

  13. Identification of isomers of organometallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbue, Sona Peter; Cho, Kwang Hwi [Dept. of Bioinformatics and Life Science, School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The yaChI is a newly suggested chemical naming system. However, yaChI is a derivative of the IUPAC InChI with a modified algorithm that includes additional layers of chemical structure information. Consequently, yaChI string contains more structure details while preserving the original structure file information and can distinctively identify very closely related compounds reducing the chances of ambiguity in chemical compound databases as opposed to the general SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey. This study examines the relative performances of yaChI, SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey in duplication check for isomers. For simplicity, a small data set of 28 organometallic compounds (structural isomers of Rh-containing compounds) subdivided into three major groups (A, B, and C) based on the number and the type of ligands attached to the center atom was used to study the performances of each encoding scheme in describing chemical structures. SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey were generated using Openbabel and RDkit, whereas yaChI strings were generated with in-house program. Strings generated from SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey though different, resulted to only three unique chemical identifiers, with each belonging to one group indicating the presence of only three unique compounds in the study data. However, yaChI results depicted that all structures in each group are indeed unique and differ among themselves as well as those from other groups, mapping each structure with a unique identifier given a total number of 28 unique structures in the study data. This high perception of yaChI probe justifies its accuracy and reliability in duplication check among closely related compounds especially structures exhibiting stereo properties.

  14. Alpha and gamma spectroscopy of fission isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    The attempts to discover in the experiment decay of fission isomers of heavy nuclei in the U-Am range by emitting α particles or γ quanta are considered. Some facilities for searching αdecay of spontaneously fissile isomers are given in brief. The first experimental results are discussed

  15. Comparative aerobic soil metabolism of fenvalerate isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.W.; Powell, W.R.; Stearns, S.M.; McConnell, O.J.

    1987-01-01

    An aerobic soil metabolism study was conducted to determine the degradation rate of individual isomer of fenvalerate and to assess the potential influence of the RS, SR, and RR isomers to the metabolism of the most insecticidally active SS isomer. Individual [phenoxyphenyl- 14 C]fenvalerate isomers degraded at different rates. The calculated half-lives for the SR, RS, SS, and RR isomers in fenvalerate (racemic mixture) were 155, 89, 108, and 178 days, respectively. The resolved SS isomer degraded at a faster rate with a calculated half-life of 74 days. Racemization of the resolved SS isomer did not occur. A qualitative difference in the chemical nature of soil metabolites between fenvalerate and the resolved SS isomer was not observed. Soil degradation products, phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, and 4'-OH- and CONH 2 -fenvalerate, each accounted for less than 2% of the applied radioactivity. Extensive degradation of these soil metabolites was evident since approximately 50% of the applied radioactivity was recovered as 14 C 2 and as unextractable bound residues

  16. Evidence for an isomer in 76Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, M.; Pfuetzner, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Matea, I.; Lewitowicz, M.; Georgiev, G.; Grawe, H.; Mayet, P.; Becker, F.; Bingham, C.; Borcea, R.; Hammache, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Bouchez, E.; Buta, A.; Dragulescu, E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Meot, V.; Negoita, F.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Perru, O.; Roig, O.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Theisen, C.; Verney, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the experiment performed at the LISE2000 spectrometer at GANIL neutron-rich nickel isotopes were studied by microsecond isomer spectroscopy. Evidence for an isomer in 76 Ni is found, consistently with the shell model prediction of an 8 + state of ν(g 9/2 ) 2 structure. (orig.)

  17. The molecular properties of nitrobenzanthrone isomers and their mutagenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Bojana D; Stanković, Branislav; Ðorđević, Dragana S

    2014-06-01

    The mutagenic activity of five mono-substituted nitrobenzanthrones (NBA) has been determined in the Ames assay (Takamura-Enya et al., 2006). In the present study, a theoretical investigation of the electronic properties of all mono-substituted NBA isomers and their relation to mutagenic activity are presented. Equilibrium geometries, vertical ionization potentials (VIP), vertical electron affinities (VEA), relative energies, dipole moments and electronic dipole polarizabilities, and the IR and Raman spectra of NBA isomers calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods are presented. The position of the nitro group affects the spectral features of the IR and Raman spectra of the NBA isomers. The results show that a good linear relationship exists between the summation of Raman activities (∑ARaman) over all the 3N-6 vibrational modes and the mutagenic activity of the NBA isomers in Salmonella typhimurium strains. The spectroscopic results suggest that the unknown mutagenic activities of 4-NBA, 5-NBA, 6-NBA, 8-NBA and 10-NBA are predicted to follow the order 4-NBA>10-NBA>5-NBA>8-NBA>6-NBA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  19. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  20. Quark-lepton complementarity relation and neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2005-01-01

    Latest measurements have revealed that the deviation from a maximal solar mixing angle is approximately the Cabibbo angle [i.e., quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) relation]. We argue that it is not plausible that this deviation from maximality, be it a coincidence or not, comes from the charged lepton mixing. Consequently we have calculated the required corrections to the exactly bimaximal neutrino mass matrix ansatz necessary to account for the solar mass difference and the solar mixing angle. We point out that the relative size of these two corrections depends strongly on the hierarchy case under consideration. We find that the inverted hierarchy case with opposite CP parities, which is known to guarantee the renormalization group equations stability of the solar mixing angle, offers the most plausible scenario for a high-energy origin of a QLC-corrected bimaximal neutrino mass matrix. This possibility may allow us to explain the QLC relation in connection with the origin of the charged fermion mass matrices

  1. Nuclear structure via isomer tagging of fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Simon, M. W.; Stoyer, M. A.

    1997-10-01

    The high efficiency for detecting high-fold γ rays by large Ge arrays makes it possible to study the detailed spectroscopy of many neutron-rich nuclei produced by fission. Major progress has been made using sealed spontaneous fission sources. Considerable improvement in selectivity is provided, with an open source, both by gating on isomers and by detection of both fission fragments in coincidence with the deexcitation γ rays (see the preceding contribution). The reconstructed kinematics allows a measure of fragment mass and the Doppler shift correction of γ rays. In a recent experiment, fission fragments were detected using half of the CHICO array and an annular PPAC in coincidence with deexcitation γ rays detected by the Rochester array of eight Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The annular PPAC was located only 1.0" from a 3.7 μCi ^252Cf source for efficient isomer tagging. The correlation was studied between delayed, within a time window between 150 ns and 10 μs after a fission occurring, and prompt γ rays. Several prominent feeding patterns to isomers in the mass region around 100 and 130 are identified by such correlation study. Experimental details and results will be presented.

  2. The different baryonic Tully-Fisher relations at low masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B; Santos-Santos, Isabel; Stinson, Greg

    2016-06-11

    We compare the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) of simulations and observations of galaxies ranging from dwarfs to spirals, using various measures of rotational velocity V rot . We explore the BTFR when measuring V rot at the flat part of the rotation curve, V flat , at the extent of H i gas, V last , and using 20 per cent ( W 20 ) and 50 per cent ( W 50 ) of the width of H i line profiles. We also compare with the maximum circular velocity of the parent halo, [Formula: see text], within dark matter only simulations. The different BTFRs increasingly diverge as galaxy mass decreases. Using V last  one obtains a power law over four orders of magnitude in baryonic mass, with slope similar to the observed BTFR. Measuring V flat gives similar results as V last when galaxies with rising rotation curves are excluded. However, higher rotation velocities would be found for low-mass galaxies if the cold gas extended far enough for V rot to reach a maximum. W 20 gives a similar slope as V last but with slightly lower values of V rot for low-mass galaxies, although this may depend on the extent of the gas in your galaxy sample. W 50 bends away from these other relations towards low velocities at low masses. By contrast, [Formula: see text] bends towards high velocities for low-mass galaxies, as cold gas does not extend out to the radius at which haloes reach [Formula: see text]. Our study highlights the need for careful comparisons between observations and models: one needs to be consistent about the particular method of measuring V rot , and precise about the radius at which velocities are measured.

  3. Establishing a relation between the mass and the spin of stellar-mass black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-08-09

    Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs.

  4. Gravity-induced rock mass damage related to large en masse rockslides: Evidence from Vajont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Vajont landslide is a well-known, reservoir-induced slope failure that occurred on 9 October 1963 and was characterized by an 'en masse' sliding motion that triggered various large waves, determining catastrophic consequences for the nearby territory and adjacent villages. During the Vajont dam construction, and especially after the disaster, some researchers identified widespread field evidence of heavy rock mass damage involving the presumed prehistoric rockslide and/or the 1963 failed mass. This paper describes evidence of heavy gravitational damage, including (i) folding, (ii) fracturing, (iii) faulting, and (iv) intact rock disintegration. The gravity-induced rock mass damage (GRMD) characterizes the remnants of the basal shear zone, still resting on the large detachment surface, and the 1963 failed rock mass. The comprehensive geological study of the 1963 Vajont landslide, based on the recently performed geomechanical survey (2006-present) and on the critical analysis of the past photographic documentation (1959-1964), allows us to recognize that most GRMD evidence is related to the prehistoric multistage Mt. Toc rockslide. The 1963 catastrophic en masse remobilization induced an increase to the prehistoric damage, reworking preexisting structures and creating additional gravity-driven features (folds, fractures, faults, and rock fragmentation). The gravity-induced damage was formed during the slope instability phases that preceded the collapse (static or quasi-static GRMD) and also as a consequence of the sliding motion and of the devastating impact between the failed blocks (dynamic GRMD). Gravitational damage originated various types of small drag folds such as flexures, concentric folds, chevron, and kink-box folds, all having a radius of 1-5 m. Large buckle folds (radius of 10-50 m) are related to the dynamic damage and were formed during the en masse motion as a consequence of deceleration and impact processes that involved the sliding mass. Prior

  5. FY2011 Annual Report for the Actinide Isomer Detection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Francy, Christopher J.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Hatarik, R.

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to identify a new signature for actinide element detection in active interrogation. This technique works by exciting and identifying long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) in the actinide isotopes and/or primary fission products. Observation of isomers in the fission products will provide a signature for fissile material. For the actinide isomers, the decay time and energy of the isomeric state is unique to a particular isotope, providing an unambiguous signature for SNM. This project entails isomer identification and characterization and neutron population studies. This document summarizes activities from its third year - completion of the isomer identification characterization experiments and initialization of the neutron population experiments. The population and decay of the isomeric state in 235U remain elusive, although a number of candidate gamma rays have been identified. In the course of the experiments, a number of fission fragment isomers were populated and measured (Ressler 2010). The decays from these isomers may also provide a suitable signature for the presence of fissile material. Several measurements were conducted throughout this project. This report focuses on the results of an experiment conducted collaboratively by PNNL, LLNL and LBNL in December 2010 at LBNL. The measurement involved measuring the gamma-rays emitted from an HEU target when bombarded with 11 MeV neutrons. This report discussed the analysis and resulting conclusions from those measurements. There was one strong candidate, at 1204 keV, of an isomeric signature of 235U. The half-life of the state is estimated to be 9.3 μs. The measured time dependence fits the decay time structure very well. Other possible explanations for the 1204-keV state were investigated, but they could not explain the gamma ray. Unfortunately, the relatively limited statistics of the measurement limit, and the lack of understanding of some of the systematic of the experiment, limit

  6. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew

    2015-01-01

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 × 10 9 to 6 × 10 10 M ☉ . This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established

  7. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew, E-mail: harwit@verizon.net [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 × 10{sup 9} to 6 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established.

  8. Relating hard QCD processes through universality of mass singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Petronzio, R.; Veneziano, G.

    1978-01-01

    Hard QCD processes involving final jets are studied and compared by means of a simple approach to mass singularities. This is based on the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem and on a rather subtle use of gauge invariance in hard collinear gluon bremsstrahlung. One-loop results are easily derived for processes involving any number of initial quarks and/or currents. The method greatly simplifies the computation of higher-order loops at the leading log level and the preliminary results allow one to conclude that the crucial features encountered at the one-loop level will persist. The authors are thus able to relate different hard processes and to show that suitable ratios of cross sections, being free from mass singularities, can be computed perturbatively, as usually assumed in QCD-inspired parton models. It is also possible to relate the universal leading mass singularities to leading scaling violations and to extend therefor the results of the operator product expansion method to processes outside the range of the light-cone analysis. Some delicate points caused by confinement-related singularities (e.g. narrow resonance poles) are also discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Structural-based differences in ecotoxicity of benzoquinoline isomers to the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraak, M.H.S.; Wijnands, P.; Govers, H.A.J.; Admiraal, W.; Voogt, P. de [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of four benzoquinoline isomers on the filtration rate of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) were analyzed, to study the effect of minor differences in chemical structure on adverse biological effects. Filtration rates were measured after 48 h of exposure to different concentrations of acridine, phenanthridine, benzo[f]quinoline, and benzo[h]quinoline in the water. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for filtration rate of the four isomers differed significantly. Effects increased in the order benzo[f], -[h], -[b], and -[c]quinoline, and the difference between the most toxic isomer and the least toxic isomer amounted to a factor of 30. Attempts were made to relate these differences in toxicity to the structure of the isomers. Size- or topology-related molecular descriptors provided insufficient resolution to distinguish between the benzoquinoline isomers, and none of the electronic descriptors separately provided a significant correlation with the observed effects. In an alternative approach, molecular shape, accessibility, and minimum agent-macromolecule distance were used to represent repulsive and attractive forces between the benzoquinoline isomers and biological membranes. This approach could tentatively explain the observed effects and is supported by a high correlation between the EC50 data and the reversed-phase C18-HPLC behavior of the benzoquinolines (k{sub 0}), which is likely to be governed by similar processes.

  10. THE MASS OF KOI-94d AND A RELATION FOR PLANET RADIUS, MASS, AND INCIDENT FLUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Kolbl, Rea; Rowe, Jason F.; Howell, Steve B.; Howard, Andrew W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Miller, Neil; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Fischer, Debra A.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Johnson, John Asher; Horch, Elliott P.; Everett, Mark E.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    We measure the mass of a modestly irradiated giant planet, KOI-94d. We wish to determine whether this planet, which is in a 22 day orbit and receives 2700 times as much incident flux as Jupiter, is as dense as Jupiter or rarefied like inflated hot Jupiters. KOI-94 also hosts at least three smaller transiting planets, all of which were detected by the Kepler mission. With 26 radial velocities of KOI-94 from the W. M. Keck Observatory and a simultaneous fit to the Kepler light curve, we measure the mass of the giant planet and determine that it is not inflated. Support for the planetary interpretation of the other three candidates comes from gravitational interactions through transit timing variations, the statistical robustness of multi-planet systems against false positives, and several lines of evidence that no other star resides within the photometric aperture. We report the properties of KOI-94b (M P = 10.5 ± 4.6 M ⊕ , R P = 1.71 ± 0.16 R ⊕ , P = 3.74 days), KOI-94c (M P = 15.6 +5.7 -15.6 M ⊕ , R P = 4.32 ± 0.41 R ⊕ , P = 10.4 days), KOI-94d (M P = 106 ± 11 M ⊕ , R P = 11.27 ± 1.06 R ⊕ , P = 22.3 days), and KOI-94e (M P = 35 +18 -28 M ⊕ , R P = 6.56 ± 0.62 R ⊕ , P = 54.3 days). The radial velocity analyses of KOI-94b and KOI-94e offer marginal (>2σ) mass detections, whereas the observations of KOI-94c offer only an upper limit to its mass. Using the KOI-94 system and other planets with published values for both mass and radius (138 exoplanets total, including 35 with M P ⊕ ), we establish two fundamental planes for exoplanets that relate their mass, incident flux, and radius from a few Earth masses up to 13 Jupiter masses: (R P /R ⊕ ) = 1.78(M P /M ⊕ ) 0.53 (F/erg s –1 cm –2 ) –0.03 for M P ⊕ , and R P /R ⊕ = 2.45(M P /M ⊕ ) –0.039 (F/erg s –1 cm –2 ) 0.094 for M P > 150 M ⊕ . These equations can be used to predict the radius or mass of a planet.

  11. Uncertainty of relative sensitivity factors in glow discharge mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of the relative sensitivity factors required for the correction of the measured ion beam ratios in pin-cell glow discharge mass spectrometry is examined in detail. We propose a data-driven model for predicting the relative response factors, which relies on a non-linear least squares adjustment and analyte/matrix interchangeability phenomena. The model provides a self-consistent set of response factors for any analyte/matrix combination of any element that appears as either an analyte or matrix in at least one known response factor.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12 (marketed as Clarinol® and Tonalin®) and “contributes to a reduction in body fat mass” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from BASF SE and Stepan Lipid Nutrition, submitted for the authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the Netherlands, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture (marketed under the trade names Clarinol® and Tonalin®) of the two conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. The claimed...... of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12, marketed under the trade names of Clarinol® and Tonalin®, and a beneficial physiological effect....

  13. pH-dependent fluorescence property of methyl red isomers in silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jian-How; Lee, Szetsen

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of silver (Ag) colloids in the spectroscopic differentiation of methyl red (MR) isomers (o-MR, m-MR, p-MR) by fluorescence techniques. Under different pH conditions, the formation of MR-Ag complex has an impact on the fluorescence band shapes and peak position shift, which are distinctive between MR isomers. The fluorescence quenching between 400 and 414 nm accompanied by simultaneous enhancement between 510 and 541 nm changes with pH are closely related to energy transfer efficiency and the interaction between the MR isomers and the Ag surface.

  14. Mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, A Perez; Paret, D Manreza

    2010-01-01

    We review the stability of magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the relevant input parameters, namely, the strange quark mass, baryon density, magnetic field and bag parameter. A comparison with magnetized asymmetric quark matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium as well as with strange quark matter (SQM) is presented. We obtain that the energy per baryon for MSQM decreases as the magnetic field increases, and its minimum value at vanishing pressure is lower than the value found for SQM, which implies that MSQM is more stable than non-magnetized SQM. The mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars is also obtained in this framework.

  15. Decay and Fission Hindrance of Two- and Four-Quasiparticle K Isomers in ^{254}Rf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H M; Chen, J; Seweryniak, D; Kondev, F G; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Ahmad, I; Albers, M; Alcorta, M; Back, B B; Baartman, B; Bertone, P F; Bernstein, L A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Clark, R M; Cromaz, M; Doherty, D T; Dracoulis, G D; Esker, N E; Fallon, P; Gothe, O R; Greene, J P; Greenlees, P T; Hartley, D J; Hauschild, K; Hoffman, C R; Hota, S S; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Konki, J; Kwarsick, J T; Lauritsen, T; Macchiavelli, A O; Mudder, P R; Nair, C; Qiu, Y; Rissanen, J; Rogers, A M; Ruotsalainen, P; Savard, G; Stolze, S; Wiens, A; Zhu, S

    2015-09-25

    Two isomers decaying by electromagnetic transitions with half-lives of 4.7(1.1) and 247(73) μs have been discovered in the heavy ^{254}Rf nucleus. The observation of the shorter-lived isomer was made possible by a novel application of a digital data acquisition system. The isomers were interpreted as the K^{π}=8^{-}, ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734]) two-quasineutron and the K^{π}=16^{+}, 8^{-}ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734])⊗8^{-}π^{2}(7/2^{-}[514],9/2^{+}[624]) four-quasiparticle configurations, respectively. Surprisingly, the lifetime of the two-quasiparticle isomer is more than 4 orders of magnitude shorter than what has been observed for analogous isomers in the lighter N=150 isotones. The four-quasiparticle isomer is longer lived than the ^{254}Rf ground state that decays exclusively by spontaneous fission with a half-life of 23.2(1.1) μs. The absence of sizable fission branches from either of the isomers implies unprecedented fission hindrance relative to the ground state.

  16. Simple and fast analysis of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane isomers, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in serum using solid-phase extraction or QuEChERS extraction followed by tandem mass spectrometry coupled to HPLC and GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Tian; Wang, Yuwei; Shi, Zhixiong; Zhou, Xianqing; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Dejun; Wu, Yongning

    2017-02-01

    Two simplified sample preparation procedures for simultaneous extraction and clean-up of tetrabromobisphenol A, α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecane and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human serum were developed and validated. The first procedure was based on solid-phase extraction. Sample extraction, purification, and lipid removal were carried out directly on an Oasis HLB cartridge. The second procedure was a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe-based approach using octadecyl-modified silica particles as a sorbent. After sample extraction and cleanup, tetrabromobisphenol A/hexabromocyclododecane was separated from polybrominated diphenyl ethers by using a Si-based cartridge. Tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane were then detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, while polybrominated diphenyl ethers were detected by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results of the spike recovery test using fetal bovine serum showed that the average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 87.3 to 115.3% with relative standard deviations equal to or lower than 13.4 %. Limits of detection of the analytes were in the range of 0.4-19 pg/mL except for decabromodiphenyl ether. The developed method was successfully applied to routine analysis of human serum samples from occupational workers and the general population. Extremely high serum polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels up to 3.32 × 10 4 ng/g lipid weight were found in occupational workers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electronic structure and isomer shifts of Sn halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, J.; Guenzburger, D.

    1988-01-01

    The all-electron first-principles Discrete Variational method was employed to study the electronic structure of SnF 4 , SnCl 4 , SnBr 4 and SnI 4 . Values of the electronic density at the Sn nucleus were derived and related to 119 Sn Isomer Shifts to obtain the nuclear constant Δ 2 >. Differences in values of ρ(o) area discussed in terms of the chemical bonding between Sn and halogen atoms. (author) [pt

  18. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  19. Hyperscaling relations in mass-deformed conformal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Zwicky, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We present a number of analytical results which should guide the interpretation of lattice data in theories with an infrared fixed point (IRFP) deformed by a mass term δL=-mqq. From renormalization group (RG) arguments we obtain the leading scaling exponent, F∼m η F , for all decay constants of the lowest lying states other than the ones affected by the chiral anomaly and the tensor ones. These scaling relations provide a clear cut way to distinguish a theory with an IRFP from a confining theory with heavy fermions. Moreover, we present a derivation relating the scaling of ∼m η qq to the scaling of the density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator ρ(λ)∼λ η qq . RG arguments yield η qq =(3-γ * )/(1+γ * ) as a function of the mass anomalous dimension γ * at the IRFP. The arguments can be generalized to other condensates such as 2 >∼m 4/(1+γ * ) . We describe a heuristic derivation of the result on the condensates, which provides interesting connections between different approaches. Our results are compared with existing data from numerical studies of SU(2) with two adjoint Dirac fermions.

  20. A new mass relation among the hadron vector resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the hadron vector resonances are described by fields transforming according to different inequivalent representations of the Lorentz group: (1/2,1/2) and (1,0)+(0,1). The vector representation (1/2,1/2) is well studied and corresponds to the gauge fields. On the other hand, the chiral representations (1,0) and (0,1) are described by the second rank antisymmetric tensor fields, for which interaction theory has not yet been constructed. In the framework of the phenomenological Nambu - Jona-Lasinio approach we have introduced and used all these fields for a description of the vector resonances. A new mass relation between low-lying hadron vector and axial-vector resonances is obtained. This relation is in agreement with the present experimental data.

  1. Development of Novel Methods to Define Deficits in Appendicular Lean Mass Relative to Fat Mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Weber

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity.Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2 and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2. Correlations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were assessed within demographic categories. Fat-adjusted ALMI (ALMIFMI scores were determined using residual methods. Sarcopenia was defined as a T-Score 0.50; p<0.001 within all demographic categories. The impact of a unit greater FMI Z-score on ALMI Z-score was less in the elderly, men, white subjects, and among individuals with lower FMI (all tests for interaction p<0.001. There was fair agreement between ALMI and ALMIFMI estimates of sarcopenia and low lean for age [Kappa: 0.46, 0.52, respectively (p<0.0001]. Elderly subjects were likely to be re-classified as sarcopenic while young subjects were likely to be re-classified as normal using ALMIFMI. ALMIFMI T-scores resulted in approximately twice the number of subjects defined as sarcopenic, compared with ALMI T-Scores. (1299 v. 534. Among rheumatoid arthritis patients, ALMIFMI Z-scores correlated with physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire: rho = -0.22, p = 0.04; Short Physical Performance Battery: rho = 0.27, p = 0.01; however, the ALMI Z-Score did not.Adjustment of ALMI for the confounding association with FMI impacts the definition of lean mass deficits. These methods provide a practical tool for investigators and clinicians based on population-based reference data.

  2. Isomers of fluoroamphetamines detected in forensic cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Hansen, Tina Maria

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed on the detection, separation and quantification of isomers from the new designer drugs named fluoroamphetamines (FAs) in forensic cases in eastern Denmark. The drugs were detected in whole blood extracts by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass...... of drugs (DUID) cases, involving 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) have been observed with whole blood concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 0.58 mg/kg. One autopsy case involved 4-FA; however, it was determined to be a combined intoxication. In 2010, ortho-fluoroamphetamine (2-FA) was discovered in forensic...

  3. Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-07-23

    Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and

  4. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  5. Identifying Tm-C82 isomers with density functional theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Limin; He Hongqing; Yang Minghui; Zeng Qun; Yang Mingli

    2010-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the geometrical and electronic properties of endohedral metallofullerene Tm-C 82 isomers. Three energetically favorable isomers (with C s , C 2 and C 2v symmetry, respectively) are identified which are consistent with the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) observations. The simulated ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) based on the three structures agree well with the measurements. Particularly, the parent cage of the experimentally observed Tm-C 82 isomer with C s symmetry is newly assigned, which matches the experiments better than early assignments. In addition, strong interaction between an endohedral Tm atom and the C 82 cage is discussed and is thought to be responsible for the dramatic change in the relative stability of C 82 isomers when Tm is encapsulated.

  6. Three- and five-quasiparticle isomers, rotational bands and residual interactions in 175Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Walker, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    Two 3-quasiparticle isomers with spins, parities and half lives of 19/2 + , 1.1 μ and 23/2 - , 1.2 ns have been identified at 1433 and 1766 keV in 175 Hf. A third isomer possibly 35/2 - with a 1.2 μs half-life is found at 3015 keV. The first two are characterised as a 7/2 + (633) neutron coupled to the known 6 + and 8 - 2-proton isomers of the core nuclei. Rotational bands based on the 3-qp isomers are highly perturbed, due to Coriolis mixing, and their structure is reproduced in a band mixing calculation. The energy depression of the 3-quasiparticle states relative to the 2-quasiproton core states is attributed mainly to the residual proton-neutron interaction, and possibly also to blocking effects through neutron admixtures

  7. Fat free mass and obesity in relation to educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Nuijten, Elina; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu; Knekt, Paul; Rissanen, Harri; Aromaa, Arpo; Heliövaara, Markku

    2009-12-04

    The aim of the study was to describe the body composition of Finnish adults, especially by education, and to investigate whether fat-free mass (FFM) can explain educational gradients relating to body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Data for this cross-sectional study were based on data collected in 2000-2001 for the Health 2000 Survey. Of the nationally representative sample of 8,028 Finnish men and women aged 30 years and older, 6,300 (78.5%) were included in the study. Body composition measurements were carried out in the health examination, where FFM was assessed with eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Questions on education were included in the health interview. The mean FFM varied by education in older (>or= 65 y.) men only. In the middle-aged group (30-64 y.), highly educated men were less likely to belong to the lowest quintile of FFM (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93) compared with the least educated subjects. The level of education was inversely associated with the prevalence of high BMI and WHR in middle-aged men. In women, the respective associations were found both in middle-aged women and their older counterparts. Adjustment for FFM slightly strengthened the associations of education with BMI and WHR. The association between education and FFM is weak. Educational gradients of high BMI and high WHR cannot be explained by FFM.

  8. THE RELATION BETWEEN EIT WAVES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    More and more evidence indicates that 'EIT waves' are strongly related to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it is still not clear how the two phenomena are related to each other. We investigate a CME event on 1997 September 9, which was well observed by both the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the high-cadence Mark-III K-Coronameter at Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, and compare the spatial relation between the 'EIT wave' fronts and the CME leading loops. It is found that 'EIT wave' fronts are cospatial with the CME leading loops, and the expanding EUV dimmings are cospatial with the CME cavity. It is also found that the CME stopped near the boundary of a coronal hole, a feature common to observations of 'EIT waves'. It is suggested that 'EIT waves'/dimmings are the EUV counterparts of the CME leading loop/cavity, based on which we propose that, as in the case of 'EIT waves', CME leading loops are apparently moving density enhancements that are generated by successive stretching (or opening-up) of magnetic loops.

  9. K isomers as probes of nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    K isomers are studied in Pu and Cm isotopes, and also in Hf and W nuclei. Many high-K states, several of which are isomeric, are identified. Lifetime measurements spanning the ns-s range have been performed, and decay paths of isomers established. Rotational bands built on high-K states are also identified in many cases. Isomer decays are considerably hindered in many instances, both in the A≈180 and 250 regions indicating that K is an approximately conserved quantum number. High-K states become the favored excitation mode at high spins in the A≈180 region. The energies of the 2-quasiparticle high-K states in Cm isotopes suggest the presence of a deformed subshell gap at N=152.

  10. K isomers as probes of nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandel, S. K., E-mail: sujit.tandel@cbs.ac.in [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2014-08-14

    K isomers are studied in Pu and Cm isotopes, and also in Hf and W nuclei. Many high-K states, several of which are isomeric, are identified. Lifetime measurements spanning the ns-s range have been performed, and decay paths of isomers established. Rotational bands built on high-K states are also identified in many cases. Isomer decays are considerably hindered in many instances, both in the A≈180 and 250 regions indicating that K is an approximately conserved quantum number. High-K states become the favored excitation mode at high spins in the A≈180 region. The energies of the 2-quasiparticle high-K states in Cm isotopes suggest the presence of a deformed subshell gap at N=152.

  11. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  12. Studies on the decay of high-spin isomers in the W and Os isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer-Flecken, A.

    1988-01-01

    From the two experiments performed on the nucleus 180 Os the properties of the new high-spin isomer could be found. The excitation energy amounts to 5208 keV and the spin of the isomer amounts probably to I=19ℎ. The new measured half-life amounts to T 1/2 =41±10 ns. It is populated with an intensity of 1.6±0.4% relative to the (4 + → 2 +) transition in the Yrast band in an experiment with out use of the recoil-shadow technique. A preliminary decay scheme could be established from the sum spectra and exhibits similarities with the decay of the high-spin isomer in 182 Os. From the analysis of the experiment on the nucleus 178 W a new isomer with an excitation energy of 5271 keV and a half-life of T 1/2 =39±10 ns could be identified. The spin of the level has been determined to I=20±1. The half-life of the 3527 keV isomer has been determined to T 1/2 =28±4 ns. The spin of the isomer could be determined from the analysis of DCO ratios to I π =14 - . The configuration of the isomer could be fixed to ν6 + 5/2 - 5 512 7 x 7/2 5 514 7 +π8 - 7/2 + 5 404 7 x 9/2 5 514 7 because of the comparison with the 14 - isomer in 176 Hf and the comparison of the excitation energy for certain configurations with I π =14 - . (orig./HSI)

  13. Measurements of isomers at the FRS ion catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, Christine [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Projectile fragmentation and fission reactions at in-flight facilities are important production mechanisms to access short-lived exotic nuclei. It is a challenge to describe the angular momentum distribution after the collision of relativistic nuclei. This can be experimentally accessed by measuring the population of isomeric states. Isomeric ratios and excitation energies of isomers of short-lived exotic nuclei can be determined at the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI. At the FRS, projectile and fission fragments are produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight and range-focused. They are slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell. In a multi-purpose RFQ beamline alpha spectroscopy can be performed. Alternatively the ions can be transported to a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS), where masses of the ground and isomeric states can be measured simultaneously with high resolving power. The MR-TOF-MS can also be used to spatially separate the ions in order to provide isomerically clean ion beams. During a recent experiment isomer-to-ground state ratios and excitation energies of uranium projectile and fission fragments produced at 1 GeV/u were measured. The ratios, measured with the MR-TOF-MS, were verified by alpha spectroscopy. Furthermore the ratios were compared to calculations based on an abrasion-ablation model of fragmentation.

  14. Roles of the tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipson, Brett R; Fisher, Alfred L

    2016-05-01

    The damage to cellular components by reactive oxygen species, termed oxidative stress, both increases with age and likely contributes to age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cataract formation. In the setting of oxidative stress, hydroxyl radicals can oxidize the benzyl ring of the amino acid phenylalanine, which then produces the abnormal tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine or ortho-tyrosine. While elevations in m-tyrosine and o-tyrosine concentrations have been used as a biological marker of oxidative stress, there is emerging evidence from bacterial, plant, and mammalian studies demonstrating that these isomers, particularly m-tyrosine, directly produce adverse effects to cells and tissues. These new findings suggest that the abnormal tyrosine isomers could in fact represent mediators of the effects of oxidative stress. Consequently the accumulation of m- and o-tyrosine may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to disease pathogenesis, and as result, effective defenses against oxidative stress can encompass not only the elimination of reactive oxygen species but also the metabolism and ultimately the removal of the abnormal tyrosine isomers from the cellular amino acid pool. Future research in this area is needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms by which the tyrosine isomers damage cells and disrupt the function of tissues and organs and to identify the metabolic pathways involved in removing the accumulated isomers after exposure to oxidative stress. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Cool diffusion flames of butane isomers activated by ozone in the counterflow

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu; Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Secco, Andrea; Selim, Hatem; Ju, Yiguang; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    and sustenance of cool diffusion flames; as ozone-less cool diffusion flame of butane isomers could not be established even at high fuel mole fractions. The structure of a stable n-butane cool diffusion flame was qualitatively examined using a time of flight mass

  16. Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.

  17. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  18. Study of the Si fullerene cage isomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, Z.G.; Havenith, R.W.A.; Menon, M.; Fowler, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the structural and electronic properties of the Si38 fullerene isomers, which are constructed by making all possible permutations among their pentagons and hexagons. These structures were firstly fully optimized with a tight binding molecular dynamics method and

  19. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  20. Activation of Reactive MALDI Adduct Ions Enables Differentiation of Dihydroxylated Vitamin D Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yulin; Müller, Miriam J.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D compounds are secosteroids, which are best known for their role in bone health. More recent studies have shown that vitamin D metabolites and catabolites such as dihydroxylated species (e.g., 1,25- and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) play key roles in the pathologies of various diseases. Identification of these isomers by mass spectrometry is challenging and currently relies on liquid chromatography, as the isomers exhibit virtually identical product ion spectra under collision induced dissociation conditions. Here, we developed a simple MALDI-CID method that utilizes ion activation of reactive analyte/matrix adducts to distinguish isomeric dihydroxyvitamin D3 species, without the need for chromatography separation or chemical derivatization techniques. Specifically, reactive 1,5-diaminonaphthalene adducts of dihydroxyvitamin D3 compounds formed during MADI were activated and specific cleavages in the secosteroid's backbone structure were achieved that produced isomer-diagnostic fragment ions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Discovery and identification of a series of alkyl decalin isomers in petroleum geological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huitong; Zhang, Shuichang; Weng, Na; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Guangyou; Liu, Lingyan

    2015-07-07

    The comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) has been used to characterize a crude oil and a source rock extract sample. During the process, a series of pairwise components between monocyclic alkanes and mono-aromatics have been discovered. After tentative assignments of decahydronaphthalene isomers, a series of alkyl decalin isomers have been synthesized and used for identification and validation of these petroleum compounds. From both the MS and chromatography information, these pairwise compounds were identified as 2-alkyl-decahydronaphthalenes and 1-alkyl-decahydronaphthalenes. The polarity of 1-alkyl-decahydronaphthalenes was stronger. Their long chain alkyl substituent groups may be due to bacterial transformation or different oil cracking events. This systematic profiling of alkyl-decahydronaphthalene isomers provides further understanding and recognition of these potential petroleum biomarkers.

  2. Effect of isomers of hydroxybenzoic acid on the growth and metabolism of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bajguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The isomers o-, m-, and p- of hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA in the concentration range 10-1-10-4 M in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae display marked biological activity. The o-HBA isomer, commonly known as salicylic acid, in a concentration of 10-4 M exerted the most stimulating effect on the parameters analysed (the number of cells, dry mass, the content of chlorophylls a and h, carotenoids, soluble proteins and their secretion, monosaccharides, DNA and RNA whereas p-HBA had weak stimulating properties. On the other hand, m-HBA had a weak inhibitory effect on the growth of C. vulgaris and all the biochemical parameters analysed in comparison with the control culture of algae devoid of HBA isomers.

  3. Application of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for separation and characterization of impurities and isomers in cefpiramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Yu; Wen, Chunmei; Wang, Zhijian

    2017-11-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry had been routinely used for structure identification of impurity. However, all LC-MS methods were based on a volatile mobile phase, and a non-volatile system is used in the official analytical method of United States Pharmacopoeia for cefpiramide which limited the use of mass spectrometry for structure characterization of the impurities. Here we presented the utilization of a trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D LC-IT-TOF MS) with positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization for characterization of eight impurities in cefpiramide. Trap-free two-dimensional liquid chromatography and online desalting technique made it possible to characterize the impurity in cefpiramide in the condition of official standard, and the TIC chromatogram of LC-MS was in conformity with the LC chromatogram of the official analytical method in the peak sequence of impurities, which could further improve the method of official monographs in pharmacopoeias. Each peak separated by the non-volatile mobile phase was trapped by a 20 μL quantitative loop then transferred into a system with a volatile mobile phase connected to a MS detector. In the first dimension, the column was Kromasil C 8 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a non-volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL min -1 . In the second dimension, the column was Shimadzu Shim-pack GISS C 18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) with a volatile salt mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.3 mL min -1 . Through the multiple heart-cutting 2D-LC approach and online desalting technique, the problem of incompatibility between non-volatile salt mobile phase and mass spectrometry was solved completely. The fragmentation behavior of cefpiramide and its eight impurities were studied. The structures of eight impurities in cefpiramide drug substance were deduced based on the HPLC-MS n data, in

  4. Resolution and Assignment of Differential Ion Mobility Spectra of Sarcosine and Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthias, Francis; Maatoug, Belkis; Glish, Gary L.; Moussa, Fathi; Maitre, Philippe

    2018-02-01

    Due to their central role in biochemical processes, fast separation and identification of amino acids (AA) is of importance in many areas of the biomedical field including the diagnosis and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism and biomarker discovery. Due to the large number of AA together with their isomers and isobars, common methods of AA analysis are tedious and time-consuming because they include a chromatographic separation step requiring pre- or post-column derivatization. Here, we propose a rapid method of separation and identification of sarcosine, a biomarker candidate of prostate cancer, from isomers using differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) interfaced with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) instrument. Baseline separation of protonated sarcosine from α- and β-alanine isomers can be easily achieved. Identification of DIMS peak is performed using an isomer-specific activation mode where DIMS- and mass-selected ions are irradiated at selected wavenumbers allowing for the specific fragmentation via an infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) process. Two orthogonal methods to MS/MS are thus added, where the MS/MS(IRMPD) is nothing but an isomer-specific multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. The identification relies on the comparison of DIMS-MS/MS(IRMPD) chromatograms recorded at different wavenumbers. Based on the comparison of IR spectra of the three isomers, it is shown that specific depletion of the two protonated α- and β-alanine can be achieved, thus allowing for clear identification of the sarcosine peak. It is also demonstrated that DIMS-MS/MS(IRMPD) spectra in the carboxylic C=O stretching region allow for the resolution of overlapping DIMS peaks. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Compact stars with a small electric charge: the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass for incompressible matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Jose P.S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Quinta, Goncalo [Universidade de Lisboa, UL, Departamento de Fisica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Zanchin, Vilson T. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    One of the stiffest equations of state for matter in a compact star is constant energy density and this generates the interior Schwarzschild radius to mass relation and the Misner maximum mass for relativistic compact stars. If dark matter populates the interior of stars, and this matter is supersymmetric or of some other type, some of it possessing a tiny electric charge, there is the possibility that highly compact stars can trap a small but non-negligible electric charge. In this case the radius to mass relation for such compact stars should get modifications. We use an analytical scheme to investigate the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass of relativistic stars made of an incompressible fluid with a small electric charge. The investigation is carried out by using the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, i.e., the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, together with the other equations of structure, with the further hypothesis that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. The approach relies on Volkoff and Misner's method to solve the TOV equation. For zero charge one gets the interior Schwarzschild limit, and supposing incompressible boson or fermion matter with constituents with masses of the order of the neutron mass one finds that the maximum mass is the Misner mass. For a small electric charge, our analytical approximating scheme, valid in first order in the star's electric charge, shows that the maximum mass increases relatively to the uncharged case, whereas the minimum possible radius decreases, an expected effect since the new field is repulsive, aiding the pressure to sustain the star against gravitational collapse. (orig.)

  6. A Pilot Study to Explore Linkages Among Isomers of Organochlorines, Promutagenic DNA Lesions and Breast Cancer Using Sensitive Techniques of Analytical Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, Mark

    1997-01-01

    .... The specific aims and work to date for each aim are: 1.) to measure isomers of DDT, DDE and PCBs by specialized techniques of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/electron-capture detection (ECD).

  7. Four-loop relation between the MS and on-shell quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquard, Peter; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the four-loop relation between the on-shell and MS definition of heavy quark masses which is applied to the top, bottom and charm case. We also present relations between the MS quark mass and various threshold mass definitions and discuss the uncertainty at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order.

  8. Mass generation and related issues from exotic higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colatto, Luiz Paulo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, Marco Antonio de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Assis, Leonardo Paulo Guimaraes de; Helayel-Neto, Jose Abdalla [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas(LAFEX/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias; Matheus-Valle, Jose Luiz [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Rojas, Moises [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: he main purpose of this work is to show that massless Dirac equation formulated for non-interacting Majorana-Weyl spinors in higher dimensions, particularly in D = 1 + 9 and D = 5 + 5, may yield to an interpretation of massive Majorana and Dirac spinors in D = 1 + 3 dimensions. The particular case of a dimensional reduction from D = 4 + 4 to D = 1 + 3 has already been fairly-well discussed in the literature. By adopting suitable representations of the Dirac matrices in higher dimensions, we pursue the investigation of which higher dimensional space-times and which metric signatures concerning massless Dirac equations in highermay induce massive spinors in D = 1+3 dimensions. The mixing of the chiral fermions in higher dimensions may induce a mechanism such that four massive Majorana fermions may show up and, at an appropriate limit an almost zero and a huge mass show up with corresponding left-handed and right-handed eigenstates. This mechanism could reassess a peculiar connection with the See-Saw scheme associated to neutrino with Majorana-type masses. The masses of the particle are fixed by the dimensional reduction scheme, which the decoupled dimensions contribute coordinates and depend on the mass invariants in lower dimensions. This proposal should allow us to understand the generation of hierarchies for the fermionic masses in D = 1 + 3, or in lower dimensions in general, starting from the constraints between the energy and the momentum in (n; n) dimensions. For the initial D = 5 + 5 Majorana-Weyl spinors framework using the Weyl representation to the Dirac matrices we observe an intriguing decomposition of space-time that result in two equivalent D = 1 + 4 massive spinors which mass term, in D = 1 + 3 included, is originated from the remained component and that could induce a Brane-World mechanism. (author)

  9. Thermochemical study of four isomers of dichloroanisole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present work reports the values of the gaseous standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of four isomers of dichloroanisole: 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 3,5-dichloroanisole, at T = 298.15 K. For all compounds, those values were derived from measurements of the standard molar energies of combustion in the condensed phase, using a rotating bomb combustion calorimeter, together with measurements of the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation or vaporization, measured by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. Moreover, the enthalpies and the temperatures of fusion for the crystalline isomers of dichloroanisoles were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, for the title compounds were compared with the same parameters estimated by the Cox scheme and interpreted in terms of molecular structure

  10. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  11. The relative efficiency of three methods of estimating herbage mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods involved were randomly placed circular quadrats; randomly placed narrow strips; and disc meter sampling. Disc meter and quadrat sampling appear to be more efficient than strip sampling. In a subsequent small plot grazing trial the estimates of herbage mass, using the disc meter, had a consistent precision ...

  12. Experimental thermochemical study of the monochloronitrobenzene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Moreno, Ana Rita G.

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 3-, and 4-chloronitrobenzene isomers, in the crystalline state, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were obtained by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the determined experimental data, the values of the gaseous standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for the three monochloronitrobenzene isomers were derived. The gas-phase enthalpies of formation were also estimated by the empirical scheme developed by Cox showing that for meta- and para-chloronitrobenzene the estimated values are in close agreement with the experimental ones whereas, in the case of ortho-chloronitrobenzene it is shown that a different enthalpic interaction increment is needed, when the substituents in the adjacent carbon ring atoms are a chlorine atom and a nitro group

  13. Virtual libraries of tetrapyrrole macrocycles. Combinatorics, isomers, product distributions, and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2011-09-26

    A software program (PorphyrinViLiGe) has been developed to enumerate the type and relative amounts of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles in a virtual library formed by one of four different classes of reactions. The classes include (1) 4-fold reaction of n disubstituted heterocycles (e.g., pyrroles or diiminoisoindolines) to form β-substituted porphyrins, β-substituted tetraazaporphyrins, or α- or β-substituted phthalocyanines; (2) combination of m aminoketones and n diones to form m × n pyrroles, which upon 4-fold reaction give β-substituted porphyrins; (3) derivatization of an 8-point tetrapyrrole scaffold with n reagents, and (4) 4-fold reaction of n aldehydes and pyrrole to form meso-substituted porphyrins. The program accommodates variable ratios of reactants, reversible or irreversible reaction (reaction classes 1 and 2), and degenerate modes of formation. Pólya's theorem (for enumeration of cyclic entities) has also been implemented and provides validation for reaction classes 3 and 4. The output includes the number and identity of distinct reaction-accessible substituent combinations, the number and identity of isomers thereof, and the theoretical mass spectrum. Provisions for data mining enable assessment of the number of products having a chosen pattern of substituents. Examples include derivatization of an octa-substituted phthalocyanine with eight reagents to afford a library of 2,099,728 members (yet only 6435 distinct substituent combinations) and reversible reaction of six distinct disubstituted pyrroles to afford 2649 members (yet only 126 distinct substituent combinations). In general, libraries of substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycles occupy a synthetically accessible region of chemical space that is rich in isomers (>99% or 95% for the two examples, respectively).

  14. On the mass-spectrum relation for the main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svechnikov, M.A.; Tajdakova, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    From 240 main-sequence stars with well-determined masses, a new mass-spectrum relation is obtained, which differs appreciably in certain intervals of spectral types from the mass-spectrum relations of Allen and Trimble. The accuracy of mass determination for the components of eclipsing binary systems of different types from their spectra given in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (3rd edition) and in its supplements is evaluated

  15. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using ∼150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses 10 M ☉ . There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10 10 M ☉ . At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10 10 M ☉ is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  16. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Yates, R. M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  17. Characterization and analysis of structural isomers of dimethyl methoxypyrazines in cork stoppers and ladybugs (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabizki, Petra; Legrum, Charlotte; Meusinger, Reinhard; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2014-10-01

    The three constitutional isomers of dimethyl-substituted methoxypyrazines: 3,5-dimethyl-2-methoxypyrazine 1; 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine 2; and 2,3-dimethyl-5-methoxypyrazine 3 are potent flavor compounds with similar mass spectrometric, gas chromatographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic behavior. Therefore, unambiguous analytical determination is critical, particularly in complex matrices. The unequivocal identification of 1-3 could be achieved by homo- and heteronuclear NMR correlation experiments. The observed mass fragmentation for 1-3 is proposed and discussed, benefitting from synthesized partially deuterated 1 and 2. On common polar and apolar stationary phases used in gas chromatography (GC) 1 and 2 show similar behavior whereas 3 can be separated. In our focus on off-flavor analysis with respect to wine aroma, 1 has been described as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork and 2 as a constituent in Harmonia axyridis contributing to the so-called "ladybug taint," whereas 3 has not yet been described as a constituent of wine aroma. A successful separation of 1 and 2 could be achieved on octakis-(2,3-di-O-pentyl-6-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin as stationary phase in GC. Applying heart-cut multidimensional GC analysis with tandem mass spectrometric detection we could confirm the presence of 1 as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork. However, in the case of Harmonia axyridis, a previous identification of 2 has to be reconsidered. In our experiments we identified the constitutional isomer 1, which was also found in Coccinella septempunctata, another species discussed with respect to the "ladybug taint." The analysis of such structurally related compounds is a demonstrative example for the importance of a chromatographic separation, as mass spectrometric data by itself could not guarantee the unequivocal identification.

  18. Colour isomers in multiquark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegaasen, H.

    1979-01-01

    If we select configurations where a high angular momentum separates coloured groups of quarks the states can be sufficiently stable to show up as resonances. The kind of states I shall talk about are mesons of the following kind (C=6,7), (C=3 bar,3) and baryons: (C=8,8), (C=6 bar,6). In each state the quarks on each end of the colourelectric flux tube are taken to be in relative s-waves. Models for baryonium and of narrow mesobaryonium states have been proposed on the basis of these configurations. The theoretical input in these models is an extrapolation of what is known about quark-quark interactions from ordinary q anti q and qqq spectroscopy. (author)

  19. An embedding for general relativity with variable rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest currently in theories of gravity where rest masses vary slowly with time. A new theory of this type is proposed which is believed to be superior to others, and which contains Einstein's theory embedded within it. The theory is five dimensional, where the extra coordinate is x 4 is equivalent to Gm/c 2 (G is the Newtonian gravitational parameter, c the velocity of light, and m the mass). The theory reduces to Einstein's if w is equivalent to (G/c 3 ) dm/dt = O and the fifth dimension is absent. The theory agrees with observation provided w << 1, but the size of w in the real world can only be determined by experiment. (author)

  20. Communication: "Position" does matter: The photofragmentation of the nitroimidazole isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, P.; Casavola, A. R.; Cartoni, A.; Richter, R.; Markus, P.; Borocci, S.; Chiarinelli, J.; Tošić, S.; Sa'adeh, H.; Masič, M.; Marinković, B. P.; Prince, K. C.; Avaldi, L.

    2016-11-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has been used to disentangle the fundamental mechanisms of the fragmentation of the three isomers of nitroimidazole induced by vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) radiation, namely, 4-, 5-, and 2-nitroimidazole. The results of mass spectrometry as well as photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy display striking differences in the radiation-induced decomposition of the different nitroimidazole radical cations. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a model is proposed which fully explains such differences, and reveals the subtle fragmentation mechanisms leading to the release of neutral species like NO, CO, and HCN. Such species have a profound impact in biological media and may play a fundamental role in radiosensitising mechanisms during radiotherapy.

  1. Natural and bioremediated selective degradation of polycyclic aromatic alkyl isomers in oil-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.; Uhler, A.; Porta, A.

    1995-01-01

    In studies where 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are determined as part of characterizing released oil constituents in environmental samples, the changes in composition of PAHs from weathering (e.g., evaporation, dissolution) and biodegradation are most often represented by PAH alkyl homologue distributions. Concentrations of PAH alkyl groups are the sum of individual PAH isomers of similar carbon number; such as for C2-naphthalenes, the C2 alkyl group consists of dimethyl and ethyl substitutions on the parent naphthalene. In weathering and degradation studies, the changes in relative concentration of the individual isomers within an alkyl group are rarely reported. In a field study of oiled soils, the authors looked at the selective losses, for a period of a year, of individual PAH alkyl isomers that occur both naturally by weathering processes and through the use of bioremediation technology. Results showed that decreases in alkyl group concentrations were not always represented by similar losses of each isomer in the alkyl group, but were often due to the preferential or selective loss of certain isomers in the group

  2. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  3. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION WITH THE DIRECT METHOD ON STACKED SPECTRA OF SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Martini, Paul, E-mail: andrews@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The relation between galaxy stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity is a sensitive diagnostic of the main processes that drive galaxy evolution, namely cosmological gas inflow, metal production in stars, and gas outflow via galactic winds. We employed the direct method to measure the metallicities of {approx}200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were stacked in bins of (1) stellar mass and (2) both stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the weak [O III] {lambda}4363 and [O II] {lambda}{lambda}7320, 7330 auroral lines required to apply the direct method. These metallicity measurements span three decades in stellar mass from log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 7.4-10.5, which allows the direct method mass-metallicity relation to simultaneously capture the high-mass turnover and extend a full decade lower in mass than previous studies that employed more uncertain strong line methods. The direct method mass-metallicity relation rises steeply at low mass (O/H {proportional_to} M{sub *} {sup 1/2}) until it turns over at log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 8.9 and asymptotes to 12 + log(O/H) = 8.8 at high mass. The direct method mass-metallicity relation has a steeper slope, a lower turnover mass, and a factor of two to three greater dependence on SFR than strong line mass-metallicity relations. Furthermore, the SFR-dependence appears monotonic with stellar mass, unlike strong line mass-metallicity relations. We also measure the N/O abundance ratio, an important tracer of star formation history, and find the clear signature of primary and secondary nitrogen enrichment. N/O correlates tightly with oxygen abundance, and even more so with stellar mass.

  4. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.

    1986-12-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references.

  5. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.; CNR, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati; Roma, Osservatorio Astronomico, Rome, Italy)

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references

  6. Mass Taxation and State-Society Relations in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Therkildsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Poll (‘head'''') tax has been the most common form of direct mass taxation in many sub-Saharan African countries since colonial times. Until very recently it was a dominant source of revenue for local governments. It has been a source of tension and conflict between state authorities and rural people from the colonial period until today, and a major catalyst for many rural rebellions. By tracing the history of poll taxes in Tanzania and Uganda, the chapter examines how these taxes have impact...

  7. Filtering overpopulated isoscalar tensor states with mass relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakovsky, Leonid; Page, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    Schwinger-type mass formulas are used to analyze glueball-meson mixing for isoscalar tensor mesons. In one solution, the f J (2220) is the physical glueball, and in the other the glueball is distributed over various states, with f 2 (1810) having the largest glueball component. Neither the f 2 (1565) nor the f J (1710) are among the physical states without assuming significant coupling to decay channels. The decay f 2 (1525)→ππ is consistent with experiment, and f J (2220) is neither narrow nor decays flavor democratically. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. The proportion of lycopene isomers in human plasma is modulated by lycopene isomer profile in the meal but not by lycopene preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Richelle, Myriam; Lambelet, Pierre; Rytz, Andreas; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Mermoud, Anne-France; Juhel, Christine; Borel, Patrick; Bortlik, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Dietary lycopene consists mostly of the (all-E) isomer. Upon absorption, (all-E) lycopene undergoes isomerisation into various (Z)-isomers. Because these isomers offer potentially better health benefits than the (all-E) isomer, the aim of the present study was to investigate if the profile of lycopene isomers in intestinal lipoproteins is affected by the profile of lycopene isomers in the meal and by the tomato preparation. Six postprandial, crossover tests were performed in healthy men. Thre...

  9. Study on the formation of fission isomer via 232Th + α reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The formation of fission isomer through 232 Th+α reaction is studied using the distance-recoil method, employing policarbonate MAKROFOL detector. The total isomeric half-life measured has the value T 1/2 = 0.23 ± 0.03 ns and an ratio of formation of isomeric fission relative to prompt fission(σ i /σ p =0.75x10 -5 ). According to the energy of incident particle (Eα = 28 MeV), the cross-sections presented in the literature and the low value found for the total isomeric half-life, we attribute these half-life value to the 234 U isomer (even-even nucleus). The results were compared with those existent in the literature (La69, E170, Re70, Wo70, Po70, Br71) for this isomer. (author) [pt

  10. Planck intermediate results: III. the relation between galaxy cluster mass and Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relation between the galaxy cluster mass M and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect signal DA2 Y500 for a sample of 19 objects for which weak lensing (WL) mass measurements obtained from Subaru Telescope data are available in the literature. Hydrostatic X-ray masses are derived from XMM-N...

  11. Differential Potency of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanol Isomers for Positive Modulation of GABAA Receptor Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Luvana; Croft, Celine J; Goel, Shikha; Zaman, Naina; Tai, Angela C-S; Walch, Erin M; Smith, Kelly; Page, Alexandra; Shea, Kevin M; Hall, C Dennis; Jishkariani, D; Pillai, Girinath G; Hall, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptors meet all of the pharmacological requirements necessary to be considered important targets for the action of general anesthetic agents in the mammalian brain. In the following patch-clamp study, the relative modulatory effects of 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol diastereomers were investigated on human GABAA (α1β3γ2s) receptor currents stably expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Cis,cis-, trans,trans-, and cis,trans-isomers were isolated from commercially available 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol and were tested for positive modulation of submaximal GABA responses. For example, the addition of 30 μM cis,cis-isomer resulted in an approximately 2- to 3-fold enhancement of the EC20 GABA current. Coapplications of 30 μM 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol isomers produced a range of positive enhancements of control GABA responses with a rank order for positive modulation: cis,cis > trans,trans ≥ mixture of isomers > > cis,trans-isomer. In molecular modeling studies, the three cyclohexanol isomers bound with the highest binding energies to a pocket within transmembrane helices M1 and M2 of the β3 subunit through hydrogen-bonding interactions with a glutamine at the 224 position and a tyrosine at the 220 position. The energies for binding to and hydrogen-bond lengths within this pocket corresponded with the relative potencies of the agents for positive modulation of GABAA receptor currents (cis,cis > trans,trans > cis,trans-2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol). In conclusion, the stereochemical configuration within the dimethylcyclohexanols is an important molecular feature in conferring positive modulation of GABAA receptor activity and for binding to the receptor, a consideration that needs to be taken into account when designing novel anesthetics with enhanced therapeutic indices. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Indications for primary cesarean delivery relative to body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M.; Landy, Helain J.; Iqbal, Sara N.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. Objective We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index kg/m2 classes to identify the factors contributing to the increase rate of cesarean among obese women. Study design In the Consortium of Safe Labor study between 2002 and 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, non-reassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, human immunodeficiency virus or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), obese class I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Chi-square tests were performed. Results Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7,329 multiparous women (9.5%) underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and non-reassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, class I, II and III obesity in nulliparous: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46

  13. Thermochemical study of the monobromonitrobenzene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Rocha, Ines M.

    2010-01-01

    The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, of the 2-, 3-, and 4-monobromonitrobenzene isomers, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. From the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures of these compounds, measured by the Knudsen effusion technique, their standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

  14. Isomers in neutron-rich A ∼ 190 nuclides from 208Pb fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Caamano, M.; Banu, A.; Walker, P.M.; Morton, N.H.; Regan, P. H.; Regan, Patrick H; Pfutzner, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Gerl, J.; Hellstrom, M.; Mayet, P.; Miernik, K.; Mineva, M.N.; Aprahamian, A.; Benlliure, J.; Bruce, A.M.; Butler, P.A.; Cortina Gil, D.; Cullen, D.M.; Doring, J.; Enqvist, T.; Fox, C.; Garces Narro, J.; Geissel, H.; Gelletly, W.; Giovinazzo, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Grzywacz, R.; Kleinbohl, A.; Korten, W.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lucas, R.; Mach, H.; O'Leary, C.D.; De Oliveira, F.; Pearson, C.J.; Rejmund, F.

    2004-01-01

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of 208 Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A ∼ 190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of gamma-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in 188 Ta, 190 W, 192 Re, 193 Re, 195 Os, 197 Ir, 198 Ir, 200 Pt, 201 Pt, 202 Pt and 203 Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for 174 Er, 175 Er, 185 Hf, 191 Re, 194 Re and 199 Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles gamma-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In 200 Pt and 201 Pt, the assignments are supported by gamma-gamma coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics

  15. Infrared spectroscopy of the acetyl cation and its protonated ketene isomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, J. D.; Young, J. W.; Duncan, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    [C2,H3,O]+ ions are generated with a pulsed discharge in a supersonic expansion containing methyl acetate or acetone. These ions are mass selected and their infrared spectra are recorded via laser photodissociation and the method of argon tagging. Computational chemistry is employed to investigate structural isomers and their spectra. The acetyl cation (CH3CO+) is the global minimum and protonated ketene (CH2COH+) is the next lowest energy isomer (+176.2 kJ/mol). When methyl acetate is employed as the precursor, the infrared spectrum reveals that only the acetyl cation is formed. Partially resolved rotational structure reveals rotation about the C3 axis. When acetone is used as the precursor, acetyl is still the most abundant cation, but there is also a minor component of protonated ketene. Computations reveal a significant barrier to interconversion between the two isomers (+221 kJ/mol), indicating that protonated ketene must be obtained via kinetic trapping. Both isomers may be present in interstellar environments, and their implications for astrochemistry are discussed.

  16. Fingerprints of Both Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen Isomers of the Isolated (Cytosine-Guanine)H+ Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ortiz, Andrés F; Rossa, Maximiliano; Berthias, Francis; Berdakin, Matías; Maitre, Philippe; Pino, Gustavo A

    2017-11-16

     Gas phase protonated guanine-cytosine (CGH + ) pair was generated using an electrospray ionization source from solutions at two different pH (5.8 and 3.2). Consistent evidence from MS/MS fragmentation patterns and differential ion mobility spectra (DIMS) point toward the presence of two isomers of the CGH + pair, whose relative populations depend strongly on the pH of the solution. Gas phase infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in the 900-1900 cm -1 spectral range further confirms that the Watson-Crick isomer is preferentially produced (91%) at pH = 5.8, while the Hoogsteen isomer predominates (66%) at pH = 3.2). These fingerprint signatures are expected to be useful for the development of new analytical methodologies and to trigger isomer selective photochemical studies of protonated DNA base pairs.

  17. A surface structural model for ferrihydrite I: Sites related to primary charge, molar mass, and mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2009-08-01

    A multisite surface complexation (MUSIC) model for ferrihydrite (Fh) has been developed. The surface structure and composition of Fh nanoparticles are described in relation to ion binding and surface charge development. The site densities of the various reactive surface groups, the molar mass, the mass density, the specific surface area, and the particle size are quantified. As derived theoretically, molecular mass and mass density of nanoparticles will depend on the types of surface groups and the corresponding site densities and will vary with particle size and surface area because of a relatively large contribution of the surface groups in comparison to the mineral core of nanoparticles. The nano-sized (˜2.6 nm) particles of freshly prepared 2-line Fh as a whole have an increased molar mass of M ˜ 101 ± 2 g/mol Fe, a reduced mass density of ˜3.5 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, both relatively to the mineral core. The specific surface area is ˜650 m 2/g. Six-line Fh (5-6 nm) has a molar mass of M ˜ 94 ± 2 g/mol, a mass density of ˜3.9 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, and a surface area of ˜280 ± 30 m 2/g. Data analysis shows that the mineral core of Fh has an average chemical composition very close to FeOOH with M ˜ 89 g/mol. The mineral core has a mass density around ˜4.15 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, which is between that of feroxyhyte, goethite, and lepidocrocite. These results can be used to constrain structural models for Fh. Singly-coordinated surface groups dominate the surface of ferrihydrite (˜6.0 ± 0.5 nm -2). These groups can be present in two structural configurations. In pairs, the groups either form the edge of a single Fe-octahedron (˜2.5 nm -2) or are present at a single corner (˜3.5 nm -2) of two adjacent Fe octahedra. These configurations can form bidentate surface complexes by edge- and double-corner sharing, respectively, and may therefore respond differently to the binding of ions such as uranyl, carbonate, arsenite, phosphate, and others. The relatively low PZC of

  18. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities vc. We again use the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for v>c is defined by the equation m(v=m0(v[(v/c2-1]-1/2 for the actual mass m(v. The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗/c, assuming finite momentum at infinity are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M(U,m(u and (M∗(U,m∗(u although distinct have a common ratio M(U/M∗(U=m(u/m∗(u that is a function of v>c, indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  19. Electronic single-molecule identification of carbohydrate isomers by recognition tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jongone; Biswas, Sovan; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Yanan; Sen, Suman; Biswas, Sudipta; Ashcroft, Brian; Borges, Chad; Wang, Xu; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming

    2016-12-01

    Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which a hydroxy group at C-1 takes different orientations) and each pair of sugars can form different epimers (isomers around the stereocentres connecting the sugars). This leads to a vast combinatorial complexity, intractable to mass spectrometry and requiring large amounts of sample for NMR characterization. Combining measurements of collision cross section with mass spectrometry (IM-MS) helps, but many isomers are still difficult to separate. Here, we show that recognition tunnelling (RT) can classify many anomers and epimers via the current fluctuations they produce when captured in a tunnel junction functionalized with recognition molecules. Most importantly, RT is a nanoscale technique utilizing sub-picomole quantities of analyte. If integrated into a nanopore, RT would provide a unique approach to sequencing linear polysaccharides.

  20. Quark mass relations to four-loop order in perturbative QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Peter; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smirnov, Vladimir A; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2015-04-10

    We present results for the relation between a heavy quark mass defined in the on-shell and minimal subtraction (MS[over ¯]) scheme to four-loop order. The method to compute the four-loop on-shell integral is briefly described and the new results are used to establish relations between various short-distance masses and the MS[over ¯] quark mass to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy. These relations play an important role in the accurate determination of the MS[over ¯] heavy quark masses.

  1. Isomer spectroscopy of {sup 125,127}Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Pietri, S. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Caceres, L. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Departmento de Fisicia Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Jungclaus, A. [Departmento de Fisicia Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Pfuetzner, M. [IEP, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Regan, P.H; Podolyak, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Rudolf, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The results of investigations of isomeric decay in odd mass heavy Cd isotopes namely {sup 125,127}Cd are reported. To date information has been obtained on even mass heavy Cd isotopes and the systematics show evolution of single particle energies for them. The experiment was performed at GSI, Darmstadt to investigate the single particle level structure of odd mass heavy Cd isotopes. Nuclei of interest were produced in fragmentation reaction of {sup 136}Xe beam at energy 750MeV/u on a {sup 9}Be target of 4g/cm{sup 2} thickness. Selection of ions from unwanted reaction products and event by event identification was facilitated by FRagment Separator (FRS). Isomers populated in the reaction were implanted in a plastic catcher surrounded by 15 Ge cluster detectors from RISING array to detect gamma radiations. Level schemes based on the intensity balance and life time information were constructed for the first time for these nuclei. Comparison of the experimental results with shell model calculation are discussed.

  2. Quantum Zeno paradox and decay of the 235m U isomer in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The known quantum Zeno paradox is considered from microscopic viewpoint as applied to observation of nuclear decay. It is shown that some phenomena, related with this paradox can produce sufficient effect on the constant of 235m U isomer decay during its implantation in metallic matrices. 43 refs., 3 figs

  3. Stability Computations for Isomers of La@Cn (n = 72, 74, 76

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Adamowicz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Density-functional theory calculations are presented for low-energy La@C72, La@C74 and La@C76 isomers with IPR (isolated pentagon rule and non-IPR cages. The relative isomeric production yields at high temperatures are evaluated using the calculated terms, and the relationships to observations are discussed.

  4. Structures, stabilities, aromaticity, and electronic properties of C66 fullerene isomers, anions (C662-, C664-, C666-), and metallofullerenes (Sc2-C66)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yanhong; Tian, Wei Quan; Feng Jikang; Chen Deli

    2010-01-01

    Among all the 4478 classical isomers of C 66 , C 66 (C s :0060) with the lowest number of pentagon-pentagon fusions was predicted to be the most stable isomer, followed by isomers C 66 (C 2v :0011) and C 66 (C 2 :0083). The infrared spectra and aromaticity of the most stable isomers were predicted. The relative stabilities of C 66 isomers change with charges or doping of metals. The structures and relative stabilities of the most stable metallofullerenes were delineated and compared with experiment. Sc 2 -C 66 (C 2 :0083) was predicted to be the most stable metallofullerene, although Sc 2 -C 66 (C 2v :0011) was observed. Charge-transfer from Sc 2 to the fused pentagons and the bonding between these two moieties significantly decrease the strain energies caused by the pair of fused pentagons thereby stabilizing the fullerene cage.

  5. Characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, G.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for nuclear fission is written in the two part fragmentation approach which allows to obtain the characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products. One explains the resonance approximation in the mass distribution of the fission products taking into account the high order resonances too. (author)

  6. The g-factor of the K=25 isomer in sup 182 Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, A.; Fallon, P.; Goldring, G.; Roberts, J.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.; Twin P. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab.); Bentley, M.; Bruce, A. (Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.); Broude, C. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Physics); Dafni, E. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Nuclear Structure Research Lab.); Hass, M. (Argonne National Lab. (USA)); Nyberg, J.; Sletten, G. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1989-09-28

    The g-factor of the K=I=25 isomer in {sup 182}Os has been measured by observing the angular precession of the decay {gamma}-ray angular distribution in an external magnetic field as g=+0.425(8). This result is compared with predictions based on experimental g-factors of single-particle Nilsson orbitals in this mass region. (orig.).

  7. The white dwarf mass-radius relation with Gaia, Hubble and FUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Simon R. G.; Barstow, Martin A.; Casewell, Sarah L.; Holberg, Jay B.; Bond, Howard E.

    2018-04-01

    White dwarfs are becoming useful tools for many areas of astronomy. They can be used as accurate chronometers over Gyr timescales. They are also clues to the history of star formation in our galaxy. Many of these studies require accurate estimates of the mass of the white dwarf. The theoretical mass-radius relation is often invoked to provide these mass estimates. While the theoretical mass-radius relation is well developed, observational tests of this relation show a much larger scatter in the results than expected. High precision observational tests to confirm this relation are required. Gaia is providing distance measurements which will remove one of the main source of uncertainty affecting most previous observations. We combine Gaia distances with spectra from the Hubble and FUSE satelites to make precise tests of the white dwarf mass-radius relation.

  8. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-06

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  9. LEMS: application of the method to study the static quadrupole moment of the K=35/2 isomer in 179W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyens, G.; Vyvey, K.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Blaha, P.

    1997-01-01

    The method of the level mixing spectroscopy (LEMS) was applied for the first time for the study of the static quadrupole moments of high-K isomers in the A∼180 mass region. Results from a preliminary experiment for the static quadrupole moment of the 35/2 - (750 ns) isomer in 179 W give a limit for its upper value Q 2 <0.343. (orig.). With 1 fig

  10. Anaerobic Degradation of Lindane and Other HCH Isomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehboob, F.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Schraa, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Lindane (¿-HCH) is a pesticide that has mainly been used in agriculture. Lindane and the other HCH isomers are highly chlorinated hydrocarbons. The presence of a large number of electron withdrawing chlorine groups makes some of the HCH isomers rather recalcitrant in oxic environments. Especially

  11. Search for isomers in nuclei near N = 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taras, P.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Styczen, J.

    1979-01-01

    Targets of sup (58, 60, 61, 62, 64) Ni, Co, and Cu have been bombarded with 42 MeV 16 O beams. Several isomers were produced but no new isomer was found, in particular in 74 Kr which is expected to be a good candidate for yrast traps in the N = 50 region. (author)

  12. Isomer 103Rh excitation in the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpatov, V.G.; Berezkin, V.V.; Vysotskij, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Rhodium foil targets were irradiated by a beam of electrons from a linear accelerator containing a minor impurity of bremsstrahlung. X-ray and γ-quanta from decay of 103m Rh isomer states were detected. The ratio of isomer cross section activation by bremsstrahlung, formed in the target, and electrons, equals 89. 7 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Evidence for an isomer in {sup 76}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicka, M.; Pfuetzner, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00-681, Warszawa (Poland); Grzywacz, R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00-681, Warszawa (Poland); Physics Division, ORNL, TN 37831-6371, Oak Ridge (United States); Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Sauvestre, J.E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel DIF/DPTA/SPN, BP 12, F-91680, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Matea, I.; Lewitowicz, M.; Georgiev, G. [GANIL, BP 5027, F-14021, Caen Cedex (France); Grawe, H.; Mayet, P. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, F. [GANIL, BP 5027, F-14021, Caen Cedex (France); GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Bingham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, TN 37996, Knoxville (United States); Borcea, R.; Hammache, F.; Ibrahim, F. [IPN, 91406, Orsay Cedex (France); Bouchez, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Buta, A.; Dragulescu, E. [IFIN-HH, P.O. Box MG6, 76900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Giovinazzo, J. [CENBG, BP 120, F-33175, Gradignan Cedex (France); Meot, V.; Negoita, F.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Perru, O.; Roig, O.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Theisen, C.; Verney, D.

    2004-04-01

    In the experiment performed at the LISE2000 spectrometer at GANIL neutron-rich nickel isotopes were studied by microsecond isomer spectroscopy. Evidence for an isomer in {sup 76}Ni is found, consistently with the shell model prediction of an 8{sup +} state of {nu}(g{sub 9/2}){sup 2} structure. (orig.)

  14. Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers in Eye Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Julie

    2016-07-17

    Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources. The prevalence of lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin in supplements is increasing. Setting optimal and safe ranges of intake requires additional research, particularly in pregnant and lactating women. Accumulating evidence about variable interindividual response to dietary intake of these carotenoids, based on genetic or metabolic influences, suggests that there may be subgroups that benefit from higher levels of intake and/or alternate strategies to improve lutein and zeaxanthin status.

  15. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  16. Energetics and Vibrational Analysis of Methyl Salicylate Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Richard D.; Dai, Yafei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2009-08-01

    Energetics and vibrational analysis study of six isomers of methyl salicylate in their singlet ground state and first excited triple state is put forward in this work at the density functional theory level and large basis sets. The ketoB isomer is the lowest energy isomer, followed by its rotamer ketoA. For both ketoB and ketoA their enolized tautomers are found to be stable as well as their open forms that lack the internal hydrogen bond. The calculated vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement with IR experiments of methyl salicylate in the vapor phase. It is demonstrated that solvent effects have a weak influence on the stability of these isomers. The ionization reaction from ketoB to ketoA shows a high barrier of 0.67 eV ensuring that thermal and chemical equilibria yield systems containing mostly the ketoB isomer at normal conditions.

  17. Optimization of a Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for High-Throughput Analysis of Nicotine and Related Compounds: Application to Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Giri, Anupam; Wenzl, Thomas

    2016-06-21

    Fast market penetration of electronic cigarettes is leading to an exponentially growing number of electronic refill liquids with different nicotine contents and an endless list of flavors. Therefore, rapid and simple methods allowing a fast screening of these products are necessary to detect harmful substances which can negatively impact the health of consumers. In this regard, the present work explores the capabilities of differential ion mobility spectrometry coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for high-throughput analysis of nicotine and 11 related compounds in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. The influence of main factors affecting the ion mobility separation, such as modifier types and concentration, separation voltage, and temperature, was systematically investigated. Despite small molecular weight differences among the studied compounds, a good separation was achieved in the ion mobility cell under the optimized conditions, which involved the use of ethanol as a polar gas-phase chemical modifier. Indeed, differential ion mobility was able to resolve (resolution >4) nicotine from its structural isomer anabasine without the use of any chromatographic separation. The quantitative performance of the proposed method was then evaluated, showing satisfactory precision (RSD ≤ 16%) and recoveries ranging from 85 to 100% for nicotine, and from 84 to 126% for the rest of the target analytes. Several commercial electronic cigarette refill liquids were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the method. In some cases, significant differences were found between labeled and measured levels of nicotine. Anatabine, cotinine, myosmine, and nornicotine were also found in some of the analyzed samples.

  18. Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 2H, 13C, 18O, and 37Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers

    OpenAIRE

    Branton, Alice; Trivedi, Dahryn; Nayak, Gopal; Trivedi, Mahendra; Saikia, Gunin; Jana, Snehasis

    2016-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or 13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP...

  19. Short-lived isomers in 94Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Dare, J. A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Simpson, G. S.; Urban, W.; Soldner, T.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Scherillo, A.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Zlomaniec, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B. J. P.; Roux, B.

    2008-01-01

    The medium-spin structure of the neutron-rich, odd-odd nucleus 94 Rb was studied by means of γ-ray spectroscopy. Excited levels were populated in the neutron-induced fission of 235 U and in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf and 248 Cm. Two isomeric states were found at 1485.2 and 2074.8 keV with half-lives of 18 and 107 ns, respectively. The probable structures of the two isomers involve the fully aligned, proton-neutron configurations [π(g 9/2 ) x ν(g 7/2 )] 8 + and [π(g 9/2 ) x ν(h 11/2 )] 10 - , respectively. These new data give information on the single-particle energies in the region

  20. Optimization of C20 isomers structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndjaka, J.M.B.; Charlier, J.C.

    2001-07-01

    We have performed geometry optimization of various possible planar and three-dimensional C 20 geometries. The planar structures considered include a linear chain, a monoclinic ring, and a bicyclic bow tie; while the three-dimensional geometric; consisted of a bowl or corranulene structure and a fullerene cage. In agreement with Wang et al MP2's calculations, our results predict the corranulene bowl to be the lowest energy structure. From the ground state geometry to the highest energy, considered C 20 structures, listed in increasing energy, are bowl, cage, bow tie, ring and chain. For the ring and bow tie isomers, the shape of the optimized structure deviates from that of the initial configuration; while the shape of the optimised bowl, cage and chain remain unchanged. (author)

  1. The V Band Empirical Mass-Luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, F.; Fu, Y. N.

    2010-01-01

    Stellar mass is an indispensable parameter in the studies of stellar physics and stellar dynamics. On the one hand, the most reliable way to determine the stellar dynamical mass is via orbital determination of binaries. On the other hand, however, most stellar masses have to be estimated by using the mass-luminosity relation (MLR). Therefore, it is important to obtain the empirical MLR through fitting the data of stellar dynamical mass and luminosity. The effect of metallicity can make this relation disperse in the V-band, but studies show that this is mainly limited to the case when the stellar mass is less than 0.6M⊙. Recently, many relevant data have been accumulated for main sequence stars with larger mass, which make it possible to significantly improve the corresponding MLR. Using a fitting method which can reasonably assign weight to the observational data including two quantities with different dimensions, we obtain a V-band MLR based on the dynamical masses and luminosities of 203 main sequence stars. Compared with the previous work, the improved MLR is statistically significant, and the relative error of mass estimation reaches about 5%. Therefore, our MLR is useful not only in studies of statistical nature, but also in studies of concrete stellar systems, such as the long-term dynamical study and the short-term positioning study of a specific multiple star system.

  2. The V-band Empirical Mass-luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Fu, Yan-Ning

    2010-07-01

    Stellar mass is an indispensable parameter in the studies of stellar physics and stellar dynamics. On the one hand, the most reliable way to determine the stellar dynamical mass is via orbital determinations of binaries. On the other hand, however, most stellar masses have to be estimated by using the mass luminosity relation (MLR). Therefore, it is important to obtain the empirical MLR through fitting the data of stellar dynamical mass and luminosity. The effect of metallicity can make this relation disperse in the V-band, but studies show that this is mainly limited to the case when the stellar mass is less than 0.6M⊙ Recently, many relevant data have been accumulated for main sequence stars with larger masses, which make it possible to significantly improve the corresponding MLR. Using a fitting method which can reasonably assign weights to the observational data including two quantities with different dimensions, we obtain a V-band MLR based on the dynamical masses and luminosities of 203 main sequence stars. In comparison with the previous work, the improved MLR is statistically significant, and the relative error of mass estimation reaches about 5%. Therefore, our MLR is useful not only in the studies of statistical nature, but also in the studies of concrete stellar systems, such as the long-term dynamical study and the short-term positioning study of a specific multiple star system.

  3. Reprint of: Energetics of 2- and 3-coumaranone isomers: A combined calorimetric and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Clara C.S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation, sublimation of 2- and 3-coumaranone. • Mini-bomb combustion calorimetry, sublimation Calvet microcalorimetry. • DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. • Theoretical estimate of the enthalpy of formation of isobenzofuranone. • Chemical shift (NICS) and the relative stability of the isomers. - Abstract: Condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for 2-coumaranone and 3-coumaranone were derived from the standard molar enthalpies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by mini-bomb combustion calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of both isomers were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. These results were combined to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds, in gas phase, at T = 298.15 K. Additionally, accurate quantum chemical calculations have been performed using DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. Theoretical estimates of the enthalpies of formation of the compounds are in good agreement with the experimental values thus supporting the predictions of the same parameters for isobenzofuranone, an isomer which has not been experimentally studied. The relative stability of these isomers has been evaluated by experimental and computational results. The importance of some stabilizing electronic intramolecular interactions has been studied and quantitatively evaluated through Natural Bonding Orbital (NBO) analysis of the wave functions and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) of the studied systems have been calculated in order to study and establish the effect of electronic delocalization upon the relative stability of the isomers

  4. Energetics of 2- and 3-coumaranone isomers: A combined calorimetric and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Clara C.S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation, sublimation of 2- and 3-coumaranone. • Mini-bomb combustion calorimetry, sublimation Calvet microcalorimetry. • DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. • Theoretical estimate of the enthalpy of formation of isobenzofuranone. • Chemical shift (NICS) and the relative stability of the isomers. -- Abstract: Condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for 2-coumaranone and 3-coumaranone were derived from the standard molar enthalpies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by mini-bomb combustion calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of both isomers were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. These results were combined to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds, in gas phase, at T = 298.15 K. Additionally, accurate quantum chemical calculations have been performed using DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. Theoretical estimates of the enthalpies of formation of the compounds are in good agreement with the experimental values thus supporting the predictions of the same parameters for isobenzofuranone, an isomer which has not been experimentally studied. The relative stability of these isomers has been evaluated by experimental and computational results. The importance of some stabilizing electronic intramolecular interactions has been studied and quantitatively evaluated through Natural Bonding Orbital (NBO) analysis of the wave functions and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) of the studied systems have been calculated in order to study and establish the effect of electronic delocalization upon the relative stability of the isomers

  5. Combining density functional theory (DFT) and collision cross-section (CCS) calculations to analyze the gas-phase behaviour of small molecules and their protonation site isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmans, Jasper; Jacobs, Sam; Williams, Jonathan P; Palmer, Martin; Richardson, Keith; Giles, Kevin; Lapthorn, Cris; Herrebout, Wouter A; Lemière, Filip; Sobott, Frank

    2016-06-20

    Electrospray ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) data show that for some small molecules, two (or even more) ions with identical sum formula and mass, but distinct drift times are observed. In spite of showing their own unique and characteristic fragmentation spectra in MS/MS, no configurational or constitutional isomers are found to be present in solution. Instead the observation and separation of such ions appears to be inherent to their gas-phase behaviour during ion mobility experiments. The origin of multiple drift times is thought to be the result of protonation site isomers ('protomers'). Although some important properties of protomers have been highlighted by other studies, correlating the experimental collision cross-sections (CCSs) with calculated values has proven to be a major difficulty. As a model, this study uses the pharmaceutical compound melphalan and a number of related molecules with alternative (gas-phase) protonation sites. Our study combines density functional theory (DFT) calculations with modified MobCal methods (e.g. nitrogen-based Trajectory Method algorithm) for the calculation of theoretical CCS values. Calculated structures can be linked to experimentally observed signals, and a strong correlation is found between the difference of the calculated dipole moments of the protomer pairs and their experimental CCS separation.

  6. Adsorption of xylene para- and meta- isomers in NaX and BaX zeolites. Study of properties-structure relations; Adsorption des isomeres para- et meta- du xylene dans les zeolithes NaX et BaX. Etude des relations proprietes-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descours, A.

    1997-02-14

    The separation of para-xylene from C8 aromatics is performed industrially bu adsorption process on zeolitic molecular sieves. The sorption properties of these zeolites are strongly linked to their structure, and their comprehension require an accurate knowledge of the interactions between sorbate molecules and zeolitic structure. The aim of this work is to characterise from a structural point of view the adsorption of para- and meta-xylenes in BaX and NaX zeolites. The former is selective for para-xylene, and the latter has not selective properties for para- and meta-isomers of xylene. For each zeolite, the adsorption of pure para-xylene and meta-xylene or a mixture of the two isomers, is investigated as a function of coverage. Powder neutron diffraction is used to determine the crystalline structure of these zeolites and the different crystallographic adsorption sites of the molecules. The influence of coverage on sorbate-sorbent and sorbate-sorbate interactions is investigated. Infrared spectroscopy allows to determine the chemical environment of the sorbate molecules at low coverage or when the coverage increases, and is particularly effective for the study of the binary mixture of xylenes. This study is performed by sorbing a mixture of xylene isomers, or by sorbing these isomers successively. Infrared studies and crystallographic analysis are compared in order to get a consistent description of adsorption mechanism of xylene isomers for both zeolites as a function of coverage. The role of coverage, of cation type, an the presence of the two xylene isomers is the super-cages is essential. For both zeolites, the increase of coverage actually leads to steric hindrances between sorbed molecules and molecular rearrangements. These reorganizations are connected to the cationic distribution of NaX and BaX zeolites. The sorbed molecules are connected to the cationic distribution of NaX and BaX zeolites. The sorbed molecules are particularly confined in BaX zeolite

  7. Conservation laws for a system of two point masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibaut; Deruelle, Nathalie

    1981-01-01

    We study the symmetries of the generalized lagrangian of two point masses, in the post-post newtonian approximation of General Relativity. We deduce, via Noether's theorem, conservation laws for energy, linear and angular momentum, as well as a generalisation of the center-of-mass theorem [fr

  8. Determination of the Relative Atomic Masses of Metals by Liberation of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorne, W. Earle; Rous, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Students determine the relative atomic masses of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum by reaction with hydrochloric acid and measurement of the volume of hydrogen gas liberated. The experiment demonstrates stoichiometry and illustrates clearly that mass of the reagent is not the determinant of the amounts in chemical reactions. The experiment is…

  9. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...

  10. Color-size Relations of Disc Galaxies with Similar Stellar Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, W.; Chang, R. X.; Shen, S. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between colors and sizes of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses, a sample of 7959 local face-on disc galaxies is collected from the main galaxy sample of the Seventh Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Our results show that, under the condition that the stellar masses of disc galaxies are similar, the relation between u-r and size is weak, while g-r, r-i and r-z colors decrease with disk size. This means that the color-size relations of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses do exist, i.e., the more extended disc galaxies with similar stellar masses tend to have bluer colors. An artificial sample is constructed to confirm that this correlation is not driven by the color-stellar mass relations and size-stellar mass relation of disc galaxies. Our results suggest that the mass distribution of disk galaxies may have an important influence on their stellar formation history, i.e., the galaxies with more extended mass distribution evolve more slowly.

  11. Halo Profiles and the Concentration–Mass Relation for a ΛCDM Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Hillary L.; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Frontiere, Nicholas; Finkel, Hal; Pope, Adrian; Morozov, Vitali

    2018-05-01

    Profiles of dark matter-dominated halos at the group and cluster scales play an important role in modern cosmology. Using results from two very large cosmological N-body simulations, which increase the available volume at their mass resolution by roughly two orders of magnitude, we robustly determine the halo concentration–mass (c‑M) relation over a wide range of masses, employing multiple methods of concentration measurement. We characterize individual halo profiles, as well as stacked profiles, relevant for galaxy–galaxy lensing and next-generation cluster surveys; the redshift range covered is 0 ≤ z ≤ 4, with a minimum halo mass of M 200c ∼ 2 × 1011 M ⊙. Despite the complexity of a proper description of a halo (environmental effects, merger history, nonsphericity, relaxation state), when the mass is scaled by the nonlinear mass scale M ⋆(z), we find that a simple non-power-law form for the c–M/M ⋆ relation provides an excellent description of our simulation results across eight decades in M/M ⋆ and for 0 ≤ z ≤ 4. Over the mass range covered, the c–M relation has two asymptotic forms: an approximate power law below a mass threshold M/M ⋆ ∼ 500–1000, transitioning to a constant value, c 0 ∼ 3 at higher masses. The relaxed halo fraction decreases with mass, transitioning to a constant value of ∼0.5 above the same mass threshold. We compare Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) and Einasto fits to stacked profiles in narrow mass bins at different redshifts; as expected, the Einasto profile provides a better description of the simulation results. At cluster scales at low redshift, however, both NFW and Einasto profiles are in very good agreement with the simulation results, consistent with recent weak lensing observations.

  12. Study of the odd-${A}$, high-spin isomers in neutron-deficient trans-lead nuclei with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Stanja, J; Huyse, M L; Wienholtz, F

    We propose to measure the excitation energy of the $\\frac{13^{+}}{2}$ isomers in the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{193,195,197}$Po with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer. The assignment of the low- and high-spin isomers will be made by measuring the energy of the $\\alpha$- particles emitted in the decay of purified beams implanted in a windmill system. Using $\\alpha$-decay information, it is then also possible to determine the excitation energy of the similar isomers in the $\\alpha$-daughter nuclei $^{189,191,193}$Pb, $\\alpha$-parent nuclei $^{197,199,201}$Rn, and $\\alpha$-grand-parent nuclei $^{201,203,205}$Ra. The polonium beams are produced with a UC$_{\\textrm{x}}$ target and using the RILIS.

  13. Profiling of the Molecular Weight and Structural Isomer Abundance of Macroalgae-Derived Phlorotannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Heffernan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4–12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs. These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds.

  14. Application of terahertz spectroscopy and theoretical calculation in dimethylurea isomers investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghong; Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huo; Qin, Binyi; Wu, Yifang

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of two structural isomers of dimethylurea(DMU) in 0.6-1.8 THz region have been measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THZ-TDS) at room temperature. Significant differences have been found between their terahertz spectra and implied that the THZ-TDS is an effective means of identifying structural isomers. To simulate their spectra, calculations on single molecule and cluster of 1,1-DMU and 1,3-DMU were performed, and we found that the cluster calculations using DFT-D3 method are better to predict the experimental spectra. Using the normal mode as displacements in redundant internal coordinates and the GaussView program, most observed THz vibrational modes are assigned to bending and rocking modes related to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions, and twisting mode of ethyl groups. The different spectral features of two isomers mainly arise from different intermolecular hydrogen bonds resulting from different atom arrangements in molecules and different molecule arrangements in crystals. Using the reduced-density-gradient (RDG) analysis, the positions and types of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in 1,1-DMU and 1,3-DMU crystals are visualized. Therefore, we can confirm that THz-TDS can be used as an effective means for the recognition of structural isomers and detection of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in these crystals.

  15. The 2MASS Tully-Fisher Relation and Local Peculiar Velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    This study assesses the utility of applying the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation using photometric data from the 2MASS project. This is achieved by performing a preliminary analysis using 2MASS extended source data with the SCI sample of Giovanelli et al. (1997). Distances and peculiar velocities are measured for 11 clusters out to approx. 75/h Mpc. Statistics are found to be limited by the 47% coverage of the current 2MASS second incremental release. However, the 2MASS J, H and K-band photometry p...

  16. Source-oriented risk assessment of inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and contributions of non-priority isomers in urban Nanjing, a megacity located in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shaojie; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Ying; Du, Wei; Pan, Xuelian; Li, Tongchao; Han, Yang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Sixteen U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eleven non-priority isomers including some dibenzopyrenes were analyzed to evaluate health risk attributable to inhalation exposure to ambient PAHs and contributions of the non-priority PAHs in a megacity Nanjing, east China. The annual average mass concentration of the total 16 EPA priority PAHs in air was 51.1 ± 29.8 ng/m 3 , comprising up to 93% of the mass concentration of all 27 PAHs, however, the estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) due to inhalation exposure would be underestimated by 63% on average if only accounting the 16 EPA priority PAHs. The risk would be underestimated by 13% if only particulate PAHs were considered, though gaseous PAHs made up to about 70% of the total mass concentration. During the last fifteen years, ambient Benzo[a]pyrene decreased significantly in the city which was consistent with the declining trend of PAHs emissions. Source contributions to the estimated ILCR were much different from the contributions for the total mass concentration, calling for the introduce of important source-oriented risk assessments. Emissions from gasoline vehicles contributed to 12% of the total mass concentration of 27 PAHs analyzed, but regarding relative contributions to the overall health risk, gasoline vehicle emissions contributed 45% of the calculated ILCR. Dibenzopyrenes were a group of non-priority isomers largely contributing to the calculated ILCR, and vehicle emissions were probably important sources of these high molecular weight isomers. Ambient dibenzo[a,l]pyrene positively correlated with the priority PAH Benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The study indicates that inclusion of non-priority PAHs could be valuable for both PAH source apportionment and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of tissue-retainable methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyl isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, K.; Kuroki, H.; Masuda, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-six positional isomers of methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls (MSF-PCBs) have been synthesized by three synthetic routes: (1) the diazo coupling reaction of 3-(methylsulfonyl)chloroaniline with chlorobenzene; (2) nucleophilic substitution of PCB with methanethiolate and successive oxidation of the corresponding methyl sulfide; (3) the diazo coupling reaction of chloroaniline with chlorothioanisole and successive oxidation of the methyl sulfide. Pure isomers were characterized by their proton magnetic resonance and mass spectra and used to unambiguously identify the MSF metabolites retained in human tissues by using high-resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC). The GC analysis showed that 40 MSF derivatives were positively identified in the tissue of a patient with Yusho on the basis of comparisons of their GC retention data with those of the standard compounds

  18. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (APB) phenyl ring positional isomers in internet purchased products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczuk, Andrzej; Morris, Noreen; Gardner, Elizabeth A; Kavanagh, Pierce

    2013-04-01

    5-(2-Aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB), a 'research chemical' that was first reported by UK authorities to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) in 2010, is anecdotally reported to produce a combination of stimulant and entactogenic effects. More recently, in 2011, 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB) was identified by Hungarian authorities. To confirm positional isomer identity in Internet purchased products, 4- 5- 6- and 7-APBs were synthesized and found to be separable by gas chromatography (as heptafluorobutyramide derivatives) and liquid chromatography. The analyses of products purchased from online vendors of 'research chemicals' identified the presence of 5- or 6-APBs. These findings were further confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In products containing 6-APB, the 4- positional isomer was also identified and this may have arisen during the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  20. Efficient synthesis and physicochemical characterization of natural danshensu, its S isomer and intermediates thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoryk, Katarzyna; Filip, Katarzyna; Cmoch, Piotr; Łaszcz, Marta; Cybulski, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis and molecular structure details of R- 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid (danshensu) and related compounds, i.e. S isomer and the key intermediates have been described. Danshensu is an important water soluble phenolic acid of Salvia miltiorrhiza herb (danshen or red sag) with numerous applications in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Our synthetic approach was based on the Knoevenagel condensation of the protected 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyd and Meldrum acid derivative, followed by asymmetric Sharples dihydroxylation, reductive mono dehydroxylation and final deprotection. All compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques: 1H-, 13C- magnetic resonance (NMR); Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR); Raman, HR mass spectroscopy. For the determination of compound optical purities original HPLC methods were developed which allowed for the efficient resolution of danshensu R and S enantiomers as well as its intermediate enantiomers, using commercially available chiral stationary phases. Furthermore, in order to better understand danshensu specificity as a potential API in drug formulation, the physicochemical properties of the compounds were studied by thermal analysis, including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  1. THE INITIAL-FINAL MASS RELATION AMONG WHITE DWARFS IN WIDE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J. K.; Oswalt, T. D.; Willson, L. A.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present the initial-final mass relation derived from 10 white dwarfs in wide binaries that consist of a main-sequence star and a white dwarf. The temperature and gravity of each white dwarf were measured by fitting theoretical model atmospheres to the observed spectrum using a χ 2 fitting algorithm. The cooling time and mass were obtained using theoretical cooling tracks. The total age of each binary was estimated from the chromospheric activity of its main-sequence component to an uncertainty of about 0.17 dex in log t. The difference between the total age and white dwarf cooling time is taken as the main-sequence lifetime of each white dwarf. The initial mass of each white dwarf was then determined using stellar evolution tracks with a corresponding metallicity derived from spectra of their main-sequence companions, thus yielding the initial-final mass relation. Most of the initial masses of the white dwarf components are between 1 and 2 M ☉ . Our results suggest a correlation between the metallicity of a white dwarf's progenitor and the amount of post-main-sequence mass loss it experiences—at least among progenitors with masses in the range of 1-2 M ☉ . A comparison of our observations to theoretical models suggests that low-mass stars preferentially lose mass on the red giant branch.

  2. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  3. The origin of the mass, disk-to-halo mass ratio, and L-V relation of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented in which spiral galaxies only form when t(c) is roughly equal to t(f) in a hot component of the protogalactic gas. This assumption, along with a disk stability criterion, predicts a range of spiral galaxy masses roughly consistent with observation. The nature of the cooling function for a primordial plasma implies that in less massive galaxies, more gas must fragment in the halo to preserve t(c) roughly equal to t(f). Consequently, less gas survives to form the disk, so that the disk-to-halo mass ratio increases with disk mass and hence galaxy luminosity. The canonical L proportional to V exp 4 relation can be reproduced by the model, and the apparent change in the slope of this relation also arises naturally. In the hierarchical clustering scenario, the model requires that all spirals formed at about the same epoch. These results support earlier claims that much of the dark matter observed in the universe is baryonic and probably formed during protogalactic collapse. 38 refs

  4. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Wei-Bin; Zhao Gang; Ruan Gui-Ping; Zhou Li; Liang Yan-Chun; Shao Xu; Liu Xiao-Wei; Hammer Francois; Flores Hector; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t 2 , the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t 3 , that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t 2 – t 3 . These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t 3 , t 2 , O ++ /H + and O + /H + derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O ++ /H + are higher than O + /H + for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from T e and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R 23 . The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews and Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 10 6 M ⊙ to 10 11 M ⊙ . (research papers)

  5. On the mass-coupling relation of multi-scale quantum integrable models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Ito, Katsushi [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Satoh, Yuji [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Tóth, Gábor Zsolt [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2016-06-13

    We determine exactly the mass-coupling relation for the simplest multi-scale quantum integrable model, the homogenous sine-Gordon model with two independent mass-scales. We first reformulate its perturbed coset CFT description in terms of the perturbation of a projected product of minimal models. This representation enables us to identify conserved tensor currents on the UV side. These UV operators are then mapped via form factor perturbation theory to operators on the IR side, which are characterized by their form factors. The relation between the UV and IR operators is given in terms of the sought-for mass-coupling relation. By generalizing the Θ sum rule Ward identity we are able to derive differential equations for the mass-coupling relation, which we solve in terms of hypergeometric functions. We check these results against the data obtained by numerically solving the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, and find a complete agreement.

  6. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  7. CP violation, flavour violation and fermion mass relations in some horizontal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.

    1981-01-01

    Six quark horizontal gauge models incorporating a natural suppression mechanism for diagonal flavour-changing currents are considered. Some interesting possibilities for CP violation, flavour violation, fermion mass and mixing angle relation in these models are studied. (author)

  8. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 West Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pinkney, Jason, E-mail: kayhan@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, 525 S. Main St., Ada, OH 45810 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.

  9. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: I Subluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available Much of the formalism in special relativity is intimately bound up with Einstein’s formula for the variation of mass m with its velocity v, namely m(v=m0∗[1-(v/c2]-1/2, where m is the mass, v the velocity, c denotes the speed of light and m0∗ denotes the rest mass, noting that in these papers, we employ an asterisk to designate the rest mass. Einstein’s formula together with the Lorentz transformations and their consequences are fundamental to the development of special relativity. Here we introduce the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for vmass m(v; namely the residual mass is the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed. We emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v, and that this formal device merely facilitates the analysis. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae, assuming only the Lorentz transformations and two invariants known to apply in special relativity. One is force invariance in the direction of relative motion applying to two non-accelerating frames, while the other is not so well known, but applies in special relativity. Together the two assumed invariances imply that the energy–mass transfer rates are frame invariant but not necessarily constant as in special relativity. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and an illustrative example is provided for which this is the case, and from which a new comparison formula is derived that is singular at the speed of light. This new expression may be contrasted with the Einstein expression, and roughly speaking, the new formula predicts more mass than that given by the Einstein formula, since the singularity at the speed of light is steeper. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  10. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D.~A.

    2018-01-01

    -metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high...

  11. THE STELLAR MASS–HALO MASS RELATION FOR LOW-MASS X-RAY GROUPS AT 0.5< z< 1 IN THE CDFS WITH CSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Since z∼1, the stellar mass density locked in low-mass groups and clusters has grown by a factor of ∼8. Here, we make the first statistical measurements of the stellar mass content of low-mass X-ray groups at 0.5mass scales for wide-field optical and infrared surveys. Groups are selected from combined Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations in the Chandra Deep Field South. These ultra-deep observations allow us to identify bona fide low-mass groups at high redshift and enable measurements of their total halo masses. We compute aggregate stellar masses for these halos using galaxies from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) spectroscopic redshift survey. Stars comprise ∼3%–4% of the total mass of group halos with masses 10 12.8 mass of Fornax and one-fiftieth the mass of Virgo). Complementing our sample with higher mass halos at these redshifts, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass ratio decreases toward higher halo masses, consistent with other work in the local and high redshift universe. The observed scatter about the stellar–halo mass relation is σ∼0.25 dex, which is relatively small and suggests that total group stellar mass can serve as a rough proxy for halo mass. We find no evidence for any significant evolution in the stellar–halo mass relation since z≲1. Quantifying the stellar content in groups since this epoch is critical given that hierarchical assembly leads to such halos growing in number density and hosting increasing shares of quiescent galaxies

  12. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-10-25

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7-15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI ( p 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI ( p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  13. Providing theoretical data for detection of four formamidic acid isomers in astrophysical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichietti, R. M.; da Silva, A. B. F.; Haiduke, R. L. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a theoretical study, so that molecular data (geometrical parameters, vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, electronic energies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies) of four formamidic acid (FA) isomers (labeled here as FA1, FA2, FA3, and FA4) and formamide (HCONH2) are obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ, CCSD/aug-cc-pVTZ, CCSD/cc-pVQZ, and CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ calculations. Furthermore, on the basis of insufficient or even lacking theoretical and experimental results in the literature, we employed the aforementioned theory levels to determine benchmark values of dipole moments and rotational constants for these four FA isomers in order to contribute for their detection in astrophysical environments. Besides, we provide for the first time data about forward and reverse rate constants (200-4000 K) and Arrhenius' parameters for each interconversion reaction between pairs of FA isomers as well as for the tautomeric process involving FA4 and formamide, which were calculated from a Complete Basis Set (CBS) extrapolation equation obtained at CCSD/cc-pVTZ optimized geometries. Our kinetic analysis indicated a faster interconversion between the FA structures in comparison with the FA4 ↔ HCONH2 process, suggesting that these isomers could co-exist in astrophysical media. Finally, we estimated that these isomers may be detected with relative abundances, [FAx]/[HCONH2] (x = 1, 2, 3, and 4), between ∼0.01 and ∼0.1% in astrophysical sources at chemical equilibrium conditions and temperatures around 1000 K. However, these ratios can become as high as ∼1, ∼3, and ∼5%, respectively, in hotter regions with temperatures around 2000, 3000, and 4000 K (expected, for example, in massive star-forming regions).

  14. Trans-dinitroglycoluril isomers-A DFT treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemi Türker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Isomers of trans-1,4-Dinitroglycoluril (trans-DINGU and their 1,3-tautomers are considered within the constraints of B3LYP/6-31++G (d,p and B3LYP/CC-PVTZ levels of DFT calculations. Additionally, the interactions of these isomers and proton in vacuum are investigated. The data have revealed that two of the three isomers undergo CH bond cleavage as the result of interaction with proton in vacuum. The total energies, some structural properties, the calculated IR and UV spectra are discussed.

  15. Properties of neutron-rich hafnium high-spin isomers

    CERN Multimedia

    Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Neyens, G; Billowes, J; Flanagan, K; Koester, U H; Litvinov, Y

    It is proposed to study highly-excited multi-quasiparticle isomers in neutron-rich hafnium (Z=72) isotopes. Long half-lives have already been measured for such isomers in the storage ring at GSI, ensuring their accessibility with ISOL production. The present proposal focuses on:\\\\ (i) an on-line experiment to measure isomer properties in $^{183}$Hf and $^{184}$Hf, and\\\\ (ii) an off-line molecular breakup test using REXTRAP, to provide Hf$^{+}$ beams for future laser spectroscopy and greater sensitivity for the future study of more neutron-rich isotopes.

  16. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  17. Separation behavior of octadecadienoic acid isomers and identification of cis- and trans-isomers using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Shigeaki; Gooley, Andrew; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Using a strongly polar cyanopropyl capillary column we have investigated the gas chromatography (GC) separation behaviors of 24 octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (18:2ME) isomers compared against saturated methyl stearate (18:0ME) and arachidic acid methyl ester (20:0ME), and the dependency on the GC column temperature. The 24 isomers were obtained by performing cis-to trans-isomerization of six regioisomers: five of the 18:2ME isomers were prepared by the partial reduction of methyl α-linolenate and methyl γ-linolenate C18 trienoic acids with different double bond positions, whereas the sixth isomer, 18:2ME (c5, c9), was obtained from a raw constituent fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) sample extracted from Japanese yew seeds. There are no reference standards commercially available for 18:2ME isomers, and in elucidating the elution order of these isomers this study should help the future identification of cis- and trans-type of 18:2ME. We also report the identification method of cis- and trans-type of FAME using equivalent chain lengths and attempt the identification of cis- and trans-type of 18:2ME isomers from partially hydrogenated canola oil.

  18. A low Fermi scale from a simple gaugino-scalar mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F. [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Buchmueller, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the Fermi scale of electroweak symmetry breaking is determined by the pattern of supersymmetry breaking. We present an example, motivated by a higher-dimensional GUT model, where a particular mass relation between the gauginos, third-generation squarks and Higgs fields of the MSSM leads to a Fermi scale smaller than the soft mass scale. This is in agreement with the measured Higgs boson mass. The {mu} parameter is generated independently of supersymmetry breaking, however the {mu} problem becomes less acute due to the little hierarchy between the soft mass scale and the Fermi scale as we argue. The resulting superparticle mass spectra depend on the localization of quark and lepton fields in higher dimensions. In one case, the squarks of the first two generations as well as the gauginos and higgsinos can be in the range of the LHC. Alternatively, only the higgsinos may be accessible at colliders. The lightest superparticle is the gravitino.

  19. Experimental thermochemical study of two chlorodinitroaniline isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ferreira, Ana I.M.C. Lobo; Galvao, Tiago L.P.

    2010-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, and of the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at the same temperature. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were calculated, by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the vapour pressures at several temperatures, measured by Knudsen effusion technique. The values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, are discussed in terms of enthalpic increments, and the enthalpy of isomerization between the two compounds is compared with the same parameter for two isomers of chloronitroaniline, studied in previous works.

  20. Merger of binary neutron stars of unequal mass in full general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Uryu-bar, Ko-barji

    2003-01-01

    We present results of three dimensional numerical simulations of the merger of unequal-mass binary neutron stars in full general relativity. A Γ-law equation of state P=(Γ-1)ρε is adopted, where P, ρ, ε, and Γ are the pressure, rest mass density, specific internal energy, and the adiabatic constant, respectively. We take Γ=2 and the baryon rest-mass ratio Q M to be in the range 0.85-1. The typical grid size is (633,633,317) for (x,y,z). We improve several implementations since the latest work. In the present code, the radiation reaction of gravitational waves is taken into account with a good accuracy. This fact enables us to follow the coalescence all the way from the late inspiral phase through the merger phase for which the transition is triggered by the radiation reaction. It is found that if the total rest mass of the system is more than ∼1.7 times of the maximum allowed rest mass of spherical neutron stars, a black hole is formed after the merger, irrespective of the mass ratios. The gravitational waveforms and outcomes in the merger of unequal-mass binaries are compared with those in equal-mass binaries. It is found that the disk mass around the so formed black holes increases with decreasing rest-mass ratios and decreases with increasing compactness of neutron stars. The merger process and the gravitational waveforms also depend strongly on the rest-mass ratios even for the range Q M =0.85-1

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper sarmentosum Roxburgh (Piperaceae) Extracts using Different Chromatographic Columns. Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan Hamil, Abdul Hakeem Memon, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Zhari Ismail ...

  2. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  3. The Impact Of Integrated Parameters In The Manga Local Mass-Metallicity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.

    2016-09-01

    We present the surface mass density - gas metallicity (Σ_*-Z) relation for more than 500,000 spatially-resolved star-forming regions from a sample of 617 disk galaxies included in the MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties with higher metallicities as the surface density increases, resembling a scaled-down version of the relation found previously for their integrated counterparts. This relation expands over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass and a factor of 8 in metallicity. Our large sample allows us to study the impact of global properties in this local relation. In particular, we find that for most disk galaxies the Σ_*-Z relation does not depend on the total stellar mass. Even more, for a large fraction of our sample (log(M_*/M_{⊙}) > 9.2) the observed metallicity gradients are well reproduced by the mass density gradients and the Σ_*-Z relation. We also find that this relation does not change significantly within the range of redshifts span by our sample. Our results suggest as the predominant scenario for metal enrichment as gas been recycled locally at shorter timescales in comparison to other global processes such as gas accretion or outflows.

  4. The three-loop relation between the {ovr MS} and the pole quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, K.

    2000-01-06

    The analytic relation between the {ovr MS} and the pole quark masses is computed to O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) in QCD. Using this exact result, the accuracy of the large {beta}{sub 0} approximation is critically examined and the implications of the obtained relation for semileptonic B decays are discussed.

  5. Underreporting of energy, protein and potassium intake in relation to body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerstrass, D W; Ocké, M C; Bueno De Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, P.H.; Seidell, J C

    BACKGROUND: Differential underreporting of dietary intake by subgroups of body mass index (BMI) will confound associations between dietary intake and BMI-related diseases. We estimated the magnitude of BMI-related underreporting for energy, protein, and potassium intake for the Dutch cohorts of the

  6. Mass-Radius Relations of Z and Higgs-Like Bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the rest mass and the effective radius are deduced for the Z boson and the experimentally discovered Higgs-like boson, in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic (RQED theory. The latter forms an alternative to the Standard Model of elementary particles. This results in an effective radius of the order of 10 E-18 m for a rest mass of 125 GeV.

  7. The importance of stimulated gamma release from isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, H.

    1997-01-01

    The potential applications of the gamma-ray laser are discussed to illustrate the potential benefit of the development of this field of nuclear science, as well as the risks and responsibilities associated with isomer development beyond their current status as nuclear curiosities. The similarities and differences between the development of a gamma-ray laser based on nuclear isomers and the initial development of nuclear science and engineering are compared

  8. THE GAS PHASE MASS METALLICITY RELATION FOR DWARF GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND HI GAS MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2015-10-20

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  9. Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

    2010-12-12

    Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

  10. Investigation of HNCO isomer formation in ice mantles by UV and thermal processing: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Giuliano, B. M.; Caro, G. M. Muñoz; Cernicharo, J. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Marcelino, N., E-mail: bgiuliano@cab.inta-csic.es [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Current gas-phase models do not account for the abundances of HNCO isomers detected in various environments, suggesting their formation in icy grain mantles. We attempted to study a formation channel of HNCO and its possible isomers by vacuum-UV photoprocessing of interstellar ice analogs containing H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CO, HCN, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} followed by warm-up under astrophysically relevant conditions. Only the H{sub 2}O:NH{sub 3}:CO and H{sub 2}O:HCN ice mixtures led to the production of HNCO species. The possible isomerization of HNCO to its higher energy tautomers following irradiation or due to ice warm-up has been scrutinized. The photochemistry and thermal chemistry of H{sub 2}O:NH{sub 3}:CO and H{sub 2}O:HCN ices were simulated using the Interstellar Astrochemistry Chamber, a state-of-the-art ultra-high-vacuum setup. The ice was monitored in situ by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. A quadrupole mass spectrometer detected the desorption of the molecules in the gas phase. UV photoprocessing of H{sub 2}O:NH{sub 3}:CO and H{sub 2}O:HCN ices lead to the formation of OCN{sup –} as a main product in the solid state and a minor amount of HNCO. The second isomer HOCN has been tentatively identified. Despite its low efficiency, the formation of HNCO and the HOCN isomers by UV photoprocessing of realistic simulated ice mantles might explain the observed abundances of these species in photodissociation regions, hot cores, and dark clouds.

  11. Kinematic scaling relations of CALIFA galaxies: A dynamical mass proxy for galaxies across the Hubble sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Ortíz, E.; Valenzuela, O.; Sánchez, S. F.; Hernández-Toledo, H.; Ávila-Reese, V.; van de Ven, G.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Zhu, L.; Mancillas, B.; Cano-Díaz, M.; García-Benito, R.

    2018-06-01

    We used ionized gas and stellar kinematics for 667 spatially resolved galaxies publicly available from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) 3rd Data Release with the aim of studying kinematic scaling relations as the Tully & Fisher (TF) relation using rotation velocity, Vrot, the Faber & Jackson (FJ) relation using velocity dispersion, σ, and also a combination of Vrot and σ through the SK parameter defined as SK^2 = KV_{rot}^2 + σ ^2 with constant K. Late-type and early-type galaxies reproduce the TF and FJ relations. Some early-type galaxies also follow the TF relation and some late-type galaxies the FJ relation, but always with larger scatter. On the contrary, when we use the SK parameter, all galaxies, regardless of the morphological type, lie on the same scaling relation, showing a tight correlation with the total stellar mass, M⋆. Indeed, we find that the scatter in this relation is smaller or equal to that of the TF and FJ relations. We explore different values of the K parameter without significant differences (slope and scatter) in our final results with respect the case K = 0.5 besides than a small change in the zero point. We calibrate the kinematic SK^2 dynamical mass proxy in order to make it consistent with sophisticated published dynamical models within 0.15 dex. We show that the SK proxy is able to reproduce the relation between the dynamical mass and the stellar mass in the inner regions of galaxies. Our result may be useful in order to produce fast estimations of the central dynamical mass in galaxies and to study correlations in large galaxy surveys.

  12. Influence of the relative optical air mass on ultraviolet erythemal irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.; García, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The main objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between the transmissivity for ultraviolet erythemal irradiance (UVER) and the relative optical air mass at Badajoz (Southwestern Spain). Thus, a power expression between both variables is developed, which analyses in detail how atmospheric transmission is influenced by the total ozone column (TOC) and the atmospheric clearness. The period of analysis extends from 2001 to 2005. The experimental results indicate that clearness conditions play an important role in the relationship between UVER transmissivity and the relative optical air mass, while the effect of TOC is much smaller for this data set. In addition, the results show that UVER transmissivity is more sensitive to changes in atmospheric clearness than to TOC variability. Changes in TOC values higher than 15% cause UVER trasnmissivity to vary between 14% and 22%, while changes between cloud-free and overcast conditions produce variations in UVER transmissivity between 68% and 74% depending on the relative optical air mass.

  13. Thermochemical study of some dichloroacetophenone isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,l), for 2',4'-, 2',5'-, and 3',4'-dichloroacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, {Delta}{sub c}U{sub m}{sup 0} in oxygen, to yield CO{sub 2}(g) and HCl . 600H{sub 2}O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of vapourization or sublimation, {Delta}{sub cr,l}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0}, of these compounds, at T = 298.15 K were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. For the 3',4'-dichoroacetophenone, the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, was derived by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures of this compound, measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. From the values of {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,l) and {Delta}{sub cr,l}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0} the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three isomers, in the gaseous phase, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g), at T = 298.15 K were derived and compared with the same parameters estimated by the Cox Scheme. (table)

  14. Histidine, lysine, and arginine radical cations: isomer control via the choice of auxiliary ligand (L) in the dissociation of [CuII(L)amino acid]*2+ complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuyong; Zhao, Junfang; Verkerk, Udo H; Hopkinson, Alan C; Siu, K W Michael

    2007-12-27

    Histidine, lysine, and arginine radical cations have been generated through collision-induced dissociation (CID) of complexes [CuII(auxiliary ligand)namino acid]*2+, using tri-, bi-, as well as monodentate auxiliary ligands. On the basis of the observed CID products, the existence of two isomeric amino-acid populations is postulated. The Type 1 radical cations of histidine and lysine, stable on the mass spectrometer time scale, were found to lose water, followed by the loss of carbon monoxide under more energetic CID conditions. The arginine Type 1 radical cation behaved differently, losing dehydroalanine. The Type 2 radical cations were metastable and easily fragmented by the loss of carbon dioxide, effectively preventing direct observation. Type 1 radical cations are proposed to result from neutral (canonical) amino-acid coordination, whereas Type 2 radical cations are from zwitterionic amino-acid coordination to copper in the complex. The ratio of Type 1/Type 2 ions was found to be dependent on the auxiliary ligand, providing a method of controlling which radical cation would be formed primarily. Density functional calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) have been used to determine the relative energies of five His*+ isomers. Barriers against interconversion between the isomers and against fragmentation have been calculated, giving insight as to why the Type 1 ions are stable, while only fragmentation products of the Type 2 ions are observable under CID conditions.

  15. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  16. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, and fat-free mass index (FFMI. Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03 after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003, but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09, while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03. Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  17. The role of atomic hydrogen in regulating the scatter of the mass-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Toby; Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Kilborn, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we stack neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) spectra for 9720 star-forming galaxies along the mass-metallicity relation. The sample is selected according to stellar mass (109 ≤ M⋆/M⊙ ≤ 1011) and redshift (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.05) from the overlap of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We confirm and quantify the strong anticorrelation between H I mass and gas-phase metallicity at fixed stellar mass. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the relationship between gas content and metallicity is consistent between different metallicity estimators, contrary to the weaker trends found with star formation which are known to depend on the observational techniques used to derive oxygen abundances and star formation rates. When interpreted in the context of theoretical work, this result supports a scenario where galaxies exist in an evolving equilibrium between gas, metallicity and star formation. The fact that deviations from this equilibrium are most strongly correlated with gas mass suggests that the scatter in the mass-metallicity relation is primarily driven by fluctuations in gas accretion.

  18. SPREADING THE IDEAL OF MASS SHAREOWNERSHIP: PUBLIC RELATIONS AND THE NYSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Traflet (ed.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, the New York Stock Exchange, led by President Keith Funston, embarked on an ambitious public relations campaign christened “Own Your Share of American Business.” This paper justaposes the “Own Your Share”campaign with earlier NYSE image-making efforts. Tracing the evolution in Exchange public relations sheds lights on how the Big Board gradually embraced mass shareownership as a worthy goal and endorsed mass merchandising as a legitimate way to achieve it.

  19. g-factor of the Kπ = 14+ isomer in 176 W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Marginean, N.; Brandolini, F.; Pavan, P.; Lenzi, S.M.; De Poli, M.; Gadea, A.; Martinez, T.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Podolyak, Zs.

    2000-01-01

    to the beam direction, respectively, were used. The target was placed in an external magnetic field of 27.2(6) kG whose direction was periodically reversed. The time spectra of the 240, 351, 440 and 558 keV transitions in the ground-state band of 176 W, which collects most of the isomer decay were analysed according to the TDPAD procedures. The modulation ratio corresponding to the total accumulated statistics is presented together with the least-squares fit. For the g-factor of the 14 + isomeric state in 176 W the value g = +0.475(15) has been determined. The sensitivity of the magnetic moment to the nature of the involved quasiparticles allowed a definite configuration assignment for the 14 + isomer. We estimated the g-factors for all four-quasiparticle configurations with J π = K π = 14 + by using g Ω values deduced from experimental g-factors of the deformed single-particle states in odd-mass neighbouring nuclei. The π7/2 + [404] x π 9/2 - [514] x ν7/2 + [633] x ν5/2 - [512] pure configuration has been assigned to the 14 + isomeric state based on the excellent agreement between the calculated g-factor g cal = +0.47 and the measured value. We note that this assignment is in accordance with Woods-Saxon calculations for multi-quasiparticle states in 176 W. Information concerning the isomer shape will be obtained from a static quadrupole moment measurement which is in progress. (authors)

  20. Anatomy and function relation in the coronary tree: from bifurcations to myocardial flow and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; Finet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study of the structure-function relation of coronary bifurcations is necessary not only to understand the design of the vasculature but also to use this understanding to restore structure and hence function. The objective of this review is to provide quantitative relations between bifurcation anatomy or geometry, flow distribution in the bifurcation and degree of perfused myocardial mass in order to establish practical rules to guide optimal treatment of bifurcations including side branches (SB). We use the scaling law between flow and diameter, conservation of mass and the scaling law between myocardial mass and diameter to provide geometric relations between the segment diameters of a bifurcation, flow fraction distribution in the SB, and the percentage of myocardial mass perfused by the SB. We demonstrate that the assessment of the functional significance of an SB for intervention should not only be based on the diameter of the SB but also on the diameter of the mother vessel as well as the diameter of the proximal main artery, as these dictate the flow fraction distribution and perfused myocardial mass, respectively. The geometric and flow rules for a bifurcation are extended to a trifurcation to ensure optimal therapy scaling rules for any branching pattern.

  1. Projection Of The Stellar To Halo Mass Relation Into The Scaling Relations Of A Disc Galaxy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancillas, Brisa; Ávila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2017-06-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that disk formation is the generic process of assembly of galaxies, while the spheroidal component arises from the merging/interactions of disks as well as from their secular evolution. To understand galaxy formation and evolution, a cosmological framework is required. The current cosmological paradigm is summarized in the so-called Λ-cold dark matter model (ΛCDM). The statistical connection between the masses of the observed galaxies and those of the simulated CDM halos in large volumes leads us to the galaxy-halo mass relation, which summarizes the main astrophysical processes of galaxy formation and evolution (gas heating and cooling, SF, SN- and AGN-driven feedback, etc.). An important question is how this relation constrained by semi-empirical methods (e.g., Rodriguez-Puebla et al. 2014) is "projected" into the disk galaxy scaling relations and other galaxy correlations. To explore this question, we generate a synthetic catalog of thousands of disk/halo systems by means of an extended Mo, Mao & White (1998) model, and by using as input the baryonic-to-halo mass relation, fbar(Mh), of local disk galaxy as recently constrained by Calette et al. (2015).

  2. The mass-metallicity-star formation rate relation under the STARLIGHT microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickmann, M.; Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between stellar mass and gas-phase oxygen abundance (M-Z relation) has been known for decades. The slope and scatter of this trend is strongly dependent on galaxy evolution: Chemical enrichment in a galaxy is driven by its star formation history, which in turn depends on its secular evolution and interaction with other galaxies and intergalactic gas. In last couple of years, the M-Z relation has been studied as a function of a third parameter: the recent star formation rate (SFR) as calibrated by the Hα luminosity, which traces stars formed in the last 10 Myr. This mass-metallicity-SFR relation has been reported to be very tight. This result puts strong constraints on galaxy evolution models in low and high redshifts, informing which models of infall and outflow of gas are acceptable. We explore the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in light of the SDSS-STARLIGHT database put together by our group. We find that we recover similar results as the ones reported by authors who use the MPA/JHU catalogue. We also present some preliminary results exploring the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in a more detailed fashion: starlight recovers a galaxy's full star formation history, and not only its recent SFR.

  3. An irresolute linker: separation, and structural and spectroscopic characterization of the two linkage isomers of a Ru(ii)-(2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iengo, E; Demitri, N; Balducci, G; Alessio, E

    2014-08-28

    For the first time the two linkage isomers of a Ru(ii) complex with 2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (cppH) - that form in comparable amounts - have been fully characterized individually. The X-ray structure of each isomer is related to its NMR spectrum in solution.

  4. Experimental thermochemical study of the three methyl substituted 2-acetylthiophene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.

    2008-01-01

    A rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter was used to determine the standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, Δ c H m 0 , of the liquids 2-acetyl-3-methylthiophene, 2-acetyl-4-methylthiophene, and 2-acetyl-5-methylthiophene, from which the standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m 0 , in the liquid phase, at the temperature of 298.15 K, were derived. The standard molar enthalpies of vaporization, Δ l g H m 0 , at T = 298.15 K, for those compounds, were obtained by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the experimental results, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three methyl substituted 2-acetylthiophene isomers, in the gaseous phase, were calculated and a comparison between the relative stability and the energetic of the three isomers was carried out

  5. IR and Raman spectra of nitroanthracene isomers: substitional effects based on density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, Andrea; Librando, Vito

    2012-04-01

    Structure, IR and Raman spectra of 1-, 2- and 9-nitroanthracene isomers (1-NA, 2-NA and 9-NA) were calculated and analyzed through density functional theory computations using the B3LYP functional with the 6-311+G** basis set. Steric and π-conjugative effects determine the characteristic ONCC dihedral angles, which vary from 0° (2-NA) to 28-29° (1-NA) and 59° (9-NA), influencing the relative order of stability along the series 9-NA3000 cm(-1) and utility to discriminate the NA isomers. Structural and spectroscopic results suggest that the unknown mutagenic activity of 1-NA is expected to be between that of 9-NA and 2-NA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE MBH-σ* RELATION WITH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Ting; Barth, Aaron J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ludwig, Randi R.; Ho, Luis C.; Bentz, Misty C.; Jiang Yanfei

    2011-01-01

    We present new measurements of stellar velocity dispersions, using spectra obtained with the Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) and the Magellan Echellette (MagE), for 76 Seyfert 1 galaxies from the recent catalog of Greene and Ho. These objects were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to have estimated black hole (BH) masses below 2 x 10 6 M sun . Combining our results with previous ESI observations of similar objects, we obtain an expanded sample of 93 galaxies and examine the relation between BH mass and velocity dispersion (the M BH -σ * relation) for active galaxies with low BH masses. The low-mass active galaxies tend to follow the extrapolation of the M BH -σ * relation of inactive galaxies. Including results for active galaxies of higher BH mass from the literature, we find a zero point α = 7.68 ± 0.08 and slope of β = 3.32 ± 0.22 for the M BH -σ * relation (in the form log M BH = α + βlog (σ * /200 km s -1 )), with intrinsic scatter of 0.46 ± 0.03 dex. This result is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the slope of the M BH -σ * relation for reverberation-mapped active galaxies with BH masses from 10 6 to 10 9 M sun . For the subset of our sample having morphological information from Hubble Space Telescope images, we examine the slope of the M BH -σ * relation separately for subsamples of barred and unbarred host galaxies, and find no significant evidence for a difference in slope. We do find a mild offset between low-inclination and high-inclination disk galaxies, such that more highly inclined galaxies tend to have larger σ * at a given value of BH mass, presumably due to the contribution of disk rotation within the spectroscopic aperture. We also find that the velocity dispersion of the ionized gas, measured from narrow emission lines including [N II] λ6583, [S II] λλ6716, 6731, and the core of [O III] λ5007 (with the blueshifted wing removed), trace the stellar velocity dispersion well for this large

  7. Configuration changes and hindered decays in four- and six-quasiparticle isomers in 178Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondev, F.G.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Kibedi, T.; Bayer, S.; Lane, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A six-quasiparticle isomer with K π =21 - , a half-life of 290(12) ms, and the π 3 ν 3 configuration has been identified in the odd-odd nucleus 178 Ta, at an excitation energy of 2902 keV. The rotational bands built on the known K π =15 - isomer and on the newly found 16 + four-quasiparticle and 22 + six-quasiparticle states, have also been identified, allowing characterization of the configurations. The 15 - band is predominantly of πν 3 character with a π 3 ν admixture. When the mixing is taken into account the excitation energies of the main yrast multi-quasiparticle states can be reproduced. The multi-quasiparticle states observed are related essentially through the addition of the two-quasiparticle component ν 2 [6 + ] or π 2 [6 + ]. Depending on whether the transition between the states involves the change ν 2 [6 + ] → [0] or π 2 [6 + ] → [0], the E2 hindrance factors for decays between the six- and four-quasiparticle states are relatively large or small. This dependence mimics the pattern observed in the two-quasiparticle core transitions and, because the 15 - isomer is mainly πν 3 , the magnitude sequence is inverted compared to that observed in 176 Ta. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Microbial air quality in mass transport buses and work-related illness among bus drivers of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Sundhiyodhin, Viboonsri; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2004-06-01

    The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air buses for each number of the bus (36 air-conditioned buses and 12 open-air buses) were included. Five points of in-bus air samples in each studied bus were collected by using the Millipore A ir Tester Totally, 180 and 60 air samples collected from air-conditioned buses and open-air buses were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The bus drivers who drove the studied buses were interviewed towards histories of work-related illness while working. The results revealed that the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied open-air buses ranged from 358.50 +/- 146.66 CFU/m3 to 506 +/- 137.62 CFU/m3; bus number 16 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which ranged from 93.33 +/- 44.83 CFU/m3 to 302 +/- 294.65 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. Whereas, the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied air-conditioned buses ranged from 115.24 +/- 136.01 CFU/m3 to 244.69 +/- 234.85 CFU/m3; bus numbers 16 and 67 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which rangedfrom 18.84 +/- 39.42 CFU/m3 to 96.13 +/- 234.76 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. When 180 and 60 studied air samples were analyzed in detail, it was found that 33.33% of the air samples from open-air buses and 6.11% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of bacterial counts (> 500 CFU/m3) while 6.67% of air samples from open-air buses and 2.78% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of fungal counts (> 500 CFU/m3). Data from the history of work-related illnesses among the studied bus drivers showed that 91.67% of open-air bus drivers and 57.28% of air-conditioned bus drivers had

  9. Centre-of-mass frames in six-dimensional special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Centre-of-mass frames are defined in six-dimensional special relativity. In particular, these frames are studied for various pairs of particles which can be any combination of bradyons, luxons and tachyons. These frames can be subluminal, superluminal or non-existent, depending on the angle between the particle time vectors. (author)

  10. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  11. The dark-baryonic matter mass relation for observational verification in Verlinde's emergent gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2018-06-01

    Recently, a new interesting idea of origin of gravity has been developed by Verlinde. In this scheme of emergent gravity, where horizon entropy, microscopic de Sitter states and relevant contribution to gravity are involved, an entropy displacement resulting from matter behaves as a memory effect and can be exhibited at sub-Hubble scales, namely, the entropy displacement and its "elastic" response would lead to emergent gravity, which gives rise to an extra gravitational force. Then galactic dark matter effects may origin from such extra emergent gravity. We discuss some concepts in Verlinde's theory of emergent gravity and point out some possible problems or issues, e.g., the gravitational potential caused by Verlinde's emergent apparent dark matter may no longer be continuous in spatial distribution at ordinary matter boundary (such as a massive sphere surface). In order to avoid the unnatural discontinuity of the extra emergent gravity of Verlinde's apparent dark matter, we suggest a modified dark-baryonic mass relation (a formula relating Verlinde's apparent dark matter mass to ordinary baryonic matter mass) within this framework of emergent gravity. The modified mass relation is consistent with Verlinde's result at relatively small scales (e.g., R3h_{70}^{-1} Mpc), the modified dark-baryonic mass relation presented here might be in better agreement with the experimental curves of weak lensing analysis in the recent work of Brouwer et al. Galactic rotation curves are compared between Verlinde's emergent gravity and McGaugh's recent model of MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics established based on recent galaxy observations). It can be found that Verlinde rotational curves deviate far from those of McGaugh MOND model when the MOND effect (or emergent dark matter) dominates. Some applications of the modified dark-baryonic mass relation inspired by Verlinde's emergent gravity will be addressed for galactic and solar scales. Potential possibilities to test this dark

  12. On the Scatter of the Present-day Stellar Metallicity–Mass Relation of Cluster Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Christoph; Lisker, Thorsten; Pillepich, Annalisa

    2018-04-01

    We examine the scatter of the relation between stellar mass and stellar metallicity for cluster dwarf galaxies in the cosmological simulation Illustris. The mass-metallicity relation exhibits the smallest intrinsic scatter at the galaxies' times of peak stellar mass, suggesting stellar mass stripping to be the primary effect responsible for the rather broad relation at present. However, for about 40% of galaxies in the high-metallicity tail of the relation, we find mass stripping to coincide with an increased enrichment of stellar metallicity, possibly caused by the stripping of low-metallicity stars in the galaxy outskirts.

  13. Uptake and incorporation of labeled tryptophan isomers into IAA in the jsR1 mutant of Lemna gibba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, B.G.; Maher, B.R.; Cohen, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the IAA-overproducing mutant of Lemna have been initiated in order to study in vivo biosynthesis of IAA. Using radiolabelled tryptophan isomers prepared from commercial sources of 14 C-D,L tryptophan by chiral separation kinetics of uptake of L and D tryptophan were determined for sterile cultures of individual jsR 1 four-frond colonies. Over a 24 h period, about 50% of the radioactivity from 14 C-L-TRP in media, or about 25% from 14 C-D-TRP, was found in the plant tissue. Maximal rates of uptake were seen in the first six hors for both isomers. Endogenous levels of tryptophan determined in jsR 1 as measures of pool sizes in vivo show 5 to 10 ug/g FW total tryptophan with less than 1% in the D isomer form. Information on uptake and endogenous pool sizes of tryptophan isomers is being used for feeding of stable isotope labeled tryptophan ( 13 C, 14 N) to jsR 1 at physiological levels. Analyses of incorporation of label into IAA using GC-MS and high resolution mass spectrometry are currently underway

  14. Renormalization group and relations between scattering amplitudes in a theory with different mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulov, A.V.; Skalozub, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    In the Yukawa model with two different mass scales the renormalization group equation is used to obtain relations between scattering amplitudes at low energies. Considering fermion-fermion scattering as an example, a basic one-loop renormalization group relation is derived which gives possibility to reduce the problem to the scattering of light particles on the external field substituting a heavy virtual state. Applications of the results to problem of searching new physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed [ru

  15. Identifying the related compounds using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: bromotyrosine alkaloids from marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This sponge has tremendous chemical diversity of bromotyrosine alkaloids. Here we have used the proteomics approach in identifying related bromotyrosine alkaloids based on the predicated mass...

  16. A qualitative study of amlodipine and its related compounds by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John; Pugh, Jonathan; Dimopoulos-Italiano, Gina; Pike, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive structural analysis of amlodipine and certain related compounds was performed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Triple quadrupole and quadrupole time-of-flight instruments were used to provide collision-induced dissociation and accurate mass measurement for selected product and second-generation product ions. A unique ion rearrangement was observed, which was found to be characteristic of certain dihydropyridines. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the fragmentation of these compounds. The structural elucidation of an unknown impurity is presented as an example. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Extrinsic Sources of Scatter in the Richness-Mass Relation of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rykoff, Eli; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, Benjamin; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nord, Brian; /Michigan U.; Wu, Hao-Yi; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-03-27

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness - mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using SDSS data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely ({approx} 1%-5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of optically selected clusters that suffer from these projection effects is {approx} 5%-15%. We expect these numbers to be generic in magnitude, but a precise determination requires detailed, survey-specific modeling.

  18. EXTRINSIC SOURCES OF SCATTER IN THE RICHNESS-MASS RELATION OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin; Rykoff, Eli; Nord, Brian; Evrard, August; Wu Haoyi; Wechsler, Risa

    2011-01-01

    Maximizing the utility of upcoming photometric cluster surveys requires a thorough understanding of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of various sources of observational scatter on this relation. Cluster ellipticity, photometric errors, photometric redshift errors, and cluster-to-cluster variations in the properties of red-sequence galaxies contribute negligible noise. Miscentering, however, can be important, and likely contributes to the scatter in the richness-mass relation of galaxy maxBCG clusters at the low-mass end, where centering is more difficult. We also investigate the impact of projection effects under several empirically motivated assumptions about cluster environments. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and the maxBCG cluster catalog, we demonstrate that variations in cluster environments can rarely (∼1%-5% of the time) result in significant richness boosts. Due to the steepness of the mass/richness function, the corresponding fraction of optically selected clusters that suffer from these projection effects is ∼5%-15%. We expect these numbers to be generic in magnitude, but a precise determination requires detailed, survey-specific modeling.

  19. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 825 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 202 Old Field House, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Seigar, Marc S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  20. [Study on spectrum analysis of X-ray based on rotational mass effect in special relativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan

    2010-04-01

    Based on special relativity, the formation mechanism of characteristic X-ray has been studied, and the influence of rotational mass effect on X-ray spectrum has been given. A calculation formula of the X-ray wavelength based upon special relativity was derived. Error analysis was carried out systematically for the calculation values of characteristic wavelength, and the rules of relative error were obtained. It is shown that the values of the calculation are very close to the experimental values, and the effect of rotational mass effect on the characteristic wavelength becomes more evident as the atomic number increases. The result of the study has some reference meaning for the spectrum analysis of characteristic X-ray in application.

  1. EXPLORING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, GAS PHASE METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass–metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ∼130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%–55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  2. SUPERDENSE GALAXIES AND THE MASS-SIZE RELATION AT LOW REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Calvi, R.; Fasano, G.; Vulcani, B.; Bettoni, D.; Gullieuszik, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Bindoni, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; Moretti, A.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Fritz, J.; De Lucia, G.

    2013-01-01

    We search for massive and compact galaxies (superdense galaxies, hereafter SDGs) at z = 0.03-0.11 in the Padova-Millennium Galaxy and Group Catalogue, a spectroscopically complete sample representative of the general field population of the local universe. We find that compact galaxies with radii and mass densities comparable to high-z massive and passive galaxies represent 4.4% of all galaxies with stellar masses above 3 × 10 10 M ☉ , yielding a number density of 4.3 × 10 –4 h 3 Mpc –3 . Most of them are S0s (70%) or ellipticals (23%), are red, and have intermediate-to-old stellar populations, with a median luminosity-weighted age of 5.4 Gyr and a median mass-weighted age of 9.2 Gyr. Their velocity dispersions and dynamical masses are consistent with the small radii and high stellar mass estimates. Comparing with the WINGS sample of cluster galaxies at similar redshifts, the fraction of SDGs is three times smaller in the field than in clusters, and cluster SDGs are on average 4 Gyr older than field SDGs. We confirm the existence of a universal trend of smaller radii for older luminosity-weighted ages at fixed galaxy mass. As a consequence, the median mass-size relation shifts toward smaller radii for galaxies with older stars, but the effect is much more pronounced in clusters than in the field. Our results show that, on top of the well-known dependence of stellar age on galaxy mass, the luminosity-weighted age of galaxies depends on galaxy compactness at fixed mass and, for a fixed mass and radius, on environment. This effect needs to be taken into account in order not to overestimate the evolution of galaxy sizes from high to low z. Our results and hierarchical simulations suggest that a significant fraction of the massive compact galaxies at high z have evolved into compact galaxies in galaxy clusters today. When stellar age and environmental effects are taken into account, the average amount of size evolution of individual galaxies between high and low

  3. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  4. Tinetti mobility test is related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Basile, Claudia; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-12-01

    Elderly people are characterized by a high prevalence of falls and sarcopenia. However, the relationship among Tinetti mobility test (TMT) score, a powerful tool to detect elderly people at risk of falls, and sarcopenia is still not thoroughly investigated. Thus, to determine the relationship between TMT score and muscle mass and strength, 337 elderly participants (mean age 77.1 ± 6.9 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment were enrolled. TMT score, muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer, and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated. Muscle mass progressively decreased as TMT score decreased (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 8.8 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 ; p for trend strength decreased progressively as Tinetti score decreased (from 34.7 ± 8.0 to 23.7 ± 8.7 kg; p for trend 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that TMT score is linearly related with muscle mass (y = 4.5x + 0.4, r = 0.61; p strength (y = 14.0x + 0.8, r = 0.53; p strength (r = 0.39, p = 0.046). The present study indicates that TMT score is significantly related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly participants. This evidence suggests that TMT score, together with evaluation of muscle mass and strength, may identify sarcopenic elderly participants at high risk of falls.

  5. Isomers of Cu6 cluster: a density function theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yanhui; Wang Shanshan; Li Gongping

    2008-01-01

    The possible structure of Cu 6 cluster has been given with the GaussView that is a graphical user interface software. The structure optimization was performed on the B3LYP functional and SDD basic set of the quantum computational software of Gaussian03. And eight isomers of Cu 6 cluster were calculated. The binding energy and the structure of eight isomers have been investigated in detail. The result showed that the value of the binding energy was in reasonable agreement with available experimental data, as well as with other theoretical results, and the most stable structure was the triangle of plane. Three new isomers of the Cu 6 cluster have been got in our work, which would be the valuable data for the further theoretical and experimental study. (authors)

  6. A pocketful of tin isomers from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, P.J.; Broda, R.; Fornal, B.; Mayer, R.H.; Nisius, D.; Bearden, I.; Benet, P.; Grabowski, Z.W.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.; Liang, Y.; Lunardi, S.; Blomqvist, J.

    1992-01-01

    Reaction products of 122,124 Sn + 76 Ge( 8O Se) collisions 10--15% above the barrier have been studied by γ-ray spectroscopy, and new yrast isomers in 119--124 Sn isotopes have been identified and characterized. B(E2) values determined for (νh 11/2 ) n 10 + → 8 + transitions in even-A Sn nuclei pinpoint half-filling of the νh 11/2 subshell close to N = 73. In odd-A Sn isotopes, 19/2 + isomers with 1--10 μs half-lives occur systematically, and higher-lying (νh ll/2 ) n v=3 27/2 - isomers in 119 Sn and 121 Sn have also been identified. These deep inelastic excitation processes were found to populate a large number of neutron-rich nuclei strongly enough for yrast spectroscopy studies

  7. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 206 (Australia); Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P. [Scottish Universities' Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liske, J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baldry, I. K. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, The School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brough, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L., E-mail: meiert.grootes@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  8. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICTY RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeslee, John P.; Cantiello, Michele; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent empirical developments in the study of extragalactic globular cluster (GC) populations are the color-magnitude relation of the blue GCs (the 'blue tilt') and the nonlinearity of the dependence of optical GC colors on metallicity. The color-magnitude relation, interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation, is thought to be a consequence of self-enrichment. Nonlinear color-metallicity relations have been shown to produce bimodal color distributions from unimodal metallicity distributions. We simulate GC populations including both a mass-metallicity scaling relation and nonlinear color-metallicity relations motivated by theory and observations. Depending on the assumed range of metallicities and the width of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we find that the simulated populations can have bimodal color distributions with a 'blue tilt' similar to observations, even though the metallicity distribution appears unimodal. The models that produce these features have the relatively high mean GC metallicities and nearly equal blue and red peaks characteristic of giant elliptical galaxies. The blue tilt is less apparent in the models with metallicities typical of dwarf ellipticals; the narrower GCLF in these galaxies has an even bigger effect in reducing the significance of their color-magnitude slopes. We critically examine the evidence for nonlinearity versus bimodal metallicities as explanations for the characteristic double-peaked color histograms of giant ellipticals and conclude that the question remains open. We discuss the prospects for further theoretical and observational progress in constraining the models presented here and for uncovering the true metallicity distributions of extragalactic GC systems.

  9. Effect of minimal length uncertainty on the mass-radius relation of white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.

    2018-06-01

    Generalized uncertainty relation that carries the imprint of quantum gravity introduces a minimal length scale into the description of space-time. It effectively changes the invariant measure of the phase space through a factor (1 + βp2) - 3 so that the equation of state for an electron gas undergoes a significant modification from the ideal case. It has been shown in the literature (Rashidi 2016) that the ideal Chandrasekhar limit ceases to exist when the modified equation of state due to the generalized uncertainty is taken into account. To assess the situation in a more complete fashion, we analyze in detail the mass-radius relation of Newtonian white dwarfs whose hydrostatic equilibria are governed by the equation of state of the degenerate relativistic electron gas subjected to the generalized uncertainty principle. As the constraint of minimal length imposes a severe restriction on the availability of high momentum states, it is speculated that the central Fermi momentum cannot have values arbitrarily higher than pmax ∼β - 1 / 2. When this restriction is imposed, it is found that the system approaches limiting mass values higher than the Chandrasekhar mass upon decreasing the parameter β to a value given by a legitimate upper bound. Instead, when the more realistic restriction due to inverse β-decay is considered, it is found that the mass and radius approach the values 1.4518 M⊙ and 601.18 km near the legitimate upper bound for the parameter β.

  10. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. II. SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the mass and size of cloud fragments in several molecular clouds continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ∼ 2 , is not well suited to describe the derived mass-size data. Solar neighborhood clouds not forming massive stars (∼ sun ; Pipe Nebula, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus) obey m(r) ≤ 870 M sun (r/pc) 1.33 . In contrast to this, clouds forming massive stars (Orion A, G10.15 - 0.34, G11.11 - 0.12) do exceed the aforementioned relation. Thus, this limiting mass-size relation may approximate a threshold for the formation of massive stars. Across all clouds, cluster-forming cloud fragments are found to be-at given radius-more massive than fragments devoid of clusters. The cluster-bearing fragments are found to roughly obey a mass-size law m ∝ r 1.27 (where the exponent is highly uncertain in any given cloud, but is certainly smaller than 1.5).

  11. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Silva, Hector; Berti, Emanuele; Sotani, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Compact objects such as neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories to test our understanding of the fundamental interactions in the regime of supranuclear densities, unachievable by terrestrial experiments. Despite recent progress, the description of matter (i.e., the equation of state) at such densities is still debatable. This translates into uncertainties in the bulk properties of neutron stars, masses and radii for instance. Here we will consider low-mass neutron stars. Such stars are expected to carry important information on nuclear matter near the nuclear saturation point. It has recently been shown that the masses and surface redshifts of low-mass neutron stars smoothly depend on simple functions of the central density and of a characteristic parameter η associated with the choice of equation of state. Here we extend these results to slowly-rotating and tidally deformed stars and obtain empirical relations for various quantities, such as the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment and ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love numbers, and rotational apsidal constants. We discuss how these relations might be used to constrain the equation of state by future observations in the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave spectra.

  12. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q≤μ 2/3 E c -1/3 , where q and μ are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E c is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z≤Z * =α -1/3 A 2/3 , where α=e 2 /h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  13. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.co [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2010-10-04

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q{<=}{mu}{sup 2/3}E{sub c}{sup -1/3}, where q and {mu} are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E{sub c} is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z{<=}Z{sup *}={alpha}{sup -1/3}A{sup 2/3}, where {alpha}=e{sup 2}/h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  14. On the Origin of the Mass-Metallicity Relation for GRB Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /Boston U., Dept. Astron.

    2011-06-02

    We investigate the nature of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation for long gamma-ray burst (LGRB) host galaxies. Recent studies suggest that the M-Z relation for local LGRB host galaxies may be systematically offset towards lower metallicities relative to the M-Z relation defined by the general star forming galaxy (SDSS) population. The nature of this offset is consistent with suggestions that low metallicity environments may be required to produce high mass progenitors, although the detection of several GRBs in high-mass, high-metallicity galaxies challenges the notion of a strict metallicity cut-off for host galaxies that are capable of producing GRBs. We show that the nature of this reported offset may be explained by a recently proposed anti-correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the metallicity of star forming galaxies. If low metallicity galaxies produce more stars than their equally massive, high-metallicity counterparts, then transient events that closely trace the SFR in a galaxy would be more likely to be found in these low metallicity, low mass galaxies. Therefore, the offset between the GRB and SDSS defined M-Z relations may be the result of the different methods used to select their respective galaxy populations, with GRBs being biased towards low metallicity, high SFR, galaxies. We predict that such an offset should not be expected of transient events that do not closely follow the star formation history of their host galaxies, such as short duration GRBs and SN Ia, but should be evident in core collapse SNe found through upcoming untargeted surveys.

  15. Theoretical Study of the Diastereofacial Isomers of Aldrin and Dieldrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zdravkovski

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder reaction of hexachlorocyclopentadiene with norbornadiene givesaldrin but theoretically three other diastereofacial isomers are possible. On oxidation theseisomers can generate eight adducts one of which is known as dieldrin. All these, as well asthe corresponding reactions with hexafluorocyclopenadiene were studied by semiempirical(AM1 and PM3 and hybrid density functional (B3LYP methods. Besides the energy levels,the transition states were calculated for the reactions leading to the diastereofacial isomers ofaldrin, which indicate that aldrin is the favored product of the reaction both fromthermodynamic and kinetic point of view.

  16. Laser isotope and isomer separations: History and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letok'ov, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    Paper will review history and principles of laser isotope and nuclear isomer separation: laser multistep photoionization of isotopic and isomeric atoms, laser IR-UV two-step photodissociation of molecules, laser IR multiphoton photodissociation of polyatomic molecules. The comparison and areas of applications of these methods will be considered. Paper will discuss a present state of art of technology of these methods in practical scale in various countries. In conclusion the trends of research in this field including applications of laser-separated isotopes and isomers will be considered

  17. Comparison of UVA induced cytotoxicity by iodoHoechst isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannis, T.C.; Lobachevsky, P.N.; Martin, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Isomers of the DNA minor groove binding ligand, iodoHoechst, have been shown to sensitise DNA to cleavage by ultraviolet type A (UVA). The DNA damage has been attributed to formation of a carbon-centred radical upon UVA induced dehalogenation of the drugs. Comparison of the efficacy of the ligands in inducing DNA single strand breaks in plasmid DNA has indicated that the ortho isomer is more efficient than the para- and meta-isomers, mainly due to a greater cross-section for dehalogenation, and to some extent from increased efficiency of DNA damage per dehalogenation event. In the present study, the efficiency of dehalogenation and cytotoxicity of the three iodoHoechst isomers has been compared in human erythroleukemic, K562 cells. The uptake of the iodoHoechst compounds in K562 nuclei has been measured, and the photoefficiency of the cellular associated dehalogenation by UVA has been established for the three isomers. The results indicate that the sensitivity to UVA mediated dehalogenation is much higher for the ortho analogue compared to the para and meta-analogues. Values of the UVA D37 doses for the ortho, para and meta isomers are 49 ± 2, 327 ± 29 and 251 ± 32 J/m 2 , respectively. Clonogenic survival assays have been used to compare the efficiency of sensitisation of cells to UVA irradiation by the analogues. The ortho analogue exhibits higher efficiency compared to the meta and para analogues. The numbers of dehalogenation events required for cell kill have been calculated from the clonogenic survival at various levels of drug uptake, and the results for the ortho, para and meta isomers are 1.2x10 4 , 3.9x10 4 and 11.6x10 4 , respectively. These results indicate that the ortho analogue is the most efficient isomer in sensitising cell kill by UVA irradiation due to both the high quantum yield for dehalogenation and the higher cytotoxic efficiency of dehalogenation events

  18. Theoretical Re-evaluations of Scaling Relations between SMBHs and Their Host Galaxies—1. Effect of Seed BH Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakata, Hikari [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kawaguchi, Toshihiro [Department of Economics, Management and Information Science, Onomichi City University, Onomichi (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Makiya, Ryu [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Institute of Management and Information Technologies, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Matsuoka, Yoshiki [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro [Faculty of Education, Bunkyo University, Koshigaya (Japan); Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R., E-mail: shirakata@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Natural Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Kure College, Kure (Japan)

    2017-09-21

    We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and investigate how the mass of a seed black hole affect the scaling relation between black hole mass and bulge mass at z ~ 0. When the mass of the seed is set at 10{sup 5}M{sub ⊙}, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the scaling relation for dwarf galaxies. On the other hand, when we set seed black hole mass as 10{sup 3}M{sub ⊙} or as randomly chosen value within a 10{sup 3-5}M{sub ⊙} range, we find the results are consistent with observational results including the dispersion. We also find that black hole mass—bulge mass relations for less massive bulges at z ~ 0 put stronger constraints on the seed BH mass than the relations at higher redshifts.

  19. Levitation effect in zeolites: Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics study of pentane isomers in zeolite NaY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Bhaskar J; Jobic, H; Yashonath, S

    2010-04-14

    We report the quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics (MD) investigations into diffusion of pentane isomers in zeolite NaY. The molecular cross section perpendicular to the long molecular axis varies for the three isomers while the mass and the isomer-zeolite interaction remains essentially unchanged. Both QENS and MD results show that the branched isomers neopentane and isopentane have higher self-diffusivities as compared with n-pentane at 300 K in NaY zeolite. This result provides direct experimental evidence for the existence of nonmonotonic, anomalous dependence of self-diffusivity on molecular diameter known as the levitation effect. The energetic barrier at the bottleneck derived from MD simulations exists for n-pentane which lies in the linear regime while no such barrier is seen for neopentane which is located clearly in the anomalous regime. Activation energy is in the order E(a)(n-pentane)>E(a)(isopentane)>E(a)(neopentane) consistent with the predictions of the levitation effect. In the liquid phase, it is seen that D(n-pentane)>D(isopentane)>D(neopentane) and E(a)(n-pentane)isomer has a higher diffusivity as compared with the linear analog is at variation from what is normally seen.

  20. Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei-Ling; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Xie Yin-Li; Jia Li-Qun; Sun Xian-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion are studied. The determining equation of Lie symmetry of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is given. The expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced directly from Lie symmetry for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  1. The dwarfs beyond: The stellar-to-halo mass relation for a new sample of intermediate redshift low-mass galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Sarah H.; Ellis, Richard S.; Newman, Andrew B. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benson, Andrew, E-mail: smiller@astro.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    A number of recent challenges to the standard ΛCDM paradigm relate to discrepancies that arise in comparing the abundance and kinematics of local dwarf galaxies with the predictions of numerical simulations. Such arguments rely heavily on the assumption that the Local Volume's dwarf and satellite galaxies form a representative distribution in terms of their stellar-to-halo mass ratios. To address this question, we present new, deep spectroscopy using DEIMOS on Keck for 82 low-mass (10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}), star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.2 < z < 1). For 50% of these we are able to determine resolved rotation curves using nebular emission lines and thereby construct the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation to masses as low as 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. Using scaling relations determined from weak lensing data, we convert this to a stellar-to-halo mass relation for comparison with abundance matching predictions. We find a discrepancy between our observations and the predictions from abundance matching in the sense that we observe 3-12 times more stellar mass at a given halo mass. We suggest possible reasons for this discrepancy, as well as improved tests for the future.

  2. INSIGHTS ON THE STELLAR MASS-METALLICITY RELATION FROM THE CALIFA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Delgado, R. M.; García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López Fernández, R.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Cid Fernandes, R.; De Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Vale Asari, N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Alves, J. [University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Galbany, L. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Gallazzi, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Husemann, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Bekeraite, S. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Jungwiert, B. [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Bocni II 1401, 14131 Prague (Czech Republic); López-Sánchez, A. R. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Marino, R. A. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Collaboration: CALIFA collaboration920; and others

    2014-08-10

    We use spatially and temporally resolved maps of stellar population properties of 300 galaxies from the CALIFA integral field survey to investigate how the stellar metallicity (Z {sub *}) relates to the total stellar mass (M {sub *}) and the local mass surface density (μ{sub *}) in both spheroidal- and disk-dominated galaxies. The galaxies are shown to follow a clear stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over the whole 10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} range. This relation is steeper than the one derived from nebular abundances, which is similar to the flatter stellar MZR derived when we consider only young stars. We also find a strong relation between the local values of μ{sub *} and Z {sub *} (the μZR), betraying the influence of local factors in determining Z {sub *}. This shows that both local (μ{sub *}-driven) and global (M {sub *}-driven) processes are important in determining metallicity in galaxies. We find that the overall balance between local and global effects varies with the location within a galaxy. In disks, μ{sub *} regulates Z {sub *}, producing a strong μZR whose amplitude is modulated by M {sub *}. In spheroids it is M {sub *} that dominates the physics of star formation and chemical enrichment, with μ{sub *} playing a minor, secondary role. These findings agree with our previous analysis of the star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies, which showed that mean stellar ages are mainly governed by surface density in galaxy disks and by total mass in spheroids.

  3. Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS. This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.MethodsA total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg, body fat mass (BFM; kg, and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2 were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %: SMM (kg/weight (kg, skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2: SMM (kg/height (m2, skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR: SMM (kg/BFM (kg, and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2: SMM (kg/VFA (cm2.ResultsAmong 838 subjects, 88 (10.5% were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC, high blood pressure (BP, dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG. In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.ConclusionRelative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

  4. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rasia, E. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F. [Departamento de Fsica Terica, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Merten, J.; Ettori, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Postman, M.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Balestra, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Benítez, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Biviano, A. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Bradley, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); De Petris, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-12-10

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  5. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Merten, J.; Ettori, S.; Postman, M.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; De Petris, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  6. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TRAPPED, ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS: THE ORIGIN OF THE OBSERVED MASS-PERIOD RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    The large number of observed exoplanets (∼>700) provides important constraints on their origin as deduced from the mass-period diagram of planets. The most surprising features in the diagram are (1) the (apparent) pileup of gas giants at a period of ∼500 days (∼1 AU) and (2) the so-called mass-period relation, which indicates that planetary mass is an increasing function of orbital period. We construct the evolutionary tracks of growing planets at planet traps in evolving protoplanetary disks and show that they provide a good physical understanding of how these observational properties arise. The fundamental feature of our model is that inhomogeneities in protoplanetary disks give rise to multiple (up to 3) trapping sites for rapid (type I) planetary migration of planetary cores. The viscous evolution of disks results in the slow radial movement of the traps and their cores from large to small orbital periods. In our model, the slow inward motion of planet traps is coupled with the standard core accretion scenario for planetary growth. As planets grow, type II migration takes over. Planet growth and radial movement are ultimately stalled by the dispersal of gas disks via photoevaporation. Our model makes a number of important predictions: that distinct sub-populations of planets that reflect the properties of planet traps where they have grown result in the mass-period relation, that the presence of these sub-populations naturally explains a pileup of planets at ∼1 AU, and that evolutionary tracks from the ice line do put planets at short periods and fill an earlier claimed p lanet desert — a sparse population of planets in the mass-semimajor axis diagram.

  7. The MUSIC of CLASH: Predictions on the Concentration-Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Merten, J.; Postman, M.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Donahue, M.; Ettori, S.; Umetsu, K.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Czakon, N.; De Petris, M.; Ford, H.; Giocoli, C.; Gottlöber, S.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jouvel, S.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Lahav, O.; Lemze, D.; Medezinski, E.; Melchior, P.; Mercurio, A.; Molino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Monna, A.; Moustakas, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Nonino, M.; Rhodes, J.; Rosati, P.; Sayers, J.; Seitz, S.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ~11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  8. Coronal mass ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters in relation with geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Singh, Puspraj; Singh, Preetam

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the drastic solar events in which huge amount of solar plasma materials are ejected into the heliosphere from the sun and are mainly responsible to generate large disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters and geomagnetic storms in geomagnetic field. We have studied geomagnetic storms, (Dst ≤-75 nT) observed during the period of 1997-2007 with Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters (solar wind temperature, velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field) .We have inferred that most of the geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 72.37 % and 27.63 % respectively. Further we have concluded that geomagnetic storms are closely associated with the disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters. We have determined positive co-relation between magnitudes of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, jump in solar wind plasma density, jump in solar wind plasma velocity and jump in average interplanetary magnetic field with co-relation co-efficient 0 .35 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, 0.19 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind density, 0.34 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma velocity, 0.66 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in average interplanetary magnetic field respectively. We have concluded that geomagnetic storms are mainly caused by Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters that they generate.

  9. The angular momentum-mass relation: a fundamental law from dwarf irregulars to massive spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Lorenzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; Pezzulli, Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    In a Λ CDM Universe, the specific stellar angular momentum (j*) and stellar mass (M*) of a galaxy are correlated as a consequence of the scaling existing for dark matter haloes (jh ∝2/3). The shape of this law is crucial to test galaxy formation models, which are currently discrepant especially at the lowest masses, allowing to constrain fundamental parameters, such as, for example, the retained fraction of angular momentum. In this study, we accurately determine the empirical j*-M* relation (Fall relation) for 92 nearby spiral galaxies (from S0 to Irr) selected from the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves (SPARC) sample in the unprecedented mass range 7 ≲ log M*/M⊙≲ 11.5. We significantly improve all previous estimates of the Fall relation by determining j* profiles homogeneously for all galaxies, using extended HI rotation curves, and selecting only galaxies for which a robust j* could be measured (converged j*(http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/L6

  10. A simple theoretical approach to determine relative ion yield (RIY) in glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, Sabine [Degussa AG, Hanau (Germany); Matsunami, Noriaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tawara, Hiroyuki [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Direct current glow discharge mass spectrometry (dc-GDMS) has been applied to detect impurities in metals. The aim of this study is to understand quantitatively the processes taking place in GDMS and establish a model to calculate the relative ion yield (RIY), which is inversely proportional to the relative sensitivity factor (RSF), in order to achieve better agreement between the calculated and the experimental RIYs. A comparison is made between the calculated RIY of the present model and the experimental RIY, and also with other models. (author)

  11. The relation between mass-gap amplitudes and critical exponents in the Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, F.C.; Felicio, J.R.D. de

    1985-01-01

    A recent result concerning the universality of the ratio of mass-gap amplitudes using the well known 1-D Heisenberg model which is the quantum version of the two-dimensional eight-vertex model is discussed. The believed extended scaling relation (x sub(p) = x sub(is an element of)/4) relating the polarization and energy anomalous dimensions is confirmed. The exponent, α, ν, γ sub(m) and γ sub(p) is also obtained by usual phenomenological renormalization group methods. (Author) [pt

  12. Thoracic Paravertebral Mass as an Infrequent Manifestation of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Matzumura Kuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 50-year-old African American male presented with abdominal pain and significant weight loss. On physical examination, he had parotid and submandibular gland enlargement associated with right eye proptosis. Computed tomography showed a thoracic paravertebral soft tissue mass, enlarged lymph nodes, and ascending aortic aneurysm. Laboratory results were remarkable for elevated total IgG and IgG4 subclass. The submandibular gland pathology revealed chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, with a large subset of inflammatory cells positively staining for IgG4. The histology of the paravertebral mass demonstrated fibrosclerosis with increased lymphocytic infiltrate, associated with increased IgG4 plasma cells. He was diagnosed with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy initially yielded improvement; however, after steroids were stopped, there was disease recurrence. Prednisone was restarted, and the plan was to start him on rituximab. Interestingly, the patient’s brother also had IgG4-RD. Conclusion. IgG4-RD can present as a paravertebral mass which is usually responsive to steroids; however, recurrent and resistant disease can be seen for which steroid-sparing agents such as rituximab should be considered. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IgG4-RD in two family members presenting as a paravertebral mass, highlighting an exciting area for more research in the future.

  13. Quasiparticles of widely tuneable inertial mass: The dispersion relation of atomic Josephson vortices and related solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S. Shamailov, Joachim Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting Josephson vortices have direct analogues in ultracold-atom physics as solitary-wave excitations of two-component superfluid Bose gases with linear coupling. Here we numerically extend the zero-velocity Josephson vortex solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations to non-zero velocities, thus obtaining the full dispersion relation. The inertial mass of the Josephson vortex obtained from the dispersion relation depends on the strength of linear coupling and has a simple pole divergence at a critical value where it changes sign while assuming large absolute values. Additional low-velocity quasiparticles with negative inertial mass emerge at finite momentum that are reminiscent of a dark soliton in one component with counter-flow in the other. In the limit of small linear coupling we compare the Josephson vortex solutions to sine-Gordon solitons and show that the correspondence between them is asymptotic, but significant differences appear at finite values of the coupling constant. Finally, for unequal and non-zero self- and cross-component nonlinearities, we find a new solitary-wave excitation branch. In its presence, both dark solitons and Josephson vortices are dynamically stable while the new excitations are unstable.

  14. Isomer shifts and chemical bonding in crystalline Sn(II) and Sn(IV) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, J.; Guenzburger, D.

    1991-01-01

    First-principles self-consistent Local Density calculations of the electronic structure of clusters representing Sn(II) (SnO, SnF 2 , SnS, SnSe) and Sn(IV) (SnO 2 , SnF 4 ) crystalline compounds were performed. Values of the electron density at the Sn nucleus were obtained and related to measured values of the Moessbauer Isomer Shifts reported in the literature. The nuclear parameter of 119 Sn derived was ΔR/R=(1.58±0.14)x10 -4 . The chemical bonding in the solids was analysed and related to the electron densities obtained. (author)

  15. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disc morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Masters, Karen L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Melvin, Thomas; Wong, O. Ivy; Nichol, Robert C.; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Fortson, Lucy

    2015-05-01

    We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate (SFR) relation in star-forming disc galaxies at z ≤ 0.085, using Galaxy Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disc, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M⋆-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ˜0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z > 1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M⋆-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50 per cent are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

  16. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Diaz, A. I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Mast, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Camino Bajo de Huetor s/n, Aptdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Husemann, B., E-mail: frosales@cantab.net [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution-the local mass-metallicity relation-extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce-with a noticeable agreement-the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  17. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization studies of non-polar isomeric hydrocarbons using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different ionization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsdorf, H.; Nazarov, E. G.; Eiceman, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The ionization pathways were determined for sets of isomeric non-polar hydrocarbons (structural isomers, cis/trans isomers) using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to assess the influence of structural features on ion formation. Depending on the structural features, different ions were observed using mass spectrometry. Unsaturated hydrocarbons formed mostly [M - 1]+ and [(M - 1)2H]+ ions while mainly [M - 3]+ and [(M - 3)H2O]+ ions were found for saturated cis/trans isomers using photoionization and 63Ni ionization. These ionization methods and corona discharge ionization were used for ion mobility measurements of these compounds. Different ions were detected for compounds with different structural features. 63Ni ionization and photoionization provide comparable ions for every set of isomers. The product ions formed can be clearly attributed to the structures identified. However, differences in relative abundance of product ions were found. Although corona discharge ionization permits the most sensitive detection of non-polar hydrocarbons, the spectra detected are complex and differ from those obtained with 63Ni ionization and photoionization. c. 2002 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.

  18. Pregnanolone isomers, pregnenolone and their polar conjugates around parturition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klak, J.; Hill, M.; Pařízek, A.; Havlíková, H.; Bičíková, M.; Hampl, R.; Fait, T.; Šulcová, J.; Pouzar, Vladimír; Kancheva, R.; Stárka, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2003), s. 211-221 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/00/1559 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pregnanolone isomers * pregnanolone * maternal plasma Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC) method to quantify the two isomers of asarones in P. sarmentosum ... ethanol and 50 % ethanol extracts, but absent in all water extracts. β-Asarone occurred in the range of ... In food and herbal industries it is required that .... Where δ = is the standard deviation of the Y ..... Cho J, Kim YH, Kong J-Y, Yang CH, Park CG.

  20. Isomer shifts of the octupole doublet in muonic 207Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budick, B.; Anigstein, R.; Kast, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Isomer shifts in the doublet 5/2 + , 7/2 + levels in muonic 207 Pb have been measured. The shifts are essentially the same as in the core 3 - collective state. They support the hypothesis that the octupole vibration does not conserve volume. (orig.)

  1. Similarity of High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectra of Structurally Related Micropollutants and Transformation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollée, Jennifer E.; Schymanski, Emma L.; Stravs, Michael A.; Gulde, Rebekka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Hollender, Juliane

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS2) with electrospray ionization is frequently applied to study polar organic molecules such as micropollutants. Fragmentation provides structural information to confirm structures of known compounds or propose structures of unknown compounds. Similarity of HRMS2 spectra between structurally related compounds has been suggested to facilitate identification of unknown compounds. To test this hypothesis, the similarity of reference standard HRMS2 spectra was calculated for 243 pairs of micropollutants and their structurally related transformation products (TPs); for comparison, spectral similarity was also calculated for 219 pairs of unrelated compounds. Spectra were measured on Orbitrap and QTOF mass spectrometers and similarity was calculated with the dot product. The influence of different factors on spectral similarity [e.g., normalized collision energy (NCE), merging fragments from all NCEs, and shifting fragments by the mass difference of the pair] was considered. Spectral similarity increased at higher NCEs and highest similarity scores for related pairs were obtained with merged spectra including measured fragments and shifted fragments. Removal of the monoisotopic peak was critical to reduce false positives. Using a spectral similarity score threshold of 0.52, 40% of related pairs and 0% of unrelated pairs were above this value. Structural similarity was estimated with the Tanimoto coefficient and pairs with higher structural similarity generally had higher spectral similarity. Pairs where one or both compounds contained heteroatoms such as sulfur often resulted in dissimilar spectra. This work demonstrates that HRMS2 spectral similarity may indicate structural similarity and that spectral similarity can be used in the future to screen complex samples for related compounds such as micropollutants and TPs, assisting in the prioritization of non-target compounds. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  3. Quantification of Structural Isomers via Mode-Selective Irmpd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfer, Nicolas C.

    2016-06-01

    Mixtures of structural isomers can pose a challenge for vibrational ion spectroscopy. In cases where particular structures display diagnostic vibrations, these structures can be selectively "burned away". In ion traps, the ion population can be subjected to multiple laser shots, in order to fully deplete a particular structure, in effect allowing a quantification of this structure. Protonated para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) serves as an illustrative example. PABA is known to preferentially exist in the N-protonated (N-prot) form in solution, but in the gas phase it is energetically favorable in the O-protonated (O-prot) form. As shown in Figure 1, the N-prot structure can be kinetically trapped in the gas phase when sprayed from non-protic solvent, whereas the O-prot structure is obtained when sprayed from protic solvents, analogous to results by others [1,2]. y parking the light source on the diagnostic 3440 wn mode, the percentage of the O-prot structure can be determined, and by default the remainder is assumed to adopt the N-prot structure. It will be shown that the relative percentages of O-prot vs N-prot are highly dependent on the solvent mixture, going from close to 0% O-prot in non-protic solvents, to 99% in protic solvents. Surprisingly, water behaves much more like a non-protic solvent than methanol. It is observed that the capillary temperature, which aids droplet desolvation by black-body radiation in the ESI source, is critical to promote the appearance of O-prot structures. These results are consistent with the picture that a protic bridge mechanism is at play to facilitate proton transfer, and thus allow conversion from N-prot to O-prot, but that this mechanism is subject to appreciable kinetic barriers on the timescale of solvent evaporation. 1. J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 7625. 2. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 7857.

  4. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  5. Pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated monocytes relates positively to muscle mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Karel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-08-01

    In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes was assessed by ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR-2/1 agonist tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam₃Cys-SK₄), both M1 phenotype activators. Cytokines that stimulate M1 monocyte response (IFN-γ and GM-CSF) as well as cytokines that are secreted by M1 monocytes (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β) were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, height, and body fat mass. Upon stimulation with LPS, the cytokine production capacity of INF-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α was significantly positively associated with lean body mass, appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength in men, but not in women. Upon stimulation with Pam₃Cys-SK₄, IL-6; TNF-α; and Il-1β were significantly positively associated with lean body mass and appendicular lean in women, but not in men. Taken together, this study shows that higher pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes upon stimulation is associated with muscle characteristics and sex dependent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  6. REDSHIFT EVOLUTION IN BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS: TESTING C IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Ludwig, Randi R.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine claims for redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole (BH) mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both Mg IIλλ2796, 2803 and C IVλλ1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that C III]λ1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with Mg II, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  7. Comparison of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Benedetti, Dario; D'Andrea, Francesco; Procaccini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We consider the two most studied proposals of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass: the one discussed by Amelino-Camelia as an illustrative example for the original proposal (Preprint gr-qc/0012051) of theories with two relativistic invariants, and an alternative more recently proposed by Magueijo and Smolin (Preprint hep-th/0112090). We show that these two relativistic theories are much more closely connected than it would appear on the basis of a naive analysis of their original formulations. In particular, in spite of adopting a rather different formal description of the deformed boost generators, they end up assigning the same dependence of momentum on rapidity, which can be described as the core feature of these relativistic theories. We show that this observation can be used to clarify the concepts of particle mass, particle velocity and energy-momentum conservation rules in these theories with two relativistic invariants

  8. Structure and spectroscopic properties of neutral and cationic tetratomic [C,H,N,Zn] isomers: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Vega-Vega, Álvaro; Barrientos, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    The structure and spectroscopic parameters of the most relevant [C,H,N,Zn] isomers have been studied employing high-level quantum chemical methods. For each isomer, we provide predictions for their molecular structure, thermodynamic stabilities as well as vibrational and rotational spectroscopic parameters which could eventually help in their experimental detection. In addition, we have carried out a detailed study of the bonding situations by means of a topological analysis of the electron density in the framework of the Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the relative stabilities and spectroscopic parameters suggests two linear isomers of the neutral [C,H,N,Zn] composition, namely, cyanidehydridezinc HZnCN (1Σ) and hydrideisocyanidezinc HZnNC (1Σ), as possible candidates for experimental detections. For the cationic [C,H,N,Zn]+ composition, the most stable isomers are the ion-molecule complexes arising from the direct interaction of the zinc cation with either the nitrogen or carbon atom of either hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen isocyanide, namely, HCNZn+ (2Σ) and HCNZn+ (2Σ).

  9. Structure and spectroscopic properties of neutral and cationic tetratomic [C,H,N,Zn] isomers: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Vega-Vega, Álvaro; Barrientos, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The structure and spectroscopic parameters of the most relevant [C,H,N,Zn] isomers have been studied employing high-level quantum chemical methods. For each isomer, we provide predictions for their molecular structure, thermodynamic stabilities as well as vibrational and rotational spectroscopic parameters which could eventually help in their experimental detection. In addition, we have carried out a detailed study of the bonding situations by means of a topological analysis of the electron density in the framework of the Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the relative stabilities and spectroscopic parameters suggests two linear isomers of the neutral [C,H,N,Zn] composition, namely, cyanidehydridezinc HZnCN ( 1 Σ) and hydrideisocyanidezinc HZnNC ( 1 Σ), as possible candidates for experimental detections. For the cationic [C,H,N,Zn] + composition, the most stable isomers are the ion-molecule complexes arising from the direct interaction of the zinc cation with either the nitrogen or carbon atom of either hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen isocyanide, namely, HCNZn + ( 2 Σ) and HCNZn + ( 2 Σ)

  10. Structure and spectroscopic properties of neutral and cationic tetratomic [C,H,N,Zn] isomers: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Vega-Vega, Álvaro; Barrientos, Carmen, E-mail: cbb@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2015-05-14

    The structure and spectroscopic parameters of the most relevant [C,H,N,Zn] isomers have been studied employing high-level quantum chemical methods. For each isomer, we provide predictions for their molecular structure, thermodynamic stabilities as well as vibrational and rotational spectroscopic parameters which could eventually help in their experimental detection. In addition, we have carried out a detailed study of the bonding situations by means of a topological analysis of the electron density in the framework of the Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the relative stabilities and spectroscopic parameters suggests two linear isomers of the neutral [C,H,N,Zn] composition, namely, cyanidehydridezinc HZnCN ({sup 1}Σ) and hydrideisocyanidezinc HZnNC ({sup 1}Σ), as possible candidates for experimental detections. For the cationic [C,H,N,Zn]{sup +} composition, the most stable isomers are the ion-molecule complexes arising from the direct interaction of the zinc cation with either the nitrogen or carbon atom of either hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen isocyanide, namely, HCNZn{sup +} ({sup 2}Σ) and HCNZn{sup +} ({sup 2}Σ)

  11. Brief History of Mass Spectrometry in Korea Related to the Establishment of the Korean Society for Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hun-Young So*

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1970s, there were only a limited numberof mass spectrometers in Korea and experts to whomyou could ask about mass spectrometers. Two magneticsector instruments were bought to Korea by the Japanesereparations as a result of the Treaty on Basic Relationsbetween Japan and the Republic of Korea signed in1965. One was operated at the Seoul National University(SNU) and the other was at the Ginseng and TobaccoResearch Institute. It was too early to see any quadrupolemass spectrometer ev...

  12. Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

    2006-12-01

    Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

  13. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mast, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  14. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  15. A Rough Guide to Metabolite Identification Using High Resolution Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Metabolomic Profiling in Metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Watson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound identification in mass spectrometry based metabolomics can be a problem but sometimes the problem seems to be presented in an over complicated way. The current review focuses on metazoans where the range of metabolites is more restricted than for example in plants. The focus is on liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry where it is proposed that most of the problems in compound identification relate to structural isomers rather than to isobaric compounds. Thus many of the problems faced relate to separation of isomers, which is usually required even if fragmentation is used to support structural identification. Many papers report the use of MS/MS or MS2 as an adjunct to the identification of known metabolites but there a few examples in metabolomics studies of metazoans of complete structure elucidation of novel metabolites or metabolites where no authentic standards are available for comparison.

  16. Are levels of bone turnover related to lower bone mass of adolescents previously fed a macrobiotic diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, T.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Seibel, M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dutch adolescents who consumed a macrobiotic (vegan-type) diet in early life, demonstrate a lower relative bone mass than their omnivorous counterparts. We investigated whether subjects from the macrobiotic group showed signs of catching up with controls in terms of relative bone mass, reflected by

  17. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  18. Mass-Discrepancy Acceleration Relation: A Natural Outcome of Galaxy Formation in Cold Dark Matter Halos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Navarro, Julio F; Fattahi, Azadeh; Oman, Kyle A

    2017-04-21

    We analyze the total and baryonic acceleration profiles of a set of well-resolved galaxies identified in the eagle suite of hydrodynamic simulations. Our runs start from the same initial conditions but adopt different prescriptions for unresolved stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback, resulting in diverse populations of galaxies by the present day. Some of them reproduce observed galaxy scaling relations, while others do not. However, regardless of the feedback implementation, all of our galaxies follow closely a simple relationship between the total and baryonic acceleration profiles, consistent with recent observations of rotationally supported galaxies. The relation has small scatter: Different feedback implementations-which produce different galaxy populations-mainly shift galaxies along the relation rather than perpendicular to it. Furthermore, galaxies exhibit a characteristic acceleration g_{†}, above which baryons dominate the mass budget, as observed. These observations, consistent with simple modified Newtonian dynamics, can be accommodated within the standard cold dark matter paradigm.

  19. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    on experience from product modelling projects in several companies. Among them for example companies manufacturing electronic switchboards, spray dryer systems and air conditioning equipment. The framework is divided into three views: the product knowledge view, the life phase system view and the transformation...... and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...

  20. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulay, Fabien; Trevitt, Adam J.; Meloni, Giovanni; Selby, Talitha M.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Vereecken, Luc; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-12-05

    The reactions of the methylidyne radical (CH) with ethylene, acetylene, allene, and methylacetylene are studied at room temperature using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and time-resolved mass spectrometry. The CH radicals are prepared by 248 nm multiphoton photolysis of CHBr3 at 298 K and react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow. Analysis of photoionization efficiency versus VUV photon wavelength permits isomer-specific detection of the reaction products and allows estimation of the reaction product branching ratios. The reactions proceed by either CH insertion or addition followed by H atom elimination from the intermediate adduct. In the CH + C2H4 reaction the C3H5 intermediate decays by H atom loss to yield 70(+-8)percent allene, 30(+-8)percent methylacetylene and less than 10percent cyclopropene, in agreement with previous RRKM results. In the CH + acetylene reaction, detection of mainly the cyclic C3H2 isomer is contrary to a previous RRKM calculation that predicted linear triplet propargylene to be 90percent of the total H-atom co-products. High-level CBS-APNO quantum calculations and RRKM calculation for the CH + C2H2 reaction presented in this manuscript predict a higher contribution of the cyclic C3H2 (27.0percent) versus triplet propargylene (63.5percent) than these earlier predictions. Extensive calculations on the C3H3 and C3H2D system combined with experimental isotope ratios for the CD + C2H2 reaction indicate that H-atom assisted isomerization in the present experiments is responsible for the discrepancy between the RRKM calculations and the experimental results. Cyclic isomers are also found to represent 30(+-6)percent of the detected products in the case of CH + methylacetylene, together with 33(+-6)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 37(+-6)percent vinylacetylene. The CH + allene reaction gives 23(+-5)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 77(+-5)percent vinylacetylene, whereas cyclic isomers are produced below the detection limit

  1. Planck/SDSS Cluster Mass and Gas Scaling Relations for a Volume-Complete redMaPPer Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno, Pablo; Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, Tom; De Martino, I.; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    Using Planck satellite data, we construct Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) gas pressure profiles for a large, volume-complete sample of optically selected clusters. We have defined a sample of over 8,000 redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), within the volume-complete redshift region 0.100 trend towards larger break radius with increasing cluster mass. Our SZ-based masses fall ˜16% below the mass-richness relations from weak lensing, in a similar fashion as the "hydrostatic bias" related with X-ray derived masses. Finally, we derive a tight Y500-M500 relation over a wide range of cluster mass, with a power law slope equal to 1.70 ± 0.07, that agrees well with the independent slope obtained by the Planck team with an SZ-selected cluster sample, but extends to lower masses with higher precision.

  2. A renormalization group invariant line and an infrared attractive top-Higgs mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Schrempp, F.

    1992-10-01

    The renormalization group equations (RGE's) of the Standard Model at one loop in terms of the gauge couplings g 1,2,3, the top Yukawa coupling g t and the scalar self coupling λ are reexamined. For g 1,2 = 0, the general solution of the RGE's is obtained analytically in terms of an interesting special solution for the ratio λ/g 2 t as function of the ratio g 2 t /g 2 3 which i) represents an RG invariant line which is strongly infrared attractive ii) interpolates all known quasi-fixed points and iii) is finite for large g 2 t /g 2 3 (ultraviolet limit). All essential features survive for g 1,2 ≠ 0. The invariant line translates into an infrared attractive top-Higgs mass relation, which e.g. associates to the top masses m t = 130/145/200 GeV the Higgs masses m H ≅ 68-90/103-115/207 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  3. The mass limit of white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen De-Hua; Liu He-Lei; Zhang Xiang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, U. Das and B. Mukhopadhyay proposed that the Chandrasekhar limit of a white dwarf could reach a new high level (2.58M⊙) if a superstrong magnetic field were considered (Das U and Mukhopadhyay B 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 071102), where the structure of the strongly magnetized white dwarf (SMWD) is calculated in the framework of Newtonian theory (NT). As the SMWD has a far smaller size, in contrast with the usual expectation, we found that there is an obvious general relativistic effect (GRE) in the SMWD. For example, for the SMWD with a one Landau level system, the super-Chandrasekhar mass limit in general relativity (GR) is approximately 16.5% lower than that in NT. More interestingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will be first increased when the magnetic field strength keeps on increasing and reaches the maximal value M = 2.48M⊙ with B D = 391.5. Then if we further increase the magnetic fields, surprisingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will decrease when one takes the GRE into account. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  4. Recurrence relations for three-loop prototypes of bubble diagrams with a mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    Recurrence relations derived via the Chetyrkin-Tkachev method of integration by parts are applied to reduce scalar three-loop bubble (vacuum) diagrams with a mass to a limited number of master integrals. The reduction is implemented as a package of computer programs for analytic evaluation in FORM. The algorithms are applicable to diagrams with any integer powers on the lines in an arbitrary dimension. A physical application is the evaluation of the three-loop QCD correction to the electroweak ρ-parameter. 8 refs., 1 fig

  5. Discretization of space and time: mass-energy relation, accelerating expansion of the Universe, Hubble constant

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the gravitational potential energy that at large distance coincides with the Newtonian. In very precise circumstances it coincides with the relativistic mass-energy relation: this shows that the Universe is a black hole in which all bodies are subjected to an acceleration toward the border of the Universe itself. Since the Universe is a black hole with a fixed radius, we can obtain the density of the Unive...

  6. Chain propagator, mass, and universality in polymer solutions from Brownian relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A.

    2005-01-01

    A Lagrangian theory for single chains in polymer solutions is addressed via a recent Brownian relativity. By employing generalized diffusive coordinates, statements of covariance and diffusivity invariance result into free particle Lagrangians, where mass turns out to rise as a universal spacetime property. It descends from lowering diffusivity (or curving spacetime), so identifying a mechanism which conceptually resemble those ruling macromolecular scaling laws. An extended chain propagator recovers the Gaussian end-to-end distribution and, in the limits of time-like and space-like orbits, the dualism for diffusive paths and polymer random-walks

  7. Bill related to the struggle against proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This bill indicates the modifications brought to different French laws and codes (penal code, defence code, custom code) and defines provisions and penalties within the frame of struggle against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear weapons, biological weapons and toxin-based weapons, chemical weapons), and against the proliferation of their vectors. These modifications, provisions and penalties also concern double-use products. The bill also defines the modifications brought to the French penal procedure code. It finally addresses offenses related to these proliferations which can be considered as an act of terrorism

  8. Isomer beam elastic scattering: 26mAl(p, p) for astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, D.; Shimizu, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Chen, A. A.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Imai, N.; Iwasa, N.; Kim, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, M. J.; Kubono, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Liang, J.; Moon, J. Y.; Nishimura, S.; Oka, S.; Park, S. Y.; Psaltis, A.; Teranishi, T.; Ueno, Y.; Yang, L.

    2018-01-01

    The advent of radioactive ground-state beams some three decades ago ultimately sparked a revolution in our understanding of nuclear physics. However, studies with radioactive isomer beams are sparse and have often required sophisticated apparatuses coupled with the technologies of ground-state beams due to typical mass differences on the order of hundreds of keV and vastly different lifetimes for isomers. We present an application of a isomeric beam of 26mAl to one of the most famous observables in nuclear astrophysics: galactic 26Al. The characteristic decay of 26Al in the Galaxy was the first such specific radioactivity to be observed originating from outside the Earth some four decades ago. We present a newly-developed, novel technique to probe the structure of low-spin states in 27Si. Using the Center for Nuclear Study low-energy radioisotope beam separator (CRIB), we report on the measurement of 26mAl proton resonant elastic scattering conducted with a thick target in inverse kinematics. The preliminary results of this on-going study are presented.

  9. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L

    2015-01-01

    Background:In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to anabolic effects of protein could explain this.Objective:To examine associations between...... protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...... nitrogen. Estimated from DHI, FM increased 46 gram/year with every 1 E% protein substituted for fat (95%CI: 13, 79; P=0.006) and FFM increased 15 gram/year (1, 30; P=0.046). Results were similar in other substitution models. Estimated from urinary nitrogen, FM increased 53 gram/year with 1 E% protein...

  10. Yrast spectroscopy: status of yrast isomers, oblate shapes and feeding of yrast states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of very-high-spin states at the yrast line are addressed. Three different but related topics are discussed: the status of yrast isomers (mainly in the A approx. 150 region); the nuclear shape along the yrast line; and the feeding of the yrast states as a function of spin. A recurrent theme is the response of the core to the polarizing effects of a successively increasing number of valence particles and how the investigation of very-high-spin states bears on this problem. 10 figures, 1 table

  11. Simultaneous biodegradation of three mononitrophenol isomers by a tailor-made microbial consortium immobilized in sequential batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H; Zhang, J-J; Xu, Y; Chao, H-J; Zhou, N-Y

    2017-03-01

    The ortho-nitrophenol (ONP)-utilizing Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215, meta-nitrophenol (MNP)-utilizing Cupriavidus necator JMP134 and para-nitrophenol (PNP)-utilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 were assembled as a consortium to degrade three nitrophenol isomers in sequential batch reactors. Pilot test was conducted in flasks to demonstrate that a mixture of three mononitrophenols at 0·5 mol l -1 each could be mineralized by this microbial consortium within 84 h. Interestingly, neither ONP nor MNP was degraded until PNP was almost consumed by strain WBC-3. By immobilizing this consortium into polyurethane cubes, all three mononitrophenols were continuously degraded in lab-scale sequential reactors for six batch cycles over 18 days. Total concentrations of ONP, MMP and PNP that were degraded were 2·8, 1·5 and 2·3 mol l -1 during this time course respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that each member in the microbial consortium was relatively stable during the entire degradation process. This study provides a novel approach to treat polluted water, particularly with a mixture of co-existing isomers. Nitroaromatic compounds are readily spread in the environment and pose great potential toxicity concerns. Here, we report the simultaneous degradation of three isomers of mononitrophenol in a single system by employing a consortium of three bacteria, both in flasks and lab-scale sequential batch reactors. The results demonstrate that simultaneous biodegradation of three mononitrophenol isomers can be achieved by a tailor-made microbial consortium immobilized in sequential batch reactors, providing a pilot study for a novel approach for the bioremediation of mixed pollutants, especially isomers present in wastewater. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Early-type galaxies: mass-size relation at z ˜ 1.3 for different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    We combine multi-wavelength data of the Lynx superstructure and GOODS/CDF-S to build a sample of 75 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs), spanning different environments (cluster/group/field) at z ˜ 1.3. By estimating their mass, age (SED fitting, with a careful attention to the stellar population model used) and size, we are able to probe the dependence on the environment of the mass-size relation. We find that, for ETGs with 10^{10} < M / M_⊙ < 10^{11.5}, (1) the mass-size relation in the field did not evolve overall from z ˜ 1.3 to present; (2) the mass-size relation in cluster/group environments at z ˜ 1.3 lies at smaller sizes than the local mass-size relation (R_{e,z ˜ 1.3}/R_{e,z = 0} ˜ 0.6-0.8).

  13. Feeding of the 1 1/2- isomers in stable Ir and Au isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ronald O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holloway, Shannon T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, Mark B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Becker, John A [LLNL; Garrett, Paul E [U GUELPH, CANADA

    2008-01-01

    Excited states were studied and absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections were measured using the ({eta}, {eta}'{gamma}) reaction in {sup 191}Ir, {sup 193}Ir and {sup 197}Au. A Compton-suppressed germanium-detector array (GEANIE) for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and the broad-spectrum pulsed neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's WNR facility were used for the measurement. The energy of the incident neutrons was determined using the time-of-flight technique. Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections were measured up to incident neutron energy of 20 MeV for several transitions feeding directly the 1 1/2- isomers and ground states in {sup 191}Ir, {sup 193}Ir and {sup 197}Au. The feeding of the 1 1/2- isomers, which originate from the odd proton occupying the h{sub 1 1/2} orbital, was found for the three targets to be very similar and increasing relative to the feeding of the corresponding ground state with increasing neutron energy up to E{sub n} {approx} 10 MeV. Above this neutron energy the opening of the (n, 2{sub n}) reaction channel strongly affects the population of the isomers and leads to a decrease of their relative population compared to the population of the ground states. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions from the GNASH reaction model calculation implementing a version of the spin distribution for the pre-equilibrium reaction piece with either a compound nucleus spin distribution (CN-GNASH) or a Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK-GNASH) quantum mechanical spin distribution. The effects of the spin cutoff parameter values on the population of states are examined. Evidence is presented that FKK-GNASH provides a description of the experimental data that mitigates the need for adjustment of the level density parameter to fit the data.

  14. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Relatively high levels of PFASs were present in the snow in northern China in 2013. • Particulate bound PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in snow. • Particulate matters are vital for PFASs transport and deposition in urban atmosphere. • Partitioning of PFASs between particulate and dissolved phase was related to carbon chain length. • Isomer profiles in snow suggested that airborne PFASs were mainly from direct release. - Abstract: In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5–229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08–107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52–54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66–44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21–23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3 M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors.

  15. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan, E-mail: zhuly@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Relatively high levels of PFASs were present in the snow in northern China in 2013. • Particulate bound PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in snow. • Particulate matters are vital for PFASs transport and deposition in urban atmosphere. • Partitioning of PFASs between particulate and dissolved phase was related to carbon chain length. • Isomer profiles in snow suggested that airborne PFASs were mainly from direct release. - Abstract: In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5–229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08–107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52–54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66–44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21–23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3 M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors.

  16. THE L∝σ8 CORRELATION FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH CORES: RELATION WITH BLACK HOLE MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    We construct the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion σ and total galaxy luminosity L V separately for elliptical galaxies with and without cores. The coreless ellipticals show the well-known, steep relationship dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.268 or L V ∝σ 3.74 . This corresponds to dlog σ/dlog M = 0.203, where M is the stellar mass and we use M/L∝L 0.32 . In contrast, the velocity dispersions of core ellipticals increase much more slowly with L V and M: dlog σ/dlog L V = 0.120, L V ∝σ 8.33 , and dlog σ/dlog M = 0.091. Dissipationless major galaxy mergers are expected to preserve σ according to the simplest virial-theorem arguments. However, numerical simulations show that σ increases slowly in dry major mergers, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ +0.15. In contrast, minor mergers cause σ to decrease, with dlog σ/dlog M ≅ –0.05. Thus, the observed relation argues for dry major mergers as the dominant growth mode of the most massive ellipticals. This is consistent with what we know about the formation of cores. We know no viable way to explain galaxy cores except through dissipationless mergers of approximately equal-mass galaxies followed by core scouring by binary supermassive black holes. The observed, shallow σ∝L V +0.12 relation for core ellipticals provides further evidence that they formed in dissipationless and predominantly major mergers. Also, it explains the observation that the correlation of supermassive black hole mass with velocity dispersion, M . ∝σ 4 , ''saturates'' at high M . such that M . becomes almost independent of σ.

  17. Derivation of mass relations for composite W* and Z* from effective Lagrangian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Masaki; Oneda, Sadao.

    1985-04-01

    In an effective-Lagrangian model with gauge bosons (W,Z,γ) and their neighboring spin J=1 composites (W*,Z*), we find relations among their masses, m sub(W), m sub(Z), m sub(W*) and m sub(Z*): m sub(W) m sub(W*) = cos theta m sub(Z) m sub(Z*) (as a generalization of m sub(W) = cos theta m sub(Z)) and m sub(W) 2 + m sub(W*) 2 + tan 2 theta m sub(W0) 2 = m sub(Z) 2 + m sub(Z*) 2 with m sub(W0) being the mass of W in the standard model provided that the system respects the SU(2) sub(L) x U(1) sub(Y) symmetry. W* and Z* are taken as the lowest-lying excited states belonging to an SU(2) sub(L)-triplet in the symmetric limit. The existence of W* coupling to the V-A current modifies the relation between G sub(F) and M sub(W) and that of Z* generates a new interaction of the (Jsup(em)) 2 -type as well as the deviation of sin theta sub(W) observed at low energies from the mixing angle sin theta in neutral-current interactions. (author)

  18. IgG4-Related Kidney Disease: Report of a Case Presenting as a Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a nosological entity defined as a chronic immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by a tendency to form tumefactive, tissue-destructive lesions or by organ failure. Urologic involvement in IgG4-RD has been described in some short series of patients and in isolated case reports, most often involving the kidneys in so-called IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD. The disease can occasionally mimic malignancies and is at risk of being misdiagnosed due to its rarity. We report the case of a 56-year-old man presenting with a right renal mass suspected of being malignant. Laboratory tests showed normal creatinine levels, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and high levels of C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria. The patient underwent radical right nephroureterectomy and histopathologic examination revealed features proving IgG4-RKD. He was therefore referred to immunologists. Typical clinical presentation of IgG4-RKD includes altered renal function with inconstant or no radiologic findings. Conversely, in the case we presented, a single nodule was detected upon imaging evaluation, thus mimicking malignancy. This raises the issue of a proper differential diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach can be useful, although in clinical practice the selection of patients suspected of having IgG4-RKD is critical in the cases presenting with a renal mass that mimics malignancy.

  19. Estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure from mass imbibition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyafei, Nayef; Blunt, Martin J.

    2018-05-01

    We perform spontaneous imbibition experiments on three carbonates - Estaillades, Ketton, and Portland - which are three quarry limestones that have very different pore structures and span wide range of permeability. We measure the mass of water imbibed in air saturated cores as a function of time under strongly water-wet conditions. Specifically, we perform co-current spontaneous experiments using a highly sensitive balance to measure the mass imbibed as a function of time for the three rocks. We use cores measuring 37 mm in diameter and three lengths of approximately 76 mm, 204 mm, and 290 mm. We show that the amount imbibed scales as the square root of time and find the parameter C, where the volume imbibed per unit cross-sectional area at time t is Ct1/2. We find higher C values for higher permeability rocks. Employing semi-analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow and using reasonable estimates of relative permeability and capillary pressure, we can match the experimental data. We finally discuss how, in combination with conventional measurements, we can use theoretical solutions and imbibition measurements to find or constrain relative permeability and capillary pressure.

  20. Effects of general relativity on glitch amplitudes and pulsar mass upper bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Montoli, A.; Pizzochero, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    Pinning of vortex lines in the inner crust of a spinning neutron star may be the mechanism that enhances the differential rotation of the internal neutron superfluid, making it possible to freeze some amount of angular momentum which eventually can be released, thus causing a pulsar glitch. We investigate the general relativistic corrections to pulsar glitch amplitudes in the slow-rotation approximation, consistently with the stratified structure of the star. We thus provide a relativistic generalization of a previous Newtonian model that was recently used to estimate upper bounds on the masses of glitching pulsars. We find that the effect of general relativity on the glitch amplitudes obtained by emptying the whole angular momentum reservoir is less than 30 per cent. Moreover, we show that the Newtonian upper bounds on the masses of large glitchers obtained from observations of their maximum recorded event differ by less than a few percent from those calculated within the relativistic framework. This work can also serve as a basis to construct more sophisticated models of angular momentum reservoir in a relativistic context: in particular, we present two alternative scenarios for macroscopically rigid and slack pinned vortex lines, and we generalize the Feynman-Onsager relation to the case when both entrainment coupling between the fluids and a strong axisymmetric gravitational field are present.

  1. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Inflammatory Pseudotumor Presenting as a Solitary Mass in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ryeol Cheong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD is a relatively recently recognized entity that is histopathologically characterized by an extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells with dense fibrosis. IgG4RD is now known to affect any organ system, and a few cases of gastrointestinal lesions have also been reported. However, solitary IgG4RD of the stomach is still very rare. Furthermore, as it can mimic malignant conditions, it is important to recognize this disease to avoid unnecessary surgery. Herein, we present a case of IgG4RD presenting as an isolated subepithelial mass in the stomach.

  2. Relation of body mass index to risk of stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2012-01-01

    Stent thrombosis is a devastating complication after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but the influence of obesity on risk of stent thrombosis is unclear, and it is unknown if this relation is dependent on stent type. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between body...... mass index (BMI) and stent thrombosis after PCI with bare-metal stent (BMS) or drug-eluting stent (DES). We followed 5,515 patients who underwent PCI with implantation of ≥1 BMS or DES at a high-volume tertiary invasive cardiology center from 2000 through 2006. Only patients with a single type of stent...... (BMS or DES) implanted at the index PCI were included. Median follow-up period was 26 months (interquartile range 12 to 44) and definite stent thrombosis occurred in 78 patients. Hazard ratio of definite stent thrombosis adjusted for number of stents at the index PCI was 0.92 (95% confidence interval...

  3. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum......Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P vitamin B12...

  4. Neighbourhood Influences on Children's Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle L; Pearson, Amber L; Bentham, Graham; Day, Peter; Kingham, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown. To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours. Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables) were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Increased community engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing). Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight-related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  5. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  6. Comparison of the Weisskopf estimates in spin and K-isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Swati; Maheshwari, B.; Rajput, Rohit; Srivastava, P.C.; Jain, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear isomers are the excited metastable states, which exist due to the hindrance on their decay. Study of isomers has recently become very popular due to advances in the experimental techniques and also the arrival of radioactive beams. Large amount of new experimental data is becoming available. The very first 'Atlas of nuclear isomers' lists more than 2460 nuclear isomers with the half-life cut off at 10 ns. Spin isomers mostly exist due to the difficulty in meeting the spin selection rules and cluster around the semi-magic regions. The isomers far from the magic-numbers, which lie in the well-deformed region, mostly exist due to the goodness of the K-quantum number and large K-difference between the decaying states. They are known as K-isomers

  7. THE M BH-L SPHEROID RELATION AT HIGH AND LOW MASSES, THE QUADRATIC GROWTH OF BLACK HOLES, AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    From a sample of 72 galaxies with reliable supermassive black hole masses M bh , we derive the M bh -(host spheroid luminosity, L) relation for (1) the subsample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies with partially depleted cores, and (2) the remaining subsample of 48 Sérsic galaxies. Using K s -band Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we find the near-linear relation M bh ∝L 1.10±0.20 K s for the core-Sérsic spheroids thought to be built in additive dry merger events, while we find the relation M bh ∝L 2.73±0.55 K s for the Sérsic spheroids built from gas-rich processes. After converting literature B-band disk galaxy magnitudes into inclination- and dust-corrected bulge magnitudes, via a useful new equation presented herein, we obtain a similar result. Unlike with the M bh -(velocity dispersion) diagram, which is also updated here using the same galaxy sample, it remains unknown whether barred and non-barred Sérsic galaxies are offset from each other in the M bh -L diagram. While black hole feedback has typically been invoked to explain what was previously thought to be a nearly constant M bh /M Spheroid mass ratio of ∼0.2%, we advocate that the near-linear M bh -L and M bh -M Spheroid relations observed at high masses may have instead arisen largely from the additive dry merging of galaxies. We argue that feedback results in a dramatically different scaling relation, such that black hole mass scales roughly quadratically with the spheroid mass in Sérsic galaxies. We therefore introduce a revised cold-gas 'quasar' mode feeding equation for semi-analytical models to reflect what we dub the quadratic growth of black holes in Sérsic galaxies built amidst gas-rich processes. Finally, we use our new Sérsic M bh -L equations to predict the masses of candidate intermediate mass black holes in almost 50 low-luminosity spheroids containing active galactic nuclei, finding many masses between that of stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes.

  8. Shape Isomer in 236U Populated by Thermal Neutron Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Verner; Christensen, Carl Jørgen; Borggreen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The 116 ns shape isomer in 236U was populated by thermal neutron capture. Conversion electrons and X-rays were detected simultaneously in delayed coincidence with fission. The ratio of delayed to prompt fission was measured with the result, σIIf/σf = (1.0±0.2) × 10−5. A branching of the isomeric ...... decay σIIγ/σIIf = 7±2 was deduced from this number. No definite electron line structure was observed....

  9. Butane isomer separation with composite zeolite MFI mebranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabánek, Pavel; Zikánová, Arlette; Bernauer, B.; Fíla, V.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 245, 1-3 (2009), s. 437-443 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1443; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS401250509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : zeolite MFI * membranes * separation * butane isomers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.034, year: 2009

  10. High spin states and Yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1981-01-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2 - . Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  11. Island of high-spin isomers near N = 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, J.; Back, B.B.; Bernthal, F.M.; Bjornholm, S.; Borggreen, J.; Christensen, O.; Folkmann, F.; Herskind, B.; Khoo, T.L.; Neiman, M.; Puehlhofer, F.; Sletten, G.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments aimed at testing for the existence of yrast traps are reported. A search for delayed γ radiation of lifetimes longer than approx. 10 ns and of high multiplicity has been performed by producing more than 100 compound nuclei between Ba and Pb in bombardments with 40 Ar, 50 Ti, and 65 Cu projectiles. An island of high-spin isomers is found to exist in the region 64 or approx. = 71 and N < or approx. = 82

  12. High spin states and yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1980-12-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2. Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  13. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Hamzah, Muhamad Firdaus

    2017-05-01

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K to 1313 K, under atmospheric pressure. Sole distinctive weak flame was observed for each mixture, with inlet fuel/air mixture velocity set low at 2 cm/s. One-dimensional computation with comprehensive chemistry and transport was conducted. At low mixture velocities, one-stage oxidation was confirmed from heat release rate profiles, which was broadly in agreement with the experimental results. The weak flame positions were congruent with literature describing reactivity of the butanol isomers. These weak flame responses were also found to mirror the trend in Anti-Knock Indexes of the butanol isomers. Flux and sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the fuel oxidation pathways at low and high temperatures. Further computational investigations on oxidation of butanol isomers at higher pressure of 5 atm indicated two-stage oxidation through the heat release rate profiles. Low temperature chemistry is accentuated in the region near the first weak cool flame for oxidation under higher pressure, and its impact on key species – such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and carbon monoxide – were considered. Both experimental and computational findings demonstrate the advantage of employing the micro flow reactor in investigating oxidation processes in the temperature region of interest along the reactor channel. By varying physical conditions such as pressure, the micro flow reactor system is proven to be highly beneficial in elucidating oxidation behavior of butanol isomers in conditions in engines such as those that mirror HCCI operations.

  14. Isomer spectroscopy in 92Ru and 95Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorska, M.; Rejmund, M.; Schubart, R.; Grawe, H.; Heese, J.; Maier, K.H.; Spohr, K.; Fitzgerald, J.B.; Fossan, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The parity changing γ-transitions like E1, M2, E3 in 92 Ru and 95 Pd nuclei have been investigated to probe the purity of the Shell Model. Two isomers of 92 Ru and 95 Pd have been produced in the 58 Ni + 40 Ca heavy ion reaction at 58 Ni beams energy 215 MeV. The gamma-ray transition strength have been deduced

  15. Observation of the new isomer 32mAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.; Halse, P.; Lewitowicz, M.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    A new isomer in the neutron-rich isotope 32 Al has been identified among the fragmentation products of a 40 Ar 16+ beam using the LISE spectrometer at GANIL. The population of the isomeric state was inferred from the detection of γ-radiation following its decay in coincidence with its respective heavy-ion implantation signal. The half-life of 32m Al was determined to be 240 ± 30 ns. (author)

  16. Prolactin releasing effect of sulpiride isomers in rats and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, E E; Stefanini, E; Spano, P F [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy; Camanni, F; Massara, F [Turin Univ. (Italy). Chair of Endocrinology; Locatelli, V; Cocchi, D

    1979-01-01

    Sulpiride, an antipsychotropic drug of the benzamide class, reportedly displaces stereospecifically (/sup 3/H)-butyrophenones from putative dopamine (DA) binding sites in rat striatum. To evaluate if sulpiride displays the same stereospecifity in the inhibition of pituitary DA receptors, the effect of the two(-)-and (+)-sulpiride isomers was tested with regard to their ability to stimulate prolactin (PRL) secretion in rats and man and to displace (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol bound to rat anterior pituitary receptors. In male rats, (-)-sulpiride at doses of 0.1 and 0.1 mg/kg i.p., induced a maximum PRL-releasing effect, not different from that evoked by a dose of 10 mg/kg of the compound. (+)-Sulpiride was active only at the dose of 10mg/kg i.p., and its PRL-releasing effect was superimposable to that evoked by the same dose of (-)-sulpiride. Similarily, in 8 normal subjects (4 men and 4 women) only (-)-sulpiride was active as PRL releaser when the low dose of 0.25 mg i.v. was used; when the higher dose of sulpiride was used (4.0 mg i.v.), it induced a rise in plasma PRL of the same entity for both isomers at early post-injection times (15-30 min) but greater with the (-)-isomer at the following time intervals (45-120 min). (-)-Sulpiride displaced (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol bound to rat anterior pituitary homogenates with a potency about 100 times greater as that showed by (+)-sulpiride. In all, these data indicate that sulpiride isomers display at the level of pituitary DA receptors for PRL control the same stereospecifity exhibited on a population of striatal DA receptors.

  17. 6/sup +/ isomer state in /sup 46/Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzeti, P G; Maurenzig, P R; Poggi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica; Lo Bianco, G [Milan Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica

    1975-01-11

    The decay of the expected isomer, obtained from the reaction /sup 48/Ca(p,p2n)/sup 46/Ca, has been observed as a delayed activity after bombardment of a 97.2% enriched /sup 48/CaC0/sub 3/ target with 35 MeV protons. The experimental apparatus used at AUF cyclotron of Milan is described. Data are reported and discussed.

  18. SEASONAL, SIZE-RELATED AND AGE-RELATED PATTERNS IN BODY-MASS AND COMPOSITION OF PURPLE SANDPIPERS CALIDRIS-MARITIMA IN BRITAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUMMERS, RW; UNDERHILL, LG; NICOLL, M; RAE, R; PIERSMA, T

    1992-01-01

    The masses Of 3229 Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima from Britain were analysed for differences related to age, season and size. First-year birds were lighter by 2 g. There was only a slight increase in mass in mid-winter, in contrast to other waders wintering in Britain, suggesting that Purple

  19. Tautomeric preferences of the cis and trans isomers of axitinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M. Saeed; Taherpour, Avat Arman

    2018-05-01

    The tautomeric preferences of axitinib, a potent anticancer drug, as tyrosine kinase inhibitor have been investigated using quantum chemical calculations and docking methods. The energy differences between the two tautomers of trans-isomer are around 4 and 3 kcal mol-1 in vacuo and water, respectively, and for its cis-isomer (major photochemical isomerization product) this equilibrium reversed completely in favour of the second tautomer (not considered previously), which is about 7-8 kcal mol-1 more stable in both gas and aqueous media. The results indicate a very high activation energy for proton exchange for both [1,2] and [1,5] H-shift (around 50 kcal mol-1) in the gas phase, but inclusion of protic solvents (e.g. water) decrease this barrier to around 14 and 35 kcal mol-1 for the both hydrogen shift processes, respectively. In order to have better insight about the electronic structure of axitinib tautomers, the NBO, HOMO-LUMO, NICS and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces (MESP) calculations have been carried out. Docking investigations on the two more stable tautomers revealed that binding of the trans isomer of tautomer I to the active site of the receptor is the most favourable in the terms of energy and structure. This more stability could be attributed to the more hydrogen bonding of this tautomer with the protein residues in comparison to the second tautomer.

  20. Calorimetric and computational studies for three nitroimidazole isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Tânia M.T.; Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy of combustion of 4-nitroimidazole was measured by static bomb calorimetry. • Enthalpy of sublimation of 4-nitroimidazole was determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. • Gas-phase enthalpy of formation of 4-nitroimidazole derived from experimental measurements. • Gas-phase enthalpies of nitroimidazole isomers formation estimated from G3 calculations. - Abstract: In the present work, a combined experimental and computational thermochemical study of nitroimidazole isomers was carried out. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of combustion, in the crystalline phase, for 4-nitroimidazole was determined, at the temperature of 298.15 K, using a static bomb combustion calorimeter. Calvet microcalorimetry experiments were performed to measure its standard molar enthalpy of sublimation. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of 4-nitroimidazole, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, (116.9 ± 2.9) kJ·mol −1 , has been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpy of formation in the crystalline phase and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation. Computational studies for 4-nitroimidazole were performed to complement the experimental work. These were also extended to the 2- and 5-nitroimidazole isomers. The gas-phase enthalpies of formation were estimated from high level ab initio molecular orbital calculations, at the G3 level. Also investigated were the tautomeric equilibrium of 4(5)-nitroimidazole in the gaseous phase and it was concluded that the two tautomers are equally stable.

  1. Experimental and computational thermochemistry of the dihydroxypyridine isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Victor M.F.; Miranda, Margarida S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation for crystalline 2,3-dihydroxypyridine was measured, at T = 298.15 K, by static bomb calorimetry and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T 298.15 K, was obtained using Calvet microcalorimetry. These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of 2,3-dihydroxypyridine in gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, -(263.9 ± 4.6) kJ . mol -1 . Additionally, high-level density functional theory calculations using the B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation energy functional with extended basis sets have been performed for all dihydroxypyridine isomers to determine the thermochemical order of stability of these systems. The agreement between experiment and theory for the 2,3-dihydroxypyridine isomer gives confidence to the estimates of the enthalpies of formation concerning the other five isomers. It is found that the enthalpic increment for the dihydroxy substitution of pyridine is equal to the sum of the respective enthalpic increment of the monosubstituted pyridines

  2. Nuclear Structure Studies of Microsecond Isomers Near A=100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, G.; Genevey, J.; Pinston, J. A.; Urban, W.; Zlomaniec, A.; Orlandi, R.; Scherillo, A.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Smith, A. G.; Thallon, A.; Varley, B. J.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N.

    2007-04-01

    A large variety of shapes may be observed in Sr and Zr nuclei of the A = 100 region when the number of neutrons increases from N = 58 to N = 64. The lighter isotopes are rather spherical. It is also well established that three shapes co-exist in the transitional odd-A, N = 59, Sr and Zr nuclei. For N > 59, strongly deformed axially symmetric bands are observed. Recently, a new isomer of half-life 1.4(2) mu s was observed in 95Kr, the odd-odd 96Rb has been reinvestigated and a new high-spin isomer observed in the even-even 98Zr. These nuclei were studied by means of prompt gamma -ray spectroscopy of the spontaneous fission of 248Cm using the EUROGAM 2 Ge array and/or measurements of mu s isomers produced by fission of 239,241Pu with thermal neutrons at the ILL (Grenoble). To allow spectroscopic studies of isomeric states with lifetimes around 100 ns, across a broad range of medium-heavy neutron-rich nuclei, an experiment was performed at a neutron guide of the ILL using thermal-neutron-induced fission. Fission fragments were identified using a small spectrometer consisting of a section to measure time-of-flight and an ionization chamber. Isomeric gamma rays emitted from complementary fragments were detected in an array of Ge detectors.

  3. Guarding against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs): Practical evidence from China's local governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shukui; Wang, Siliang

    2017-04-01

    China is faced with serious challenges brought by large-scale social protests in the period of rapid urbanization and profound social transition. In rural areas, the vast majority of mass incidents were related with land expropriation. In this paper, we intend to show how China's local governments guard against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs) at the practical level. We first construct a comprehensive three-dimensional theoretic framework to define the boundary, to uncover the incentives, and to recognize the features of involved practices, then, on the basis of description evidenced by detailed data and/or cases, break various local practices down into two categories, the common local practices which refer to the nationwide top-down responses to the unified deployment by the central authority that aims to mitigate discontentment of land-deprived peasants and reduce the probabilities of conflicts through regulating land expropriation behavior and safeguarding economic interests and participation rights of affected peasants, and the specific local practices which point to the innovative local government behaviors with heterogeneity, in general, the tactical approaches to reduce the probabilities of disputes or conflicts evolving into group actions. We further argue that both of them follow a central tenet of instrumental orientation. As to the former, it is corroborated by local governments' paying more attention to promote the stylization and quantification in the aspects of regulating procedure, formulating and renewing compensation standards, resolving disputes, and evaluating risks, while the latter is mainly reflected from the outcome-orientation organization strategies to maintain overall stability in a relatively short term.

  4. Relation of air mass history to nucleation events in Po Valley, Italy, using back trajectories analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sogacheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transport of air masses to San Pietro Capofiume (SPC in Po Valley, Italy, by means of back trajectories analysis. Our main aim is to investigate whether air masses originate over different regions on nucleation event days and on nonevent days, during three years when nucleation events have been continuously recorded at SPC. The results indicate that nucleation events occur frequently in air masses arriving from Central Europe, whereas event frequency is much lower in the air transported from southern directions and from the Atlantic Ocean. We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC, and found that, on average, event trajectories undergo stronger subsidence during the last 12 h before the arrival at SPC than nonevent trajectories. This causes a reversal in the temperature and relative humidity (RH differences between event and nonevent trajectories: between 96 and 12 h back time, temperature is lower and RH is higher for event than nonevent trajectories and between 12 and 0 h vice versa. Boundary layer mixing is stronger along the event trajectories compared to nonevent trajectories. The absolute humidity (AH is similar for the event and nonevent trajectories between about 96 h and about 60 h back time, but after that, the event trajectories AH becomes lower due to stronger rain. We also studied transport of SO2 to SPC, and conclude that although sources in Po Valley most probably dominate the measured concentrations, certain Central and Eastern European sources also make a substantial contribution.

  5. Of mice, men and elephants: the relation between articular cartilage thickness and body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Malda

    Full Text Available Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue's thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse to 4000 kg (African elephant. Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications.

  6. Of Mice, Men and Elephants: The Relation between Articular Cartilage Thickness and Body Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Jos; de Grauw, Janny C.; Benders, Kim E. M.; Kik, Marja J. L.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Creemers, Laura B.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; van Weeren, P. René

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue’s thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse) to 4000 kg (African elephant). Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content) and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content) decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications. PMID:23437402

  7. Determination of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol isomers by heated purge-and-trap GC/MS in water samples from the 2014 Elk River, West Virginia, chemical spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Rose, Donna L.; Chambers, Douglas B.; Crain, Angela S.; Murtagh, Lucinda K.; Thakellapalli, Haresh; Wang, Kung K.

    2015-01-01

    A heated purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to determine the cis- and trans-isomers of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), the reported major component of the Crude MCHM/Dowanol™ PPh glycol ether material spilled into the Elk River upriver from Charleston, West Virginia, on January 9, 2014. The trans-isomer eluted first and method detection limits were 0.16-μg L−1trans-, 0.28-μg L−1cis-, and 0.4-μg L−1 Total (total response of isomers) 4-MCHM. Estimated concentrations in the spill source material were 491-g L−1trans- and 277-g L−1cis-4-MCHM, the sum constituting 84% of the source material assuming its density equaled 4-MCHM. Elk River samples collected ⩽ 3.2 km downriver from the spill on January 15 had low (⩽2.9 μg L−1 Total) 4-MCHM concentrations, whereas the isomers were not detected in samples collected 2 d earlier at the same sites. Similar 4-MCHM concentrations (range 4.2–5.5 μg L−1 Total) occurred for samples of the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky, on January 17, ∼630 km downriver from the spill. Total 4-MCHM concentrations in Charleston, WV, office tap water decreased from 129 μg L−1 on January 27 to 2.2 μg L−1on February 3, but remained detectable in tap samples through final collection on February 25 indicating some persistence of 4-MCHM within the water distribution system. One isomer of methyl 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate was detected in all Ohio River and tap water samples, and both isomers were detected in the source material spilled.

  8. The relative impact of baryons and cluster shape on weak lensing mass estimates of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. E.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Haq, M. E.; Deering, N. J.; King, L. J.; Applegate, D.; McCarthy, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing depends on the integrated mass along the line of sight. Baryons contribute to the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and the resulting mass estimates from lensing analysis. We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the impact of baryonic processes on the bias and scatter of weak lensing mass estimates of clusters. These estimates are obtained by fitting NFW profiles to mock data using MCMC techniques. In particular, we examine the difference in estimates between dark matter-only runs and those including various prescriptions for baryonic physics. We find no significant difference in the mass bias when baryonic physics is included, though the overall mass estimates are suppressed when feedback from AGN is included. For lowest-mass systems for which a reliable mass can be obtained (M200 ≈ 2 × 1014M⊙), we find a bias of ≈-10 per cent. The magnitude of the bias tends to decrease for higher mass clusters, consistent with no bias for the most massive clusters which have masses comparable to those found in the CLASH and HFF samples. For the lowest mass clusters, the mass bias is particularly sensitive to the fit radii and the limits placed on the concentration prior, rendering reliable mass estimates difficult. The scatter in mass estimates between the dark matter-only and the various baryonic runs is less than between different projections of individual clusters, highlighting the importance of triaxiality.

  9. Activity-related characteristics of the convective envelopes in evolving low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, S.M.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    Convective envelope structures have been computed for the post-main-sequence evolutionary phases of 0.7-1.6 solar mass model stars having initial mass-fraction abundances of helium and heavier elements equal to Y = 0.25 and Z = 0.0169 (solar), respectively. Two types of quantities as a function of the basic stellar parameters have been studied. The first of these is relevant to the theory of stellar dynamos and includes estimates of the convective turnover time, various dynamo number parameters, and the maximum nonthermal energy which is available for the dynamo action. The other is related to the expected sizes of inhomogeneities on the stellar surfaces and comprises the determination of the depth of the convective zone, the pressure scale height at the outer edge of the convective region, and the thicknesses of the shells where the superadiabatic gradient is large and where the opacity is within 10 percent of its maximum. All of the above properties, which are fully discussed, are extensively tabulated and their variations as a function of evolutionary state are conveniently displayed in a number of contour plots to facilitate comparisons with observations. 29 references

  10. Sonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis and relation to body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Huseyin [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozdemir@firat.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Erhan [Department Orthopedic Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Murat, Ayse [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Karakurt, Lokman [Department Orthopedic Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Poyraz, A. Kursad [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Ogur, Erkin [Department of Radiology Firat University, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig 23119 (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the role of sonography in the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Materials and methods: This study evaluates 39 patients with plantar fasciitis and control group of 22 healthy volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured 5 mm distal to the insertion of the calcaneus of plantar aponeurosis. Qualitative parameters such as decreased echogenity, biconvexity, perifascial fluid and calcification of plantar fascia were also noted. Results: Mean plantar fascia thickness was measured 2.9 mm in patients with unilateral heel pain, 2.2 mm for contralateral normal heel and 2.5 mm for control group. There was a statistically significant difference between heel with plantar fasciitis, contralateral normal heel and control groups (p = 0.009 and 0.0001, respectively). Mean body mass index was 28 kg/m{sup 2} in patients with heel pain and 25 kg/m{sup 2} in control group. Body mass index measurements were significantly different between plantar fasciitis and control groups. We found reduced plantar fascia echogenity in 16 cases (41%), calcaneal spur in 20 cases (51%), biconvex appearance in two cases (5.1%) and perifascial fluid in one case (2.5%). Conclusion: We conclude that in patients with plantar fasciitis, ultrasound may detect relatively small differences in plantar fascia thickness even in clinically unequivocal plantar fasciitis.

  11. Sonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis and relation to body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Erhan; Murat, Ayse; Karakurt, Lokman; Poyraz, A. Kursad; Ogur, Erkin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the role of sonography in the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Materials and methods: This study evaluates 39 patients with plantar fasciitis and control group of 22 healthy volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured 5 mm distal to the insertion of the calcaneus of plantar aponeurosis. Qualitative parameters such as decreased echogenity, biconvexity, perifascial fluid and calcification of plantar fascia were also noted. Results: Mean plantar fascia thickness was measured 2.9 mm in patients with unilateral heel pain, 2.2 mm for contralateral normal heel and 2.5 mm for control group. There was a statistically significant difference between heel with plantar fasciitis, contralateral normal heel and control groups (p = 0.009 and 0.0001, respectively). Mean body mass index was 28 kg/m 2 in patients with heel pain and 25 kg/m 2 in control group. Body mass index measurements were significantly different between plantar fasciitis and control groups. We found reduced plantar fascia echogenity in 16 cases (41%), calcaneal spur in 20 cases (51%), biconvex appearance in two cases (5.1%) and perifascial fluid in one case (2.5%). Conclusion: We conclude that in patients with plantar fasciitis, ultrasound may detect relatively small differences in plantar fascia thickness even in clinically unequivocal plantar fasciitis

  12. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Body Mass Index and Stoma Related Problems in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeps, Raymond; McMullen, Carmit K.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Bulkley, Joanna; Grant, Marcia; Mohler, Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.; Herrinton, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Weight gain can cause retraction of an intestinal stoma, possibly resulting in difficulty with wafer and pouch fit, daily care challenges, and discomfort. This cross-sectional study examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and ostomy-related problems among long-term (>5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Materials and Methods CRC survivors from three Kaiser Permanente Regions completed a mailed survey. The response rate for those with an ostomy was 53% (283/529). Questions included stoma-related problems and time to conduct daily ostomy care. Poisson regression evaluated associations between report of problems and change in BMI. Our analysis sample included 235 survivors. Results Sample was 76% ≥65 years of age. Since their surgeries, BMI remained stable in 44% (ST), decreased in 20% (DE), and increased in 35% (IN) of survivors. Compared to ST, male IN (RR 2.15 [1.09–4.25]) and female DE (RR 5.06 [1.26–25.0]) were more likely to spend more than 30 minutes per day on stoma care. IN (vs. ST) were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.51 [1.06–2.17]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 2.32 [1.30–4.14]). Survivors who were obese at time of survey were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.88 [1.38–2.56]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 1.68 [1.07–2.65]). Conclusion A change in BMI is associated with ostomy-related problems among long-term CRC survivors. Equipment and care practices may need to be adapted for changes in abdominal shape. Health care providers should caution that a significant increase or decrease in BMI may cause ostomy-related problems. PMID:24071496

  14. Relative muscle mass and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Hong

    Full Text Available The association between relative muscle mass (RMM and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM is largely unknown. We examined whether RMM predicted development of T2DM in an apparently young healthy population.This cohort study was comprised of 113,913 men and 89,854 women, free of T2DM at baseline, who underwent a health checkup examination and were followed-up annually or biennially for an average of 2.9 years. We used skeletal muscle mass index (SMI as an indicator of RMM. SMI (% [total skeletal muscle mass (kg/body weight (kg×100] was estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The study outcome was incident T2DM, defined as fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dL, HbA1C ≥6.5%, or use of medication for T2DM.During 589,098.8 person-years of follow-up, 4,264 individuals developed T2DM (incidence rate, 7.2 per 1000 person-years. Median age (range at baseline was 39.1 years (18.1-87.1. RMM was negatively associated with incidence of T2DM in a dose-response manner. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs for incident T2DM comparing quartiles 3, 2 and 1 of RMM to the highest quartile were 1.32 (1.14-1.52, 1.63 (1.42-1.86, and 2.21 (1.94-2.51, respectively, for males and 1.18 (0.88-1.58, 1.46 (1.11-1.91, and 1.96 (01.51-2.53 for females (P for trend <0.001; 0.011. This association was stronger in younger or premenopausal subjects.RMM was negatively associated with development of T2DM in a large sample of young and middle-aged Korean adults. Further research is required to determine whether preservation of muscle mass through intervention affects the risk of T2DM.

  15. Separation of multiphosphorylated peptide isomers by hydrophilic interaction chromatography on an aminopropyl phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, David; Kuhlmann, Julia; Muschket, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-08-01

    The separation of isomeric phosphorylated peptides is challenging and often impossible for multiphosphorylated isomers using chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic methods. In this study we investigated the separation of a set of single-, double-, and triple-phosphorylated peptides (corresponding to the human tau protein) by ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography (IP-RPC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). In HILIC both hydroxyl and aminopropyl stationary phases were tested with aqueous acetonitrile in order to assess their separation efficiency. The hydroxyl phase separated the phosphopeptides very well from the unphosphorylated analogue, while on the aminopropyl phase even isomeric phosphopeptides attained baseline separation. Thus, up to seven phosphorylated versions of a given tau domain were separated. Furthermore, the low concentration of an acidic ammonium formate buffer allowed an online analysis with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) to be conducted, enabling peptide sequencing and identification of phosphorylation sites.

  16. Experimental and computational thermochemical study of the tri-, tetra-, and pentachloronitrobenzene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Cabral, Joana I.T.A.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Moreno, Ana Rita G.; Galvao, Tiago L.P.; Rocha, Ines M.; Fernandes, Paula M.V.; Salgueiro, Silvia Q.; Moura, Vanessa A.F.de; Oliveira, Isabel M.S.C.; Cotelo, Paula C.; Ribeiro, Mariana R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2,4,6-trichloronitrobenzene, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloronitrobenzene, and pentachloronitrobenzene, in the crystalline state, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, of 2,4,6-trichloronitrobenzene and pentachloronitrobenzene, were determined from the dependence with the temperature of the vapour pressures, measured by the Knudsen mass-loss effusion method, whereas for 2,3,5,6-tetrachloronitrobenzene, the Calvet drop microcalorimetric technique was used. The experimental values are also compared with estimates based on G3(MP2)//B3LYP computations, which have also been extended to all the isomers of the trichloro- and tetrachloronitrobenzene that were not studied experimentally.

  17. Characterization of non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the separation of triacylglycerol positional isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Yuji, Hiromi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Ichioka, Kenji; Kuroda, Ikuma; Noguchi, Noriko; Wada, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of a non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the resolution of triacylglycerol positional isomers (TAG-PI) were examined using a recycle HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry system. A pair of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids at least 12 carbons was separated. Except for TAG-PI containing elaidic acid, pairs of TAG-PI containing three unsaturated fatty acids were not separated, even by recycle runs. These results indicate that the resolution of TAG-PI on a non-endcapped polymeric ODS stationary phase is realized by the recognition of the linear structure of the fatty acid and the binding position of the saturated fatty acid in TAG-PI. Chain length was also an important factor for resolution. This method may be a useful and simple for measuring the abundance ratio of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids in natural oils.

  18. Interfacing of thermal ionization mass spectrometer with PC/XT and related software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, A.D.; Gurba, P.B.; Rajendrakumar; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Coelho, G.J.M.; Das, K.V.; Indurkar, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A completely automated Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), is used in Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (PREFRE) Tarapur for precise and accurate measurement of isotopic composition and concentration determination of special nuclear materials (Uranium and Plutonium) for the purpose of input accounting of the plant. It is provided with one Hewlett-Packard, H-9845B desktop computer to control various instrument parameters and perform automatic analysis of 13 samples in sequence. The computer gave fairly good service for six years with intermittent minor maintenance before it developed major problems. In view of the fact that its repair and maintenance cost is several times the cost of locally available computer, it was decided to replace the imported Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer with PC/XT. This report describes the interfacing of TIMS with PC/XT and the related Software development. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 annexures

  19. Dimensions of socioeconomic position related to body mass index and obesity among Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different dimensions of socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the Danish population. Possible interactions between the different dimensions and gender differences were also investigated. Methods....... Associations between dimensions of socioeconomic position and weight status were examined by use of linear multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results: BMI and prevalence of obesity were significantly associated with education for both men and women. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity...... adjustment for educational level. Conclusions: Education was the dimension most consistently associated with BMI and obesity, indicating the importance of cultural capital for weight status. The gender-specific pattern showed a stronger social gradient for women, and indicated that a high relative body...

  20. Highly efficient high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of xylene isomers and phthalate acid esters on a homemade DUT-67(Zr) packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Li, Xiao-Xin; Feng, Fan; Li, Sumei; Han, Jia-Hui; Jia, Zi-Yi; Shu, Lun; Somsundaran, P; Li, Jian-Rong

    2018-04-16

    In this study, the baseline separations of xylene isomers and phthalate acid esters on a homemade DUT-67(Zr) packed column were achieved, respectively. The high selectivity for xylene isomers and phthalate acid esters was obtained with the increase of temperature and decrease of the retention time. The hydrophobicity of xylene isomers and phthalate acid esters caused the different separation time on the DUT-67(Zr) packed column. The relative standard deviation values of retention time, peak area, peak height and half peak width for five repeat separation of the xylene isomers were 0.26-0.35, 2.11-2.26, 1.51-2.03, and 0.29-0.77%, and the values of the phthalate acid esters on DUT-67(Zr) column were 0.1-0.4, 4.4-5.2, 3.9-6.3, and 0.6-2.1%, respectively. The thermodynamic properties indicated that the separation of xylene isomers was controlled by ΔH and ΔS, but the separation of phthalate acid esters was mainly controlled by ΔS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Rebaudioside M Isomer from a Bioconversion Reaction of Rebaudioside A and NMR Comparison Studies of Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2, from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4 to rebaudioside D (3, was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2 is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1 and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR techniques when identifying complex steviol glycosides. Numerous NMR spectroscopy studies of rebaudioside M (1, rebaudioside D (3, and mixture of 1 and 3 led to the discovery that SG17 which was previously reported in literature, is a mixture of rebaudioside D (3, rebaudioside M (1, and possibly other related steviol glycosides.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Rebaudioside M Isomer from a Bioconversion Reaction of Rebaudioside A and NMR Comparison Studies of Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Stevia rebaudiana Morita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P.; Charan, Romila D.; Ramirez, Catherine; Priedemann, Christopher; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    A minor product, rebaudioside M2 (2), from the bioconversion reaction of rebaudioside A (4) to rebaudioside D (3), was isolated and the complete structure of the novel steviol glycoside was determined. Rebaudioside M2 (2) is considered an isomer of rebaudioside M (1) and contains a relatively rare 1→6 sugar linkage. It was isolated and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D-TOCSY, and NOESY) and mass spectral data. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of 1D and 2D NMR techniques when identifying complex steviol glycosides. Numerous NMR spectroscopy studies of rebaudioside M (1), rebaudioside D (3), and mixture of 1 and 3 led to the discovery that SG17 which was previously reported in literature, is a mixture of rebaudioside D (3), rebaudioside M (1), and possibly other related steviol glycosides. PMID:24970220

  3. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  4. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kientz, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are

  5. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05 . No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  6. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  7. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-06-28

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions predicted improved stigma-related behavioural intentions

  8. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans-Lacko Sara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. Methods This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential: (1 improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2 increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3 promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England’s Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4–6 weeks later. Results This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential: (1 improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2 increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3 promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England’s Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4–6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions

  9. Experimental and computational study on the molecular energetics of benzyloxyphenol isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Cimas, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Combustion calorimetry was used to determine Δ f H m 0 (cr) of 4-benzyloxyphenol. → Vapor pressures were determined by the Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique. → Gas-phase Δ f H m 0 of benzyloxyphenol isomers have been derived. - Abstract: This paper reports a combined experimental and computational thermochemical study of 4-benzyloxyphenol. Static bomb combustion calorimetry and Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique were used to determine the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of combustion, Δ c H m 0 =-(6580.1±1.8)kJ.mol -1 , and of sublimation, Δ cr g H m 0 =(131.0±0.9)kJ.mol -1 , respectively, from which the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, Δ f H m 0 =-(119.5±2.7)kJ.mol -1 were derived. For comparison purposes, the gas-phase enthalpy of formation of this compound was estimated by G3(MP2)//B3LYP calculations, using a set of gas-phase working reactions; the results are in excellent agreement with experimental data. G3(MP2)//B3LYP computations were also extended to the calculation of the gas-phase enthalpies of formation of the 2- and 3-benzyloxyphenol isomers. Furthermore, this composite approach was also used to obtain information about the gas-phase acidities, gas-phase basicities, proton and electron affinities, adiabatic ionization enthalpies and, finally, O-H bond dissociation enthalpies.

  10. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  11. The relation between specific baryon angular momentum and mass for a sample of nearby low-mass galaxies with resolved H I kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between specific baryon angular momentum jb and baryon mass Mb for a sample of nearby late-type galaxies with resolved H I kinematics. This work roughly doubles the number of galaxies with Mb ≲ 1010 M⊙ used to study the jb-Mb relation. Most of the galaxies in the sample have their baryon mass dominated by their gas content, thereby offering jb and Mb measures that are relatively unaffected by uncertainties arising from the stellar mass-to-light ratio. Measured H I surface density radial profiles together with optical and rotation curve data from the literature are used to derive a best-fitting relation given by j_b=qM_b^{α }, with α = 0.62 ± 0.02 and log10 q = -3.35 ± 0.25. This result is consistent with the j_b∝ M_b^{2/3} relation that is theoretically expected and also measured by Obreschkow & Glazebrook for their full sample of THINGS spiral galaxies, yet differs to their steeper relation found for subsets with fixed bulge fraction. The 30 arcsec spatial resolution of the H I imaging used in this study is significantly lower than that of the THINGS imaging used by Obreschkow & Glazebrook, yet the results presented in this work are clearly shown to contain no significant systematic errors due to the low-resolution imaging.

  12. The Spectroscopy and H-band Imaging of Virgo Cluster Galaxies (SHIVir) Survey: Scaling Relations and the Stellar-to-total Mass Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Nathalie N.-Q.; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003-8001 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cappellari, Michele [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); McDonald, Michael [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Roediger, Joel C.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-07-01

    We present parameter distributions and fundamental scaling relations for 190 Virgo cluster galaxies in the SHIVir survey. The distribution of galaxy velocities is bimodal about V {sub circ} ∼ 125 km s{sup −1}, hinting at the existence of dynamically unstable modes in the inner regions of galaxies. An analysis of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) of late-type galaxies (LTGs) and the fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies (ETGs) is presented, yielding a compendium of galaxy scaling relations. The slope and zero-point of the Virgo TFR match those of field galaxies, while scatter differences likely reflect distinct evolutionary histories. The velocities minimizing scatter for the TFR and FP are measured at large apertures where the baryonic fraction becomes subdominant. While TFR residuals remain independent of any galaxy parameters, FP residuals (i.e., the FP “tilt”) correlate strongly with the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio, yielding stringent galaxy formation constraints. We construct a stellar-to-total mass relation (STMR) for ETGs and LTGs and find linear but distinct trends over the range M {sub *} = 10{sup 8–11} M {sub ⊙}. Stellar-to-halo mass relations (SHMRs), which probe the extended dark matter halo, can be scaled down to masses estimated within the optical radius, showing a tight match with the Virgo STMR at low masses; possibly inadequate halo abundance matching prescriptions and broad radial scalings complicate this comparison at all masses. While ETGs appear to be more compact than LTGs of the same stellar mass in projected space, their mass-size relations in physical space are identical. The trends reported here may soon be validated through well-resolved numerical simulations.

  13. Quantum-Chemical ab initio Calculations on the Three Isomers of Diborabenzene (C4H4B2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaswinder; Wang, Yuekui; Raabe, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-chemical ab initio calculations up to the ZPE+CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6- 311++G** level were performed on three possible structural isomers of diborabenzene (C4H4B2). All three molecules were found to be local minima on the C4H4B2 energy surface and to have closed shell singlet ground states. While the ground states of the 1,3- and 1,4-isomer are planar and of C2v and D2h symmetry, respectively, 1,2-diborabenzene is non-planar with a C2 axis passing through the center of the BB bond and the middle of the opposite carbon-carbon bond as the only symmetry element. The energetically most favourable 1,3-diborabenzene was found to be about 19 and 36 kcal/mol lower in energy than the 1,2- and the 1,4-isomer. Planar 1,3- and 1,4-diborabenzene have three doubly occupied π orbitals while non-planar 1,2-diborabenzene has also three doubly occupied orbitals which can be derived from the π orbitals of its 3.7 kcal/mol energetically less favourable planar form ("π-like" orbitals). The lowest unoccupied orbitals of all three isomers have σ symmetry with large coefficients at the two boron atoms. These orbitals are lower in energy than the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) of e. g. benzene and pyridine and might cause pronounced acceptor properties which could be one of the reasons for the elusiveness of the title compounds. The results of bond separation reactions show that cyclic conjugation stabilizes all three diborabenzenes relative to their isolated fragments. The most effective stabilization energy of about 24 kcal/mol was found for the energetically lowest 1,3-isomer. This value amounts to approximately one third of the experimental value for the bond separation energy of pyridine. In all cases the energetically lowest triplet states are significantly (16 - 24 kcal/mol) higher in energy than the singlet ground states. Also among the triplets the 1,3-isomer is the energetically most fabourable species.

  14. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  15. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G

    2002-07-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  16. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  17. Assessing the relative stabilities of engineered hemoglobins using electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, I

    1999-07-15

    An ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source was used to examine the relative thermodynamic stabilities of various hemoglobins with respect to both tetramer dissociation and hemin dissociation. The results demonstrated that the stability of hemoglobin molecules can be differentiated by the amount of applied collision-induced dissociation (CID) energy necessary to break up the intact tetramer into its constituent globins. The stability of the intact tetramer was affected by single mutations in the beta-globins. The stabilities of the constituent hologlobins were assessed via trap CID of selected ions. The results demonstrated the importance of the contributions of the hologlobin components to the stability of the intact tetramer. Genetic fusion of two alpha-globins, through the introduction of a single glycine residue between the C-terminus of one alpha-chain and the N-terminus of the second, significantly increased the stability of the hemoglobin pseudo-tetramer. Chemical crosslinking of the beta-globins in addition to genetic fusion of alpha-globins further stabilized the hemoglobin molecule. A dihemoglobin molecule produced by the genetic fusion of two di-alpha-globins with a flexible linker demonstrated a decreased stability relative to the corresponding monohemoglobin. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  19. Lubricating and Waxy Esters. VI. Effect of Symmetry about Ester on Crystallization of Linear Monoester Isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziz Bouzidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure development of jojoba-like esters incorporating either 1-decenoic acid and/or 1-decenol, namely octadec-9-enyl dec-9-enoate (JLE-281, and its isomer dec-9-enyl oleate (JLE-282 was investigated to reveal the effect of symmetry about the ester group on crystallization of aliphatic fatty monoesters. The phase transformation path was investigated with temperature-time resolved X-ray diffraction during stepped isothermal crystallization, and while cooling from the melt at a fixed rate. Startling differences in phase behavior were uncovered between the isomers. When stepped isothermals were used, selective extinctions occurred at a transition temperature for JLE-281 but not for JLE-282. The extinctions, which are due to dramatic changes in the electronic density of certain families of planes, indicate a phase transition attributed to a brusque rearrangement of the oxygen atoms in the crystal subcell. The phase transition did not occur when the JLEs were cooled continuously. The crucial role played by the position of the alkyl chain and its orientation relative to the easy rotation site of the C–O bond in the phase trajectories of the JLEs was particularly highlighted.

  20. Formation of tyrosine isomers in aqueous phenylalanine solutions by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflaki, F.; Salahinejad, M.; Roozbehani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ortho-tyrosine detection method can be used for detection of irradiated protein rich foods. Tyrosine isomers produced by gamma radiation of aqueous phenylalanine solutions at wide dose levels (0.1-50 k Gy) were examined to obtain basic information for o-tyrosine detection method of irradiated foods. Determination of tyrosines produced in aqueous phenylalanine solutions were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The detection limit of o-tyrosine was 0.01 ppm and the linear range of calibration and the relative standard deviation of analysis was 50 ng and 4-13%, respectively. The amounts of the tyrosines increased with the irradiation level up to 10 k Gy and no further tyrosine formation was observed when the dose level was increased. At a constant dose level, the yield of tyrosines initially increased with the phenylalanine concentration, while with further increase of phenylalanine concentration no effect on increase of tyrosine yield was observed. When the dose rate was varying from 2.3 k Gy/h to 1.2 k Gy/h with a total amount of 10 k Gy in each case, there was no significant effect on tyrosine isomers formation was observed. Also the results showed that tyrosine yield was affected by temperature, p H and the presence of oxygen

  1. Quasi-particle and collective magnetism: Rotation, pairing and blocking in high-K isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.; Stone, J.R.; Walker, P.M.; Bingham, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a wide range of collective magnetic g-factors g R , obtained from a novel analysis of experimental data for multi-quasi-particle configurations in high-K isomers, is shown to exhibit a striking systematic variation with the relative number of proton and neutron quasi-particles, N p −N n . Using the principle of additivity, the quasi-particle contribution to magnetism in high-K isomers of Lu–Re, Z=71–75, has been estimated. Based on these estimates, band-structure branching ratio data are used to explore the behavior of the collective contribution as the number and proton/neutron nature (N p , N n ), of the quasi-particle excitations, change. Basic ideas of pairing, its quenching by quasi-particle excitation and the consequent changes to moment of inertia and collective magnetism are discussed. Existing model calculations do not reproduce the observed g R variation adequately. The paired superfluid system of nucleons in these nuclei, and their excitations, present properties of general physics interest. The new-found systematic behavior of g R in multi-quasi-particle excitations of this unique system, showing variation from close to zero for multi-neutron states to above 0.5 for multi-proton states, opens a fresh window on these effects and raises the important question of just which nucleons contribute to the ‘collective’ properties of these nuclei

  2. Association between Human Plasma Chondroitin Sulfate Isomers and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zinellu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have evidenced variations in plasma glycosaminoglycans content in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal human plasma GAGs are present mainly as undersulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between plasma CS level/structure and the presence/typology of carotid atherosclerotic lesion. Plasma CS was purified from 46 control subjects and 47 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy showing either a soft or a hard plaque. The concentration and structural characteristics of plasma CS were assessed by capillary electrophoresis of constituent unsaturated fluorophore-labeled disaccharides. Results showed that the concentration of total CS isomers was increased by 21.4% (P<0.01 in plasma of patients, due to a significant increase of undersulfated CS. Consequently, in patients the plasma CS charge density was significantly reduced with respect to that of controls. After sorting for plaque typology, we found that patients with soft plaques and those with hard ones differently contribute to the observed changes. In plasma from patients with soft plaques, the increase in CS content was not associated with modifications of its sulfation pattern. On the contrary, the presence of hard plaques was associated with CS sulfation pattern modifications in presence of quite normal total CS isomers levels. These results suggest that the plasma CS content and structure could be related to the presence and the typology of atherosclerotic plaque and could provide a useful diagnostic tool, as well as information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for plaque instability.

  3. Conformational inversion-topomerization mechanism of ethylcyclohexyl isomers and its role in combustion kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Bian, Huiting

    2016-07-26

    With the "strain-free" cyclic structure, cyclohexane and alkyl cyclohexanes (and their radicals) have various conformers (e.g. chair, boat, and twist etc.) by pseudorotation of the alkyl ring. Noting that different conformers will undergo different types of H-migration reactions, the mechanism of conformational change may impact the distribution of cyclohexyl and the branched cyclohexyl radical isomers during cyclohexane and alkyl cyclohexanes combustion. Consequently, it will influence the formation of subsequent decomposition products. In this work, the conformational inversion-topomerization mechanism and H-migration reactions for six ethylcyclohexyl radical isomers were systematically studied by ab initio calculations and the transition state theory. The updated sub-mechanism of these conformational changes is incorporated into an ethylcyclohexane pyrolysis model. By comparing the simulated results of the "complete" model including the sub-mechanism of conformational changes and the simplified model ignoring these processes, the effect of inversion-topomerization mechanism on the relative concentrations of various ethylcyclohexyl radicals and the formation of subsequent decomposition products were revealed. © 2016.

  4. Branched alkanes from ancient and modern sediments: isomer discrimination by GC/MS with multiple reaction monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summons, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Linked scanning of a tandem sector mass spectrometer has been used to identify abundant, first field free region (FFR1) unimolecular fragmentations in branched and isoprenoid hydrocarbons. The most intense, structure-specific reactions were selected to establish multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) parameters for GC/MS analysis. This methodology has been used to study the identify of co-eluting and closely eluting hydrocarbon biomarkers from modern and ancient sediments and from extant microorganisms. Some sediments of Cambrian and Proterozoic age have been found to contain suites of monomethylalkanes with all possible isomers present and with little apparent preference for the site of branching.

  5. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  6. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Flajšman

    Full Text Available We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults, hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea, although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  7. Heartburn and other related symptoms are independent of body mass index in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, M; Pulido, D; Escobar, C; Farfán-Labone, B; Gutiérrez-Reyes, G; López-Alvarenga, J C

    2010-04-01

    increasing body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for GERD but little is known about this association in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). to determine the presence of heartburn and other related symptoms in relation with BMI in IBS. volunteers (n = 483) answered the Rome II-Modular Questionnaire, and were divided into IBS and non-IBS (controls) groups. The frequency of heartburn, chest pain, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and belching was compared between the groups in the study sample and within three BMI categories. the IBS (23.7%) and controls (76.3%) were similar in gender (females: 68.1%), age (32.2 +/- 12.7 years), and BMI (25.4 +/- 4.4). Raw associations analysis showed that heartburn: OR: 1.62 (95%CI: 1.04-2.53), chest pain: 1.77 (1.13-2.77), epigastric pain: 1.75 (1.03-2.98) and nausea: 2.45 (1.10-5.32) were more frequent in IBS vs. controls. Meanwhile, according to BMI, in those with obesity, heartburn was more frequent in IBS and among those with overweight, epigastric pain and nausea were also more frequent in IBS. However, in an adjusted log linear model, no significant interaction was found between BMI and any other studied symptom and heartburn was found to be independent of IBS: 1,4 (0.9, 4.7). Finally, a logistic regression model found no interaction between BMI and the presence of heartburn or IBS. while heartburn and other reflux-related symptoms are more frequent in IBS than in controls, these associations are independent of BMI.

  8. Emergence of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation from dark matter-baryon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famaey, Benoit; Khoury, Justin; Penco, Riccardo

    2018-03-01

    The observed tightness of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR) poses a fine-tuning challenge to current models of galaxy formation. We propose that this relation could arise from collisional interactions between baryons and dark matter (DM) particles, without the need for modification of gravity or ad hoc feedback processes. We assume that these interactions satisfy the following three conditions: (i) the relaxation time of DM particles is comparable to the dynamical time in disk galaxies; (ii) DM exchanges energy with baryons due to elastic collisions; (iii) the product between the baryon-DM cross section and the typical energy exchanged in a collision is inversely proportional to the DM number density. As a proof of principle, we present an example of a particle physics model that gives a DM-baryon cross section with the desired density and velocity dependence. For consistency with direct detection constraints, our DM particles must be either very light (m ll mb) or very heavy (mgg mb), corresponding respectively to heating and cooling of DM by baryons. In both cases, our mechanism applies and an equilibrium configuration can in principle be reached. In this exploratory paper, we focus on the heavy DM/cooling case because it is technically simpler, since the average energy exchanged turns out to be approximately constant throughout galaxies. Under these assumptions, we find that rotationally-supported disk galaxies could naturally settle to equilibrium configurations satisfying a MDAR at all radii without invoking finely tuned feedback processes. We also discuss issues related to the small scale clumpiness of baryons, as well as predictions for pressure-supported systems. We argue in particular that galaxy clusters do not follow the MDAR despite being DM-dominated because they have not reached their equilibrium configuration. Finally, we revisit existing phenomenological, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on baryon-DM interactions in light

  9. Shape isomer excitation by mu-minus capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.N.; Monard, J.A.; Nagamiya, S.

    1975-06-01

    In a search for back-decay gamma rays from the shape isomer in 238 U following mu-minus capture, no candidates have been found with yields greater than 2 percent of the muon stoppings. The intensities of the gamma rays are insufficient to permit definitive lifetime measurements of individual peaks; however, for 500-keV energy ranges of gamma ray pulses, lifetimes have been determined that give results consistent with recent electron lifetime measurements. (6 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  10. Decays of 116Sb isomers to levels in 116Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Z.; Raman, S.

    1994-01-01

    The excited states of 116 Sn were studied by means of the decays of the 15.8-min, 3 + 116 Sb ground state, and the 60.3-min, 8 - 116 Sb isomer. Over 50 γ rays were observed; these were incorporated into a level scheme consisting of 32 excited states. Except for one new level proposed at 3.986 MeV, the current study fully supports an exhaustive study of levels in 116 Sn reported earlier. The previous study was an attempt to develop a nearly ''complete'' level scheme of 116 Sn up to an excitation energy of 4.3 MeV

  11. Spins, Electromagnetic Moments, and Isomers of 107-129Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Yordanov, D T; Bieron, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Budincevic, I; Fritzsche, S; Frommgen, N; Georgiev, G; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Krieger, A; Neugart, R; Nortershauser, W; Papuga, J; Schmidt, S

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-rich isotopes of cadmium up to the N=82 shell closure have been investigated by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Deep-UV excitation at 214.5 nm and radioactive-beam bunching provided the required experimental sensitivity. Long-lived isomers are observed in 127Cd and 129Cd for the first time. One essential feature of the spherical shell model is unambiguously confirmed by a linear increase of the 11/2- quadrupole moments. Remarkably, this mechanism is found to act well beyond the h11/2 shell.

  12. The Synthesis and X-ray Structural Characterization of mer and fac isomers of the Technetium(I) Nitrosyl Complex [TcCl(2)(NO)(PNPpr)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T L; Mahmood, A; Refosco, F; Tisato, F; Müller, P; Jones, A G

    2009-08-01

    The nitrosyl complex H[TcNOCl(4)] reacts with the tridentate ligand bis[(2-diphenylphosphino)propyl]amine (PNPpr) to yield a mixture of the mer or fac isomers of [TcCl(2)(NO)(PNPpr)]. In acetonitrile, where the ligand is freely soluble, reaction occurs at room temperature to yield mostly the mer isomer with the linear nitrosyl ligand cis to the amine ligand; and the phosphine ligands arranged in a mutually trans orientation. The reaction in methanol requires reflux to dissolve the lipophilic ligand and generates the fac isomer of [TcCl2(NO)(PNPpr)] as the major product, with the tridentate ligand in a facial arrangement, leaving the chlorides and nitrosyl ligand in the remaining facial sites. The steric bulk of the tridentate ligand's diphenylphophino- moieties results in a significant distortion from octahedral geometry, with the P-Tc-P bond angle expanded to 99.48(4)°. The infrared spectra display absorptions from these nitrosyl ligands in the 1700 and 1800 cm(-1) regions for the fac and mer isomers respectively. The ESI(+) mass spectra each display the parent ion at 647 m/z.

  13. The relative importance of mass and wind data in the FGGE observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Jusem, J. C.; Pfaendtner, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of mass and wind data in numerical weather prediction is examined. The applicability of the mass and wind data on the skill of numerical weather prediction is evaluated by real data assimilation experiments using the the NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres analysis/forecast system of Baker (1983) and Kalnay et al. (1983). It is observed that the wind observations are important for small scales and in the tropics and that the wind observations are more accurate than mass observations.

  14. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  15. Identification of absolute geometries of cis and trans molecular isomers by Coulomb Explosion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, Utuq; Bomme, Cédric; Xiong, Hui; Savelyev, Evgeny; Obaid, Razib; Kaderiya, Balram; Augustin, Sven; Schnorr, Kirsten; Dumitriu, Ileana; Osipov, Timur; Bilodeau, René; Kilcoyne, David; Kumarappan, Vinod; Rudenko, Artem; Berrah, Nora; Rolles, Daniel

    2016-12-02

    An experimental route to identify and separate geometric isomers by means of coincident Coulomb explosion imaging is presented, allowing isomer-resolved photoionization studies on isomerically mixed samples. We demonstrate the technique on cis/trans 1,2-dibromoethene (C 2 H 2 Br 2 ). The momentum correlation between the bromine ions in a three-body fragmentation process induced by bromine 3d inner-shell photoionization is used to identify the cis and trans structures of the isomers. The experimentally determined momentum correlations and the isomer-resolved fragment-ion kinetic energies are matched closely by a classical Coulomb explosion model.

  16. The behaviour of EDDHA isomers in soils as influenced by soil properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    FeEDDHA products are applied to correct iron chlorosis in plants and consist of a mixture of EDDHA isomers chelated to iron. In this study such mixtures have been divided into four (groups of) isomers: racemic o,o-EDDHA, meso o,o-EDDHA, o,p-EDDHA and rest-EDDHA. The physical and chemical properties of these isomers differ and hence does their ability to deliver Fe to plants. To come to a soil-specific iron fertilization recommendation, the behaviour of the EDDHA isomers in the soil needs to b...

  17. Identifying isomers of C-78 by means of x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassan, Arianna; Nyberg, Mats; Luo, Yi

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectra of C-78 isomers have been generated using density functional theory with inclusion of the full core-hole potentials. Strong isomer dependence has been found in absorption, but not in the photoelectron spectra. C-78 isomers can be thought to be formed by ...... by inserting 18 carbon atoms into an opened C-60. We have shown how the different local arrangements of these 18 carbon atoms are responsible for the significant isomer dependence observed. Our calculated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental counterparts....

  18. HICOSMO - cosmology with a complete sample of galaxy clusters - I. Data analysis, sample selection and luminosity-mass scaling relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    The X-ray regime, where the most massive visible component of galaxy clusters, the intracluster medium, is visible, offers directly measured quantities, like the luminosity, and derived quantities, like the total mass, to characterize these objects. The aim of this project is to analyse a complete sample of galaxy clusters in detail and constrain cosmological parameters, like the matter density, Ωm, or the amplitude of initial density fluctuations, σ8. The purely X-ray flux-limited sample (HIFLUGCS) consists of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, which are excellent targets to study the systematic effects, that can bias results. We analysed in total 196 Chandra observations of the 64 HIFLUGCS clusters, with a total exposure time of 7.7 Ms. Here, we present our data analysis procedure (including an automated substructure detection and an energy band optimization for surface brightness profile analysis) that gives individually determined, robust total mass estimates. These masses are tested against dynamical and Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) derived masses of the same clusters, where good overall agreement is found with the dynamical masses. The Planck SZ masses seem to show a mass-dependent bias to our hydrostatic masses; possible biases in this mass-mass comparison are discussed including the Planck selection function. Furthermore, we show the results for the (0.1-2.4) keV luminosity versus mass scaling relation. The overall slope of the sample (1.34) is in agreement with expectations and values from literature. Splitting the sample into galaxy groups and clusters reveals, even after a selection bias correction, that galaxy groups exhibit a significantly steeper slope (1.88) compared to clusters (1.06).

  19. Belgian coca-cola-related outbreak: intoxication, mass sociogenic illness, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, A; Van Loock, F; Demarest, S; Van der Heyden, J; Jans, B; Van Oyen, H

    2002-01-15

    An epidemic of health complaints occurred in five Belgian schools in June 1999. A qualitative investigation described the scenario. The role of soft drinks was assessed by using a case-control study. Cases were students complaining of headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or trembling. Controls were students present at school on the day of the outbreak but not taken ill. An analysis was performed separately for school A, where the outbreak started, and was pooled for schools B-E. In school A, the attack rate (13.2%) was higher than in schools B-E (3.6%, relative risk = 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5, 5.3). Exclusive consumption of regular Coca-Cola (school A: odds ratio (OR) = 29.7, 95% CI: 1.32, 663.6; schools B-E: OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 2.9, 18.0) and low mental health score (school A: OR = 16.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 201.9; schools B-E: OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5, 6.6) were independently associated with the illness. In schools B-E, consumption of Fanta, consumption of Coca-Cola light, and female gender were also associated with the illness. It seems reasonable to attribute the first cases of illness in school A to regular Coca-Cola consumption. However, mass sociogenic illness could explain the majority of the other cases.

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its relation with body mass index in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Ming; Sun, Yan; Joo, Jungsoo; Wan, Xingyong; Yu, Chaohui; Wang, Qunyan; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Li, Youming; Coleman, William G

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent worldwide. The association between obesity and H. pylori infection is controversial in the literature. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its relation with body mass index (BMI) in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed among adults who underwent health checkups at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was examined by (13)C urea breath tests, and the association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and BMI was analyzed. Of the 8820 participants enrolled, 3859 (43.8%) were positive for H. pylori infection. H. pylori-positive participants had a more unfavorable metabolic profile than H. pylori-negative participants. Overweight/obese participants showed a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than that of lean participants, and a positive linear correlation between BMI and prevalence of H. pylori infection was observed. Both unadjusted and adjusted analysis revealed that BMI was significantly associated with risk factors of H. pylori infection. Our results showed that BMI was significantly and positively associated with H. pylori infection, and a high BMI was associated with an increased risk of the infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preschool Weight and Body Mass Index in Relation to Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test the associ......BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test...... the associations between preschool weight and body mass index (BMI) and adult BMI, central obesity and metabolic alterations. METHODS: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 4111) is a population-based cohort. Preschool weight (age 5 months and 1 year) and BMI (age 2-5 years) were studied...... in relation to metabolic syndrome as well as BMI, waist circumference, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at the age of 31 years. Linear regression models and generalized linear regression models with log link were used. RESULTS: Throughout preschool ages, weight and BMI were significantly...

  2. Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult....... RESULTS: During 5.4 million person-years of follow-up, 254 (216 males) incident oesophageal adenocarcinomas occurred. At each examined age, cancer risk increased linearly per unit BMI z-score, although associations were only statistically significant for ages 9-13. The HR for the age of 13 years was 1.......31 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.51) per unit BMI z-score. Associations were similar in men and women and across birth cohorts. Childhood height was not related to cancer risk in men but was in women, although these analyses included just 38 female cases. HRs per unit height z-score at the age of 13 years were 1...

  3. Characteristics of infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction and their relation to body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Waqar, F.; Akhtar, T.; Sultana, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is a group of disorders with variable clinical presentations occasionally having serious long-term adverse effects. It accounts for 30% of female fertility problems. Evidence suggests an association between an individual's weight and disorders of ovulation. The objective of our study was to describe the clinical and hormonal profile of subfertile women with ovulatory dysfunction in relation to their body mass index (BMI). Methods: This prospective, descriptive study was carried out in Mother and Child Health Centre, PIMS, Islamabad and Railway hospital, Rawalpindi from April 2001 to March 2007. One hundred and thirty eight infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction were included. The clinical data including BMI of each patient was recorded in addition to reports of investigations comprised of cervical smear, pelvic ultrasound and hormonal profile. Results: Primary infertility was found in 61% while secondary in 39% of the patients. The mean age was 29 years and mean duration of infertility was 6 years. Menstrual pattern was normal in 56.5%. BMI was normal in 30.4% while most patients were overweight and obese. Prolonged cycles, history of systemic endocrine disorders, abnormal vaginal discharge, hirsutism, polycystic ovarian morphology and hormonal abnormalities were more frequent in patients with increased BMI. During the study period, 21.7% of the women conceived. Conclusion: Infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction present more frequently with primary infertility. They usually have higher than required BMI. Oligomenorrhoea amenorrhoea, hirsutism and hormonal abnormalities are more frequent in overweight than infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction having a normal BMI. (author)

  4. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behavior may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion disks is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  5. Relation between the pole and the minimally subtracted mass in dimensional regularization and dimensional reduction to three-loop order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquard, P.; Mihaila, L.; Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Piclum, J.H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-02-15

    We compute the relation between the pole quark mass and the minimally subtracted quark mass in the framework of QCD applying dimensional reduction as a regularization scheme. Special emphasis is put on the evanescent couplings and the renormalization of the {epsilon}-scalar mass. As a by-product we obtain the three-loop on-shell renormalization constants Z{sub m}{sup OS} and Z{sub 2}{sup OS} in dimensional regularization and thus provide the first independent check of the analytical results computed several years ago. (orig.)

  6. Relation of body mass index to outcome in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Wael; van Domburg, Ron T; Feringa, Harm H H; Schouten, Olaf; Elhendy, Abdou; Bax, Jeroen J; Awara, Adel M M; Klein, Jan; Poldermans, Don

    2007-06-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI), a parameter of total body fat content, is associated with an increased mortality in the general population. However, recent studies have shown a paradoxic relation between BMI and mortality in specific patient populations. This study investigated the association of BMI with long-term mortality in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. In a retrospective cohort study of 5,950 patients (mean age 61 +/- 13 years; 67% men), BMI, cardiovascular risk markers (age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, angina pectoris, old myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, and previous coronary revascularization), and outcome were noted. The patient population was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese based on BMI according to the World Health Organization classification. Mean follow-up time was 6 +/- 2.6 years. Incidences of long-term mortality in underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were 39%, 35%, 24%, and 20%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis model, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in underweight patients was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 3.7). Overweight and obese patients had a significantly lower mortality than patients with a normal BMI (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.7, for overweight; HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7, for obese patients). In conclusion, BMI is inversely related to long-term mortality in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. A lower BMI was an independent predictor of long-term mortality, whereas an improved outcome was observed in overweight and obese patients.

  7. The interaction of two coronal mass ejections: Influence of relative orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Schwadron, N. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Manchester IV, W. B. [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-11-20

    We report on a numerical investigation of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that interact as they propagate in the inner heliosphere. We focus on the effect of the orientation of the CMEs relative to each other by performing four different simulations with the axis of the second CME rotated by 90° from one simulation to the next. Each magnetohydrodynamic simulation is performed in three dimensions with the Space Weather Modeling Framework in an idealized setting reminiscent of solar minimum conditions. We extract synthetic satellite measurements during and after the interaction and compare the different cases. We also analyze the kinematics of the two CMEs, including the evolution of their widths and aspect ratios. We find that the first CME contracts radially as a result of the interaction in all cases, but the amount of subsequent radial expansion depends on the relative orientation of the two CMEs. Reconnection between the two ejecta and between the ejecta and the interplanetary magnetic field determines the type of structure resulting from the interaction. When a CME with a high inclination with respect to the ecliptic overtakes one with a low inclination, it is possible to create a compound event with a smooth rotation in the magnetic field vector over more than 180°. Due to reconnection, the second CME only appears as an extended 'tail', and the event may be mistaken for a glancing encounter with an isolated CME. This configuration differs significantly from the one usually studied of a multiple-magnetic-cloud event, which we found to be associated with the interaction of two CMEs with the same orientation.

  8. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  9. Cool diffusion flames of butane isomers activated by ozone in the counterflow

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2018-02-02

    Ignition in low temperature combustion engines is governed by a coupling between low-temperature oxidation kinetics and diffusive transport. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the coupled effects of heat release, low-temperature oxidation chemistry, and molecular transport in cool flames is imperative to the advancement of new combustion concepts. This study provides an understanding of the low temperature cool flame behavior of butane isomers in the counterflow configuration through the addition of ozone. The initiation and extinction limits of butane isomers’ cool flames have been investigated under a variety of strain rates. Results revealed that, with ozone addition, establishment of butane cool diffusion flames was successful at low and moderate strain rates. iso-Butane has lower reactivity than n-butane, as shown by higher fuel mole fractions needed for cool flame initiation and lower extinction strain rate limits. Ozone addition showed a significant influence on the initiation and sustenance of cool diffusion flames; as ozone-less cool diffusion flame of butane isomers could not be established even at high fuel mole fractions. The structure of a stable n-butane cool diffusion flame was qualitatively examined using a time of flight mass spectrometer. Numerical simulations were performed using a detailed chemical kinetic model and molecular transport to simulate the extinction limits of the cool diffusion flames of the tested fuels. The model qualitatively captured experimental trends for both fuels and ozone levels, but over-predicted extinction limits of the flames. Reactions involving low-temperature species predominantly govern extinction limits of cool flames. The simulations were used to understand the effects of methyl branching on the behavior of n-butane and iso-butane cool diffusion flames.

  10. Photoionization of three isomers of the C9H7 radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Steinbauer, Michael; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Ingo; Johnson, Melanie; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Three resonance-stabilized radicals, 1-indenyl (Ind), 1-phenylpropargyl (1PPR), and 3-phenylpropargyl (3PPR), all isomers of the composition C(9)H(7), were generated by jet flash pyrolysis. Their photoionization was examined by VUV synchrotron radiation. The mass spectra show a clean and efficient radical generation when the pyrolysis is turned on. To study the photoionization, photoion yield measurements and threshold photoionization spectroscopy techniques were applied. We determined adiabatic ionization energies (IE(ad)) of 7.53 eV for Ind, 7.20 eV for 3PPR, and 7.4 eV for 1PPR. Ab initio calculations show no major change in geometry upon ionization, in agreement with ionization from a nonbonding molecular orbital. The IEs were also computed and are in agreement with the measured ones. The difference in the IE might allow a distinction of the three isomers in flames. In the indenyl spectrum, an excited a(+) (3)B(2) state of the cation was identified at 8.10 eV, which shows a low-energy vibrational progression of 61 meV. Furthermore, we have examined the dissociative photoionization of the precursors. The indenyl precursor, 1-indenyl bromide, undergoes dissociative photoionization to Ind(+). An appearance energy (AE(0K)) of 10.2 eV was obtained from fitting the experimental breakdown diagram. A binding energy of 1.8 eV can thus be determined for the C-Br bond in 1-indenyl bromide. The phenylpropargyl precursors 1PPBr (1-phenylpropargyl bromide/3-phenyl-3-bromopropyne) and 3PPBr (3-phenylpropargyl bromide/1-phenyl-3-bromopropyne) also lose a bromine atom upon dissociative photoionization. Approximate appearance energies of 9.8 eV for 3PPBr and 9.3 eV for 1PPBr have been determined.

  11. Is the size of θ13 related to the smallness of the solar mass splitting?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tude of the solar and atmospheric neutrino mass splittings are now well measured, the absolute mass remains undetermined. ... To begin with, we assume that there is no solar splitting as well as θ13 = 0 and pro- duce both by a single perturbation. ..... and the 1σ limits of θ13. Both panels are for normal ordering. For inverted ...

  12. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  13. Calculations of long-lived isomer production in neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for the production of the long-lived isomers 93m Nb (1/2-, 16 yr), 121m Sn (11/2-, 55 yr), 166m Ho (7-, 1200 yr), 184m Re (8+, 165 d), 186m Re (8+, 2x10 5 yr), 178 Hf (16+, 31 yr), 179m Hf (25/2-, 25 d), and 192m Ir (9+, 241 yr), all of which pose potential radiation activation problems in nuclear fusion reactors if produced in 14-MeV neutron-induced reactions. We consider (n,2n), (n,n'), and (n,γ) production modes and compare our results both with experimental data (where available) and systematics. We also investigate the dependence of the isomeric cross section ratio on incident neutron energy for the isomers under consideration. The statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium code GNASH was used for the calculations. Where discrete state experimental information was lacking, rotational band members above the isomeric state, which can be justified theoretically but have not been experimentally resolved, were reconstructed. (author). 16 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  14. High-spin, multiparticle isomers in 121,123Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G. A.; Walker, P. M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Cullen, I. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Liu, Z.; Thompson, N. J.; Williams, S. J.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Carroll, J. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Hackman, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    Isomers in near-spherical Z=51, antimony isotopes are reported here for the first time using fusion-fission reactions between 27 Al and a pulsed 178 Hf beam of energy, 1150 MeV. γ rays were observed from the decay of isomeric states with half-lives, T 1/2 =200(30) and 52(3)μs, and angular momenta I=((25/2)) and I π =(23/2) + , in 121,123 Sb, respectively. These states are proposed to correspond to ν(h (11/2) ) 2 configurations, coupled to an odd d (5/2) or g (7/2) proton. Nanosecond isomers were also identified at I π =(19/2) - [T 1/2 =8.5(5) ns] in 121 Sb and I π =((15/2) - ) [T 1/2 =37(4) ns] in 123 Sb. Information on spins and parities of states in these nuclei was obtained using a combination of angular correlation and intensity-balance measurements. The configurations of states in these nuclei are discussed using a combination of spin/energy systematics and shell-model calculations for neighboring tin isotones and antimony isotopes

  15. Shape isomers: Mean-field description and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, P.; Krieger, S.J.; Weiss, M.S.; Dobaczewski, J.; Meyer, J.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Hartree-Fock (HF) + BCS calculations have led to predictions of shape isomerism in isotopes of Pt, Hg and Os nuclei. These have been confirmed through the observation of superdeformed rotational bands in 190,hor-ellipsis,194 Hg. Encouraged by these measurements and similar observations in 194 Pb, we have extended these calculations to a wide range of contiguous nuclei. These HF results, for 192,194 Pt, 190,hor-ellipsis,198 Hg and 194 Pb, have been employed in a Generator Coordinate Method (GCM) calculation utilizing the quadrupole deformation as the generating variable. The resulting spectra confirm the conclusions drawn from the HF results and agree with those experiments which have been performed. Adding a phenomenological assumption for the moments of inertia of our GCM states, we can construct the radiative transitions within and out of the superdeformed band. The results are in good agreement with the observed de-population of the superdeformed band built upon the shape isomer both in minimum angular momentum and in rapidity of de-population. Inferences for the existence of shape isomers will be drawn. 19 refs., 4 figs

  16. Degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer in two agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer, 4-(1-ethyl-1,4-dimethylpentyl)phenol (NP 112 ), in two agricultural soils from Monheim and Dortmund, Germany has been studied. The degradation of NP 112 and the formation of a nitro-nonylphenol metabolite were determined by means of GC-MS analysis. The degradation followed bi-exponential order kinetics, with half-life of less than 5 days in both soils. The nitro-metabolite was found at different concentration levels in the two soils. The nitro-metabolite of NP 112 was more persistent than its parent compound. After 150 days about 13% of the initially applied NP 112 remained in the Monheim soil as its nitro-metabolite. Results of the E-screen assay revealed that the nitro-NP 112 has oestrogenic potency of 85% of that of NP 112 . Furthermore, the results of chiral GC-MS analysis revealed that no chiral degradation of NP 112 occurred in this study. - The degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer in agricultural soils followed bi-exponential order kinetics resulting in a more persistent nitro-metabolite.

  17. Chemical Simulations of Prebiotic Molecules: Interstellar Ethanimine Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Corby, Joanna F.; Durr, Allison; Hassel, George

    2016-06-01

    The E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine (CH3CHNH) were recently detected toward the star-forming region Sagittarius (Sgr) B2(N) using the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS cm-wave spectral data, and imaged by the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Ethanimine is not reported in the hot cores of Sgr B2, but only in gas that absorbs at +64 and +82 km s-1 in the foreground of continuum emission generated by H II regions. The ethanimine isomers can serve as precursors of the amino acid alanine and may play important roles in forming biological molecules in the interstellar medium. Here we present a study of the chemistry of ethanimine using a gas-grain simulation based on rate equations, with both isothermal and warm-up conditions. In addition, the density, kinetic temperature, and cosmic ray ionization rate have been varied. For a variety of physical conditions in the warm-up models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, the simulations show reasonable agreement with observationally obtained abundances. Isothermal models of translucent clouds along the same line of sight yield much lower abundances, so that ethanimine would be much more difficult to detect in these sources despite the fact that other complex molecules have been detected there.

  18. Studies of high-K isomers in hafnium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sletten, G.; Gjoerup, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    K-isomeric states built on high-Ω Nilsson orbitals from deformation-aligned high-j levels near the Fermi surface are found to cluster in the neutron rich Hf, W and Os nuclei. It has been shown that some of the high seniority states of this type have decay properties that indicate strong mixing of configurations and that in Osmium nuclei γ-softness cause strong deviations from the well established K-selection rule. Also in the Hafnium nuclei is the expected forbiddenness in isomeric decays an order of magnitude smaller than expected from the K-selection rule. A new 9 quasiparticle isomer has been discovered in 175 Hf at I=57/2. This isomer has the anomalous decay as the dominant mode. Other lower seniority states are also identified. At spin 35/2 and 45/2 the deformation aligned states become yrast, but the structure of the yrast line to even higher spins is not yet understood. (author)

  19. CHEMICAL SIMULATIONS OF PREBIOTIC MOLECULES: INTERSTELLAR ETHANIMINE ISOMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Donghui; Durr, Allison [Department of Chemistry, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY 40475 (United States); Herbst, Eric [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Corby, Joanna F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hassel, George [Physics and Astronomy Department, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The E- and Z- isomers of ethanimine (CH{sub 3}CHNH) were recently detected toward the star-forming region Sagittarius (Sgr) B2(N) using the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS cm-wave spectral data, and imaged by the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Ethanimine is not reported in the hot cores of Sgr B2, but only in gas that absorbs at +64 and +82 km s{sup −1} in the foreground of continuum emission generated by H ii regions. The ethanimine isomers can serve as precursors of the amino acid alanine and may play important roles in forming biological molecules in the interstellar medium. Here we present a study of the chemistry of ethanimine using a gas-grain simulation based on rate equations, with both isothermal and warm-up conditions. In addition, the density, kinetic temperature, and cosmic ray ionization rate have been varied. For a variety of physical conditions in the warm-up models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, the simulations show reasonable agreement with observationally obtained abundances. Isothermal models of translucent clouds along the same line of sight yield much lower abundances, so that ethanimine would be much more difficult to detect in these sources despite the fact that other complex molecules have been detected there.

  20. Relative mass resolution technique for optimum design of a gamma nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Duck Joon

    1995-02-01

    Nondestructive assay(NDA) is a widely used nuclear technology for quantitative elemental and isotopic assay. Nondestructive assay is performed by the detection of an identifying radiation emerging from the sample, which can be unambiguously related to the element or isotope of interest. In every assay we can identify two distinct factors that lead to measurement uncertainty. We refer to these as statistical and spatial uncertainties. If the spatial distribution of the analyte and the matrix material in the sample are known and fairly constant from sample to sample, then the major source of measurement uncertainty is the statistical uncertainty resulting from randomness in the counting process. The spatial uncertainty is independent of the measurement time and therefore sets a lower limit to the measurement uncertainty, which is inherent in the assay system in conjunction with the population of samples to be measured. The only way to minimize the spatial uncertainty is an optimized design of the assay system. Therefore we have to decide on the type and number of detectors to be used, their deployment around the sample, the type of radiation to be measured, the duration of each measurement, the size and shape of the sample drum. The design procedure leading to the optimal assay system should be based on a quantitative(RMR:Relative Mass Resolution) comparison of the performance of each proposed design. For NDA system design of low level radwaste, a specific purpose Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate point-source responses for sources within an assayed radwaste drum and to analyze the effect of scattered gammas from higher energy gammas on the spectrum of a low energy gamma-ray. We could use the well-known Monte Carlo code, such as MCNP for the simulation of NDA in the case of low level radwaste. But, MCNP is a multi-purpose Monte Carlo transport code for several geometries which requires large memory and long CPU time. For some cases in nuclear

  1. The mass-metallicity relations for gas and stars in star-forming galaxies: strong outflow versus variable IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Comparat, Johan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Ventura, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the mass-metallicity relations for the gaseous (MZRgas) and stellar components (MZRstar) of local star-forming galaxies based on a representative sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. The mass-weighted average stellar metallicities are systematically lower than the gas metallicities. This difference in metallicity increases towards galaxies with lower masses and reaches 0.4-0.8 dex at 109 M⊙ (depending on the gas metallicity calibration). As a result, the MZRstar is much steeper than the MZRgas. The much lower metallicities in stars compared to the gas in low-mass galaxies imply dramatic metallicity evolution with suppressed metal enrichment at early times. The aim of this paper is to explain the observed large difference in gas and stellar metallicity and to infer the origin of the mass-metallicity relations. To this end we develop a galactic chemical evolution model accounting for star formation, gas inflow and outflow. By combining the observed mass-metallicity relation for both gas and stellar components to constrain the models, we find that only two scenarios are able to reproduce the observations. Either strong metal outflow or a steep initial mass function (IMF) slope at early epochs of galaxy evolution is needed. Based on these two scenarios, for the first time we successfully reproduce the observed MZRgas and MZRstar simultaneously, together with other independent observational constraints in the local Universe. Our model also naturally reproduces the flattening of the MZRgas at the high-mass end leaving the MZRstar intact, as seen in observational data.

  2. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... to lower ASM and BCM in elderly men both in a univariate regression analysis and a multivariate regression analysis. In conclusion, high plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in elderly healthy people and in patients with type 2 diabetes are associated with increased truncal fat mass, suggesting...

  3. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  4. Associations between lower extremity muscle mass and metabolic parameters related to obesity in Japanese obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia increases the incidence of obesity in the elderly by reducing physical activity. This sarcopenic obesity may become self-perpetuating, increasing the risks for metabolic syndrome, disability, and mortality. We investigated the associations of two sarcopenic indices, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight (L/W ratio and the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to upper extremity muscle mass (L/U ratio, with metabolic parameters related to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.Methods. Of 148 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated between October 2013 and April 2014, we recruited 26 with obesity but no physical disability. Daily physical activity was measured by a triaxial accelerometer during a period of hospitalization, and which was also evaluated by our previously reported non-exercise activity thermogenesis questionnaire. We measured body composition by bioelectrical impedance and investigated the correlations of L/W and L/U ratios with body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, serum lipid profile, and daily physical activity.Results. The L/W ratio was significantly and negatively correlated with BMI, WC, WHR, body fat mass, body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat area, and serum free fatty acid concentration, was positively correlated with daily physical activity: the locomotive non-exercise activity thermogenesis score, but was not correlated with visceral fat area. The L/U ratio was significantly and positively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.Conclusions. High L/W and L/U ratios, indicative of relatively preserved lower extremity muscle mass, were predictive of improved metabolic parameters related to obesity. Preserved muscle fitness in obesity, especially of the lower extremities, may prevent sarcopenic obesity and lower associated risks for

  5. Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Relation to Body Mass Index in Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavadharini, Balaji; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashree, Gopal; Nrutya, Subramanyam; Shobana, Mahadevan; Malanda, Belma; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Belton, Anne; Joseph, Kurian; Rekha, Kurian; Uma, Ram; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the weight gain during pregnancy (using Institute of Medicine guidelines) among Asian Indians across different body mass index (BMI) categories (using World Health Organization Asia Pacific BMI cut points) and to compare the pregnancy outcomes in each of the different BMI categories. Retrospective records of 2728 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and private maternity centers in Chennai, South India, from January 2011 to January 2014 were studied. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in relation to BMI and weight gain across different BMI categories. Overweight and obese women who gained more weight during pregnancy were at high risk of delivering macrosomic infants (overweight - odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.2, P = 0.02 and obese - OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, P = 0.01). In addition, obese women who gained more weight were also at high risk of preterm labor (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-3.8; P = 0.01), cesarean section (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5; P women who gained less weight had a protective effect from cesarean section and macrosomia. Overweight/obese women who gained more weight than recommended are at a high risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Normal and overweight women who gained weight less than recommended have low risk for cesarean section and macrosomia. However, they have a higher (statistically insignificant) risk for low birth weight and preterm birth. This highlights the need for gaining adequate weight during pregnancy.

  6. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  7. Strategies to distinguish new synthetic cannabinoid FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) intake from its isomer THJ-2201: metabolism of FUBIMINA in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xingxing; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Huestis, Marilyn A

    Since 2013, a new drugs-of-abuse trend attempts to bypass drug legislation by marketing isomers of scheduled synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), e.g., FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) and THJ-2201. It is much more challenging to confirm a specific isomer's intake and distinguish it from its structural analog because the isomers and their major metabolites usually have identical molecular weights and display the same product ions. Here, we investigated isomers FUBIMINA and THJ-2201 and propose strategies to distinguish their consumption. THJ-2201 was scheduled in the US, Japan, and Europe; however, FUBIMINA is easily available on the Internet. We previously investigated THJ-2201 metabolism in human hepatocytes, but human FUBIMINA metabolism is unknown. We aim to characterize FUBIMINA metabolism in human hepatocytes, recommend optimal metabolites to confirm its consumption, and propose strategies to distinguish between intakes of FUBIMINA and THJ-2201. FUBIMINA (10 μM) was incubated in human hepatocytes for 3 h, and metabolites were characterized with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). We identified 35 metabolites generated by oxidative defluorination, further carboxylation, hydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, glucuronidation, and their combinations. We recommend 5'-OH-BIM-018 (M34), BIM-018 pentanoic acid (M33), and BIM-018 pentanoic acid dihydrodiol (M7) as FUBIMINA specific metabolites. THJ-2201 produced specific metabolite markers 5'-OH-THJ-018 (F26), THJ-018 pentanoic acid (F25), and hydroxylated THJ-2201 (F13). Optimized chromatographic conditions to achieve different retention times and careful selection of specific product ion spectra enabled differentiation of isomeric metabolites, in this case FUBIMINA from THJ-2201. Our HR-MS approach should be applicable for differentiating future isomeric SCs, which is especially important when different isomers have different legal status.

  8. Relation between bottom-quark MS Yukawa coupling and pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Piclum, J.H.; Steinhauser, M.

    2004-04-01

    We calculate the O (αα s ) corrections to the relationships between the MS Yukawa couplings and the pole masses of the first five quark flavours in the standard model. We also present the corresponding relationships between the MS and pole masses, which emerge as by-products of our main analysis. The occurring self-energies are evaluated using the method of asymptotic expansion. (orig.)

  9. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free...

  10. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Gergő A; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days (ptyrosine excretion correlated with both need of daily insulin dose and the insulin-glucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (ptyrosine excretion, urinary meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine, urinary ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine and urinary (meta- + orthotyrosine)/ para-tyrosine proved to be markers of carbohydrate homeostasis. In a chronic rodent model, we tried to compensate the abnormal tyrosine isomers using para-tyrosine, the physiological amino acid. Rats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases.

  11. The behaviour of EDDHA isomers in soils as influenced by soil properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    FeEDDHA products are applied to correct iron chlorosis in plants and consist of a mixture of EDDHA isomers chelated to iron. In this study such mixtures have been divided into four (groups of) isomers: racemic o,o-EDDHA, meso o,o-EDDHA, o,p-EDDHA and rest-EDDHA. The physical and chemical properties

  12. A new isomer in 195Bi identified at the focal plane of HYRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Asgar, Md. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the presence of high-j (h 9/2 and i 13/2 ) orbitals near the proton and neutron Fermi levels, high spin isomers are expected to occur for neutron deficient Bismuth nuclei (Z = 83) in A = 190 region. A 750 ns isomer has been known for a long time in 195 Bi whose excitation energy and decay path have been reported recently. A rotational band has been reported in this nucleus based on 13/2 + isomer, originated from the deformation driving i 13/2 orbital. This band reported to have prompt feeding through a 457 keV γ-ray apart from a strong feeding from the 750 ns isomer. In 193 Bi, the 29/2 - state is a 3μs isomer, another isomer with half-life >10μs is also known in this nucleus but its excitation energy, spin and parity are not known. Similar isomer has not yet been observed in 195 Bi. The aim of the present work was to find isomers and their decays in 193,195 Bi

  13. Nano-Second Isomers in Neutron-Rich Ni Region Produced by Deep-Inelastic Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Asai, M.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Makishima, A.; Hossain, I.; Kleinheinz, P.; Ogawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear structure of the doubly magic 68 Ni and its neighbors has been studied by spectroscopic techniques. Developing a new instrument isomer-scope, we have measured γ rays from nano-second isomers produced in heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions with great sensitivity. (author)

  14. Cumulative Mass and NIOSH Variable Lifting Index Method for Risk Assessment: Possible Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi, Giulia; Battevi, Natale; Pandolfi, Monica; Galinotti, Luca; Iodice, Simona; Favero, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether the Variable Lifting Index (VLI) can be corrected for cumulative mass and thus test its efficacy in predicting the risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background A validation study of the VLI method was published in this journal reporting promising results. Although several studies highlighted a positive correlation between cumulative load and LBP, cumulative mass has never been considered in any of the studies investigating the relationship between manual material handling and LBP. Method Both VLI and cumulative mass were calculated for 2,374 exposed subjects using a systematic approach. Due to high variability of cumulative mass values, a stratification within VLI categories was employed. Dummy variables (1-4) were assigned to each class and used as a multiplier factor for the VLI, resulting in a new index (VLI_CMM). Data on LBP were collected by occupational physicians at the study sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of acute LBP within levels of risk exposure when compared with a control group formed by 1,028 unexposed subjects. Results Data showed greatly variable values of cumulative mass across all VLI classes. The potential effect of cumulative mass on damage emerged as not significant ( p value = .6526). Conclusion When comparing VLI_CMM with raw VLI, the former failed to prove itself as a better predictor of LBP risk. Application To recognize cumulative mass as a modifier, especially for lumbar degenerative spine diseases, authors of future studies should investigate potential association between the VLI and other damage variables.

  15. Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Simon J; Anandhakrishnan, Madhankumar; Geerlof, Arie; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids in lactic acid producing bacteria, have a range of biotechnology applications including antibiotic synthesis, flavor development in dairy products and the production of valuable synthons. The genome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a member of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, encodes multiple hydroxyacid dehydrogenases whose structural and functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the apo and coenzyme NAD⁺ complexed crystal structures of the L. bulgaricusD-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, D2-HDH. Comparison with closely related members of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family reveals that whilst the D2-HDH core fold is structurally conserved, the substrate-binding site has a number of non-canonical features that may influence substrate selection and thus dictate the physiological function of the enzyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetics of photoirradiation-induced synthesis of soy oil-conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-02-07

    Photoirradiation of soy oil with UV/visible light has been shown to produce significant amounts of trans,trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers through conversion of various synthesized intermediate cis,trans isomers. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of CLA isomers synthesis to better understand the production of various isomers. Soy oil was irradiated with UV/visible light for 144 h in the presence of an iodine catalyst and CLA isomers analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Arrhenius plots were developed for the conversion of soy oil linoleic acid (A) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA (B), conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA to form trans,trans-CLA (C) with respect to B, and formation of trans,trans-CLA isomers with respect to C. The kinetics of consumption of linoleic acid (LA) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA was found to be of second-order with a rate constant of 9.01 x 10-7 L/mol s. The rate of formation of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers depends on the rate of formation from LA and its rate of consumption to form trans,trans-CLA isomers. The conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers to trans,trans-CLA isomers was found to be of first-order with a rate constant of 2.75 x 10-6 s-1. However, the formation of thermodynamically stable trans,trans-CLA isomers (C) with respect to C was found to be a zero-order reaction with a rate constant of 10.66 x 10-7 mol/L s. The consumption of LA was found to be the rate-determining step in the CLA isomers formation reaction mechanism. The findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of CLA isomers synthesis by photoirradiation and the factors controlling the ratio of various isomers.

  17. Understanding the mass-radius relation for sub-Neptunes: radius as a proxy for composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transiting planet surveys like Kepler have provided a wealth of information on the distribution of planetary radii, particularly for the new populations of super-Earth- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. In order to aid in the physical interpretation of these radii, we compute model radii for low-mass rocky planets with hydrogen-helium envelopes. We provide model radii for planets 1-20 M {sub ⊕}, with envelope fractions 0.01%-20%, levels of irradiation 0.1-1000 times Earth's, and ages from 100 Myr to 10 Gyr. In addition we provide simple analytic fits that summarize how radius depends on each of these parameters. Most importantly, we show that at fixed H/He envelope fraction, radii show little dependence on mass for planets with more than ∼1% of their mass in their envelope. Consequently, planetary radius is to a first order a proxy for planetary composition, i.e., H/He envelope fraction, for Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. We recast the observed mass-radius relationship as a mass-composition relationship and discuss it in light of traditional core accretion theory. We discuss the transition from rocky super-Earths to sub-Neptune planets with large volatile envelopes. We suggest ∼1.75 R {sub ⊕} as a physically motivated dividing line between these two populations of planets. Finally, we discuss these results in light of the observed radius occurrence distribution found by Kepler.

  18. K-Isomers as a Probe of Nuclear Structure and Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondev, F. G.

    2005-05-01

    Nuclear K-isomers play a pivotal role in understanding the structure of deformed, axially symmetric nuclei. Examples are presented of recent studies of exotic multi-quasiparticle isomers in the A˜180 rare-earth region at the extreme of angular momentum and neutron number. A specific band-mixing scenario is invoked to explain the unusual decay path of the Kπ=57/2- isomer (T1/2=22 ns) in 175Hf, the highest spin K-isomer known in nature. The discovery of a suite of high-K isomers, above the previously known Kπ=23/2- (T1/2=160 d) state in 177Lu, using deep-inelastic and multi-nucleon transfer reactions is discussed.

  19. K-Isomers as a Probe of Nuclear Structure and Advanced Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondev, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear K-isomers play a pivotal role in understanding the structure of deformed, axially symmetric nuclei. Examples are presented of recent studies of exotic multi-quasiparticle isomers in the A∼180 rare-earth region at the extreme of angular momentum and neutron number. A specific band-mixing scenario is invoked to explain the unusual decay path of the Kπ=57/2- isomer (T1/2=22 ns) in 175Hf, the highest spin K-isomer known in nature. The discovery of a suite of high-K isomers, above the previously known Kπ=23/2- (T1/2=160 d) state in 177Lu, using deep-inelastic and multi-nucleon transfer reactions is discussed

  20. Aqueous phase partitioning of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers by biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa WH-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Suman; Singh, Partapbir; Raj, Mayil; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Saini, Harvinder Singh

    2009-01-01

    The different isomers of technical-grade hexachlorocyclohexane (t-HCH) including the insecticidal γ-isomer, commonly known as lindane, have been reported to be toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupters. The spatial arrangements of the chlorine atoms on different isomers and low aqueous phase solubility contribute to their persistence in environment, β-HCH being the most resistance to transformation. The biosurfactant preparation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate WH-2 was evaluated for its ability to improve the aqueous phase partitioning of different isomers of HCH-muck. Further, the ability of biosurfactant preparation to emulsify HCH and n-hexadecane was checked under different conditions, usually characteristic of sites contaminated with pollutants viz. wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity. The data obtained from this study will be helpful in designing suitable bioremediation strategies for huge stock piles of HCH-muck and sites polluted by reckless use/disposal of HCH-isomers.