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Sample records for relative individual respiratory

  1. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  2. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O; Hjelmborg, J

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.54. Significant associations (pperfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms to perfume is suggested by an estimated genetic correlation of 0.39, 95%CI 0.09-0.72.

  3. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  4. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co......-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.......14-0.54. Significant associations (prespiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms...

  5. Airborne chemicals cause respiratory symptoms in individuals with contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, H

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to fragrance chemicals causes various eye and airway symptoms. Individuals with perfume contact allergy report these symptoms more frequently than individuals with nickel allergy or no contact allergies. However, the associations between contact allergy and respiratory symptoms elicited...... by airborne chemicals other than perfumes are unclear. The study aimed to investigate the association between eye and airway symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals (other than perfumes) and contact allergy in a population-based sample. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was posted, in 2002, to 1189...... individuals who participated in 1997/1998 in a Danish population-based study of allergic diseases. Questions about eye and airway symptoms elicited by different airborne chemicals and airborne proteins were included in the questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were compared with data on patch testing...

  6. Weight loss alters severity of individual nocturnal respiratory events depending on sleeping position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Töyräs, J; Sahlman, J; Seppä, J; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Tuomilehto, H

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of how weight loss affects nocturnal breathing are not fully understood. The severity of OSA is currently estimated by the number of respiratory events per hour of sleep (i.e. apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI). AHI neglects duration and morphology of individual respiratory events, which describe the severity of individual events. In the current paper, we investigate the novel Adjusted-AHI parameter (incorporating individual event severity) and AHI after weight loss in relation to sleeping position. It was hypothesised that there are positional differences in individual event severity changes during weight loss. Altogether, 32 successful (> 5% of weight) and 34 unsuccessful weight loss patients at baseline and after 1 year follow-up were analysed. The results revealed that individual respiratory event severity was reduced differently in supine and non-supine positions during weight loss. During weight loss, AHI was reduced by 54% (p = 0.004) and 74% (p < 0.001), while Adjusted-AHI was reduced by 14% (p = 0.454) and 48% (p = 0.003) in supine and non-supine positions, respectively. In conclusion, the severity of individual respiratory events decreased more in the non-supine position. The novel Adjusted-AHI parameter takes these changes into account and might therefore contribute additional information to the planning of treatment of OSA patients. (paper)

  7. Intra-individual variability in cerebrovascular and respiratory chemosensitivity: Can we characterize a chemoreflex "reactivity profile"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borle, Kennedy J; Pfoh, Jamie R; Boulet, Lindsey M; Abrosimova, Maria; Tymko, Michael M; Skow, Rachel J; Varner, Amy; Day, Trevor A

    2017-08-01

    Intra-individual variability in the magnitude of human cerebrovascular and respiratory chemoreflex responses is largely unexplored. By comparing response magnitudes of cerebrovascular CO 2 reactivity (CVR; middle and posterior cerebral arteries; MCA, PCA), central (CCR; CO 2 ) and peripheral respiratory chemoreflexes (PCR; CO 2 and O 2 ), we tested the hypothesis that a within-individual reactivity magnitude profile could be characterized. The magnitudes of CVR and CCR were tested with hyperoxic rebreathing and PCR magnitudes were tested through transient respiratory tests (TT-CO 2 , hypercapnia; TT-N 2 , hypoxia). No significant intra-individual relationships were found between CCR vs. CVR (MCA and PCA), CCR vs. PCR (TT-N 2 or TT-CO 2 ) (r0.3) response magnitudes. Statistically significant relationships were found between MCA vs. PCA reactivity (r=0.45, Pvariability that exists in human cerebrovascular and respiratory chemoreflexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  9. Longitudinal study of respiratory function and symptoms in a non-smoking group of long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background Air pollution is known to be a leading cause of respiratory symptoms. Many cross-sectional studies reported that air pollution caused respiratory disease in Japanese individuals in the 1960s. Japan has laws regulating air pollution levels and providing compensation for victims of pollution-related respiratory disease. However, long-term changes in respiratory function and symptoms in individuals who were exposed to air pollution in the 1960s have not been well studied. This study a...

  10. Respiratory Tract Infections in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Individuals are Linked with Serum Surfactant Protein-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawed, S.; Parveen, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out the rate of respiratory tract infections in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and their relation with surfactant protein D. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from September 2011 to April 2012, and comprised subjects of both genders between ages of 30 and 60 years. The subjects were divided into four groups: diabetic obese, non-diabetic obese, diabetic non-obese, and non-diabetic-non-obese. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information about respiratory tract infections. Serum surfactant protein D levels were analysed using human surfactant protein D enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16. Results: Of the 90 subjects, there were 20(22.2 percent) diabetic obese, 30(33.3 percent) non-diabetic obese, 10(11.1 percent) diabetic non-obese, and 30(33.3 percent) non-diabetic-non-obese. The overall mean age was 36.6±103 years. Among the diabetic obese, 15(75 percent) had respiratory tract infections which was higher than the other study groups, and patients having respiratory tract infections had lower surfactant protein D levels than those who did not have infections (p=0.01). Conclusion: Diabetic obese subjects had greater rate of recurrent respiratory tract infections and had lower concentration of serum surfactant protein D compared to subjects without respiratory tract infections. (author)

  11. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  12. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  13. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel

    2015-02-06

    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel; Michá lek, Jan; Janouškovec, Jan; Lai, De Hua; Jirků, Milan; Hajdušková , Eva; Tomčala, Aleš; Otto, Thomas D.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Pain, Arnab; Oborní k, Miroslav; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Impact of Individualized Diet Intervention on Body Composition and Respiratory Variables in Children With Respiratory Insufficiency: A Pilot Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Enid E; Bechard, Lori J; Smallwood, Craig D; Duggan, Christopher P; Graham, Robert J; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2015-07-01

    Diet modification may improve body composition and respiratory variables in children with respiratory insufficiency. Our objective was to examine the effect of an individualized diet intervention on changes in weight, lean body mass, minute ventilation, and volumetric CO2 production in children dependent on long-term mechanical ventilatory support. Prospective, open-labeled interventional study. Study subjects' homes. Children, 1 month to 17 years old, dependent on at least 12 hr/d of transtracheal mechanical ventilatory support. Twelve weeks of an individualized diet modified to deliver energy at 90-110% of measured energy expenditure and protein intake per age-based guidelines. During a multidisciplinary home visit, we obtained baseline values of height and weight, lean body mass percent by bioelectrical impedance analysis, actual energy and protein intake by food record, and measured energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. An individualized diet was then prescribed to optimize energy and protein intake. After 12 weeks on this interventional diet, we evaluated changes in weight, height, lean body mass percent, minute ventilation, and volumetric CO2 production. Sixteen subjects, mean age 9.3 years (SD, 4.9), eight male, completed the study. For the diet intervention, a majority of subjects required a change in energy and protein prescription. The mean percentage of energy delivered as carbohydrate was significantly decreased, 51.7% at baseline versus 48.2% at follow-up, p = 0.009. Mean height and weight increased on the modified diet. Mean lean body mass percent increased from 58.3% to 61.8%. Minute ventilation was significantly lower (0.18 L/min/kg vs 0.15 L/min/kg; p = 0.04), and we observed a trend toward lower volumetric CO2 production (5.4 mL/min/kg vs 5.3 mL/min/kg; p = 0.06) after 12 weeks on the interventional diet. Individualized diet modification is feasible and associated with a significant decrease in minute ventilation, a trend toward significant

  16. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy....... The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n......=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non...

  17. Respiratory health effects in relation to crystalline silica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hnizdo, E

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available corresponding with the 5th percentile and the one-sided 95% confidence limits for different equations Table 3-4 Comparison between studies of occupational groups done on black men in South Africa in higher altitude Figure 3-1 Age distribution for white... of decreased reliability. 6 2.2 INTRODUCTION Screening for lung function impairment in subjects exposed to respiratory hazards should be able to identify those individuals whose lung function falls bellow predicted values, and those who demonstrate...

  18. Longitudinal study of respiratory function and symptoms in a non-smoking group of long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2013-08-17

    Air pollution is known to be a leading cause of respiratory symptoms. Many cross-sectional studies reported that air pollution caused respiratory disease in Japanese individuals in the 1960s. Japan has laws regulating air pollution levels and providing compensation for victims of pollution-related respiratory disease. However, long-term changes in respiratory function and symptoms in individuals who were exposed to air pollution in the 1960s have not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate longitudinal respiratory function and symptoms in older, non-smoking, long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness. The study included 563 officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness living in Kurashiki, Okayama who were aged ≥ 65 years in 2009. Data were retrospectively collected from yearly respiratory symptom questionnaires and spirometry examinations conducted from 2000 to 2009. Respiratory function declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 (p pollutants around 1970 resulted in a decrease in respiratory function and an increase in respiratory symptoms in the study population. From 2000 to 2009, the mean annual changes in respiratory function were within the normal range, even though the severity of dyspnea worsened. The changes in respiratory function and symptoms over the study period were probably due to aging. The laws governing air pollution levels and providing compensation for officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness in Japan may be effective for respiratory disease cause by pollution.

  19. Residual Motion and Duty Time in Respiratory Gating Radiotherapy Using Individualized or Population-Based Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Asada, Yoshihiro; Numano, Masumi; Yamashita, Haruo; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Murayama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The efficiency and precision of respiratory gated radiation therapy for tumors is affected by variations in respiration-induced tumor motion. We evaluated the use of individualized and population-based parameters for such treatment. Methods and Materials: External respiratory signal records and images of respiration-induced tumor motion were obtained from 42 patients undergoing respiratory gated radiation therapy for liver tumors. Gating window widths were calculated for each patient, with 2, 4, and 10 mm of residual motion, and the mean was defined as the population-based window width. Residual motions based on population-based and predefined window widths were compared. Duty times based on whole treatment sessions, at various window levels, were calculated. The window level giving the longest duty time was defined as the individualized most efficient level (MEL). MELs were also calculated based on the first 10 breathing cycles. The duty times for population-based MELs (defined as mean MELs) and individualized MELs were compared. Results: Tracks of respiration-induced tumor motion ranged from 3 to 50 mm. Half of the patients had larger actual residual motions than the assigned residual motions. Duty times were greater when based on individualized, rather than population-based, window widths. The MELs established during whole treatment sessions for 2 mm and 4 mm of residual motion gave significantly increased duty times, whereas those calculated using the first 10 breathing cycles showed only marginal increases. Conclusions: Using individualized window widths and levels provided more precise and efficient respiratory gated radiation therapy. However, methods for predicting individualized window levels before treatment remain to be explored.

  20. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  1. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  2. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings

  3. Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Disease in Hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Skoufi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function. Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group. Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed. Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001 and higher FeNO values (p=0.012 were observed in hairdressers. A larger working area and presence of window ventilation were associated with better pulmonary function. Conclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.

  4. Respiratory flow-sound relationship during both wakefulness and sleep and its variation in relation to sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Azadeh; Montazeri, Aman; Azarbarzin, Ali; Moussavi, Zahra

    2013-03-01

    Tracheal respiratory sound analysis is a simple and non-invasive way to study the pathophysiology of the upper airway and has recently been used for acoustic estimation of respiratory flow and sleep apnea diagnosis. However in none of the previous studies was the respiratory flow-sound relationship studied in people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), nor during sleep. In this study, we recorded tracheal sound, respiratory flow, and head position from eight non-OSA and 10 OSA individuals during sleep and wakefulness. We compared the flow-sound relationship and variations in model parameters from wakefulness to sleep within and between the two groups. The results show that during both wakefulness and sleep, flow-sound relationship follows a power law but with different parameters. Furthermore, the variations in model parameters may be representative of the OSA pathology. The other objective of this study was to examine the accuracy of respiratory flow estimation algorithms during sleep: we investigated two approaches for calibrating the model parameters using the known data recorded during either wakefulness or sleep. The results show that the acoustical respiratory flow estimation parameters change from wakefulness to sleep. Therefore, if the model is calibrated using wakefulness data, although the estimated respiratory flow follows the relative variations of the real flow, the quantitative flow estimation error would be high during sleep. On the other hand, when the calibration parameters are extracted from tracheal sound and respiratory flow recordings during sleep, the respiratory flow estimation error is less than 10%.

  5. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H; Holst, H; Dirksen, A; Johansen, J D

    2007-11-01

    Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy. The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non-atopic donor were incubated with participant's sera and histamine release induced by perfume was measured. In both groups incremental perfume concentrations showed a positive and significant (Pperfume concentration, the basophils released significantly (PPerfume induces a dose-dependent non-IgE-mediated release of histamine from human peripheral blood basophils. Increased basophil reactivity to perfume was found in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume.

  6. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, G.H.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, J.; Abbas, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to polluted air, 438 workers, and their family members were studied at Thermal Power Station (TPS), Sheikhmanda (Quetta). Individuals with a stay of less than three years at TPS and patients with known chronic respiratory infections (tuberculosis and its squelae, bronchiectasis) were excluded from the study. Remaining 175 males (mean age 43.4 years) and 71 females (mean age 34.2 years) were divided into three groups A, B, C on the basis of their exposure time to polluted air per day during the three years. Each groups was further subdivided into smoker and non-smoker members. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the individuals exposed to polluted air as compared to non-exposed individuals (P<0.05). A strong positive correlation (r=0.91) exists between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in smoker groups; however, no definite correlation (r=0.06) was found between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in non-smoker groups. Function abnormalities was noted only in smoker groups and non-smokers of even maximally exposed group (group C) had almost no respiratory function abnormalities. (author)

  7. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  8. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  9. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Relation to Possible Food-Related Risk and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory health outcomes are among the top five causes of child morbidity and mortality around the world. We aimed to investigate possible food-related risk and protective factors for respiratory health outcomes in children. Structured questionnaires completed by primary caregivers of 10-year old children were used to collect information on demographics, socio-economic status, house characteristics and child respiratory health status. Upper (URIs) and Lower (LRIs) respiratory illnesses comprised hay fever, and wheezing, asthma and bronchitis, respectively. Eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, 648 retrieved and 420 completed in full (52.5% response rate). The hay fever 6-month prevalence was 22.4% and wheezing had the highest 6-month prevalence among the LRIs (13.8%). The majority of children ate vegetables (75.5%), fruit (69.3%) and chicken or fish (81.7%) regularly. Nearly half of the children (45.5%) regularly ate processed food. Eating processed food regularly was statistical significantly associated with wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.38-5.08), hay fever (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.09-2.64) and bronchitis (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.06-2.56). The study found an association between regular consumption of processed foods and wheeze, hay fever and bronchitis among 10 year old children. The regular consumption of processed food plays a role in adverse respiratory health effects among children and healthy eating is emphasized.

  10. Relation between lowered colloid osmotic pressure, respiratory failure, and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnesen, A S; Gabel, J C; McLeavey, C A

    1977-01-01

    Plasma colloid osmotic pressure was measured each day in 84 intensive care unit patients. Probit analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and survival. The COP associated with a 50% survival rate was 15.0 torr. COP was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors without respiratory failure and in patients who recovered from respiratory failure. We conclude that lowered COP is associated with an elevated mortality rate. However, the relationship to death is not explained by the relationship to respiratory failure.

  11. Active Video Games as a Training Tool for Individuals With Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stacey J; Lee, Annemarie L; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2018-02-26

    Exercise is an effective treatment for reducing symptom severity and improving quality of life for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Active video games offer a new and enjoyable way to exercise and have gained popularity in a rehabilitation setting. However, it is unclear whether they achieve comparable physiological and clinical effects as traditional exercise training. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies that included an active video game component as a form of exercise training and a comparator group in chronic respiratory disease. Two assessors independently reviewed study quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and extracted data for exercise capacity, quality of life, and preference of exercise model. Six studies were included in this review. Because of the heterogeneity of the populations, study designs, length of intervention, and outcome measures, meta-analysis could not be performed. Active video game training resulted in comparable training maximal heart rate and dyspnea levels to those achieved when exercising using a treadmill or cycle (n = 5). There was insufficient evidence (n = 3) to determine whether active video game training improved exercise capacity as measured by 6-min walk test or treadmill endurance walking. Although the quality of evidence was low, in a small number of studies active video games induced peak heart rates and dyspnea levels comparable with traditional exercise training. Larger and longer-term randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the impact of video game training for individuals with chronic respiratory diseases.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  12. Revisiting 'Respiratory Function in Emphysema in Relation to Prognosis'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V Bates

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1956 paper by DV Bates, JMS Knott and RV Christie, "Respiratory function in emphysema in relation to prognosis" Quart J Med 1956;97:137-157 is largely reprinted with a commentary by the first author, Dr David Bates. Although the pathology of emphysema was well recognized at the time, the clinical diagnosis and assessment of its severity were known to be imprecise; physiological measurements assessing and following the clinical course had not been established. The study aimed to follow systematically a group of patients, selected by clinical criteria using standardized clinical and physiological techniques, over four years and correlate physiological and clinical changes in relation to prognosis and eventually to postmortem findings. Fifty-nine patients were recruited to an emphysema clinic at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, England. Inclusion criteria were dyspnea without other causes and no cor pulmonale present. Patients' symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire, and measurements were taken of lung volumes, maximal ventilatory volume, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity at rest, exercise and oxygen saturation by oximetry.  During the four years of the study, 17 patients died (actuarial expected - four and 13 presented with signs of pulmonary heart failure. All postmortem examinations (n=9 showed advanced emphysema. A seasonal variation in dyspnea was established (the period included the infamous 1952 London smog. Four patients improved, and the remainder were unchanged or deteriorated. Close relationships were shown between dyspnea and function results, particularly for the diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO. A comparison among a group of patients with chronic bronchitis without dyspnea showed that the DLCO discriminated between them. A loss of the normal increase in DLCO during exercise was shown in emphysema.

  13. Effects of wheelchair sports on respiratory muscle strength and thoracic mobility of individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marlene Aparecida; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Paris, Juliana Viana; Teodori, Rosana Macher; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheelchair sports on respiratory muscle strength and the thoracic mobility of individuals with spinal cord injury. Thirty male subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade A) took part in the study and were divided into four groups: sedentary subjects with quadriplegia (S-QUAD, n = 7), wheelchair rugby athletes with quadriplegia (A-QUAD, n = 8), sedentary subjects with paraplegia (S-PARA, n = 6), and wheelchair basketball athletes with paraplegia (A-PARA, n = 9). The main outcome measures were maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure and the respiratory coefficients at the axillary and xiphoid levels. A-QUAD group presented values significantly higher for all respiratory variables studied compared with the S-QUAD group. No significant differences in any of the respiratory variables were observed between S-PARA and A-PARA groups. There was a negative correlation between spinal cord injury level and respiratory variables for the S-QUAD and S-PARA groups. There were positive correlations in the A-QUAD group between time of training and maximal inspiratory pressure (adjusted R = 0.84; P = 0.001) and respiratory coefficients at the axillary level (adjusted R = 0.80; P = 0.002). Physical training seems to have a positive influence on respiratory muscle strength and thoracic mobility, especially in subjects with quadriplegia.

  14. Asthma and respiratory symptoms in hospital workers related to dampness and biological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Ganser, J M; Rao, C Y; Park, J-H; Schumpert, J C; Kreiss, K

    2009-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health investigated respiratory symptoms and asthma in relation to damp indoor environments in employees of two hospitals. A cluster of six work-related asthma cases from one hospital department, whose symptoms arose during a time of significant water incursions, led us to conduct a survey of respiratory health in 1171/1834 employees working in the sentinel cases hospital and a nearby hospital without known indoor environmental concerns. We carried out observational assessment of dampness, air, chair, and floor dust sampling for biological contaminants, and investigation of exposure-response associations for about 500 participants. Many participants with post-hire onset asthma reported diagnosis dates in a period of water incursions and renovations. Post-hire asthma and work-related lower respiratory symptoms were positively associated with the dampness score. Work-related lower respiratory symptoms showed monotonically increasing odds ratios with ergosterol, a marker of fungal biomass. Other fungal and bacterial indices, particle counts, cat allergen and latex allergen were associated with respiratory symptoms. Our data imply new-onset of asthma in relation to water damage, and indicate that work-related respiratory symptoms in hospital workers may be associated with diverse biological contaminants. In healthcare facilities with indoor dampness and microbial contamination, possible associations between such conditions and respiratory health effects should be considered. Good building maintenance and housekeeping procedures should lead to improvements in employee respiratory health.

  15. Divergent Mitochondrial Respiratory Chains in Phototrophic Relatives of Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontov, P.; Michálek, J.; Janouškovec, J.; Lai, D. H.; Jirků, M.; Hajdušková, E.; Tomčala, A.; Otto, T.D.; Keeling, P. J.; Pain, A.; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2015), s. 1115-1131 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : respiratory chain * Apicomplexa * Chromera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.649, year: 2015

  16. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections-a European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Patricia M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C.; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; de Vries-van Vugt, Saskia F.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients' illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general

  17. Divergent Mitochondrial Respiratory Chains in Phototrophic Relatives of Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontov, P.; Michálek, Jan; Janouškovec, J.; Lai, De Hua; Jirků, Milan; Hajdušková, Eva; Tomčala, Aleš; Otto, T.D.; Keeling, P.J.; Pain, A.; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2015), s. 1115-1131 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1522; GA ČR GA13-33039S; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory chain * Apicomplexa * Chromera * anaerobic metabolism * evolution * Vitrella Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.649, year: 2015

  18. Autonomic dysfunction with early respiratory syncytial virus-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Claire; Teyssier, Georges; Pichot, Vincent; Goffaux, Philippe; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Patural, Hugues

    2010-08-25

    Apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) and/or prolonged apnoea have been well-documented during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infants less than 2 months of age but fundamental mechanisms remain unclear. The possibility of a central origin for the development of severe cardiac and respiratory events encouraged us, to explore the autonomic nervous system (ANS) profile of infected infants, since ANS activity may contribute to the constellation of symptoms observed during severe forms of RSV bronchiolitis. Eight infants (2 preterm and 6 full-term) less than 2 months of age and presenting with severe and apnoeic forms of RSV infection were evaluated using non-invasive electrophysiological monitoring obtained simultaneously for approximately 2 consecutive hours, including a quiet sleep period. Eight control subjects, paired for gestational and postnatal age, were also evaluated. ANS status was monitored using electrocardiogram recordings and quantified through a frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). This included sympathetic (VLF and LF) and parasympathetic (HF) indices as well as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) obtained using non-invasive continuous arterial pressure. Regardless of gestational and postnatal age, heart rate variability components (Ptot, VLF, LF, and HF) and baroreflex components (alpha LF, alpha HF and sBR) were found to be significantly lower in the RSV-infected group than in the control group (pimportance of maintaining prolonged cardiopulmonary monitoring. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased plasma soluble uPAR level is a risk marker of respiratory cancer in initially cancer-free individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne A; Hansen, Tine Willum; Ladelund, Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable plasma biomarker associated with inflammation and disease. This study tested the association between suPAR levels and incident respiratory, gastrointestinal or other types of cancer in initially cancer-free individuals...... with respiratory, gastrointestinal and other cancer types, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels were associated with increased risk of incident respiratory cancer and other types of cancer, but not gastrointestinal cancers, independently of established risk factors, CRP and leukocyte numbers. Impact.......RESULTS: suPAR levels ranged from 0.6-22 ng/ml, and median suPAR level was 4.01 ng/ml. 1 ng/ml increase in baseline suPAR was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.23-2.11, P

  20. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  1. Outcome of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus related acute lower respiratory tract infection among hospitalized newborns: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Omer; Cakir, Ufuk; Akduman, Hasan; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Tunc, Turan; Gokmen, Zeynel; Ates, Can; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence and outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) including morbidity, nosocomial infection and mortality among newborn infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A multicenter, prospective study was conducted in newborns who were hospitalized with community acquired or nosocomial RSV infection in 44 NICUs throughout Turkey. Newborns with ALRI were screened for RSV infection by Respi-Strip®-test. Main outcome measures were the incidence of RSV-associated admissions in the NICUs and morbidity, mortality and epidemics results related to these admissions. The incidence of RSV infection was 1.24% (n: 250) and RSV infection constituted 19.6% of all ALRI hospitalizations, 226 newborns (90.4%) had community-acquired whereas 24 (9.6%) patients had nosocomial RSV infection in the NICUs. Of the 250 newborns, 171 (68.4%) were full-term infants, 183 (73.2%) had a BW >2500 g. RSV-related mortality rate was 1.2%. Four NICUs reported seven outbreaks on different months, which could be eliminated by palivizumab prophylaxis in one NICU. RSV-associated ALRI both in preterm and term infants accounts an important percent of hospitalizations in the season, and may threat other high-risk patients in the NICU.

  2. Short-term respiratory effects of e-cigarettes in healthy individuals and smokers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Teloniatis, Stephanie I; Tzavara, Chara K; Gennimata, Sofia A; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the duration of immediate respiratory effects of e-cigarette smoking (ECS) and tested the hypothesis that ECS has more prominent effects in asthmatics compared with healthy smokers (HS). Fifty-four smokers, 27 healthy (HS group) and 27 with intermittent asthma (mild asthma (MA) group) underwent a control session (no liquid, no resistor coil inside e-cigarette cartridge) and an experimental session of ECS using standardized puffing settings. Impulse oscillometry impedance (Z), resistance (R), reactance (X) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured before and 0, 15 and 30 min after control and experimental sessions. Control session revealed no significant changes. In the experimental session, immediately post-ECS, both groups exhibited a significant increase in respiratory system total impedance at 5 Hz (Z5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 10 Hz (R10) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 20 Hz (R20) (P < 0.05), resonant frequency (P < 0.001) and reactance area (P < 0.05). MA exhibited higher baseline values and a more prominent effect immediately after ECS compared with HS for Z5 (P = 0.022), R5 (P = 0.010) and R10 (P = 0.013). FeNO decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.001); HS returned to baseline values in ≤15 min while the MA maintained significantly lower values for an additional 15 min (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline values at 30 min post-ECS. A single session of ECS had respiratory mechanical and inflammatory effects, which were more prominent in smokers with asthma. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Comparison of respiratory functions of athletes engaged in different individual sports branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It was aimed to research pulmonary functionsof sedentary males and athletes who engaged in differentindividual sports branches in the same age group.Methods: 50 male athletes in 15-16 age group in the starcategory participated from each of the branches of judo,athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis and swimmingand 50 sedentary males participated as well; beingin total 350 subjects. Among respiratory functions tests;vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC and maximumvoluntary ventilation (MVV values were measured.Results were compared.Results: As a result of measurement, VC values of wrestlers,swimmer and taekwondo athletes were significantlyhigher than the values of sedentary males in statisticalsize (p<0.05 and p<0.01. VC values of swimmers weresignificantly higher than athletes of judo, track and fieldand table tennis athletes (p<0.01. It was determinedthat FVC and FEV1 values of swimmers and wrestlershave significantly higher values than sedentary subjects(p<0.05. FVIC values of swimmers were significantlyhigher than athletes, table tennis players and sedanters(p<0.05 and p<0.01. MVV values of swimmers were significantlyhigher than judo, track and field and table tennisathletes (p<0.05. When the respiration rate (RR was analyzed,RR value of table tennis players were significantlyhigher than wrestlers (p<0.05.Conclusion: As a result it was determined that respiratoryfunctions were higher among subjects who do exercisecompared to those who do not. That the respiratoryparameters of athletes doing exercise from differentbranches of star category are higher than those who donot shows the effect of training on respiratory system. Inaddition to this, the difference of respiratory functions betweenbranches shows that the sport branch influencesthe respiratory capacity.Key words: Respiratory functions, athletes, sport branches.

  4. Collectivism versus individualism in Dutch employment relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leede, Jan; Looise, Jan C.; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    From a very centralistic and collectivistic tradition after World War Two, Dutch employment relations now show a trend towards radical decentralisation and individualisation. What might be the consequences of this trend for labour relations? Do developments still fit within a movement towards

  5. Maximal oxygen consumption, respiratory volume and some related factors in fire-fighting personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Khazraee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters for difficult activities and rescue of damaged people must be in appropriate physical ability. Maximal oxygen capacity is an indicator for diagnosis of physical ability of workers. This study aimed to assess the cardiorespiratory system and its related factors in firefighters. Methods: This study was conducted on 110 firefighters from various stations. An self-administered questionnaire (respiratory disorders questionnaire, Tuxworth-Shahnavaz step test, and pulmonary function test was used to collection of required data. Average of humidity and temperature was 52% and 17°C, respectively. Background average noise levels were between 55 and 65 dB. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 32 ± 6.2 years. The means of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were 92% ±9.4%, 87% ±9.2%, and 80% ±6.1%, respectively. The participants' mean VO2-max was 2.79 ± 0.29 L/min or 37.34 ± 4.27 ml/kg body weight per minute. The results revealed that weight has a direct association with vital capacity (VC, FVC, and peak expiratory flow. In addition, height was directly associated with VC, FVC, and VO2-max (P < 0.05. However, there was an inverse and significant association between height and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.23,P< 0.05. Height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were directly associated with VO2-max. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the amount of maximum oxygen consumption is close with the proposed range of this parameter among firefighters in other studies. Furthermore, the results of the study revealed that individuals had normal amounts of lung volume index. This issue can be attributed to the appropriate usage of respiratory masks.

  6. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  7. Comparison of respiratory functions of athletes engaged in different individual sports branches

    OpenAIRE

    Tülin Atan; Pelin Akyol; Mehmet Çebi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: It was aimed to research pulmonary functionsof sedentary males and athletes who engaged in differentindividual sports branches in the same age group.Methods: 50 male athletes in 15-16 age group in the starcategory participated from each of the branches of judo,athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis and swimmingand 50 sedentary males participated as well; beingin total 350 subjects. Among respiratory functions tests;vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximu...

  8. The relation between air pollution and respiratory deaths in Tehran, Iran- using generalized additive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Azizallah; Khanjani, Narges; Bahrampour, Abbas; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Yunesian, Masoud

    2018-03-20

    Some epidemiological evidence has shown a relation between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of air pollution on mortality from respiratory diseases in Tehran, Iran. In this ecological study, air pollution data was inquired from the Tehran Province Environmental Protection Agency and the Tehran Air Quality Control Company. Meteorological data was collected from the Tehran Meteorology Organization and mortality data from the Tehran Cemetery Mortality Registration. Generalized Additive Models (GAM) was used for data analysis with different lags, up to 15 days. A 10-unit increase in all pollutants except CO (1-unit) was used to compute the Relative Risk of deaths. During 2005 until 2014, 37,967 respiratory deaths occurred in Tehran in which 21,913 (57.7%) were male. The strongest relationship between NO 2 and PM 10 and respiratory death was seen on the same day (lag 0), and was respectively (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07) and (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.04). O 3 and PM 2.5 had the strongest relationship with respiratory deaths on lag 2 and 1 respectively, and the RR was equal to 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 and 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10 respectively. NO 2 , O 3 , PM 10 and PM 2.5 also showed significant relations with respiratory deaths in the older age groups. The findings of this study showed that O 3 , NO 2 , PM 10 and PM 2.5 air pollutants were related to respiratory deaths in Tehran. Reducing ambient air pollution can save lives in Tehran.

  9. X-ray upper airway changes in individuals suffering from obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhov, A.A.; Rabukhina, N.A.; Nerobeev, A.I.; Vasil'ev, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep present an important medical and social problem. Serious dysfunctions of cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and other vital systems of the body reduce longevity and life quality. On the other hand, load nocturnal snore and abnormal during sleepiness cause great damage to family life, reduce working capacity and induce accidents. X-ray visualization of the upper airways is essential in diagnosing obstructive upper airway states and selecting patients for surgical treatment. The paper presents the author's own experience in using various X-ray diagnostic methods in patients with chronic snore and obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome [ru

  10. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Adrian R; Jolliffe, David A; Hooper, Richard L; Greenberg, Lauren; Aloia, John F; Bergman, Peter; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Esposito, Susanna; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Ginde, Adit A; Goodall, Emma C; Grant, Cameron C; Griffiths, Christopher J; Janssens, Wim; Laaksi, Ilkka; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Mauger, David; Murdoch, David R; Neale, Rachel; Rees, Judy R; Simpson, Steve; Stelmach, Iwona; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-02-15

    Objectives  To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design  Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sources  Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection  Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Results  25 eligible randomised controlled trials (total 11 321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years) were identified. IPD were obtained for 10 933 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96; P for heterogeneity acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most benefit. Systematic review registration  PROSPERO CRD42014013953. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Outcome of gastro-oesophageal reflux-related respiratory manifestations after laparoscopic fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaba, Franklin; Ang, Chin W; Perry, Anthony; Wadley, Martin S; Robertson, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with refractory respiratory symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) such as asthma and cough are being referred for laparoscopic fundoplication (LFP), as recommended by the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES). However there are limited data regarding symptomatic response to fundoplication in this group of patients. A 7 year retrospective review was performed to study the efficacy of LFP in the treatment of patients with respiratory manifestations of GORD. Patients were followed up from 4 to 6 weeks (short-term) to 6-12 months (long-term) post-operatively. Of 208 patients who underwent LFP, 73 (35%) patients were eligible for inclusion into the study. 55 (75%) patients had improved respiratory symptoms at short-term follow-up. At long-term follow-up, 7 of these patients had recurrence of respiratory symptoms, while 4 patients had improvement not initially apparent. No significant predictive factor for the success or failure of surgery was identified. 190 (91%) of 208 patients had symptomatic improvement in GORD at short-term follow-up. LFP is effective with the response rates over 75% in the control of respiratory manifestation of GORD, compared to over 91% response rate in the control GOR symptoms alone. More research is needed to identify factors to aid patient selection to improve response rate. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A database of annotated promoters of genes associated with common respiratory and related diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh; Tan, Sinlam; Pavesi, Giulio; Jin, Gg; Dong, Difeng; Mathur, Sameer K.; Burkart, Arthur; Narang, Vipin; Glurich, Ingrid E.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Limsoon, Wong; Liu, Jun; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2012-01-01

    Many genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of common respiratory and related diseases (RRDs), yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Differential gene expression patterns in diseased and healthy individuals suggest that RRDs affect or are affected by modified transcription regulation programs. It is thus crucial to characterize implicated genes in terms of transcriptional regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a promoter analysis of genes associated with 11 common RRDs including allergic rhinitis, asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, eczema, psoriasis, and urticaria, many of which are thought to be genetically related. The objective of the present study was to obtain deeper insight into the transcriptional regulation of these disease-associated genes by annotating their promoter regions with transcription factors (TFs) and TF binding sites (TFBSs). We discovered many TFs that are significantly enriched in the target disease groups including associations that have been documented in the literature. We also identified a number of putative TFs/TFBSs that appear to be novel. The results of our analysis are provided in an online database that is freely accessible to researchers at http://www.respiratorygenomics.com. Promoter-associated TFBS information and related genomic features, such as histone modification sites, microsatellites, CpG islands, and SNPs, are graphically summarized in the database. Users can compare and contrast underlying mechanisms of specific RRDs relative to candidate genes, TFs, gene ontology terms, micro-RNAs, and biological pathways for the conduct of metaanalyses. This database represents a novel, useful resource for RRD researchers. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.

  13. A database of annotated promoters of genes associated with common respiratory and related diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    Many genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of common respiratory and related diseases (RRDs), yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Differential gene expression patterns in diseased and healthy individuals suggest that RRDs affect or are affected by modified transcription regulation programs. It is thus crucial to characterize implicated genes in terms of transcriptional regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a promoter analysis of genes associated with 11 common RRDs including allergic rhinitis, asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, eczema, psoriasis, and urticaria, many of which are thought to be genetically related. The objective of the present study was to obtain deeper insight into the transcriptional regulation of these disease-associated genes by annotating their promoter regions with transcription factors (TFs) and TF binding sites (TFBSs). We discovered many TFs that are significantly enriched in the target disease groups including associations that have been documented in the literature. We also identified a number of putative TFs/TFBSs that appear to be novel. The results of our analysis are provided in an online database that is freely accessible to researchers at http://www.respiratorygenomics.com. Promoter-associated TFBS information and related genomic features, such as histone modification sites, microsatellites, CpG islands, and SNPs, are graphically summarized in the database. Users can compare and contrast underlying mechanisms of specific RRDs relative to candidate genes, TFs, gene ontology terms, micro-RNAs, and biological pathways for the conduct of metaanalyses. This database represents a novel, useful resource for RRD researchers. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.

  14. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme D’Aprile Marchesi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20 than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4, whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0 than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22 at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3 and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3 offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0 and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0 at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4 and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6 offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8, neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1 and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8 counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages.

  15. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Guilherme D’Aprile; de Fatima Soto, Sônia; de Castro, Isac; Rodrigues, Thiago Guimarães; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; de Almeida, Francine Maria; Pazetti, Rogerio; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs) and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8) counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages. PMID:28355363

  16. The efficacy of the upright position on gastro-esophageal reflux and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Jin; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Min, Taek Ki; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Jun Sung; Pyun, Bok Yang

    2012-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), particularly non-acid reflux, is common in infants and is a known cause of chronic respiratory symptoms in infancy. Recent guidelines recommended empirical acid suppression therapy and the head-up position in patients with suspected GER. However, the efficacy of the upright position in relieving GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants is unclear. We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the upright position on GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms. Thirty-two infants (21 male; median age, 5 months; range, 0 to 19 months) with unexplained chronic respiratory symptoms underwent multi-channel intraluminal esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. We retrospectively compared the frequencies of GER and reflux-related symptoms according to body position. A mean of 3.30 episodes of reflux per hour was detected. Overall, refluxes were more frequent during the postprandial period than the emptying period (3.77 vs. 2.79 episodes/hour, respectively; P=0.01). Although there was no significant difference in the total refluxes per hour between the upright and recumbent positions (6.12 vs. 3.77 episodes, P=0.10), reflux-related respiratory symptoms per reflux were significantly fewer in infants kept in an upright position than in a recumbent position during the postprandial period (3.07% vs. 14.75%, P=0.016). Non-acid reflux was the predominant type of reflux in infants, regardless of body position or meal time. The upright position may reduce reflux-related respiratory symptoms, rather than reflux frequency. Thus, it may be a useful non-pharmacological treatment for infantile GER disease resistant to acid suppressants.

  17. Health-related quality of life measurement in patients with chronic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, Toru; Windisch, Wolfram; Handa, Tomohiro; Hirai, Toyohiro; Chin, Kazuo

    2018-05-01

    The improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important goal in managing patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and/or domiciliary noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Two condition-specific HRQL questionnaires have been developed to specifically assess these patients: the Maugeri Respiratory Failure Questionnaire (MRF) and the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI). The MRF is more advantageous in its ease of completion; conversely, the SRI measures diversified health impairments more multi-dimensionally and discriminatively with greater balance, especially in patients receiving NIV. The SRI is available in many different languages as a result of back-translation and validation processes, and is widely validated for various disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, restrictive thoracic disorders, neuromuscular disorders, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome, among others. Dyspnea and psychological status were the main determinants for both questionnaires, while the MRF tended to place more emphasis on activity limitations than SRI. In comparison to existing generic questionnaires such as the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) and disease-specific questionnaires such as the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ), both the MRF and the SRI have been shown to be valid and reliable, and have better discriminatory, evaluative, and predictive features than other questionnaires. Thus, in assessing the HRQL of patients with CRF using LTOT and/or NIV, we might consider avoiding the use of the SF-36 or even the SGRQ or CRQ alone and consider using the CRF-specific SRI and MRF in addition to existing generic and/or disease-specific questionnaires. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A RELATIONAL FAIRNESS PERSPECTIVE ON INDIVIDUALITY AND INDIVIDUALIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO COMPENSATION IN ORGANIZATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund

    The primary concern of this thesis is to explore the relations between contemporary compensation systems based on individualization and individuality, the constitution of the fair claim, the causality of blame and the causality of rewarding, and the need to belong and it relation with human...... motivation. More specifically, the primary research question on which this thesis is based is: How is the fair claim constituted in, respec-tively, a compensation system based on individualization and individuality, a social relational perspective; and in which ways might potential differences influence...

  19. Correction of glutathione deficiency in the lower respiratory tract of HIV seropositive individuals by glutathione aerosol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, K J; Buhl, R; Borok, Z; Roum, J H; Bokser, A D; Grimes, G J; Czerski, D; Cantin, A M; Crystal, R G

    1993-10-01

    Concentrations of glutathione, a ubiquitous tripeptide with immune enhancing and antioxidant properties, are decreased in the blood and lung epithelial lining fluid of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Since the lung is the most common site of infection in those who progress to AIDS it is rational to consider whether it is possible to safely augment glutathione levels in the epithelial lining fluid of HIV seropositive individuals, thus potentially improving local host defence. Purified reduced glutathione was delivered by aerosol to HIV seropositive individuals (n = 14) and the glutathione levels in lung epithelial lining fluid were compared before and at one, two, and three hours after aerosol administration. Before treatment total glutathione concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid were approximately 60% of controls. After three days of twice daily doses each of 600 mg reduced glutathione, total glutathione levels in the epithelial lining fluid increased and remained in the normal range for at least three hours after treatment. Strikingly, even though > 95% of the glutathione in the aerosol was in its reduced form, the percentage of oxidised glutathione in epithelial lining fluid increased from 5% before treatment to about 40% three hours after treatment, probably reflecting the use of glutathione as an antioxidant in vivo. No adverse effects were observed. It is feasible and safe to use aerosolised reduced glutathione to augment the deficient glutathione levels of the lower respiratory tract of HIV seropositive individuals. It is rational to evaluate further the efficacy of this tripeptide in improving host defence in HIV seropositive individuals.

  20. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  1. Lung Injury; Relates to Real-Time Endoscopic Monitoring of Single Cells Respiratory Health in Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0253 TITLE: Lung Injury; Relates to Real- Time Endoscopic Monitoring of Single Cells Respiratory Health in Lung...2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION ...STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s

  2. Communication and Social Deficits in Relatives of Individuals with SLI and Relatives of Individuals with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; St Clair, Michelle C.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    We investigate two aspects of the autism triad, communication and social difficulties, in relatives of specific language impairment (SLI) probands (with and without additional autistic symptomatology) as compared to relatives of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (DS) probands. Findings involving 726 first degree relatives of 85…

  3. Effects of bedding systems selected by manual muscle testing on sleep and sleep-related respiratory disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Liu, Hau-Min

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying manual muscle testing (MMT) for bedding selection and examined the bedding effect on sleep. Four lay testers with limited training in MMT performed muscle tests for the selection of the bedding systems from five different mattresses and eight different pillows for 14 participants with mild sleep-related respiratory disturbances. For each participant individually, two bedding systems-one inducing stronger muscle forces and the other inducing weaker forces-were selected. The tester-participant pairs showed 85% and 100% agreement, respectively, for the selection of mattresses and pillows that induced the strongest muscle forces. The firmness of the mattress and the height of the pillow were significantly correlated with the body weight and body mass index of the participants for the selected strong bedding system but not for the weak bedding system. Finally, differences were observed between the strong and the weak bedding systems with regard to sleep-related respiratory disturbances and the percentage of slow-wave sleep. It was concluded that MMT can be performed by inexperienced testers for the selection of bedding systems.

  4. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on lung volumes and mechanical properties of the respiratory system in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeyrim, Arikin; Zhang, Yongping; Li, Nanfang; Zhao, Minghua; Wang, Yinchun; Yao, Xiaoguang; Keyoumu, Youledusi; Yin, Ting

    2015-07-25

    Even through narrowing of the upper-airway plays an important role in the generation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the peripheral airways is implicated in pre-obese and obese OSA patients, as a result of decreased lung volume and increased lung elastic recoil pressure, which, in turn, may aggravate upper-airway collapsibility. A total of 263 male (n = 193) and female (n = 70) subjects who were obese to various degrees without a history of lung diseases and an expiratory flow limitation, but troubled with snoring or suspicion of OSA were included in this cross-sectional study. According to nocturnal-polysomnography the subjects were distributed into OSA and non-OSA groups, and were further sub-grouped by gender because of differences between males and females, in term of, lung volume size, airway resistance, and the prevalence of OSA among genders. Lung volume and respiratory mechanical properties at different-frequencies were evaluated by plethysmograph and an impulse oscillation system, respectively. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume were significantly decreased in the OSA group compared to the non-OSA group among males and females. As weight and BMI in males in the OSA group were greater than in the non-OSA group (90 ± 14.8 kg vs. 82 ± 10.4 kg, p volumes decreases were independent from BMI and associated with the severity of OSA. This result was further confirmed by the female cohort. Significant increases in total respiratory resistance and decreases in respiratory conductance (Grs) were observed with increasing severity of OSA, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in both genders. The specific Grs (sGrs) stayed relatively constant between the two groups in woman, and there was only a weak association between AHI and sGrs among man. Multiple-stepwise-regression showed that reactance at 5 Hz was highly correlated with AHI in males and females or hypopnea index in females, independently

  5. Influenza A virus transmission via respiratory aerosols or droplets as it relates to pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Mathilde; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many respiratory viruses of humans originate from animals. For instance, there are now eight paramyxoviruses, four coronaviruses and four orthomxoviruses that cause recurrent epidemics in humans but were once confined to other hosts. In the last decade, several members of the same virus families have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans. Fortunately, these viruses have not become established in humans, because they lacked the ability of sustained transmission between humans. However, these outbreaks highlighted the lack of understanding of what makes a virus transmissible. In part triggered by the relatively high frequency of occurrence of influenza A virus zoonoses and pandemics, the influenza research community has started to investigate the viral genetic and biological traits that drive virus transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets between mammals. Here we summarize recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for airborne transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses of subtypes H5, H7 and H9 and pandemic viruses of subtypes H1, H2 and H3. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of respiratory virus transmission is not only key from a basic scientific perspective, but may also aid in assessing the risks posed by zoonotic viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26385895

  6. Nursing outcome "Severity of infection": conceptual definitions for indicators related to respiratory problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Luz Rodríguez-Acelas

    Full Text Available Objective.Build conceptual definitions for some indicators of the nursing outcome Infection Severity in the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC related to respiratory problems, based on scientific evidence of signs and symptoms of infection in adults. Methods. Integrative literature review with search in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and SCOPUS. Studies whose full texts were available, published in Spanish, Portuguese or English, using the descriptors infection severity, nursing outcomes classification NOC, respiratory infections and respiratory signs and symptoms. Results. Nine publications were analyzed that supported the elaboration of the conceptual definitions for eight indicators of the Nursing Outcome Infection Severity: purulent drainage, fever, chilling, unstable temperature, pain, colonization of drainage cultivation, white blood cell count elevation and white blood cell count drop. Conclusion. This study contributed to understand the terms used in the nursing outcome Infection Severity, in order to improve and facilitate the use of the NOC, as it enhances the conceptual clarity of the selected indicators with a view to producing better scientific evidence.

  7. The relation between respiratory motion artifact correction and lung standardized uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lijie; Liu Xiaojian; Liu Jie; Xu Rui; Yan Jue

    2014-01-01

    PET/CT is playing an important role in disease diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. But the respiratory motion artifact may bring trouble in diagnosis and therapy. There are many methods to correct the respiratory motion artifact. Respiratory gated PET/CT is applied most extensively of them. Using respiratory gated PET/CT to correct respiratory motion artifact can increase the maximum standardized uptake value of lung lesion obviously, thereby improving the quality of image and accuracy of diagnosis. (authors)

  8. Individual and peer group normative beliefs about relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Hill, Laura G

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational aggression and tested the hypothesis that individual and classroom-level norms predict relational aggression 1 year later. Results showed that the transition to middle school was marked by increased approval of relational aggression, and individual norms predicted future relational aggression. Importantly, a contextual model showed that students in peer groups highly supportive of relational aggression became increasingly aggressive. Findings extend social information processing theories of relational aggression to focus on the role of peer group cognitions.

  9. Relational victimization and proactive versus reactive relational aggression: The moderating effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and skin conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the moderating effect of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on the associations between relational victimization and reactive and proactive relational aggression. Both branches of the ANS, the parasympathetic nervous system (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity; RSA-Reactivity) and the sympathetic nervous system (indexed by skin conductance level reactivity; SCL-Reactivity), were examined. Emerging adults (N = 168) self-reported on relational victimization and proactive and reactive relational aggression; RSA-Reactivity and SCL-Reactivity were assessed in response to a laboratory stressor. Relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/high SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coactivation) and RSA withdrawal/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coinhibition). In addition, relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., reciprocal parasympathetic activation). This study extends previous research on relational victimization and provides novel evidence that (a) exposure to relational victimization is associated with reactive relational aggression, but not proactive relational aggression, and (b) parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity jointly moderate the link between relational victimization and reactive relational aggression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Variation of respiratory syncytial virus and the relation with meteorological factors in different winter seasons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, T.J.; Paget, W.J.; Kimpen, J.L.; Schellevis, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent causing severe respiratory disease in infants and children. In temperate climates, RSV activity typically peaks during winter. We have described the seasonal variation in RSV activity and investigated which

  11. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants ( 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  12. Elective high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: an individual patient data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offringa Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the considerable amount of evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, uncertainty remains regarding the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation as compared to conventional ventilation in the early treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. This results in a wide variation in the clinical use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for this indication throughout the world. The reasons are an unexplained heterogeneity between trial results and a number of unanswered, clinically important questions. Do infants with different risk profiles respond differently to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation? How does the ventilation strategy affect outcomes? Does the delay – either from birth or from the moment of intubation – to the start of high-frequency oscillation modify the effect of the intervention? Instead of doing new trials, those questions can be addressed by re-analyzing the individual patient data from the existing randomized controlled trials. Methods/Design A systematic review with meta-analysis based on individual patient data. This involves the central collection, validation and re-analysis of the original individual data from each infant included in each randomized controlled trial addressing this question. The study objective is to estimate the effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on the risk for the combined outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia or a severe adverse neurological event. In addition, it will explore whether the effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation differs by the infant's risk profile, defined by gestational age, intrauterine growth restriction, severity of lung disease at birth and whether or not corticosteroids were given to the mother prior to delivery. Finally, it will explore the importance of effect modifying factors such as the ventilator device, ventilation strategy and the delay to the

  13. [PM10 exposure-related respiratory symptoms and disease in children living in and near five coal-mining areas in the Cesar department of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Arcentales, Leonardo; Hernández-Flórez, Luis J; Agudelo Calderón, Carlos A; Medina, Katalina; Robledo-Martínez, Rocío; Osorio-García, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and disease in children aged less than 12 years-old living within the Cesar department's coal-mining area and possible associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,627 children aged less than 10 years-old living in and near coal-mining areas in the Cesar department who were exposed to different levels of PM10 from 2008-2010; their PM10 exposure-related symptoms and respiratory diseases were measured, seeking an association with living in areas exposed to particulate material. Children living in areas close to coal-mining activity which also had high traffic volume had a higher rate of probable cases of asthma; those living in areas with traffic (not no coal-mining) were absent from school for more days due to acute respiratory disease. Respiratory symptoms were most commonly found in children experiencing living conditions which exposed them to cigarette or firewood smoke indoors, living in houses made with wattle and daub or adobe walls, living where animals were kept, living in damp housing and diesel-powered dump trucks operating within 100 m or less of their housing. Living in areas having high traffic volume increased the risk of respiratory symptoms, acute respiratory disease and being absent from school. All the effects studied were associated with intramural conditions, individual factors or those associated with the immediate surroundings thereby coinciding with results found in similar studies regarding air pollution and health. It is thus suggested that regional strategies and policy be created for controlling and monitoring the air quality and health of people living in the Cesar department.

  14. Individual Differences on Job Stress and Related Ill Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodraga Stefanovska Petkovska

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Employees are exposed to many potential work related stressors which differently affect their job satisfaction and result in ill health. A better understanding of the individual characteristics and potential stressors should subsequently help managers' better deal with this problem. This underlines the need for further research and design of stress reduction interventions.

  15. Relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...

  16. Novel Variants in Individuals with RYR1-Related Congenital Myopathies: Genetic, Laboratory, and Clinical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Todd

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ryanodine receptor 1-related congenital myopathies (RYR1-RM comprise a spectrum of slow, rare neuromuscular diseases. Affected individuals present with a mild-to-severe symptomatology ranging from proximal muscle weakness, hypotonia and joint contractures to scoliosis, ophthalmoplegia, and respiratory involvement. Although there is currently no FDA-approved treatment for RYR1-RM, our group recently conducted the first clinical trial in this patient population (NCT02362425. This study aimed to characterize novel RYR1 variants with regard to genetic, laboratory, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and clinical findings. Genetic and histopathology reports were obtained from participant’s medical records. Alamut Visual Software was used to determine if participant’s variants had been previously reported and to assess predicted pathogenicity. Physical exams, pulmonary function tests, T1-weighted muscle MRI scans, and blood measures were completed during the abovementioned clinical trial. Six novel variants (two de novo, three dominant, and one recessive were identified in individuals with RYR1-RM. Consistent with established RYR1-RM histopathology, cores were observed in all biopsies, except Case 6 who exhibited fiber-type disproportion. Muscle atrophy and impaired mobility with Trendelenburg gait were the most common clinical symptoms and were identified in all cases. Muscle MRI revealed substantial inter-individual variation in fatty infiltration corroborating the heterogeneity of the disease. Two individuals with dominant RYR1 variants exhibited respiratory insufficiency: a clinical symptom more commonly associated with recessive RYR1-RM cases. This study demonstrates that a genetics-led approach is suitable for the diagnosis of suspected RYR1-RM which can be corroborated through histopathology, muscle MRI and clinical examination.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young; Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  19. Emotion perception and empathy: An individual differences test of relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    Numerous theories posit a positive relation between perceiving emotion expressed in the face of a stranger (emotion perception) and feeling or cognitively understanding the emotion of that person (affective and cognitive empathy, respectively). However, when relating individual differences in emotion perception with individual differences in affective or cognitive empathy, effect sizes are contradictory, but often not significantly different from zero. Based on 4 studies (study ns range from 97 to 486 persons; n total = 958) that differ from one another on many design and sample characteristics, applying advanced modeling techniques to control for measurement error, we estimate relations between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and emotion perception. Relations are tested separately for each of the 6 basic emotions (an emotion-specific model) as well as across all emotions (an emotion-general model). Reflecting the literature, effect sizes and statistical significance with an emotion-general model vary across the individual studies (rs range from -.001 to .24 for emotion perception with affective empathy and -.01 to .39 for emotion perception with cognitive empathy), with a meta-analysis of these results indicating emotion perception is weakly related with affective (r = .13, p = .003) and cognitive empathy (r = .13, p = .05). Relations are not strengthened in an emotion-specific model. We argue that the weak effect sizes and inconsistency across studies reflects a neglected distinction of measurement approach-specifically, empathy is assessed as typical behavior and emotion perception is assessed as maximal effort-and conclude with considerations regarding the measurement of each construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Nursing outcome "Severity of infection": conceptual definitions for indicators related to respiratory problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acelas, Alba Luz; Reich, Rejane; de Abreu Almeida, Miriam; Oliveira Crossetti, Maria da Graça; de Fátima Lucena, Amália

    2016-04-01

    Build conceptual definitions for some indicators of the nursing outcome Infection Severity in the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) related to respiratory problems, based on scientific evidence of signs and symptoms of infection in adults. Integrative literature review with search in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and SCOPUS. Studies whose full texts were available, published in Spanish, Portuguese or English, using the descriptors infection severity, nursing outcomes classification NOC, respiratory infections and respiratory signs and symptoms. Nine publications were analyzed that supported the elaboration of the conceptual definitions for eight indicators of the Nursing Outcome Infection Severity: purulent drainage, fever, chilling, unstable temperature, pain, colonization of drainage cultivation, white blood cell count elevation and white blood cell count drop. This study contributed to understand the terms used in the nursing outcome Infection Severity, in order to improve and facilitate the use of the NOC, as it enhances the conceptual clarity of the selected indicators with a view to producing better scientific evidence.Objetivo.Construir definições conceituais para alguns indicadores do resultado de enfermagem Gravidade de Infecção da Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) relacionados aos problemas respiratórios, a partir de evidências científicas sobre sinais e sintomas de infecção em pessoas adultas. Métodos. Revisão integrativa da literatura com busca nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS e SCOPUS. Foram incluídos estudos com textos na integra, publicados em espanhol, português ou inglês, usando os descritores gravidade da infecção, classificação dos resultados de enfermagem da NOC, infecções respiratórias, e sinais e sintomas respiratórios. Resultados. Analisaram-se nove publicações que embasaram a elaboração das definições conceituais de oitos indicadores do Resultado de Enfermagem Gravidade de Infec

  1. [Respiratory function evaluation in welders taking into account tecnological evolution of individual protection dispositive and risk specific information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, B; Graziuso, G; Carbone, U

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of specific information program on DPI use on the functional respiratory parameters in a group of 15 welders compared with 18 welders not included in the program and 18 workers of industrial sector. Spirometryc parameters were recorded and compared and the results pointed out a significant increase of FEV1 and FVC in the study group compared with welder out of the study while no difference were observed between study group and workers of industrial sector. Results shown that the correct use of DPI could reduce the effects of welding fumes on respiratory tract making these effects equal to the exposure to industrial dusts.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are related to respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, Thomas B; Dirksen, Asger; Coxson, Harvey O

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.......There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness....

  3. Prognosis in Acute Cerebrovascular Accidents in Relation to Respiratory Pattern and Blood—gas Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, M. W.; Lane, D. J.; Wollner, L.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory pattern and arterial blood gas tensions were assessed in patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents. Hyperventilation, low Pco2, and high arterial pH were associated with a poor prognosis, whereas patients with normal respiratory pattern and blood gas tensions survived. Periodic and Cheyne-Stokes breathing carried an intermediate prognosis. PMID:5091916

  4. Strategies for the management and prevention of conformation-related respiratory disorders in brachycephalic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer RMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rowena MA Packer,1 Michael S Tivers2 1Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, 2School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Abstract: Brachycephalic (short-muzzled dogs are increasingly popular pets worldwide, with marked increases in registrations of breeds such as the Pug and French Bulldog over the past decade in the UK. Despite their popularity, many brachycephalic breeds are affected by an early-onset, lifelong respiratory disorder, brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS. This disorder arises due to a mismatch in the proportions of the skull and the soft tissues held within the nose and pharynx, resulting in obstruction of the airway during respiration. Increased airway resistance encourages secondary changes such as eversion of the laryngeal saccules and collapse of the larynx. Clinical signs of BOAS are often early onset and chronic, including dyspnea, exercise intolerance, heat intolerance, and abnormal and increased respiratory noise. Episodes of severe dyspnea can also occur, leading to cyanosis, syncope, and death. BOAS may have a severe impact upon the welfare of affected dogs, compromising their ability to exercise, play, eat, and sleep. Although a well-described condition, with surgical treatments for the palliation of this disorder published since the 1920s, many dogs still experience airway restrictions postsurgically and a compromised quality of life. In addition, the prevalence of this disorder does not appear to have substantially reduced in this time, and may have increased. Ultimately, strategies to improve the breeding of these dogs to prevent BOAS are required to improve brachycephalic health and welfare. Recent studies have revealed conformational risk factors associated with BOAS, such as short muzzles and thick necks, which should be discouraged to avoid perpetuating this serious disorder. Positive changes to brachycephalic

  5. Comparison of dust related respiratory effects in Dutch and Canadian grain handling industries: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, S J; Heederik, D; Dimich-Ward, H D; Chan-Yeung, M; Kennedy, S M

    1996-08-01

    Four previously conducted epidemiological studies in more than 1200 grain workers were used to compare exposure-response relations between exposure to grain dust and respiratory health. The studies included Dutch workers from an animal feed mill and a transfer grain elevator and Canadian workers from a terminal grain elevator and the docks. Relations between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure were analysed with multiple regression analysis corrected for smoking, age, and height. Exposure variables examined included cumulative and current dust exposure and the numbers of years a subject was employed in the industry. Sampling efficiencies of the Dutch and Canadian measurement techniques were compared in a pilot study. Results of this study were used to correct slopes of exposure-response relations for differences in dust fractions sampled by Dutch and Canadian personal dust samplers. Negative exposure-response relations were shown for regressions of FEV1 on cumulative and current exposure and years employed. Slopes of the exposure-response relations differed by a factor of three to five between industries, apart from results for cumulative exposure. Here the variation in slopes differed by a factor of 100, from -1 to -0.009 ml/mg.y/m3. The variation in slopes between industries reduced to between twofold to fivefold when the Dutch transfer elevator workers were not considered. There was evidence that the small exposure-response slope found for this group is caused by misclassification of exposure and a strong healthy worker effect. Alternative, but less likely explanations for the variation in slopes were differences in exposure concentrations, composition of grain dust, exposure characteristics, and measurement techniques. In conclusion, this study showed moderately similar negative exposure-response relations for four different populations from different countries, despite differences in methods of exposure assessment and exposure estimation.

  6. Relational autonomy: moving beyond the limits of isolated individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jennifer K; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2014-02-01

    Although clinicians may value respecting a patient's or surrogate's autonomy in decision-making, it is not always clear how to proceed in clinical practice. The confusion results, in part, from which conception of autonomy is used to guide ethical practice. Reliance on an individualistic conception such as the "in-control agent" model prioritizes self-sufficiency in decision-making and highlights a decision-maker's capacity to have reason transcend one's emotional experience. An alternative model of autonomy, relational autonomy, highlights the social context within which all individuals exist and acknowledges the emotional and embodied aspects of decision-makers. These 2 conceptions of autonomy lead to different interpretations of several aspects of ethical decision-making. The in-control agent model believes patients or surrogates should avoid both the influence of others and emotional persuasion in decision-making. As a result, providers have a limited role to play and are expected to provide medical expertise but not interfere with the individual's decision-making process. In contrast, a relational autonomy approach acknowledges the central role of others in decision-making, including clinicians, who have a responsibility to engage patients' and surrogates' emotional experiences and offer clear guidance when patients are confronting serious illness. In the pediatric setting, in which decision-making is complicated by having a surrogate decision-maker in addition to a patient, these conceptions of autonomy also may influence expectations about the role that adolescents can play in decision-making.

  7. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections—a European study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Patricia M; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; van Vugt, Saskia F; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients’ illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general practitioner (GP) and identify differences between European regions and types of health care system. Methods. Adult patients presenting with acute cough were included. GPs recorded co morbidities and clinical findings. Patients filled out a diary for up to 4 weeks on their symptoms, illness perception and related behaviour. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions between groups and the Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare means. Results. Three thousand one hundred six patients from 12 European countries were included. Eighty-one per cent (n = 2530) of the patients completed the diary. Patients were feeling unwell for a mean of 9 (SD 8) days prior to consulting. More than half experienced impairment of normal or social activities for at least 1 week and were absent from work/school for a mean of 4 (SD 5) days. On average patients felt recovered 2 weeks after visiting their GP, but 21% (n = 539) of the patients did not feel recovered after 4 weeks. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 691) reported feeling anxious or depressed, and 28% (n = 702) re-consulted their GP at some point during the illness episode. Reported illness duration and days absent from work/school differed between countries and regions (North-West versus South-East), but there was little difference in reported illness course and related behaviour between health care systems (direct access versus gate-keeping). Conclusion. Illness course, perception and related behaviour in LRTI differ considerably between countries. These finding should be taken into account when developing International guidelines for LRTI and interventions for setting realistic expectations about illness course

  8. Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C

    1992-02-07

    The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during

  9. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Denton, Manuel Enríquez; Stecina, Katinka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to stu...

  10. An estimation of COPD cases and respiratory mortality related to Ground-Level Ozone in the metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study :  Ground-Level Ozone (GLO is the component of one of greatest concern that threatened human health in both developing as well as developed countries. The GLO mainly enters the body through the respiration and can cause decrements in pulmonary complications, eye burning, shortness of breath, coughing, failure of immune defense, decreases forced vital capacity, reduce lung function of the lungs and increase rate of mortality. Ahwaz with high emission air pollutants because of numerous industries is one of the metropolitan Iranian polluted. The aim of this study is evaluate to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and respiratory mortality related to GLO in the air of metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011. Materials & Methods: We used the generalized additive Air Q model for estimation of COPD and respiratory mortality attributed to GLO pollutant. Data of GLO were collected in four monitoring stations Ahvaz Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software and at final step they were converted as input file to the Air Q model for estimate number of COPD Cases and respiratory mortality. Results: According to result this study, The Naderi and Havashenasi had the highest and the lowest GLO concentrations. The results of this study showed that cumulative cases of COPD and respiratory mortality which related to GLO were 34 and 30 persons, respectively. Also, Findings showed that approximately 11 % COPD and respiratory mortality happened when the GLO concentrations was more than 20 μg/m 3 . Conclusions: exposure to GLO pollution has stronger effects on human health in Ahvaz. Findings showed that there were a significant relationship between concentration of GLO and COPD and respiratory mortality. Therefore; the higher ozone pollutant value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality.  

  11. Reduction in non-protein respiratory quotient is related to overall survival after hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE is an effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC that can occasionally lead to the shortening of life expectancy. We aimed to make a new and more accurate prognostic model taking into account the course of disease after TACE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a prospective cohort study involving 100 HCC patients who underwent TACE at Kobe University Hospital. Indirect calorimetry and blood biochemical examinations were performed before and 7 days after TACE. Time-dependent and time-fixed factors associated with 1-year mortality after TACE were assessed by multivariate analyses. A predictive model of 1-year mortality was established by the combination of odds ratios of these factors. Multivariate analyses showed that the ratio of non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ (7 days after/before TACE and Cancer of Liver Italian Program (CLIP score were independent factors of 1-year mortality after TACE (p = 0.014 and 0.013, respectively. Patient-specific 1-year mortality risk scores can be calculated by summarizing the individual risk scores and looking up the patient-specific risk on the graph. CONCLUSIONS: The short-term reduction of npRQ was a time-dependent prognostic factor associated with overall survival in HCC patients undergoing TACE. CLIP score was a time-fixed prognostic factor associated with overall survival. Using the prediction model, which consists of the combination of time-dependent (npRQ ratio and time-fixed (CLIP score prognostic factors, 1-year mortality risk after TACE would be better estimated by taking into account changes during the course of disease.

  12. The relation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia to later shyness: Moderation by neighborhood quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zhang, Linlin

    2018-05-21

    The purpose of the study was to predict young children's shyness from both internal/biological (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) and external (i.e., neighborhood quality) factors. Participants were 180 children at 42 (Time 1; T1), 72 (T2), and 84 (T3) months of age. RSA data were obtained at T1 during a neutral film in the laboratory. Mothers reported perceived neighborhood quality at T2 and children's dispositional shyness at T1 and T3. Path analyses indicated that resting RSA interacted with neighborhood quality to predict T3 shyness, even after controlling for earlier family income and T1 shyness. Specifically, high levels of resting RSA predicted low levels of shyness in the context of high neighborhood quality. When neighborhood quality was low, resting RSA was positively related to later shyness. These findings indicate that children's shyness is predicted by more than biological processes and that consideration of the broader context is critical to understanding children's social behavior. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  14. Prevention of Medical Device-Related Pressure Injuries Associated With Respiratory Equipment Use in a Critical Care Unit: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Cynthia A; Paradis, Heidi; Goodwin, Robert; Lynch, Judith; Hegerich-Bartula, Deborah

    Medical devices have been identified as an extrinsic risk factor for development of pressure injuries, with as many as 30% to 70% of medical device-related pressure injuries resulting from respiratory equipment. This article describes a quality improvement project undertaken to reduce the occurrence of respiratory device-related pressure injuries in a critically care unit. Multiple actions were implemented to achieve this goal. Respiratory therapists were trained to document occurrences on a daily basis, and apparent cause analyses were conducted on each occurrence. An interdisciplinary team conducted biweekly rounds on patients with respiratory devices and consulted other professionals as indicated. Nurses and respiratory therapists attended an evidence-based, collaborative, educational offering and completed a measure of team functioning before the program and at the end of the study period. The occurrence rates of respiratory device-related pressure injuries were reduced over the project period, and these changes were sustained over the subsequent 12 months.

  15. Contributions of individual acculturation and neighborhood ethnic density to variations in Hispanic children's respiratory health in a US-Mexican border metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Kim, Young-An

    2016-09-01

    We used an expanded conceptualization of ethnic density at the neighborhood level, tailored to Hispanic majority communities in the USA, and a robust measure of children's acculturation at the individual level, to predict Hispanic children's respiratory health. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1904 children in 2012 in El Paso, TX, USA. One thousand one hundred and seven Hispanic children nested within 72 census tracts were analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models with cross-level interactions were used to predict bronchitis, asthma and wheezing during sleep. A neighborhood-level ethnic density factor was a non-significant risk factor while individual-level acculturation was a significant risk factor for the three outcomes. Pest troubles and not having been breastfed as an infant intensified the positive association between ethnic density and bronchitis. Increases in ethnic density intensified the odds of wheezing in sleep if the child was not low birth weight or was not economically deprived. Results suggest that increasing individual-level acculturation is detrimental for US Hispanic children's respiratory health in this Hispanic majority setting, while high ethnic density neighborhoods are mildly risky and pose more significant threats when other individual-level factors are present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  17. Evaluating of the relation among emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT, the smoking history and the respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Taichiro; Higuchi, Tomoaki; Iwamoto, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    An influence of smoking on the respiratory function and pulmonary emphysema is well known. However, there are few reports evaluating the relation between smoking and emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT. In this study, we evaluated the relation among emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT, the smoking history and the respiratory function (%VC, FEV 1.0 %). Four hundred and sixty-six healthy members of Self-defense force (mean age; 50.1±5.32 years; all men) were recruited in this study. Emphysematous changes were confirmed by the chest CT in 26 subjects. (5.56%, group A) The remaining 440 subjects showed no emphysematous changes. (group B) On the other hand, 8 subjects (1.7%) were FEV 1.0 % 1.0 % was 76.7±4.7% in group A and 82.5±5.0% in group B (P<0.05). %VC was 117±11.3% in group A and 112±13.2% in group B (P<0.05). In addition, risk to show emphysematous changes in CT was high among the patients whose Brinkmann index (BI) value was over 600 (Odds ratio, 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.5 to 18.5). We conducted that it is possible to evaluate the influence of smoking on the respiratory function by the CT as well as respiratory function test. (author)

  18. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  19. Incidence of Changes in Respiration-Induced Tumor Motion and Its Relationship With Respiratory Surrogates During Individual Treatment Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Kathleen; McAvoy, Thomas J.; George, Rohini; Dietrich, Sonja; D’Souza, Warren D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how frequently (1) tumor motion and (2) the spatial relationship between tumor and respiratory surrogate markers change during a treatment fraction in lung and pancreas cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A Cyberknife Synchrony system radiographically localized the tumor and simultaneously tracked three respiratory surrogate markers fixed to a form-fitting vest. Data in 55 lung and 29 pancreas fractions were divided into successive 10-min blocks. Mean tumor positions and tumor position distributions were compared across 10-min blocks of data. Treatment margins were calculated from both 10 and 30 min of data. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models of tumor positions as a function of external surrogate marker positions were created from the first 10 min of data in each fraction; the incidence of significant PLS model degradation was used to assess changes in the spatial relationship between tumors and surrogate markers. Results: The absolute change in mean tumor position from first to third 10-min blocks was >5 mm in 13% and 7% of lung and pancreas cases, respectively. Superior–inferior and medial–lateral differences in mean tumor position were significantly associated with the lobe of lung. In 61% and 54% of lung and pancreas fractions, respectively, margins calculated from 30 min of data were larger than margins calculated from 10 min of data. The change in treatment margin magnitude for superior–inferior motion was >1 mm in 42% of lung and 45% of pancreas fractions. Significantly increasing tumor position prediction model error (mean ± standard deviation rates of change of 1.6 ± 2.5 mm per 10 min) over 30 min indicated tumor–surrogate relationship changes in 63% of fractions. Conclusions: Both tumor motion and the relationship between tumor and respiratory surrogate displacements change in most treatment fractions for patient in-room time of 30 min.

  20. Incidence of Changes in Respiration-Induced Tumor Motion and Its Relationship With Respiratory Surrogates During Individual Treatment Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Kathleen [Department of Bioengineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); McAvoy, Thomas J. [Department of Bioengineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Institute of Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); George, Rohini [Department of Bioengineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dietrich, Sonja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States); D' Souza, Warren D., E-mail: wdsou001@umaryland.edu [Department of Bioengineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine how frequently (1) tumor motion and (2) the spatial relationship between tumor and respiratory surrogate markers change during a treatment fraction in lung and pancreas cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A Cyberknife Synchrony system radiographically localized the tumor and simultaneously tracked three respiratory surrogate markers fixed to a form-fitting vest. Data in 55 lung and 29 pancreas fractions were divided into successive 10-min blocks. Mean tumor positions and tumor position distributions were compared across 10-min blocks of data. Treatment margins were calculated from both 10 and 30 min of data. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models of tumor positions as a function of external surrogate marker positions were created from the first 10 min of data in each fraction; the incidence of significant PLS model degradation was used to assess changes in the spatial relationship between tumors and surrogate markers. Results: The absolute change in mean tumor position from first to third 10-min blocks was >5 mm in 13% and 7% of lung and pancreas cases, respectively. Superior-inferior and medial-lateral differences in mean tumor position were significantly associated with the lobe of lung. In 61% and 54% of lung and pancreas fractions, respectively, margins calculated from 30 min of data were larger than margins calculated from 10 min of data. The change in treatment margin magnitude for superior-inferior motion was >1 mm in 42% of lung and 45% of pancreas fractions. Significantly increasing tumor position prediction model error (mean {+-} standard deviation rates of change of 1.6 {+-} 2.5 mm per 10 min) over 30 min indicated tumor-surrogate relationship changes in 63% of fractions. Conclusions: Both tumor motion and the relationship between tumor and respiratory surrogate displacements change in most treatment fractions for patient in-room time of 30 min.

  1. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Rashidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS, pollutant standards index (PSI measurements, and remote Sensing (RS technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  2. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Maasoumeh; Ramesht, Mohammad Hossein; Zohary, Moein; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Rashidi, Zeinab; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2013-12-01

    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution) of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. The geographic information system (GIS), pollutant standards index (PSI) measurements, and remote Sensing (RS) technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran) was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  3. Respiratory muscle strength in relation to sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Kasahara, Yusuke; Morio, Yuji; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Omori, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norio; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2016-12-01

    Little information exists on the relation between respiratory muscle strength such as maximum inspiratory muscle pressure (MIP) and sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients. The present study aimed to determine the differences in MIP, and cutoff values for MIP according to sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients. We enrolled 63 consecutive elderly male patients aged ≥65 years with cardiac disease in this cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was defined based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm, and, accordingly, the patients were divided into two groups: the sarcopenia group (n = 24) and non-sarcopenia group (n = 39). The prevalence of sarcopenia in cardiac patients and MIP in the patients with and without sarcopenia were assessed to determine cutoff values of MIP. After adjustment for body mass index, the MIP in the sarcopenia group was significantly lower than that in the non-sarcopenia group (54.7 ± 36.8 cmH 2 O; 95 % CI 42.5-72.6 vs. 80.7 ± 34.7 cmH 2 O; 95 % CI 69.5-92.0; F = 4.89, p = 0.029). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of patients with and without sarcopenia identified a cutoff value for MIP of 55.6 cmH 2 O, with a sensitivity of 0.76, 1-specificity of 0.37, and AUC of 0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.83; p = 0.01) in the study patients. Compared with elderly cardiac patients without sarcopenia, MIP in those with sarcopenia may be negatively affected. The MIP cutoff value reported here may be a useful minimum target value for identifying elderly male cardiac patients with sarcopenia.

  4. Localizing age-related individual differences in a hierarchical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and self-reported health could be localized. The results indicated that each type of individual difference characteristic exhibited a d...

  5. Individual employment contract - the fundamental condition of legal labour relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ROMANDAŞ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the description and analysis of the most important institution of labour law – the individual employment contract. At the same time, we analyze the nature of the individual employment contract, the instruments that should be concluded by employers according to the labour law. Also, the article describes the main doctrinal opinions that ware used to elucidate the concept of the individual employment contract.

  6. Cadherin-related Family Member 3 Genetics and Rhinovirus C Respiratory Illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Coleman, Amaziah T; Evans, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Background Experimental evidence suggests that CDHR3 is a receptor for rhinovirus-C (RV-C), and a missense variant in this gene (rs6967330) is associated with childhood asthma with severe exacerbations. Objective To determine whether rs6967330 influences RV-C infections and illnesses in early...... childhood. Methods We studied associations between rs6967330 and respiratory infections and illnesses in the COPSAC2010 and COAST birth cohorts, where respiratory infections were monitored prospectively for the first 3 years of life. Nasal samples were collected during acute infections in both cohorts...

  7. The Learning Styles of Students Related to Individualized Typewriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. June

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a study which indicated that relationships exist between students' learning styles and their attitudes toward individualized, competency-based typewriting instruction, particularly for beginning students. (JOW)

  8. Quality and readability assessment of websites related to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Giorgi, Michel R. M.; de Groot, Olivier S. D.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease for which a limited number of information sources for patients exist. The role of the Internet in the patient-physician relationship is increasing. More and more patients search for online health information, which should be of good

  9. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  10. Alcohol, smoking, and physical activity related to respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst-Graat, van der J.M.; Terpstra, J.S.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Elderly people show an increased risk of acute respiratory infections and their complications. This increased susceptibility may be the result of immunosenescence. If lifestyle factors could influence the risk of the infections, this could result in great public health relevance. We

  11. Work-Related Health Effects in Swine Building Workers After Respiratory Protection Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Veillette, Marc; Mériaux, Anne

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare inflammation and lung function in swine workers after periods with and without respiratory protection during work. METHODS:Twenty-three workers were examined before and after two nonprotected work shifts. One shift was preceded by a period with diminished exposure by use...

  12. Respiratory disease in relation to outdoor air pollution in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Schindler, Martin; Sharma, Mukesh; Behera, Sailesh N; Katiyar, Kamlesh; Dikshit, Onkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of outdoor air pollution on respiratory disease in Kanpur, India, based on data from 2006. Exposure to air pollution is represented by annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from 11 source categories, established as a geographic information system (GIS)-based emission inventory in 2 km × 2 km grid. Respiratory disease is represented by number of patients who visited specialist pulmonary hospital with symptoms of respiratory disease. The results showed that (1) the main sources of air pollution are industries, domestic fuel burning, and vehicles; (2) the emissions of PM per grid are strongly correlated to the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x); and (3) there is a strong correlation between visits to a hospital due to respiratory disease and emission strength in the area of residence. These results clearly indicate that appropriate health and environmental monitoring, actions to reduce emissions to air, and further studies that would allow assessing the development in health status are necessary.

  13. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  14. Rhinitis, Asthma and Respiratory Infections among Adults in Relation to the Home Environment in Multi-Family Buildings in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Engvall, Karin; Smedje, Greta; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for rhinitis, asthma and respiratory infections in the home environment were studied by a questionnaire survey. Totally 5775 occupants (≥18 years old) from a stratified random sample of multi-family buildings in Sweden participated (46%). 51.0% had rhinitis in the last 3 months (current rhinitis); 11.5% doctor diagnosed asthma; 46.4% respiratory infections in the last 3 months and 11.9% antibiotic medication for respiratory infections in the last 12 months. Associations between home environment and health were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, controlling for gender, age and smoking and mutual adjustment. Buildings constructed during 1960–1975 were risk factors for day time breathlessness (OR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.03–2.29). And those constructed during 1976–1985 had more current rhinitis (OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.12–1.84) and respiratory infections (OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.21–1.78). Cities with higher population density had more current rhinitis (p = 0.008) and respiratory infections (pBuilding dampness was a risk factor for wheeze (OR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.08–1.86) and day time breathlessness (OR = 1.57, 95%CI 1.09–2.27). Building dampness was a risk factor for health among those below 66 years old. Odor at home was a risk factor for doctor diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.49, 95%CI 1.08–2.06) and current asthma (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.03–2.24). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was a risk factor for current asthma (OR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.09–2.16). Window pane condensation was a risk factor for antibiotic medication for respiratory infections (OR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.10–1.82). In conclusion, rhinitis, asthma and respiratory infections were related to a number of factors in the home environment. Certain building years (1961–1985), building dampness, window pane condensation and odor in the dwelling may be risk factors. PMID:25136984

  15. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  16. The predictive value of an adjusted COPD assessment test score on the risk of respiratory-related hospitalizations in severe COPD patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Joanne M; Barton, Christopher A; Buckman, Julie; Bassett, Katherine L.; van der Palen, Job; Frith, Peter A.; Effing, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated whether a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) with adjusted weights for the CAT items could better predict future respiratory-related hospitalizations than the original CAT. Two focus groups (respiratory nurses and physicians) generated two adjusted CAT

  17. The respiratory drive to thoracic motoneurones in the cat and its relation to the connections from expiratory bulbospinal neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saywell, S A; Anissimova, N P; Ford, T W

    2007-01-01

    of connection revealed were related to the presence and size of central respiratory drive potentials in the same motoneurones. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurones in segments T5-T9 of the spinal cord of anaesthetized cats. Spike-triggered averaging from expiratory bulbospinal neurones...... in the caudal medulla revealed monosynaptic EPSPs in all groups of motoneurones, with the strongest connections to expiratory motoneurones with axons in the internal intercostal nerve. In the latter, connection strength was similar irrespective of the target muscle (e.g. external abdominal oblique or internal...... intercostal) and the EPSP amplitude was positively correlated with the amplitude of the central respiratory drive potential of the motoneurone. For this group, EPSPs were found in 45/83 bulbospinal neurone/motoneurone pairs, with a mean amplitude of 40.5 microV. The overall strength of the connection supports...

  18. Assessment of respiratory disorders in relation to solution gas flaring activities in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    A study was conducted by Alberta Health to address the issue of whether or not flaring of solution gas has a negative impact on human health. The Flaring Working Group of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance initiated this study which focused on the assessment of the relationship between human health disorders (such as asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and upper respiratory infections) and solution gas flaring activities in rural, urban and aboriginal populations. The personal exposure to flaring emissions was estimated by physical proximity to the source of emissions. A small area was studied in which geographical variations in human health disorders were compared to geographical variations of socioeconomic and environmental factors. Data was gathered from 1989 to 1996 to evaluate long term average conditions and changes over the time period investigated. Notwithstanding physicians' claims for increased rates of respiratory infections and hospitalization attributed to solution gas flaring, the study found no evidence linking respiratory infections and solution gas flaring. This was the conclusion regardless of the measure of health outcomes, the rural-urban status, ethnicity, or age. Nevertheless, the study recommended identification of bio-markers of exposure and effect reflective of the compounds of interest, and the development of a responsive and comprehensive geographic information database that would allow data linkage at all geographic levels for different periods of time. refs., 10 tabs., 15 figs., 1 appendix

  19. Air pollution in India and related adverse respiratory health effects: past, present, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Tiwari, Pawan

    2018-03-01

    The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India. More than one million additional deaths can be attributed to household air pollution. Particulate matter with diameter 2.5 μm or less has been causatively linked with most premature deaths. Acute respiratory tract infections, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbations of preexisting obstructive airway disease and lung cancer are proven adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Targeting air quality standards laid by WHO can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. India is currently exposed to high levels of ambient and household air pollutants. Respiratory adverse effects of air pollution are significant contributors to morbidity and premature mortality in India. Substantial efforts are being made at legislative, administrative, and community levels to improve air quality. However, much more needs to be done to change the 'status quo' and attain the target air quality standards. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A24.

  20. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Enríquez Denton, Manuel; Stecina, Katinka; Kirkwood, Peter A; Hultborn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs, usually enhanced by added CO2) and spontaneously occurring locomotor drive potentials (LDPs) in hindlimb motoneurons, together with hindlimb and phrenic nerve discharges. In four of the cats both drives and their voltage-dependent amplification were absent or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves), with a slow rate (periods 9-104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD). Profound modulation, synchronized with the Mayer waves was seen in the occurrence and/or in the amplification of the CRDPs or LDPs. In one animal, where CRDPs were present in most cells and the amplification was strong, the CRDP consistently triggered sustained plateaux at one phase of the Mayer wave cycle. In the other two animals, LDPs were common, and the occurrence of the locomotor drive was gated by the Mayer wave cycle, sometimes in alternation with the respiratory drive. Other interactions between the two drives involved respiration providing leading events, including co-activation of flexors and extensors during post-inspiration or a locomotor drive gated or sometimes entrained by respiration. We conclude that the respiratory drive in hindlimb motoneurons is transmitted via elements of the locomotor central pattern generator. The rapid modulation related to Mayer waves suggests the existence of a more direct and specific descending modulatory control than has previously been demonstrated.

  1. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka eStecina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves. Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs, usually enhanced by added CO2 and spontaneously occurring locomotor drive potentials (LDPs in hindlimb motoneurons, together with hindlimb and phrenic nerve discharges. In four of the cats both drives and their voltage-dependent amplification were absent or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves, with a slow rate (periods 9 - 104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD. Profound modulation, synchronized with the Mayer waves was seen in the occurrence and/or in the amplification of the CRDPs or LDPs. In one animal, where CRDPs were present in most cells and the amplification was strong, the CRDP consistently triggered sustained plateaux at one phase of the Mayer wave cycle. In the other two animals, LDPs were common, and the occurrence of the locomotor drive was gated by the Mayer wave cycle, sometimes in alternation with the respiratory drive. Other interactions between the two drives involved respiration providing leading events, including co-activation of flexors and extensors during post-inspiration or a locomotor drive gated or sometimes entrained by respiration. We conclude that the respiratory drive in hindlimb motoneurons is transmitted via elements of the locomotor central pattern generator. The rapid modulation related to Mayer waves suggests the existence of a more direct and specific descending modulatory control than has previously been demonstrated.

  2. Relation between respiratory function and arterial stiffness assessed using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] Current studies report that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also have arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between respiratory function and arterial stiffness in healthy workers using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). [Subjects and Methods] This study included 104 male Japanese workers without COPD. We collected participant information and measured hemodynamics, body composition, and respiratory function. [Results] In the correlation analysis, baPWV showed a significant positive correlation with age, smoking index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and a significant negative correlation with height, fat free mass, lower limb muscle mass, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). In multiple regression analysis using factors other than baPWV and respiratory function as adjustment variables, both FVC and FEV1 showed a significant negative relationship with baPWV (p=0.009 and p=0.027, respectively). FEV1/FVC was not significantly related to baPWV (p=0.704). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that FEV1/FVC and the proportion of FEV1 predicted, which are indicators of airflow limitation, are not predictors of baPWV in workers without airflow limitation. However, since baPWV showed a significant negative relationship with FVC and FEV 1, the reduction in respiratory function that does not cause airflow limitation, such as FVC or FEV1 decline, may be related to an increase in the risk of arterial stiffness.

  3. Two relational conceptions of individuals: teams and neuroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on the theory of teams and team reasoning in game interactive settings is due principally to the late Michael Bacharach (Bacharach, 2006), who offers a conception of the individual as a team member, and also to Martin Hollis (1998) and Robert Sugden and Natalie Gold (Sugden, 2000; Gold &

  4. Facilitating relational framing in children and individuals with developmental delay using the relational completion procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sinead; Horgan, Jennifer; May, Richard J; Dymond, Simon; Whelan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Relational Completion Procedure is effective for establishing same, opposite and comparative derived relations in verbally able adults, but to date it has not been used to establish relational frames in young children or those with developmental delay. In Experiment 1, the Relational Completion Procedure was used with the goal of establishing two 3-member sameness networks in nine individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (eight with language delay). A multiple exemplar intervention was employed to facilitate derived relational responding when required. Seven of nine participants in Experiment 1 passed tests for derived relations. In Experiment 2, eight participants (all of whom, except one, had a verbal repertoire) were given training with the aim of establishing two 4-member sameness networks. Three of these participants were typically developing young children aged between 5 and 6 years old, all of whom demonstrated derived relations, as did four of the five participants with developmental delay. These data demonstrate that it is possible to reliably establish derived relations in young children and those with developmental delay using an automated procedure. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  6. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, R; Forastiere, F; Corbo, G M; Dell'Orco, V; Brancato, G; Agabiti, N; Pizzabiocca, A; Perucci, C A

    1993-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary salt intake and urinary sodium and potassium levels are related to respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness, a cross-sectional study among 2593 subjects aged 9 to 16 was conducted in four communities of the Latium region (Italy). Questionnaires were administered to the parents, urine samples were collected, lung function, methacholine challenge tests and prick tests were performed. Information about familial and personal dietary salt use and respiratory health was collected from the parents of 2439 (94%) subjects. A total of 2020 methacholine challenge tests and 916 urinary sodium and potassium levels were available for analysis. Personal table salt use was strongly related to cough and phlegm apart from colds (adjusted odds ratios, OR, 1.87, 95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.20-2.90), wheezing apart from colds (OR, 2.19, 95% CI, 1.27-3.77), wheezing with dyspnoea (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 0.98-2.12) and wheezing after exercise (OR, 2.16, 95% CI, 1.35-3.44). These associations were mainly found in boys. Use of familial table salt and canned food showed no relation to respiratory symptoms. Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with a higher urinary potassium excretion in boys, but not with urinary sodium. In conclusion, personal table salt use is related to an increased prevalence of bronchial symptoms; an increase in bronchial responsiveness among those with higher potassium excretion also seems to be implied. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of this study in causal terms, the findings might be relevant to the distribution of bronchial symptoms and diseases in the population.

  7. Efficacy of respiratory endoscopy on subjects requiring further detailed examinations after initial asbestos-related disease screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Kazuya; Uesaka, Ayuko; Kuribayashi, Kozo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of respiratory endoscopy on subjects requiring further detailed examinations as a result of initial asbestos-related disease screening. The subjects consisted of 132 participants who underwent asbestos-related disease screening in our hospital between July 2005 and March 2006. According to their history of screening, the participants were classified into the initial screening group and the second screening group. The former consisted of 76 participants without prior screening, while the latter consisted of 56 participants who were referred to our hospital for the detailed examinations as a result of initial screening undergone elsewhere. The participants were examined concerning their history of asbestos exposure, and then underwent chest X-ray followed by chest computed tomography (CT). Respiratory endoscopic examinations were mainly performed in participants with suspected chest malignancies. There were no significant differences in the distribution of age or gender between the two screening groups. In both screening groups, more than 70% of the participants had a history of occupational exposure to asbestos. Radiological abnormalities were observed in 110 (83%) of all participants. Asbestos-related diseases were detected in a total of 90 (68%) cases. The breakdown of the 90 cases by disease was as follows: 60 cases had pleural plaque, 13 pulmonary fibrosis, 5 lung cancer (LC), 4 benign asbestos pleurisy, 4 round atelectasis, 2 diffuse pleural thickening, and 2 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The disease detection rate of LC and MPM was 3.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Respiratory endoscopic examinations were performed in a total of 15 cases. The breakdown of the 15 cases by examination was as follows: bronchoscopy was performed in 6 cases, thoracoscopy including video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in 8, and mediastinoscopy in 4. Two cases with early LC were diagnosed by videothoracoscopic lung biopsy. A diagnosis of MPM was

  8. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  9. Cultural regulation of emotion: Individual, relational, and structural sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozefien eDe Leersnyder

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships—close others shape people’s environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways—and are afforded by structural conditions—people’s daily lives limit the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules.

  10. Cultural regulation of emotion: individual, relational, and structural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships-close others shape people's environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways-and are afforded by structural conditions-people's daily lives "limit" the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules.

  11. Learning-related human brain activations reflecting individual finances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Philippe N; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Schultz, Wolfram

    2007-04-05

    A basic tenet of microeconomics suggests that the subjective value of financial gains decreases with increasing assets of individuals ("marginal utility"). Using concepts from learning theory and microeconomics, we assessed the capacity of financial rewards to elicit behavioral and neuronal changes during reward-predictive learning in participants with different financial backgrounds. Behavioral learning speed during both acquisition and extinction correlated negatively with the assets of the participants, irrespective of education and age. Correspondingly, response changes in midbrain and striatum measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging were slower during both acquisition and extinction with increasing assets and income of the participants. By contrast, asymptotic magnitudes of behavioral and neuronal responses after learning were unrelated to personal finances. The inverse relationship of behavioral and neuronal learning speed with personal finances is compatible with the general concept of decreasing marginal utility with increasing wealth.

  12. Magnetoencephalographic activity related to conscious perception is stable within individuals across years but not between individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate that conscious perception is related to changes in neural activity within a time window that varies between 130 and 320 msec after stimulus presentation, yet it is not known whether such neural correlates of conscious perception are stable across time. Here, we examined the gener...

  13. Individual differences in children's materialism: the role of peer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Dittmar, Helga

    2008-01-01

    Associations between materialism and peer relations are likely to exist in elementary school children but have not been studied previously. The first two studies introduce a new Perceived Peer Group Pressures (PPGP) Scale suitable for this age group, demonstrating that perceived pressure regarding peer culture (norms for behavioral, attitudinal, and material characteristics) can be reliably measured and that it is connected to children's responses to hypothetical peer pressure vignettes. Studies 3 and 4 evaluate the main theoretical model of associations between peer relations and materialism. Study 3 supports the hypothesis that peer rejection is related to higher perceived peer culture pressure, which in turn is associated with greater materialism. Study 4 confirms that the endorsement of social motives for materialism mediates the relationship between perceived peer pressure and materialism.

  14. Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

  15. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization.

  16. Physician-industry relations. Part 1: individual physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Susan L

    2002-03-05

    This is part 1 of a 2-part paper on ethics and physician-industry relationships. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; part 2 gives recommendations to medical education providers and medical professional societies. Physicians and industry have a shared interest in advancing medical knowledge. Nonetheless, the primary ethic of the physician is to promote the patient's best interests, while the primary ethic of industry is to promote profitability. Although partnerships between physicians and industry can result in impressive medical advances, they also create opportunities for bias and can result in unfavorable public perceptions. Many physicians and physicians-in-training think they are impervious to commercial influence. However, recent studies show that accepting industry hospitality and gifts, even drug samples, can compromise judgment about medical information and subsequent decisions about patient care. It is up to the physician to judge whether a gift is acceptable. A very general guideline is that it is ethical to accept modest gifts that advance medical practice. It is clearly unethical to accept gifts or services that obligate the physician to reciprocate. Conflicts of interest can arise from other financial ties between physicians and industry, whether to outside companies or self-owned businesses. Such ties include honorariums for speaking or writing about a company's product, payment for participating in clinic-based research, and referrals to medical resources. All of these relationships have the potential to influence a physician's attitudes and practices. This paper explores the ethical quandaries involved and offers guidelines for ethical business relationships.

  17. [Sibling relations between individuation and attachment: attempt at a conceptualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    2001-01-01

    Although sibling relationships can be considered as one of the most durable and intensive relationships, not much research in developmental psychology and family research has been done on this issue. The strong focus on parents, more specifically on mothers, stood in the way of adequate conceptualization and understanding of the function and contribution of siblings to individual development and family interaction. In this contribution a conceptualization of sibling relationships is presented. Siblings as objects of aggressive and sexual feelings as well as the function of siblings in the family system, for example, as parentification and negative identity is emphasized. In addition, the different qualities of sibling relationships, for example, envy, rivalry, similarity, and difference, are emphasized. The function of siblings as love objects is stressed, and the role of siblings as support as well as teaching object is illustrated. Finally, it is emphasized that, similar to relationships between parents and child, the quality of sibling relationships changed over time and leads, for example, to a detachment between sibling relationships during adolescence.

  18. Individual, home and neighborhood factors related to childhood obesity intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fabiana Brito

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most pressing global population health issues, and importantly one that affects racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status disproportionately. Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood and is related to serious medical and economic consequences throughout the life course. Childhood obesity is well recognized as a complex and multifaceted problem influenced by broader social, geographic and environmental factors. A social ecological framework that i...

  19. Gender-related differences in individuals seeking treatment for kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (PKleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.

  20. The effect of industry-related air pollution on lung function and respiratory symptoms in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstra, Arnold D; Brunekreef, Bert; Burdorf, Alex

    2018-03-27

    Heavy industry emits many potentially hazardous pollutants into the air which can affect health. However, the effects of air pollution from heavy industry on lung function and respiratory symptoms have been investigated scarcely. Our aim was to investigate the associations of long-term air pollution from heavy industry with lung function and respiratory symptoms in school children. A cross-sectional lung function study was conducted among school children (7-13 years) in the vicinity of an area with heavy industry. Lung function measurements were conducted during school hours. Parents of the children were asked to complete a questionnaire about the health of their children. A dispersion model was used to characterize the additional individual-level exposures to air pollutants from the industry in the area. Associations between PM 2.5 and NO X exposure with lung function and presence of respiratory symptoms were investigated by linear and/or logistic regression analysis. Participation in the lung function measurements and questionnaires was 84% (665/787) and 77% (603/787), respectively. The range of the elevated PM 2.5 and NO X five years average concentrations (2008-2012) due to heavy industry were 0.04-1.59 μg/m 3 and 0.74-11.33 μg/m 3 respectively. After adjustment for confounders higher exposure to PM 2.5 and NO X (per interquartile range of 0.56 and 7.43 μg/m 3 respectively) was associated with lower percent predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF) (B -2.80%, 95%CI -5.05% to - 0.55% and B -3.67%, 95%CI -6.93% to - 0.42% respectively). Higher exposure to NO X (per interquartile range of 7.43 μg/m 3 ) was also associated with lower percent forced vital capacity (FVC) and percent predicted forced expiration volume in 1 s (FEV1) (B -2.30, 95% CI -4.55 to - 0.05 and B -2.73, 95%CI -5.21 to - 0.25 respectively). No significant associations were found between the additional exposure to PM 2.5 or NO X and respiratory symptoms except for PM 2.5 and dry

  1. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  2. Heat-related mortality projections for cardiovascular and respiratory disease under the changing climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-08-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4%, 47.8%, and 69.0% in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6%,73.8% and 134% in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  3. The respiratory drive to thoracic motoneurones in the cat and its relation to the connections from expiratory bulbospinal neurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywell, S A; Anissimova, N P; Ford, T W; Meehan, C F; Kirkwood, P A

    2007-01-01

    The descending control of respiratory-related motoneurones in the thoracic spinal cord remains the subject of some debate. In this study, direct connections from expiratory bulbospinal neurones to identified motoneurones were investigated using spike-triggered averaging and the strengths of connection revealed were related to the presence and size of central respiratory drive potentials in the same motoneurones. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurones in segments T5–T9 of the spinal cord of anaesthetized cats. Spike-triggered averaging from expiratory bulbospinal neurones in the caudal medulla revealed monosynaptic EPSPs in all groups of motoneurones, with the strongest connections to expiratory motoneurones with axons in the internal intercostal nerve. In the latter, connection strength was similar irrespective of the target muscle (e.g. external abdominal oblique or internal intercostal) and the EPSP amplitude was positively correlated with the amplitude of the central respiratory drive potential of the motoneurone. For this group, EPSPs were found in 45/83 bulbospinal neurone/motoneurone pairs, with a mean amplitude of 40.5 μV. The overall strength of the connection supports previous measurements made by cross-correlation, but is about 10 times stronger than that reported in the only previous similar survey to use spike-triggered averaging. Calculations are presented to suggest that this input alone is sufficient to account for all the expiratory depolarization seen in the recorded motoneurones. However, extra sources of input, or amplification of this one, are likely to be necessary to produce a useful motoneurone output. PMID:17204500

  4. Examining the relation between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and depressive symptoms in emerging adults: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaptangco, Mona; Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; Bride, Daniel L; Hansen, Erik J

    2015-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating and prevalent disorder associated with lower quality of life and substantial economic burden. Recently, there has been strong interest in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a biological predictor of later depression. Theoretical work suggests that higher resting RSA indexes physiological flexibility and better emotion regulation whereas lower RSA may mark vulnerability for psychopathology. However, empirical findings have varied. This study examined whether lower resting RSA predicted later depressive symptoms in a sample of healthy young adults across one year (n=185). Results indicate that year one (Y1) resting RSA predicted Y2 depressive symptoms. This finding remained significant when accounting for the stability of RSA and depressive symptoms across both time points and when including trait anxiety, body mass index, and medication use in statistical models. Findings provide further support for RSA as a promising biological marker for understanding and predicting depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Almeida, Andréa Adriana de

    Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. A fisioterapia respiratória tem papel importante na prevenção das complicações da cirurgia bariátrica. Avaliar os efeitos da fisioterapia ambulatorial no pós-operatório através das pressões respiratórias e da capacidade funcional dos indiv

  6. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Abé

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  7. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  8. Characterization of respiratory drug delivery with enhanced condensational growth using an individual path model of the entire tracheobronchial airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Geng; Longest, Philip Worth; Su, Guoguang; Hindle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the delivery of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols using an enhanced condensational growth (ECG) approach in an airway model extending from the oral cavity to the end of the tracheobronchial (TB) region. The geometry consisted of an elliptical mouth-throat (MT) model, the upper TB airways extending to bifurcation B3, and a subsequent individual path model entering the right lower lobe of the lung. Submicrometer monodisperse aerosols with diameters of 560 and 900 nm were delivered to the mouth inlet under control (25 °C with subsaturated air) or ECG (39 or 42 °C with saturated air) conditions. Flow fields and droplet characteristics were simulated using a computational fluid dynamics model that was previously demonstrated to accurately predict aerosol size growth and deposition. Results indicated that both the control and ECG delivery cases produced very little deposition in the MT and upper TB model (approximately 1%). Under ECG delivery conditions, large size increases of the aerosol droplets were observed resulting in mass median aerodynamic diameters of 2.4-3.3 μm exiting B5. This increase in aerosol size produced an order of magnitude increase in aerosol deposition within the TB airways compared with the controls, with TB deposition efficiencies of approximately 32-46% for ECG conditions. Estimates of downstream pulmonary deposition indicted near full lung retention of the aerosol during ECG delivery. Furthermore, targeting the region of TB deposition by controlling the inlet temperature conditions and initial aerosol size also appeared possible.

  9. Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The incidence of doctors' diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39-53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03-3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09-12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43-8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27-7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32-12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43-19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections.

  10. Lung Microbiota Is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ariane R; Lynch, Susan V; Langelier, Chaz; Christie, Jason D; McCauley, Kathryn; Nelson, Mary; Cheung, Christopher K; Benowitz, Neal L; Cohen, Mitchell J; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients after severe trauma; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. To determine whether cigarette smoking contributes to ARDS development after trauma by altering community composition of the lung microbiota. We studied the lung microbiota of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU after severe blunt trauma. To do so, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing of endotracheal aspirate samples obtained on ICU admission (n = 74) and at 48 hours after admission (n = 30). Cigarette smoke exposure (quantified using plasma cotinine), ARDS development, and other clinical parameters were correlated with lung microbiota composition. Smoking status was significantly associated with lung bacterial community composition at ICU admission (P = 0.007 by permutational multivariate ANOVA [PERMANOVA]) and at 48 hours (P = 0.03 by PERMANOVA), as well as with significant enrichment of potential pathogens, including Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Haemophilus, and Treponema. ARDS development was associated with lung community composition at 48 hours (P = 0.04 by PERMANOVA) and was characterized by relative enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae and of specific taxa enriched at baseline in smokers, including Prevotella and Fusobacterium. After severe blunt trauma, a history of smoking is related to lung microbiota composition, both at the time of ICU admission and at 48 hours. ARDS development is also correlated with respiratory microbial community structure at 48 hours and with taxa that are relatively enriched in smokers at ICU admission. The data derived from this pilot study suggest that smoking-related changes in the lung microbiota could be related to ARDS development after severe trauma.

  11. Candidate genes and pathogenesis investigation for sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome based on gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Yan, Jingjun; He, Xingxing; Zhong, Qiang; Zhan, Chengye; Li, Shusheng

    2016-04-18

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a potentially devastating form of acute inflammatory lung injury as well as a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Although researchers have made significant progresses in elucidating the pathophysiology of this complex syndrome over the years, the absence of a universal detail disease mechanism up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive treatment. This study aimed to predict some genes or pathways associated with sepsis-related ARDS based on a public microarray dataset and to further explore the molecular mechanism of ARDS. A total of 122 up-regulated DEGs and 91 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. The up- and down-regulated DEGs were mainly involved in functions like mitotic cell cycle and pathway like cell cycle. Protein-protein interaction network of ARDS analysis revealed 20 hub genes including cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cyclin B2 (CCNB2) and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A). A total of seven transcription factors including forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) and 30 target genes were revealed in the transcription factor-target gene regulation network. Furthermore, co-cited genes including CCNB2-CCNB1 were revealed in literature mining for the relations ARDS related genes. Pathways like mitotic cell cycle were closed related with the development of ARDS. Genes including CCNB1, CCNB2 and TOP2A, as well as transcription factors like FOXM1 might be used as the novel gene therapy targets for sepsis related ARDS.

  12. Allergy and respiratory health effects of dampness and dampness-related agents in schools and homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, G; Høst, A; Doekes, G

    2016-01-01

    was identified based on technical inspection and bedroom dampness on parents' self-report. Classroom and bedroom dust was analysed for seven microbial components. Skin-prick-testing determined atopic sensitisation. Lung function was expressed as z-scores for forced expiratory volume in one second (zFEV1...... ), forced vital capacity (zFVC) and the ratio zFEV1 /zFVC using GLI-2012-prediction-equations. The parents reported children's allergies, airway symptoms and doctor-diagnosed asthma. High classroom dampness, but not bedroom dampness, was negatively associated with zFEV1 (β-coef. -0.71; 95%CI -1.17 - -0...... (ETS) decreased zFEV1 (β-coef. -0.22; 95%CI -0.42- -0.02) and zFEV1 /zFVC-ratio (β-coef. -0.26; 95%CI -0.44 - -0.07) and increased upper airway symptoms (OR1.66; 95%CI 1.03-2.66). In conclusion, dampness in classrooms may have adverse respiratory health effects in pupils, but microbial agents...

  13. Quality and readability assessment of websites related to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Giorgi, Michel R M; de Groot, Olivier S D; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease for which a limited number of information sources for patients exist. The role of the Internet in the patient-physician relationship is increasing. More and more patients search for online health information, which should be of good quality and easy readable. The study aim was to investigate the quality and readability of English online health information about RRP. Quality and readability assessment of online information. Relevant information was collected using three different search engines and seven different search terms. Quality was assessed with the DISCERN instrument. The Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) and average grade level (AGL) were determined to measure readability of the English websites. Fifty-one English websites were included. The mean DISCERN score of the websites is 28.1 ± 9.7 (poor quality); the mean FRES is 41.3 ± 14.9 (difficult to read); and the mean AGL is 12.6 ± 2.3. The quality and readability of English websites about RRP is alarmingly poor. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2293-2297, 2017. © 2017 The Authors The Laryngoscope published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society Inc, “The Triological Society” and American Laryngological Association (ALA).

  14. Clinical and epidemiological aspects related to the detection of adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Ferone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.

  15. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  16. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortez-Lugo Marlene

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR of PM2.5 (24-h average was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%; an increase of 34 ppb (IQR of NO2 (1-h maximum was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4% and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR in O3 levels (1 hr maximum to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%. Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles.

  17. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D.; Barbas, Carmen S. V.; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M.; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K.; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2015-01-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients

  18. Influence of quality of care and individual patient characteristics on quality of life and return to work in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome: protocol for a prospective, observational, multi-centre patient cohort study (DACAPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Dodoo-Schittko, Frank; Blecha, Sebastian; Sebök, Philipp; Thomann-Hackner, Kathrin; Quintel, Michael; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Bein, Thomas; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2015-12-17

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and return to work are important outcomes in critical care medicine, reaching beyond mortality. Little is known on factors predictive of HRQoL and return to work in critical illness, including the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and no evidence exists on the role of quality of care (QoC) for outcomes in survivors of ARDS. It is the aim of the DACAPO study ("Surviving ARDS: the influence of QoC and individual patient characteristics on quality of life") to investigate the role of QoC and individual patient characteristics on quality of life and return to work. A prospective, observational, multi-centre patient cohort study will be performed in Germany, using hospitals from the "ARDS Network Germany" as the main recruiting centres. It is envisaged to recruit 2400 patients into the DACAPO study and to analyse a study population of 1500 survivors. They will be followed up until 12 months after discharge from hospital. QoC will be assessed as process quality, structural quality and volume at the institutional level. The main outcomes (HRQoL and return to work) will be assessed by self-report questionnaires. Further data collection includes general medical and ARDS-related characteristics of patients as well as sociodemographic and psycho-social parameters. Multilevel hierarchical modelling will be performed to analyse the effects of QoC and individual patient characteristics on outcomes, taking the cluster structure of the data into account. By obtaining comprehensive data at patient and hospital level using a prospective multi-centre design, the DACAPO-study is the first study investigating the influence of QoC on individual outcomes of ARDS survivors.

  19. DNA damage in healthy individuals and respiratory patients after treating whole blood in vitro with the bulk and nano forms of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumour effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n=17 and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n=36. White blood cells (WBC were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e. bulk (B or nano-suspension (N of aspirin (ASP or ibuprofen (IBU up to 500 µg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 µg/ml in the micronucleus assay. In this study results were compared against untreated lymphocytes and their corresponding treated groups. The results showed, thgat NSAIDs in their nano form significantly reduced the DNA damage in WBCs from lung cancer patients in bulk and nano compared to untreated lymphocytes. Also, there was a decrease in the level of DNA damage in the comet assay after treating WBCs from healthy individuals, asthma and COPD groups with aspirin N (ASP N but not with IBU N. In addition, the number of micronuclei decreased after treatment with NSAIDs in their nano form (ASP N and IBU N in the healthy as well as in the lung cancer group. However, this was not the case for micronucleus frequency in asthma and COPD patients. These data show that lymphocytes from different groups respond differently to treatment with ASP and IBU as measured by comet assay and micronucleus assay, and that the size of the suspended particles of the drugs affects responses.

  20. Analysis of respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Inter-relations and association to simple nocturnal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandeharioun, H; Rezaeitalab, F; Lotfi, R

    2016-01-01

    This study carefully evaluates the association of different respiration-related events to each other and to simple nocturnal features in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS). The events include apneas, hypopneas, respiratory event-related arousals and snores. We conducted a statistical study on 158 adults who underwent polysomnography between July 2012 and May 2014. To monitor relevance, along with linear statistical strategies like analysis of variance and bootstrapping a correlation coefficient standard error, the non-linear method of mutual information is also applied to illuminate vague results of linear techniques. Based on normalized mutual information weights (NMIW), indices of apnea are 1.3 times more relevant to AHI values than those of hypopnea. NMIW for the number of blood oxygen desaturation below 95% is considerable (0.531). The next relevant feature is "respiratory arousals index" with NMIW of 0.501. Snore indices (0.314), and BMI (0.203) take the next place. Based on NMIW values, snoring events are nearly one-third (29.9%) more dependent to hypopneas than RERAs. 1. The more sever the OSAS is, the more frequently the apneic events happen. 2. The association of snore with hypopnea/RERA revealed which is routinely ignored in regression-based OSAS modeling. 3. The statistical dependencies of oximetry features potentially can lead to home-based screening of OSAS. 4. Poor ESS-AHI relevance in the database under study indicates its disability for the OSA diagnosis compared to oximetry. 5. Based on poor RERA-snore/ESS relevance, detailed history of the symptoms plus polysomnography is suggested for accurate diagnosis of RERAs. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C.; Sherwood, Steven C.; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  2. Age related changes in T cell mediated immune response and effector memory to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campoccia Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major pathogen causing respiratory disease in young infants and it is an important cause of serious illness in the elderly since the infection provides limited immune protection against reinfection. In order to explain this phenomenon, we investigated whether healthy adults of different age (20-40; 41-60 and > 60 years, have differences in central and effector memory, RSV-specific CD8+ T cell memory immune response and regulatory T cell expression status. In the peripheral blood of these donors, we were unable to detect any age related difference in term of central (CD45RA-CCR7+ and effector (CD45RA-CCR7- memory T cell frequency. On the contrary, we found a significant increase in immunosuppressive regulatory (CD4+25+FoxP3+ T cells (Treg in the elderly. An immunocytofluorimetric RSV pentamer analysis performed on these donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, in vitro sensitized against RSV antigen, revealed a marked decline in long-lasting RSV specific CD8+ memory T cell precursors expressing interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα, in the elderly. This effect was paralleled by a progressive switch from a Th1 (IFN-γ and TNF-α to a Th2 (IL-10 functional phenotype. On the contrary, an increase in Treg was observed with aging. The finding of Treg over-expression status, a prominent Th2 response and an inefficient RSV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cell expansion in older donors could explain the poor protection against RSV reinfection and the increased risk to develop an RSV-related severe illness in this population. Our finding also lays the basis for new therapeutic perspectives that could limit or prevent severe RSV infection in elderly.

  3. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven C; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  4. To assess the relations between breast feeding and illness in children under two years of age with particular reference to respiratory tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Zaidi, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine the relation between the breast feeding and morbidity as a result of respiratory illness and infection in the children less than two years of age. This is a prospective analysis of 131 children attending the outdoor paediatric department of Federal Government Services Hospital, Islamabad during the month of February 2006. A close ended pretested questionnaire was filled after taking informed consent from patient's parents. Out of total 131 enrolled cases (76 male and 55 female) 62 (47%) were breast fed; 56 (43%) bottle fed; while 13 (10%) had mix feeding. Among 38 children, having past history of respiratory tract infections episodes in last one month, only 04 (10%) were breast fed and remaining 34 (90%) were either bottle fed or had partial breast feeding. Out of 62 breast fed children, only 04 (6%) had recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections, on the other hand out of 56 bottle fed 32 (57%) had previous history of respiratory illness. In our study there is a significant correlation between breast feeding and reduction in number of Respiratory tact infections episodes. Predominant breast feeding for at leas six months and partial breast feeding for up to one year may reduce the prevalence and subsequent morbidity of respiratory illness and infection in infancy. (author)

  5. Medical residents’ attitudes and emotions related to Middle East respiratory syndrome in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Aldrees

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine medical residents’ emotions, attitudes, and knowledge related to Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS outbreaks. Methods: In this is a cross sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were distributed and collected before resident education activities in 4 tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between November 2015 and January 2016. The questionnaire included questions related to residents’ demographic data and their emotions, attitudes, and knowledge related to an MERS outbreak. Results: Of the 228 participants analyzed, 85.5% believed their work put them at risk of infection, and two-thirds believed their family was exposed to a greater risk of infection. However, only 2.6% would change their job. Nearly half of the residents indicated that their hospital had a clear plan, and only 28% considered themselves not well prepared for an MERS outbreak. Conclusions: Our study highlights medical residents’ attitude and emotions related to MERS outbreaks. Residents’ concerns and emotions in relation to MERS should be considered in greater detail by hospital policymakers.

  6. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  7. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  8. Adolescents' and mothers' conflict management constellations: Links with individual and relational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.; Luyckx, Koen; Vanhalst, J.; Nelemans, S.A.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present multi-informant study, we examined dyadic combinations of adolescent and maternal conflict management styles through stepwise latent class analysis. We investigated how these dyadic conflict classes related to adolescents' and mothers' perceptions of individual and relational

  9. Respiratory manifestations of panic disorder: causes, consequences and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Aline; Freire, Rafael Christophe da Rocha; Zin, Walter Araújo; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2009-07-01

    Multiple respiratory abnormalities can be found in anxiety disorders, especially in panic disorder (PD). Individuals with PD experience unexpected panic attacks, characterized by anxiety and fear, resulting in a number of autonomic and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory stimulation is a common event during panic attacks. The respiratory abnormality most often reported in PD patients is increased CO2 sensitivity, which has given rise to the hypothesis of fundamental abnormalities in the physiological mechanisms that control breathing in PD. There is evidence that PD patients with dominant respiratory symptoms are more sensitive to respiratory tests than are those who do not manifest such symptoms, and that the former group constitutes a distinct subtype. Patients with PD tend to hyperventilate and to panic in response to respiratory stimulants such as CO2, triggering the activation of a hypersensitive fear network. Although respiratory physiology seems to remain normal in these subjects, recent evidence supports the idea that they present subclinical abnormalities in respiration and in other functions related to body homeostasis. The fear network, composed of the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala and its brain stem projections, might be oversensitive in PD patients. This theory might explain why medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy are both clearly effective. Our aim was to review the relationship between respiration and PD, addressing the respiratory subtype of PD and the hyperventilation syndrome, with a focus on respiratory challenge tests, as well as on the current mechanistic concepts and the pharmacological implications of this relationship.

  10. Modeling Structural, Dyadic, and Individual Factors: The Inclusion and Exclusion Model of HIV Related Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B.; Glasman, Laura R.; Rothman, Alexander J.

    2010-01-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals...

  11. Individual neuropsychological support and group sessions for relatives to TBI patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siert, Lars

    TITLE: Individual neuropsychological support and group sessions for relatives to TBI patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe how the neuropsychologist work with early and ongoing individual support and group sessions for relatives to adult TBI patients in the acute and sub acute phase and after discharge...

  12. Additive gamma frailty models with applications to competing risks in related individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of related individuals are often complicated by the fact that follow-up on the event type of interest is incomplete due to the occurrence of other events. We suggest a class of frailty models with cause-specific hazards for correlated competing events in related individual...

  13. The role of non-invasive biomarkers in detecting acute respiratory effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, M C; Kulkarni, N; Maestrelli, P

    2014-09-01

    The role of non-invasive methods in the investigation of acute effects of traffic-related air pollution is not clearly established. We evaluated the usefulness of non-invasive biomarkers in detecting acute air pollution effects according to the age of participants, the disease status, their sensitivity compared with lung function tests and their specificity for a type of pollutant. Search terms lead to 535 titles, among them 128 had potentially relevant abstracts. Sixtynine full papers were reviewed, while 59 articles were excluded as they did not meet the selection criteria. Methods used to assess short-term effects of air pollution included analysis of nasal lavage (NAL) for the upper airways, and induced sputum (IS), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) for central and lower airways. There is strong evidence that FeNO evaluation is useful independently from subject age, while IS analysis is suitable almost for adults. Biomarker changes are generally observed upon pollutant exposure irrespective of the disease status of the participants. None of the biomarkers identified are specific for a type of pollutant exposure. Based on experimental exposure studies, there is moderate evidence that IS analysis is more sensitive than lung function tests, whereas this is not the case for biomarkers obtained by NAL or EBC. Cells and some cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and myeloperoxidase) have been measured both in the upper respiratory tract (NAL) and in the lower airways (IS). Overall, the response to traffic exposure seems different in the two compartments. In conclusion, this survey of current literature displays the complexity of this research field, highlights the significance of short-term studies on traffic pollution and gives important tips when planning studies to detect acute respiratory effects of air pollution in a non-invasive way. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  15. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin

  16. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D; Barbas, Carmen S V; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-10-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome and the association between occurrence of pulmonary complications and outcome in these patients. Individual patient data analysis. ICU patients not fulfilling the consensus criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome at the onset of ventilation. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume. The primary endpoint was development of a composite of acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia during hospital stay. Based on the tertiles of tidal volume size in the first 2 days of ventilation, patients were assigned to a "low tidal volume group" (tidal volumes ≤ 7 mL/kg predicted body weight), an "intermediate tidal volume group" (> 7 and volume group" (≥ 10 mL/kg predicted body weight). Seven investigations (2,184 patients) were included. Acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia occurred in 23% of patients in the low tidal volume group, in 28% of patients in the intermediate tidal volume group, and in 31% of the patients in the high tidal volume group (adjusted odds ratio [low vs high tidal volume group], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98; p = 0.042). Occurrence of pulmonary complications was associated with a lower number of ICU-free and hospital-free days and alive at day 28 (10.0 ± 10.9 vs 13.8 ± 11.6 d; p volumes is associated with a lower risk of development of pulmonary complications in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  17. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Ni, Dao-feng; Wang, Jian; Gao, Zhi-qiang

    2009-07-05

    Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrophysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  18. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jing; NI Dao-feng; WANG Jian; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). Methods We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. Results An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. Conclusions We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrephysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  19. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  20. Clinical, social and relational determinants of paediatric ambulatory drug prescriptions due to respiratory tract infections in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Massari, Marco; Bella, Antonino; Boccia, Delia; Filia, Antonietta; Salmaso, Stefania

    2006-12-01

    Collecting information on patterns of drug prescriptions and on factors influencing prescribing decisions is fundamental for supporting the rational use of drugs. This study was aimed at investigating patterns of drug prescription in paediatric outpatients and at evaluating determinants of prescriptions for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). We conducted a national cross-sectional survey involving primary care paediatricians and parents. Diagnoses and prescriptions made at each consultation were described. Poisson regression models were used to analyse determinants of drug and antibiotic prescriptions for visits due to RTIs. A total of 4,302 physician and parent questionnaires were analysed. These corresponded to 2,151 visits, 792 of which were due to RTIs. Drugs were prescribed in 83.4% of RTI visits, while antibiotics were prescribed in 40.4%. According to paediatricians' perceptions, 84.2% of parents of children with a RTI expected to receive a drug prescription. Paediatricians' perception of parental expectations was the strongest determinant for prescription of drugs and specifically of antibiotics [adjusted relative risk (RR): 1.7 and 3.6, respectively; P decision to prescribe. This study underscores that relational factors, in particular perceived parental expectations, are one of the leading factors of drug prescriptions in paediatric ambulatory care settings, reinforcing the opinion that communication between physicians and parents can affect prescription patterns.

  1. Coinfection and Mortality in Pneumonia-Related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients with Bronchoalveolar Lavage: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kuo-Chin; Chiu, Li-Chung; Hung, Chen-Yiu; Chang, Chih-Hao; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Chung-Chi; Hu, Han-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading risk factor of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is increasing studies in patients with pneumonia to reveal that coinfection with viral and bacterial infection can lead to poorer outcomes than no coinfection. This study evaluated the role of coinfection identified through bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) examination on the outcomes of pneumonia-related ARDS. We performed a prospective observational study at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from October 2012 to May 2015. Adult patients were included if they met the Berlin definition of ARDS. The indications for BAL were clinically suspected pneumonia-related ARDS and no definite microbial sample identified from tracheal aspirate or sputum. The presence of microbial pathogens and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Of the 19,936 patients screened, 902 (4.5%) fulfilled the Berlin definition of ARDS. Of these patients, 255 (22.7%) had pneumonia-related ARDS and were included for analysis. A total of 142 (55.7%) patients were identified to have a microbial pathogen through BAL and were classified into three groups: a virus-only group (n = 41 [28.9%]), no virus group (n = 60 [42.2%]), and coinfection group (n = 41 [28.9%]). ARDS severity did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.43). The hospital mortality rates were 53.7% in virus-only identified group, 63.3% in no virus identified group, and 80.5% in coinfection identified group. The coinfection group had significantly higher mortality than virus-only group (80.5% vs. 53.7%; P = 0.01). In patients with pneumonia-related ARDS, the BAL pathogen-positive patients had a trend of higher mortality rate than pathogen-negative patients. Coinfection with a virus and another pathogen was associated with increased hospital mortality in pneumonia-related ARDS patients.

  2. Direct medical cost of influenza-related hospitalizations among severe acute respiratory infections cases in three provinces in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza-related hospitalizations impose a considerable economic and social burden. This study aimed to better understand the economic burden of influenza-related hospitalizations among patients in China in different age and risk categories. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations between December 2009 and June 2011 from three hospitals participating in the Chinese Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI sentinel surveillance system were included in this study. Hospital billing data were collected from each hospital's Hospital Information System (HIS and divided into five cost categories. Demographic and clinical information was collected from medical records. Mean (range and median (interquartile range [IQR] costs were calculated and compared among children (≤15 years, adults (16-64 years and elderly (≥65 years groups. Factors influencing cost were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 106 laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations were identified, 60% of which were children. The mean (range direct medical cost was $1,797 ($80-$27,545 for all hospitalizations, and the median (IQR direct medical cost was $231 ($164, $854 ($890, and $2,263 ($7,803 for children, adults, and elderly, respectively. Therapeutics and diagnostics were the two largest components of direct medical cost, comprising 57% and 23%, respectively. Cost of physician services was the lowest at less than 1%. CONCLUSION: Direct medical cost of influenza-related hospitalizations imposes a heavy burden on patients and their families in China. Further study is needed to provide more comprehensive evidence on the economic burden of influenza. Our study highlights the need to increase vaccination rate and develop targeted national preventive strategies.

  3. A case of immunoglobulin G4-related respiratory disease with multiple lung cysts: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Mikumo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of abnormal shadows on chest radiograph. Chest computed tomography (CT showed cysts, nodules, and cervical and axillary lymphadenopathies. Elevated serum levels of IgG4 and interleukin (IL-6 suggested IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD or multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD. Histologic findings of the cervical lymph node and right lung S6 biopsies revealed numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells. Although CT findings of the lungs were atypical for IgG4-RD, consistent histologic findings, clinical symptoms, and laboratory data made us conclude IgG4-RD. Because histologic findings of IgG4-RD and MCD have similarities, differentiating between the two diseases should consider the clinical presentation.

  4. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjaer, Anni; Ritz, Christian; Hojsak, Iva; Michaelsen, Kim; Mølgaard, Christian

    2018-03-14

    We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged eight months to 14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day care absences on web-based questionnaires. Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI, and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.65, but was inversely associated with having a pet (OR: 0.43), being cared for by registered child minders compared to day care centres (OR: 0.36), birthweight (OR 0.40) and age at day care enrolment (OR: 0.64). No significant risk factors for LRTIs and diarrhoea were found. Infection risks were associated with environmental factors and factors related to the child. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Is a sedentary lifestyle a risk factor for sleep-related respiratory disturbance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teculescu, D; Chenuel, B; Benamghar, L; Michaely, J-P; Hannhart, B

    2010-09-01

    This questionnaire-based epidemiological study was aimed at identifying possible sleep disturbance in a sample of active French males. Eight hundred and fifty male subjects, aged 22 to 66 years, completed a structured sleep questionnaire supplemented by information about their life habits and medical history. The study compared the prevalence of positive responses between an "at risk" group of sedentary people (with no declared leisure exercise) and a control group of "exercising" subjects (with more than 5 hours of planned exercise weekly). Among the symptoms suggesting sleep-disordered breathing, only the question "Have you ever been told that you snore?" significantly separated the two groups. In addition, the sedentary group declared a history of treated hypertension significantly more often. The present survey identified only one item that differed significantly between a sedentary of men and an exercising group - a history of treated hypertension. The result may be explained by the limitations of a questionnaire survey and by the limited contrast in exercise practice: the "sedentary" subjects had an occupational labour demand (not quantified), and the control group had a relatively modest leisure physical activity. Copyright © 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzyme phylogenies as markers for the oxidation state of the environment: the case of respiratory arsenate reductase and related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Simon; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2008-07-16

    Phylogenies of certain bioenergetic enzymes have proved to be useful tools for deducing evolutionary ancestry of bioenergetic pathways and their relationship to geochemical parameters of the environment. Our previous phylogenetic analysis of arsenite oxidase, the molybdopterin enzyme responsible for the biological oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, indicated its probable emergence prior to the Archaea/Bacteria split more than 3 billion years ago, in line with the geochemical fact that arsenite was present in biological habitats on the early Earth. Respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr), another molybdopterin enzyme involved in microbial arsenic metabolism, serves as terminal oxidase, and is thus situated at the opposite end of bioenergetic electron transfer chains as compared to arsenite oxidase. The evolutionary history of the Arr-enzyme has not been studied in detail so far. We performed a genomic search of genes related to arrA coding for the molybdopterin subunit. The multiple alignment of the retrieved sequences served to reconstruct a neighbor-joining phylogeny of Arr and closely related enzymes. Our analysis confirmed the previously proposed proximity of Arr to the cluster of polysulfide/thiosulfate reductases but also unravels a hitherto unrecognized clade even more closely related to Arr. The obtained phylogeny strongly suggests that Arr originated after the Bacteria/Archaea divergence in the domain Bacteria, and was subsequently laterally distributed within this domain. It further more indicates that, as a result of accumulation of arsenate in the environment, an enzyme related to polysulfide reductase and not to arsenite oxidase has evolved into Arr. These findings are paleogeochemically rationalized by the fact that the accumulation of arsenate over arsenite required the increase in oxidation state of the environment brought about by oxygenic photosynthesis.

  7. Respiratory trace feature analysis for the prediction of respiratory-gated PET quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouyi; Bowen, Stephen R.; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Sandison, George A.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-02-01

    The benefits of respiratory gating in quantitative PET/CT vary tremendously between individual patients. Respiratory pattern is among many patient-specific characteristics that are thought to play an important role in gating-induced imaging improvements. However, the quantitative relationship between patient-specific characteristics of respiratory pattern and improvements in quantitative accuracy from respiratory-gated PET/CT has not been well established. If such a relationship could be estimated, then patient-specific respiratory patterns could be used to prospectively select appropriate motion compensation during image acquisition on a per-patient basis. This study was undertaken to develop a novel statistical model that predicts quantitative changes in PET/CT imaging due to respiratory gating. Free-breathing static FDG-PET images without gating and respiratory-gated FDG-PET images were collected from 22 lung and liver cancer patients on a PET/CT scanner. PET imaging quality was quantified with peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak) over lesions of interest. Relative differences in SUVpeak between static and gated PET images were calculated to indicate quantitative imaging changes due to gating. A comprehensive multidimensional extraction of the morphological and statistical characteristics of respiratory patterns was conducted, resulting in 16 features that characterize representative patterns of a single respiratory trace. The six most informative features were subsequently extracted using a stepwise feature selection approach. The multiple-regression model was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The predicted quantitative improvements in PET imaging achieved an accuracy higher than 90% using a criterion with a dynamic error-tolerance range for SUVpeak values. The results of this study suggest that our prediction framework could be applied to determine which patients would likely benefit from respiratory motion compensation

  8. Respiratory trace feature analysis for the prediction of respiratory-gated PET quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shouyi; Chaovalitwongse, W Art; Bowen, Stephen R; Kinahan, Paul E; Sandison, George A; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of respiratory gating in quantitative PET/CT vary tremendously between individual patients. Respiratory pattern is among many patient-specific characteristics that are thought to play an important role in gating-induced imaging improvements. However, the quantitative relationship between patient-specific characteristics of respiratory pattern and improvements in quantitative accuracy from respiratory-gated PET/CT has not been well established. If such a relationship could be estimated, then patient-specific respiratory patterns could be used to prospectively select appropriate motion compensation during image acquisition on a per-patient basis. This study was undertaken to develop a novel statistical model that predicts quantitative changes in PET/CT imaging due to respiratory gating. Free-breathing static FDG-PET images without gating and respiratory-gated FDG-PET images were collected from 22 lung and liver cancer patients on a PET/CT scanner. PET imaging quality was quantified with peak standardized uptake value (SUV peak ) over lesions of interest. Relative differences in SUV peak between static and gated PET images were calculated to indicate quantitative imaging changes due to gating. A comprehensive multidimensional extraction of the morphological and statistical characteristics of respiratory patterns was conducted, resulting in 16 features that characterize representative patterns of a single respiratory trace. The six most informative features were subsequently extracted using a stepwise feature selection approach. The multiple-regression model was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The predicted quantitative improvements in PET imaging achieved an accuracy higher than 90% using a criterion with a dynamic error-tolerance range for SUV peak values. The results of this study suggest that our prediction framework could be applied to determine which patients would likely benefit from respiratory motion

  9. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomatology and Related Behavioural Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%,…

  10. Individual and Relational Predictors of Adjustment in First-Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Wandrei, Mary L.

    1993-01-01

    Assessed differential predictive utility of home-leaving status, family functioning, separation-individuation issues, cognitive constructions of home-leaving process, and personality variables for adjustment during first year of college. Findings from 286 first-year students revealed that separation-individuation, family relations, and personality…

  11. Caregiver burden, family accommodation, health, and well-being in relatives of individuals with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Helena; Ajmi, Sana; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Nordsletten, Ashley E; Mataix-Cols, David

    2014-04-01

    Hoarding Disorder (HD), a new diagnostic entity in DSM-5, is associated with substantial functional impairment and family frustration but data from well-characterized samples is lacking. Participants were 37 individuals meeting DSM-5 criteria for HD, 55 relatives of individuals meeting criteria for HD, and comparison groups of 51 self-identified collectors and 25 relatives of collectors. All participants completed a clinician-administered diagnostic interview for HD and an online battery of standardized measures of health, well-being, and impairment. Substantial functional impairment was found for both HD individuals and their relatives. HD relatives reported significantly greater carer burden and accommodation of hoarding behaviors than relatives of collectors. Perceived level of squalor, co-habiting with, and increasing age of the HD individual were significant predictors of carer burden and functional impairment in the relatives. The use of self-identified HD individuals may have produced a bias towards participants with relatively good insight. Subjective biases in self-reported symptoms cannot be ruled out, although the use of informant-report data provided some independent validation. HD is associated with substantial functional impairment for both sufferers and their relatives. The level of carer burden experienced by HD relatives was comparable to or greater than that reported in the literature by relatives of individuals with dementia. The findings indicate that relatives of individuals with HD may benefit from increased support and suggest that it may be beneficial to involve family members in the treatment of HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Do Sex Differences Define Gender-Related Individual Differences within the Sexes? Evidence from Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…

  13. When and why creativity-related conflict with coworkers can hamper creative employees' individual job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Giebels, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We examined when and why focal employees' creativity-related conflict with coworkers is related to their individual job performance. As hypothesized, a survey among 113 employees in 14 manufacturing work groups showed that creativity-related conflict with coworkers escalates into dysfunctional

  14. Different impacts of respiratory symptoms and comorbidities on COPD-specific health-related quality of life by COPD severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Lee,1,* Byung Woo Jhun,1,* Juhee Cho,2–4 Kwang Ha Yoo,5 Jin Hwa Lee,6 Deog Kyeom Kim,7 Jong Deog Lee,8 Ki-Suck Jung,9 Jung Yeon Lee,10 Hye Yun Park1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea; 5Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 8Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, South Korea; 9Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea; 10Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungju Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Chungju, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often have poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL that is disproportionate to their degree of airflow limitation. This study evaluated the association between St

  15. The predictive value of an adjusted COPD assessment test score on the risk of respiratory-related hospitalizations in severe COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher A; Bassett, Katherine L; Buckman, Julie; Effing, Tanja W; Frith, Peter A; van der Palen, Job; Sloots, Joanne M

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated whether a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) with adjusted weights for the CAT items could better predict future respiratory-related hospitalizations than the original CAT. Two focus groups (respiratory nurses and physicians) generated two adjusted CAT algorithms. Two multivariate logistic regression models for infrequent (≤1/year) versus frequent (>1/year) future respiratory-related hospitalizations were defined: one with the adjusted CAT score that correlated best with future hospitalizations and one with the original CAT score. Patient characteristics related to future hospitalizations ( p ≤ 0.2) were also entered. Eighty-two COPD patients were included. The CAT algorithm derived from the nurse focus group was a borderline significant predictor of hospitalization risk (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.14; p = 0.050) in a model that also included hospitalization frequency in the previous year (OR: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.30-12.16; p = 0.016) and anticholinergic risk score (OR: 3.08; 95% CI: 0.87-10.89; p = 0.081). Presence of ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure appeared 'protective' (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05-0.62; p = 0.007). The original CAT score was not significantly associated with hospitalization risk. In conclusion, as a predictor of respiratory-related hospitalizations, an adjusted CAT score was marginally significant (although the original CAT score was not). 'Previous respiratory-related hospitalizations' was the strongest factor in this equation.

  16. Tonometry revisited: perfusion-related, metabolic, and respiratory components of gastric mucosal acidosis in acute cardiorespiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Stephan M; Parviainen, Ilkka; Ruokonen, Esko; Kogan, Alexander; Takala, Jukka

    2008-05-01

    Mucosal pH (pHi) is influenced by local perfusion and metabolism (mucosal-arterial pCO2 gradient, DeltapCO2), systemic metabolic acidosis (arterial bicarbonate), and respiration (arterial pCO2). We determined these components of pHi and their relation to outcome during the first 24 h of intensive care. We studied 103 patients with acute respiratory or circulatory failure (age, 63+/-2 [mean+/-SEM]; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 20+/-1; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, 8+/-0). pHi, and the effects of bicarbonate and arterial and mucosal pCO2 on pHi, were assessed at admission, 6, and 24 h. pHi was reduced (at admission, 7.27+/-0.01) due to low arterial bicarbonate and increased DeltapCO2. Low pHi (or=7.32 at admission; P=0.061) was associated with an increased DeltapCO2 in 59% of patients (mortality, 47% vs. 4% for patients with low pHi and normal DeltapCO2; P=0.0003). An increased versus normal DeltapCO2, regardless of pHi, was associated with increased mortality at admission (51% vs. 5%; Pacidosis. Inadequate tissue perfusion may persist despite stable hemodynamics and contributes to poor outcome.

  17. Chest physician-reported, work-related, long-latency respiratory disease in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Darnton, Andrew; Gittins, Matthew; Stocks, S Jill; Ross, David; Barber, Chris M; Agius, Raymond M

    2017-12-01

    Much of the current burden of long-latency respiratory disease (LLRD) in Great Britain is attributed to historical asbestos exposure. However, continuing exposure to other agents, notably silica, also contributes to disease burden. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of work-related LLRD reported by chest physicians in Great Britain, including variations by age, gender, occupation and suspected agent.LLRD incidence and incidence rate ratios by occupation were estimated (1996-2014). Mesothelioma cases by occupation were compared with proportional mortality ratios.Cases were predominantly in men (95%) and 92% of all cases were attributed to asbestos. Annual average incidence rates (males) per 100 000 were: benign pleural disease, 7.1 (95% CI 6.0-8.2); mesothelioma, 5.4 (4.8-6.0); pneumoconiosis, 1.9 (1.7-2.2); lung cancer, 0.8 (0.6-1.0); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 0.3 (0.2-0.4). Occupations with a particularly high incidence of LLRD were miners and quarrymen (COPD), plumbers and gas fitters (asbestosis), and shipyard and dock workers (all other categories). There was a clear concordance between cases of SWORD mesothelioma and proportional mortality ratios by occupation.Occupationally caused LLRD continues to contribute to a significant disease burden. Many cases are attributable to past exposure to agents such as asbestos and silica, but the potential for occupational exposures persists. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  18. Factors related to respiration influencing survival and respiratory function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardis, L; Dolenc Grošelj, L; Vidmar, G

    2012-12-01

    Various breathing abnormalities (Neurology 2009; 73: 1218) have been proposed as indicators for the introduction of non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIV) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We were interested in the usefulness of symptoms of respiratory insufficiency and abnormal results of daytime arterial gas analyses (AGA) as predictors of survival and the effect of NIV on respiratory volumes and pressures. Reported symptoms, respiratory subscore of the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-r), Norris scale (Norris-r), and AGA were retrospectively analyzed in 189 ALS patients. Longitudinal follow-up of forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP, MEP), and sniff nasal pressure (SNP) were analyzed with regard to the introduction of NIV. Respiratory symptoms were a bad prognostic sign (P = 0.007). Abnormalities in Norris-r, ALSFRS-r, pO(2), pCO(2), and oxygen saturation tended to be associated with a shorter survival, although they were not statistically significant. NIV prolonged survival and reduced the decline in FVC (P = 0.007), MIP, MEP, and SNP (the last three were not statistically significant). Symptoms, abnormal FVC, and AGA do not always coincide, and they can appear in a different sequence. Any respiratory abnormality should prompt the clinician to start discussing NIV with the patient. NIV prolongs survival and improves respiratory function. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  19. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals.......Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals....

  20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus: evolution and recombination yields distinct ORF5 RFLP 1-7-4 viruses with individual pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in United States swineherds have been associated with high mortality in piglets and severe morbidity in sows. Analysis of the ORF5 gene from such clinical cases revealed a unique restriction fragment polymorphism (...

  1. Motivational Hierarchy in the Chinese Brain: Primacy of the Individual Self, Relational Self, or Collective Self?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan; Yang, Suyong; Gu, Ruolei

    2016-01-01

    According to the three-tier hierarchy of motivational potency in the self system, the self can be divided into individual self, relational self, and collective self, and individual self is at the top of the motivational hierarchy in Western culture. However, the motivational primacy of the individual self is challenged in Chinese culture, which raises the question about whether the three-tier hierarchy of motivational potency in the self system can be differentiated in the collectivist brain. The present study recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate brain responses when participants gambled for individual self, for a close friend (relational self), or for the class (collective self). The ERP results showed that when outcome feedback was positive, gambling for individual self evoked a larger reward positivity compared with gambling for a friend or for the class, while there is no difference between the latter two conditions. In contrast, when outcome feedback was negative, no significant effect was found between conditions. The present findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence that individual self is at the top of the three-tier hierarchy of the motivational system in the collectivist brain, which supports the classical pancultural view that individual self has motivational primacy.

  2. Individual, work-, and flight-related issues in F-16 pilots reporting neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loose, Veerle; van den Oord, Marieke; Burnotte, Frédéric; van Tiggelen, Damien; Stevens, Veerle; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neck pain is a common problem in F-16 pilots. A cross-sectional survey was used to determine the self-reported 1-yr prevalence of neck pain and to compare individual, work-related, and flight-related characteristics in F-16 pilots with and without neck pain. METHOD: There were 90 male

  3. Autoimmune Disease in First-Degree Relatives and Spouses of Individuals With Celiac Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac

  4. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with different profiles of individuation in relation to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Puklek Levpušček

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuation in relation to parents represents an important developmental task during adolescence. The article focuses on the examination of different profiles of individuation in relation to parents and how these profiles manifest themselves in different periods of adolescence. We were also interested in the psychosocial characteristics that vary among adolescents with different profiles of individuation. The sample consisted of 593 adolescents in the age range of 13 to 18 years. The adolescents filled in the self-report questionnaires of individuation in relation to parents and friends, perceived parental behavior, and perceived self-efficacy in learning. They also reported about the frequency of psychological symptoms experienced in the last month. To identify the diverse groups of adolescents the scores on the scale of individuation in relation to parents were subjected to a cluster analysis. Finally, the four-cluster solution was chosen. The clusters were named: Good connectedness with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Highly harmonious relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Cold relationship with parents with threatened autonomy and Ambivalent relationship with parents. The results confirmed the hypothesis, that most adolescents will be classified in the profiles of good relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy. The results also showed that the combination of moderate emotional connectedness with parents, low parental idealization, ability to integrate autonomy and connectedness, low denial of dependency needs and low engulfment anxiety represent the most favorable individuation pattern for psychological adaptation of adolescents.

  5. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  6. A cross-cultural comparison of the coexistence and domain superiority of individuating and relating autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Bedford, Olwen; Yang, Yung-Jui

    2009-06-01

    The consensus definition of autonomy in the psychological literature emphasizes self-governance through free volition, not separation or independence from others. Since the concept of self may differ cross-culturally, several researchers have tried to incorporate types of self into the notion of autonomy; however, only the dual model of autonomy has been able to do this while retaining an emphasis on volition. The dual model describes two distinct forms of autonomy-individuating and relating-each with superior function in a specific domain of individual functioning. Individuating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act against social constraints and offers a route to achieve an independent self-identity by expressing individualistic attributes and distinctions. Relating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act by emphasizing the harmony of self-in-relation-to-others, the quality of interpersonal relationships, and self-transcendence. These two forms of autonomy have been shown to coexist at the individual level in a Taiwanese sample. This study takes the next step, with a cross-cultural test of the coexistence and domain superiority hypotheses of individuating and relating autonomy. Participants included 306 college students from Taiwan and 183 college students from the United States. Structural equation modelling by multigroup analyses confirmed the cross-cultural equivalence of the two-factor individuating autonomy and relating autonomy measurement model. Across both samples the two forms of autonomy were shown to be mutually inclusive and not exclusive or independent. The domain-superior function of each form of autonomy was also confirmed cross-culturally; each form of autonomy has a dominant, but not necessarily exclusive, domain of functioning. Specifically, individuating autonomy was more associated with intrapersonal than interpersonal domain dependent variables, while relating autonomy was more associated with interpersonal than

  7. Health-related quality of life assessment using St. George′s respiratory questionnaire in asthmatics on inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sabin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Chronic diseases like asthma have significant effects on patients′ health-related quality of life (HRQoL. HRQoL measures additional indices as compared to objective measurements like spirometry. Aims: To assess and compare disease-specific quality of life in asthma patients using St. George′s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ receiving fluticasone, beclomethasone, and budesonide (BUD. Settings and Design: A prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: A 6-month follow-up of 277 patients with mild, moderate, and severe persistent asthma was randomized to receive fluticasone propionate (FP, BUD, or beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP in equipotent doses according to their global initiative on asthma (GINA severity. Statistical analysis used: Data analyzed using SPSS version: 13.0. General linear-repeated measures using the post-hoc bonferroni method assessed significance between treatment groups. Results: Significant decrease (P < 0.05 in each SGRQ domains and total scores as well as improvement in FEV 1 (P < 0.05 was observed in all study subjects. A significant early response (P < 0.05 was noted after 15 days treatment in patients receiving FP with respect to SGRQ (activity, impact and total scores and dyspnea indices, but not FEV 1 . This improvement with FP was due to its greater effect in patients with moderate and severe persistent asthma. No difference was noted subsequently in all outcome measures studied until 6 months. Conclusions: There was evidence for an early QoL improvement to FP as compared to BUD or BDP in moderate and severe persistent asthma. Subsequently, the three ICS showed similar improvements in lung functions and dyspnea indices throughout the study.

  8. Is sleep quality related to cognition in individuals with heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chooza; Phelan, Cynthia H; Lauver, Diane R; Bratzke, Lisa C

    2015-01-01

    To examine how self-reported sleep quality and daytime symptoms are associated with selected domains of cognitive function among individuals with heart failure (HF). HF patients suffer from poor sleep quality and cognitive decline. The relationship between sleep and cognition has not been well documented among individuals with HF. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 68 individuals with HF (male: 63%, mean age = 72 years, SD = 11) completed sleep questionnaires and a neuropsychological battery. Participant had mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score of 5.04 (SD = 2.8). Regression analyses demonstrated neither sleep quality or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) were related to cognitive function, but daytime dysfunction was related to lower letter fluency and attention index. Contrary to some earlier reports, subjective sleep and EDS in this group of individuals was not associated with cognitive decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  10. Individual and work-related predictors of work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Klein Hesselink, John; Bültmann, Ute; de Boer, Michiel R; de Looze, Michiel P; van der Klink, Jac J L; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of N=5640 employees of Tata Steel in the Netherlands were retrieved from the Occupational Health Service and company registers. Work outcomes related to sustainable employment were (i) temporarily being placed in less strenuous work, (ii) sickness absence ≥6 weeks, and (iii) leaving the organization. Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for all outcome measures. Similar predictors were found for shift and day workers although some differences were observed. For shift workers, high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease were important predictors for sickness absence. For day workers, insomnia was an important predictor of sickness absence ≥6 weeks. Similar predictors in magnitude and direction were found for work outcomes related to sustainable employment among shift and day workers. Interventions aimed at enhancing sustainable employability should focus on individual and work-related characteristics.

  11. Individual differences in vagal regulation are related to testosterone responses to observed violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Porges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Observing violent content has been hypothesized to increase antisocial behaviors including interpersonal violence. Testosterone is released in response to perceived challenges of social status, often followed by an increase in aggressive behaviors and physiological activation. Prior investigations evaluating the impact of observing violence on autonomic function have focused on sympathetic measures of arousal. Measurement of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity has been neglected, although reduced PNS activity has been associated with antisocial behavior. Consistent with a hierarchical model of the autonomic nervous system (i.e., Polyvagal Theory, individual differences in PNS activity reflected in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA were hypothesized to have an inhibitory impact on sympathetic and hormonal reactivity in subjects who were observing a violent video. Autonomic data (i.e., electrodermal activity (EDA, heart rate, and RSA were collected from forty adult males prior to and while viewing violent sports or a control video. Pre- and post-video saliva samples were assayed for cortisol and testosterone. Participants who viewed the violent video exhibited increased sympathetic activity compared to controls. In contrast to the sympathetic reactivity to the violent video, there were no significant RSA changes in response to the stimuli, suggesting that viewing violent sports selectively increases sympathetic activity without eliciting PNS withdrawal. However, within the group viewing the violent video, participants with lower RSA during baseline and the observation of violent videos, responded with greater increases in salivary testosterone, suggesting that high parasympathetic tone dampens testosterone reactivity. These individual differences in response to observed violence, associated with higher RSA, may account for some of the improved health, growth, and restoration outcomes across the lifespan, that this segment of the

  12. Modeling structural, dyadic, and individual factors: the inclusion and exclusion model of HIV related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B; Glasman, Laura R; Rothman, Alexander J

    2010-12-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals' ability and motivation to detect, prevent, and treat HIV. Structural interventions create inclusions that increase one's ability or motivation to perform these behaviors or exclusions that hinder one's ability or motivation to execute counterproductive behaviors. The need to expand research regarding multilevel influences on HIV-related behavior is also discussed, particularly concerning further understanding of sustained behavior change and effective dissemination of evidence-based intervention strategies.

  13. Causes of work-related stress and individual strategies in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. This is a critical and not fully uncovered problem. The working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. This study shows that some aspects of knowledge work can have...... a negative impact on daily activities and cause frustration and work-related stress. The study also finds that few primary preventive activities have been initiated. Based on an empirical study, the authors outline the characteristics of the job as knowledge worker and how it is being experienced. The study...... to the individual for his or her working life. Self-managed knowledge workers thus experience that they stand alone when it comes to work-related problems and stress. The stress intervention applied is characteristically short-term and focused on the individual. The individual perspective consequently affects...

  14. Levels-of-processing effects in first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M

    2007-05-15

    First-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia show cognitive impairments that are similar to but less severe than their ill relatives. We have shown that memory impairments can be improved and prefrontal cortical (PFC) activity increased in individuals with schizophrenia by providing beneficial encoding strategies. The current study used a similar paradigm to determine whether siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (SIBs) also show increases in brain activity when presented with beneficial encoding strategies. Twenty-one SIBs and 38 siblings of healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while engaged in deep (abstract/concrete judgments) and shallow (orthographic judgments) encoding. Subjects were then given a recognition memory test. The groups did not differ on encoding or recognition accuracy, and the SIBs benefited from deep encoding to a similar degree as control subjects. The SIBs showed deep encoding-related activity in a number of PFC regions typically activated during semantic processing. However, SIBs showed more activity than control subjects in three subregions of PFC (left BA 44 & BA 47 bilaterally). Siblings of individuals with schizophrenia benefit from supportive verbal encoding conditions. Like individuals with schizophrenia, SIBs also show increased task-related activity in a larger number of PFC subregions than control subjects during deep verbal encoding.

  15. Effects of air pollution and seasonality on the respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) of outpatients with chronic respiratory disease in Ulaanbaatar: pilot study for the comparison of the cold and warm seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Yamauchi, Keiko; Ishihara, Yoko; Solongo, Bandi; Ichinnorov, Dashtseren

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of air pollution and seasonality on the respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) of outpatients with respiratory diseases in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Subjects were outpatients who visited the hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) or bronchial asthma (BA) in March. Their symptoms and HR-QoL were evaluated using a questionnaire including the SF-36v2 and COOP/WONCA charts in March, May and July. PM2.5 was sampled in March and July in Ulaanbaatar, and its composition was analyzed. Patients with COPD or BA showed higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the control subjects in each month. For HR-QoL, all subscales worsened in the patients than in the control group in March. Although the HR-QoL of the COPD and control groups were not significantly changed through the surveys, some subscales of the BA group showed remarkable improvement in July as compared to March. Daily means of PM2.5 in March were significantly higher than those in July. Carbon and ionic component concentrations, except for magnesium and calcium ions, were significantly higher in March than July. Mass concentrations of some metallic components were also significantly higher in March than July. The percentage of nitrate ion in PM2.5 was significantly higher in March when compared to that in July. These results suggested that the symptoms in the COPD and BA groups were caused by the disease, and the association with air pollution or seasonality remained unclear. However, the effects of air pollution and seasonality on the HR-QoL were significant in the patients with BA.

  16. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Relation to Respiratory Disease and Social Behaviors In Low-Income Infants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1993-01-01

    Examined a sample of 177 infants (age 9 through 12 months) with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) from low-income French, African, and North African Muslim families in Paris. Found a higher than normal incidence of otitis media and respiratory diseases such as bronchitis among the infants. Also examined the relationship between infant IDA and child…

  17. Respiratory disease related mortality and morbidity on an island of Greece exposed to perlite and bentonite mining dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampatakakis, Stefanos; Linos, Athena; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Petralias, Athanasios; Dalma, Archontoula; Papasaranti, Eirini Saranti; Christoforidou, Eleni; Stoltidis, Melina

    2013-10-14

    A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989-1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs), associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction.

  18. Respiratory Disease Related Mortality and Morbidity on an Island of Greece Exposed to Perlite and Bentonite Mining Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Stoltidis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A morbidity and mortality study took place, focused on Milos Island, where perlite and bentonite mining sites are located. Official data concerning number and cause of deaths, regarding specific respiratory diseases and the total of respiratory diseases, for both Milos Island and the Cyclades Prefecture were used. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs were computed, adjusted specifically for age, gender and calendar year. Tests of linear trend were performed. By means of a predefined questionnaire, the morbidity rates of specific respiratory diseases in Milos, were compared to those of the municipality of Oinofita, an industrial region. Chi-square analysis was used and the confounding factors of age, gender and smoking were taken into account, by estimating binary logistic regression models. The SMRs for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD were found elevated for both genders, although they did not reach statistical significance. For the total of respiratory diseases, a statistically significant SMR was identified regarding the decade 1989–1998. The morbidity study revealed elevated and statistically significant Odds Ratios (ORs, associated with allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, COPD and bronchiectasis. An elevated OR was also identified for asthma. After controlling for age, gender and smoking, the ORs were statistically significant and towards the same direction.

  19. The Work Ability of Hong Kong Construction Workers in Relation to Individual and Work-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jacky Y K; Chan, Alan H S

    2018-05-14

    The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force.

  20. The Work Ability of Hong Kong Construction Workers in Relation to Individual and Work-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jacky Y. K.

    2018-01-01

    The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force. PMID:29758018

  1. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  2. Individual differences in motor timing and its relation to cognitive and fine motor skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Lorås

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100 performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3 to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.

  3. Observed connection and individuation: relation to symptoms in families of adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah A; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Le Grange, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    To examine the relation between observed familial connection and individuation and adolescent bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms. As part of a treatment study for adolescent BN, adolescents (n = 54) and their parents participated in a videotaped semi-structured interview. Participants were rated on observed connection and individuation from these interviews using the Scale of Intergenerational Relationship Quality and two measures of connection. There was a significant negative relation between individuation from parents and adolescent BN symptoms. Connection both to and from mothers and adolescents was negatively associated with BN symptoms. Increased eating concern was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of expressing a desire for more connection with the family. Investigating and understanding family factors present at the time of adolescent BN may assist in providing treatment specific to the needs of the family to best aid the adolescent's recovery process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ambulance Work : Relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Aasa, Ulrika

    2005-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health complaints are an occupational problem for ambulance personnel, there is a lack of knowledge regarding work-related factors associated with MSDs and other health complaints. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes among ambulance personnel. A random sample of 234 female and 953 male ambulance personnel participated in a nat...

  5. Individual Differences in Neural Regions Functionally Related to Real and Imagined Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Ingham, Roger J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Paolini, Katherine E.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent brain imaging investigations of developmental stuttering show considerable disagreement regarding which regions are related to stuttering. These divergent findings have been mainly derived from group studies. To investigate functional neurophysiology with improved precision, an individual-participant approach (N = 4) using event-related…

  6. Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

  7. Individual and Work-Related Factors Influencing Burnout of Mental Health Professionals: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…

  8. Relational Interdependence between Social and Individual Agency in Work and Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A greater acknowledgment of relational interdependence between individual and social agencies is warranted within conceptions of learning throughout working life. Currently, some accounts of learning tend to overly privilege social agency in the form of situational contributions. This de-emphasises the contributions of the more widely socially…

  9. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking

  10. Individualism, Collectivism, and Client Expression of Different Emotions: Their Relations to Perceived Counselor Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how individualism, collectivism, and counselor emphasis of different client emotions were related to perceived counselor effectiveness. Data were collected from 192 (122 women and 70 men) Korean students attending a large university in South Korea and from 170 (115 women and 55 men) American students attending a large…

  11. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... matter in which the individual cooperated; the societal interest in ensuring that the cooperating... or related action; (iii) Whether the Investigation was initiated based on information or other... provided non-privileged information, which information was not requested by the staff or otherwise might...

  12. Witnesses to Transformation: Family Member Experiences Providing Individualized Music to Their Relatives with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth; Rasmusson, Xeno; Foyil, Barbara; Shopland, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Content analysis of 35 family members stories found that sharing individualized music enhanced memory, mood and provided interactive opportunities, where family members connected and communicated with relatives who had dementia. Technology supports a positive new role for family members, who often use MP3 players (e.g. iPods), headphones,…

  13. Interparental Conflict and Parental Divorce: The Individual, Relative, and Interactive Effects on Adolescents across Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining individual, relative, and interactive influences of parental divorce and interparental conflict on adolescent functioning. Results demonstrate that multiple areas of functioning in multiple years were predicted by parental divorce, current interparental conflict, and interaction of both variables. (CRR)

  14. Impact of War on Individual Life-cycle Creativity: Tentative Evidence in Relation to Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; O'Hagan, John

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between conflict and individual artistic output is ambiguous, both a priori and in terms of the evidence. To address this question in relation to composers, we employ a sample of 115 prominent classical composers born after 1800 and attempt to link their annual productivity with ...

  15. Ebola-related stigma in Ghana: Individual and community level determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2017-06-01

    Although Ebola-related stigmatization continues to undermine efforts to re-integrate survivors, few studies have examined what influences such stigmatizing attitudes. This paper explores the effects of both individual- and community-level factors on Ebola-related stigma in Ghana. Data were collected from a cross-section of 800 respondents, nested within 40 communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Multi-level modelling was employed for analysis. Both individual- and community-level factors were significant determinants of stigma. Respondents who endorsed myths about Ebola were significantly more likely to also endorse Ebola-related stigma. Similarly, those who were worried about a potential outbreak of Ebola in the future, had moderate risk perceptions of contracting Ebola, had primary and secondary education, and were not confident of the quality of health care in the event of an outbreak, were more likely to endorse Ebola-related stigma. Knowledge of Ebola was significant at the community level, but not at the individual level. Communities with more knowledge were less likely to endorse Ebola-related stigma. These findings underscore the need to increase the knowledge base while countering myths that undermine preventive behaviours to fight Ebola-related stigma. It is equally important to adopt multi-level interventions that emphasize community-based strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enterovirus genotypes among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, influenza-like illness, and asymptomatic individuals in South Africa, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A.; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K.

    2017-01-01

    Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimenswere further genotyped by sequencing a region of theVP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P=0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167).We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. PMID:28574589

  17. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Schouten, Leo; Bausch-Goldbohm, Sandra; Fischer, Paul; Armstrong, Ben; Hughes, Edward; Jerrett, Michael; van den Brandt, Piet

    2009-03-01

    black smoke (a simple marker for soot) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, as well as nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter pollution contributions at regional, urban, and local scales. We used interpolation from data obtained routinely at regional stations of the National Air Quality Monitoring Network (NAQMN) to estimate the regional component of exposure at the home address. Average pollutant concentrations were estimated from NAQMN measurements for the period 1976 through 1996. Land-use regression methods were used to estimate the urban exposure component. For the local exposure component, geographic information systems (GISs) were used to generate indicators of traffic exposure that included traffic intensity on and distance to nearby roads. A major effort was made to collect traffic intensity data from individual municipalities. The exposure variables were refined considerably from those used in the pilot study, but we also analyzed the data for the full cohort in the current study using the exposure indicators of the pilot study. We analyzed the data in models with the estimated overall pollutant concentration as a single variable and with the background concentration (the sum of regional and urban components) and the local exposure estimate from traffic indicators as separate variables. In the full-cohort analyses adjusted for the limited set of confounders, estimated overall exposure concentrations of black smoke, NO2, NO, and PM2.5 were associated with mortality. For a 10-microg/m3 increase in the black smoke concentration, the relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 1.05 (1.00-1.11) for natural-cause (nonaccidental) mortality, 1.04 (0.95-1.13) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.22 (0.99-1.50) for respiratory mortality, 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for lung cancer mortality, and 1.04 (0.97-1.12) for noncardiopulmonary, non-lung cancer mortality. Results were similar for

  18. Evaluation of respiratory pattern during respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Suguru; Mori, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory cycle is not strictly regular, and generally varies in amplitude and period from one cycle to the next. We evaluated the characteristics of respiratory patterns acquired during respiratory gating treatment in more than 300 patients. A total 331 patients treated with respiratory-gated carbon-ion beam therapy were selected from a group of patients with thoracic and abdominal conditions. Respiratory data were acquired for a total of 3,171 fractions using an external respiratory sensing monitor and evaluated for respiratory cycle, duty cycle, magnitude of baseline drift, and intrafractional/interfractional peak inhalation/exhalation positional variation. Results for the treated anatomical sites and patient positioning were compared. Mean ± SD respiratory cycle averaged over all patients was 4.1 ± 1.3 s. Mean ± SD duty cycle averaged over all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 %. Two types of baseline drift were seen, the first decremental and the second incremental. For respiratory peak variation, the mean intrafractional variation in peak-inhalation position relative to the amplitude in the first respiratory cycle (15.5 ± 9.3 %) was significantly larger than that in exhalation (7.5 ± 4.6 %). Interfractional variations in inhalation (17.2 ± 18.5 %) were also significantly greater than those in exhalation (9.4 ± 10.0 %). Statistically significant differences were observed between patients in the supine position and those in the prone position in mean respiratory cycle, duty cycle, and intra-/interfractional variations. We quantified the characteristics of the respiratory curve based on a large number of respiratory data obtained during treatment. These results might be useful in improving the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatment.

  19. Early consumption of human milk oligosaccharides is inversely related to subsequent risk of respiratory and enteric disease in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepans, Mary Beth Flanders; Wilhelm, Susan L; Hertzog, Melody; Rodehorst, T Kim Callahan; Blaney, Susan; Clemens, Beth; Polak, Josef J; Newburg, David S

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study tested the relationship between human milk oligosaccharide consumption, oligosaccharide content of feces, and subsequent disease in breastfed infants. Forty-nine (49) mother-infant pairs provided milk and fecal samples 2 weeks postpartum; infant health was assessed through 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. LNF-II (lacto-N-fucopentaose II), a major human milk oligosaccharide, was measured to represent levels of total oligosaccharides consumed in milk and remaining in feces. LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks postpartum were associated with fewer infant respiratory problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.010), as were LNF-II levels in infant feces (p = 0.003). LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks were also associated with fewer respiratory problems by 12 weeks (p = 0.038), and fewer enteric problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.004) and 12 weeks (p = 0.045). Thus, consumption of human milk oligosaccharides through breastfeeding, represented by LNF-II, was associated with less reported respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in infants.

  20. Are severe depressive symptoms associated with infertility-related distress in individuals and their partners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Sejbæk, Camilla Sandal; Prritano, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    the individual and partner level. What is known already?: An infertility diagnosis, the stress of medical treatments and a prior history of depression are risk factors for future depression in those undergoing fertility treatments. Studies examining the impact of severe depressive symptoms on infertility-related......Study question: Are severe depressive symptoms in women and men associated with individual and dyadic infertility-related stress in couples undergoing infertility treatment? Summary answer: Severe depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased infertility-related distress at both....../materials, setting, methods: Participants were consecutively referred patients undergoing a cycle of medically assisted reproduction treatment at five Danish public and private clinics specializing in treating fertility patients. Severe depressive symptoms were measured by the Mental Health Inventory 5 from...

  1. Emotional fit with culture: a predictor of individual differences in relational well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kim, Heejung; Eom, Kimin; Choi, Hyewon

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing evidence for emotional fit in couples and groups, but also within cultures. In the current research, we investigated the consequences of emotional fit at the cultural level. Given that emotions reflect people's view on the world, and that shared views are associated with good social relationships, we expected that an individual's fit to the average cultural patterns of emotion would be associated with relational well-being. Using an implicit measure of cultural fit of emotions, we found across 3 different cultural contexts (United States, Belgium, and Korea) that (1) individuals' emotional fit is associated with their level of relational well-being, and that (2) the link between emotional fit and relational well-being is particularly strong when emotional fit is measured for situations pertaining to relationships (rather than for situations that are self-focused). Together, the current studies suggest that people may benefit from emotionally "fitting in" to their culture.

  2. Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students’ postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than 7,000 rural youth in 73 high schools across 34 states. Results indicated that some individual (e.g., African American race/ethnicity) and contextual (e.g., parent education) difference factors were predictive while others were not. Extensions to, similarities, and variations with previous research are discussed. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also discussed. PMID:24474843

  3. The Impact of Air Pollution, Including Asian Sand Dust, on Respiratory Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Outpatients With Chronic Respiratory Disease in Korea: A Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Ishihara, Yoko; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Hyun, In-Gyu

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution is a growing concern in Korea because of transboundary air pollution from mainland China. A panel study was conducted to clarify the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in outpatients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Korea. Patients filled out a questionnaire including self-reported HR-QoL in February and were followed up in May and July. The study was conducted from 2013 to 2015, with different participants each year. Air quality parameters were applied in a generalized estimating equation as independent variables to predict factors affecting HR-QoL. Lower physical fitness scores were associated with Asian sand dust events. Daily activity scores were worse when there were high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm in diameter (PM 10 ). Lower social functioning scores were associated with high PM less than 2.5 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. High NO 2 concentrations also showed a significant association with mental health scores. Weather-related cough was prevalent when PM 10 , NO 2 , or ozone (O 3 ) concentrations were high, regardless of COPD severity. High PM 10 concentrations were associated with worsened wheezing, particularly in COPD patients. The results suggest that PM, NO 2 , and O 3 cause respiratory symptoms leading to HR-QoL deterioration. While some adverse effects of air pollution appeared to occur regardless of COPD, others occurred more often and more intensely in COPD patients. The public sector, therefore, needs to consider tailoring air pollution countermeasures to people with different conditions to minimize adverse health effects.

  4. The Impact of Air Pollution, Including Asian Sand Dust, on Respiratory Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Outpatients With Chronic Respiratory Disease in Korea: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Nakao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Air pollution is a growing concern in Korea because of transboundary air pollution from mainland China. A panel study was conducted to clarify the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL in outpatients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Korea. Methods Patients filled out a questionnaire including self-reported HR-QoL in February and were followed up in May and July. The study was conducted from 2013 to 2015, with different participants each year. Air quality parameters were applied in a generalized estimating equation as independent variables to predict factors affecting HR-QoL. Results Lower physical fitness scores were associated with Asian sand dust events. Daily activity scores were worse when there were high concentrations of particulate matter (PM less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10. Lower social functioning scores were associated with high PM less than 2.5 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations. High NO2 concentrations also showed a significant association with mental health scores. Weather-related cough was prevalent when PM10, NO2, or ozone (O3 concentrations were high, regardless of COPD severity. High PM10 concentrations were associated with worsened wheezing, particularly in COPD patients. Conclusions The results suggest that PM, NO2, and O3 cause respiratory symptoms leading to HR-QoL deterioration. While some adverse effects of air pollution appeared to occur regardless of COPD, others occurred more often and more intensely in COPD patients. The public sector, therefore, needs to consider tailoring air pollution countermeasures to people with different conditions to minimize adverse health effects.

  5. Gaming Increases Craving to Gaming-Related Stimuli in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Lingxiao; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-07-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU). Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU. Subjects' craving responses to gaming-related stimuli were measured before and after 30 minutes of gaming. The comparison between post- and pregaming measures showed that for IGD, gaming was associated with increased craving and increased brain activation of the lateral and prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the precuneus when exposed to gaming-related stimuli. In individuals with RGU, no enhanced brain activity was observed. These results suggest that gaming behavior enhances craving responses in subjects with IGD but not in subjects with RGU, provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying IGD, and suggest behavioral and neurobiological targets for IGD-related interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Individual and the Collective: Sociological Influences on Lacan's Concept of the Relation Subject—Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrans, David

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual analysis we discuss the sociological influences on Lacan's conceptualization of the relation between the subject and the other. In his writings predating World War II Lacan defines this relation in terms of identification. However, from 1953 onward he defines it in terms of the subject of speech and the Symbolic Other. It is a popular notion to characterize this change in terms of a radical breach, influenced by the reading of Lévi-Strauss. However, through a close reading of both Lacan's early writings and their Durkheimian influences we will demonstrate that what has changed, is Lacan's conceptualization of the relation between the individual and the collective. This change was gradual rather than sudden. Moreover, it can be situated within the theoretical evolution of the contiguous fields of sociology, anthropology and psychoanalysis. Thus we reject the idea of a breach within his own thought and with what came before him. We will establish our point through a summary of how the relation between the individual and the collective was theorized before Lacan. Durkheim conceptualized this relation as dual: the individual and the collective are radically separated. Mauss attempted to unify the field of anthropology through the holistic concept of the total man. In Lévi-Straus's formalization the individual becomes a function within a structured, Symbolic system. Finally, a reading of Lacan's publications concerning the notion of the logic of the collective will testify to his attempts at formulating a notion of the subject that asserts itself against this collective while at the same time retaining its nature of a logical function. This is the conundrum that Lacan will confront time and again throughout his teachings. Lévi-Strauss merely provided him with the methodological tools of structural anthropology that helped him refine the interrogations that he had already begun. PMID:29867625

  7. The Individual and the Collective: Sociological Influences on Lacan's Concept of the Relation Subject-Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrans, David

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual analysis we discuss the sociological influences on Lacan's conceptualization of the relation between the subject and the other. In his writings predating World War II Lacan defines this relation in terms of identification. However, from 1953 onward he defines it in terms of the subject of speech and the Symbolic Other. It is a popular notion to characterize this change in terms of a radical breach, influenced by the reading of Lévi-Strauss. However, through a close reading of both Lacan's early writings and their Durkheimian influences we will demonstrate that what has changed, is Lacan's conceptualization of the relation between the individual and the collective. This change was gradual rather than sudden. Moreover, it can be situated within the theoretical evolution of the contiguous fields of sociology, anthropology and psychoanalysis. Thus we reject the idea of a breach within his own thought and with what came before him. We will establish our point through a summary of how the relation between the individual and the collective was theorized before Lacan. Durkheim conceptualized this relation as dual: the individual and the collective are radically separated. Mauss attempted to unify the field of anthropology through the holistic concept of the total man. In Lévi-Straus's formalization the individual becomes a function within a structured, Symbolic system. Finally, a reading of Lacan's publications concerning the notion of the logic of the collective will testify to his attempts at formulating a notion of the subject that asserts itself against this collective while at the same time retaining its nature of a logical function. This is the conundrum that Lacan will confront time and again throughout his teachings. Lévi-Strauss merely provided him with the methodological tools of structural anthropology that helped him refine the interrogations that he had already begun.

  8. Enterovirus genotypes among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, influenza-like illness, and asymptomatic individuals in South Africa, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K

    2017-10-01

    Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimens were further genotyped by sequencing a region of the VP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P = 0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167). We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory symptoms in individuals having either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a European multicentre panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsani, Anna; Analitis, Antonis; Perifanou, Dimitra; Ayres, Jon G; Harrison, Roy M; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Kavouras, Ilias G; Pekkanen, Juha; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kos, Gerard Pa; de Hartog, Jeroen J; Hoek, Gerard; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2012-10-05

    Particulate matter air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects. The fraction of ambient particles that are mainly responsible for the observed health effects is still a matter of controversy. Better characterization of the health relevant particle fraction will have major implications for air quality policy since it will determine which sources should be controlled.The RUPIOH study, an EU-funded multicentre study, was designed to examine the distribution of various ambient particle metrics in four European cities (Amsterdam, Athens, Birmingham, Helsinki) and assess their health effects in participants with asthma or COPD, based on a detailed exposure assessment. In this paper the association of central site measurements with respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities is examined. At each centre a panel of participants with either asthma or COPD recorded respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities in a diary for six months. Exposure assessment included simultaneous measurements of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles at a central site. Data on gaseous pollutants were also collected. The associations of the 24-hour average concentrations of air pollution indices with the health outcomes were assessed in a hierarchical modelling approach. A city specific analysis controlling for potential confounders was followed by a meta-analysis to provide overall effect estimates. A 10 μg/m3 increase in previous day coarse particles concentrations was positively associated with most symptoms (an increase of 0.6 to 0.7% in average) and limitation in walking (OR= 1.076, 95% CI: 1.026-1.128). Same day, previous day and previous two days ozone concentrations were positively associated with cough (OR= 1.061, 95% CI: 1.013-1.111; OR= 1.049, 95% CI: 1.016-1.083 and OR= 1.059, 95% CI: 1.027-1.091, respectively). No consistent associations were observed between fine particle concentrations, nitrogen dioxide and respiratory health effects. As for particle

  10. Individual and contextual factors related to binge drinking among adolescents in Spain: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Sordo, Luis; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M Teresa; Belza, María José J; Espelt, Albert

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of binge drinking by regions in Spain and assess the effect of individual and contextual factors related to this drinking pattern in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the 2014 Spanish School Survey on Drug Use (ESTUDES) in students aged 14-18 years (N = 34,259). The outcome was binge drinking in adolescents during the last 30 days. Individual independent variables were socioeconomic variables and variables related to access to alcohol and its availability. Contextual variables consisted of adult alcohol consumption, public policies on alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals.  The results showed that the prevalence of youth binge drinking by region of residence was similar for both sexes (r = 0.72). At the individual level, binge drinking was mainly associated with the perception of easy access to alcohol (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23-1.55), consumption in open areas [(PR: 3.82; 95% CI: 3.44-4.24) < once a month and (PR: 6.57; 95% CI: 5.85-7.37) ≥ once a month], at least one parent allowing alcohol consumption (PR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.37-1.47), and receiving >30 euros weekly (PR :1.51; 95% CI: 1.37-1.67). Contextual variables were not associated with youth binge drinking when individual variables were considered. In conclusion, youth binge drinking was associated with individual variables related to high alcohol accessibility and availability, regardless of contextual variables. These variables explained the variability in binge drinking among Spanish regions.

  11. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  12. Assessment of relative individual renal function based on DMSA uptake corrected for renal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estorch, M.; Camacho, V.; Tembl, A.; Mena, I.; Hernandez, A.; Flotats, A.; Carrio, I.; Torres, G.; Prat, L.

    2002-01-01

    Decreased relative renal DMSA uptake can be a consequence of abnormal kidney size, associated with normal or impaired renal function. The quantification of relative renal function based on DMSA uptake in both kidneys is an established method for the assessment of individual renal function. Aim: To assess relative renal function by means of quantification of renal DMSA uptake corrected for kidney size. Results were compared with relative renal DMSA uptake without size correction, and were validated against the absolute renal DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Four-hundred-forty-four consecutive patients (147 adults, mean age 14 years) underwent a DMSA study for several renal diseases. The relative renal function, based on the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size, and the absolute renal DMSA uptake were calculated. In order to relate the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size with the absolute DMSA uptake, subtraction of uncorrected (SU) and corrected (SC) relative uptake percentages of each pair of kidneys was obtained, and these values were correlated to the matched subtraction percentages of absolute uptake (SA). If the individual relative renal function is normal (45%-55%), the subtraction value is less or equal to 10%. Results: In 227 patients (51%) the relative renal DMSA uptake value was normal either uncorrected or corrected for renal size (A), and in 149 patients (34%) it was abnormal by both quantification methods (B). Seventy-seven patients (15%) had the relative renal DMSA uptake abnormal only by the uncorrected method (C). Subtraction value of absolute DMSA uptake percentages was not significantly different of subtraction value of relative DMSA uptake percentages corrected for renal size when relative uncorrected uptake was abnormal and corrected normal. where * p<0.0001, and p=NS. Conclusion: When uncorrected and corrected relative DMSA uptake are abnormal, the absolute uptake is also impaired, while when

  13. Relative Age in School and Suicide among Young Individuals in Japan: A Regression Discontinuity Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    Full Text Available Evidence collected in many parts of the world suggests that, compared to older students, students who are relatively younger at school entry tend to have worse academic performance and lower levels of income. This study examined how relative age in a grade affects suicide rates of adolescents and young adults between 15 and 25 years of age using data from Japan.We examined individual death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan from 1989 to 2010. In contrast to other countries, late entry to primary school is not allowed in Japan. We took advantage of the school entry cutoff date to implement a regression discontinuity (RD design, assuming that the timing of births around the school entry cutoff date was randomly determined and therefore that individuals who were born just before and after the cutoff date have similar baseline characteristics.We found that those who were born right before the school cutoff day and thus youngest in their cohort have higher mortality rates by suicide, compared to their peers who were born right after the cutoff date and thus older. We also found that those with relative age disadvantage tend to follow a different career path than those with relative age advantage, which may explain their higher suicide mortality rates.Relative age effects have broader consequences than was previously supposed. This study suggests that policy intervention that alleviates the relative age effect can be important.

  14. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Kespohl, Sabine; Jacobsen, Gitte; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2011-03-01

    Wood dust exposure may cause Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases. Our objectives were to estimate pine and beech dust sensitization rates among woodworkers and a reference group, explore the association between exposure and sensitization and between sensitization and respiratory symptoms, and finally investigate the impact of proteinogenic specific IgE (sIgE) epitopes on respiratory symptoms. In a Danish study among 52 furniture factories and 2 reference factories, we evaluated the workers' asthma and rhinitis status using questionnaires and blood samples collected from 1506 woodworkers and 195 references. Workers with asthma symptoms (N=298), a random study sample (N=399) and a random rhinitis sample (N=100) were evaluated for IgE-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust. The prevalence of pine and beech sensitization among current woodworkers was 1.7 and 3.1%, respectively. No differences in sensitization rates were found between woodworkers and references, but the prevalence of wood dust sensitization was dose-dependently associated with the current level of wood dust exposure. No relation was observed between wood dust sensitization per se and respiratory symptoms. Only symptomatic subjects had proteinogenic IgE epitopes to pine. Increased odds ratios for sIgE based on proteinogenic epitopes to beech and respiratory symptoms were found, although they were not statistically significant. Sensitization rates to pine and beech were the same for woodworkers and references but dependent on the current wood dust exposure level. The importance of beech and pine wood sensitization is limited, but may be of clinical significance for a few workers if the IgE epitopes are proteinogenic.

  15. Event-related potential indices of inter-individual and age differences in visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Töllner, Thomas; Dyrholm, Mads

    The ‘Theory of Visual Attention’ quantifies an individual’s capacity of attentional resources in parameters visual processing speed C and vSTM storage capacity K. By combining TVA-based assessment with neurophysiology, we showed that distinct ERP components index inter-individual differences......-related changes in attentional capacities, these ERP markers of individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity were validated in an older group. Furthermore, additional components were related to performance exclusively in older inidividuals: Anterior N1 amplitudes were reduced for slower older...... that reorganization of attentional brain networks, including age-specific decline and compensation mechanisms, determines older individuals’ attention capacity. Furthermore, we show that the distinctiveness of the two functions, as defined in TVA, is preserved (or even increased) in older age....

  16. Hiring, Developing, and Organizing Individual Employees for New Product Development versus Product-related Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Schleimer, Stephanie

    should be hired. For the latter case, these employees’ individual careers must be developed internally once hired. The paper therefore carries important implication for the innovation management literature and related human resource practices at different organizational levels.......This study examines how manufacturing firms should organize their human resources by maximizing the value of individual employees for different forms of innovations. In particular, it examines the hiring, developing, and structural organization of human resources for optimizing different innovation...... the value of human resource hiring and developing practices for new product development success; organizations will find it more beneficial to invest predominantly in employees with the highest possible educational level, whilst for product-related service innovations; employees with more general skills...

  17. The Test of Inaccurate Position of Renography Detector to Relative UptakeFigure and Individual Excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Supardiyono; Prayitno

    2000-01-01

    Accuracy of detector position toward the kidney location (preciseposition) in renography will resulting the maximum count figure, detectorposition change from the precise point (inaccurate) will decreasing the countrate. Therefore for it had been simulated the influence of count figure ofright kidney (fixed left kidney count) ± 5 % to ± 20 % to relativeuptake figure and individual excretion. Based on the calculation it was foundthat the relation of detector position ± 0.5 cm to ± 2 cm from theprecise point will have effect to relative uptake figure ± (1.25 % to 5.00%), the fixed individual excretion figure. The change is still can beaccepted because the qualitative information with 10 % accuracy is stillacceptable. (author)

  18. Psychological distress and visual functioning in relation to vision-related disability in older individuals with cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J G; Anstey, K J; Lord, S R

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether demographic, health status and psychological functioning measures, in addition to impaired visual acuity, are related to vision-related disability. Participants were 105 individuals (mean age=73.7 years) with cataracts requiring surgery and corrected visual acuity in the better eye of 6/24 to 6/36 were recruited from waiting lists at three public out-patient ophthalmology clinics. Visual disability was measured with the Visual Functioning-14 survey. Visual acuity was assessed using better and worse eye logMAR scores and the Melbourne Edge Test (MET) for edge contrast sensitivity. Data relating to demographic information, depression, anxiety and stress, health care and medication use and numbers of co-morbid conditions were obtained. Principal component analysis revealed four meaningful factors that accounted for 75% of the variance in visual disability: recreational activities, reading and fine work, activities of daily living and driving behaviour. Multiple regression analyses determined that visual acuity variables were the only significant predictors of overall vision-related functioning and difficulties with reading and fine work. For the remaining visual disability domains, non-visual factors were also significant predictors. Difficulties with recreational activities were predicted by stress, as well as worse eye visual acuity, and difficulties with activities of daily living were associated with self-reported health status, age and depression as well as MET contrast scores. Driving behaviour was associated with sex (with fewer women driving), depression, anxiety and stress scores, and MET contrast scores. Vision-related disability is common in older individuals with cataracts. In addition to visual acuity, demographic, psychological and health status factors influence the severity of vision-related disability, affecting recreational activities, activities of daily living and driving.

  19. Respiratory health status is impaired in UK HIV-positive adults with virologically suppressed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; McGowan, J A; Chouial, H; Capocci, S; Smith, C; Ivens, D; Johnson, M; Sathia, L; Shah, R; Lampe, F C; Rodger, A; Lipman, M

    2017-09-01

    We sought to evaluate whether people living with HIV (PLWH) using effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) have worse respiratory health status than similar HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 197 HIV-positive and 93 HIV-negative adults from HIV and sexual health clinics. They completed a questionnaire regarding risk factors for respiratory illness. Respiratory health status was assessed using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Subjects underwent spirometry without bronchodilation. PLWH had worse respiratory health status: the median SGRQ Total score was 12 [interquartile range (IQR) 6-25] in HIV-positive subjects vs. 6 (IQR 2-14) in HIV-negative subjects (P respiratory health appears more common in HIV-positive adults, and has a significant impact on health-related quality of life. © 2017 The Authors HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  20. Relative magnitudes of the effects of electrostatic image and thermo-phoretic forces on particles in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board's Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation has recommended research into the deposition, in the lung, of charged particles in the size range 0.005-1 μm. In vivo measurements of the temperature distribution in the respiratory tract have been used to estimate the temperature gradients in the generations up to the segmental bronchus. These gradients define the thermo-phoretic velocities, which oppose deposition during inhalation and assist it during exhalation. The thermo-phoretic forces are effective over a longer range than those due to the electrostatic image of a single charge; and, at distances greater than a few microns from the airway wall, the thermo-phoretic velocities of 0.02 and 0.1 μn particles are greater than those due to electrostatic drift. It is concluded that models describing the effects of electric charge on the deposition of particles with diameters of order 0.1 μm need to take account of the thermal conditions in the respiratory tract. (authors)

  1. Respiratory muscle training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Nathan; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2018-05-24

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in white populations, and causes respiratory dysfunction in the majority of individuals. Numerous types of respiratory muscle training to improve respiratory function and health-related quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis have been reported in the literature. Hence a systematic review of the literature is needed to establish the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of most recent search: 17 April 2018.A hand search of the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pulmonology was performed, along with an electronic search of online trial databases up until 07 May 2018. Randomised controlled studies comparing respiratory muscle training with a control group in people with cystic fibrosis. Review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from trial authors where necessary. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system MAIN RESULTS: Authors identified 19 studies, of which nine studies with 202 participants met the review's inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in the methodological and written quality of the included studies. Four of the nine included studies were published as abstracts only and lacking concise details, thus limiting the information available. Seven studies were parallel studies and two of a cross-over design. Respiratory

  2. The relation between self-determination and retirement satisfaction among active retired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the motivational forces leading retired individuals to engage in post-retirement activities and how they could be related to satisfaction with retirement. Using the self-determination framework, the purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine the nature of active retirees' motivation and its impact on satisfaction with life in retirement. The Global Motivation Scale and measures of satisfaction with retirement were administered to 150 active retired individuals engaged in organized post-retirement activities in a University-based organization. Results revealed that these individuals were mainly characterized by higher levels of intrinsic motivation for knowledge, stimulation and accomplishment, rather than extrinsic dimensions. Regression analysis further demonstrated that intrinsic motivation for both accomplishment and stimulation were positively related to satisfaction with retirement, over and above the significant contribution of time since retirement, anticipated satisfaction with retirement, and subjective health. This exploratory study highlights the motivational mechanisms through which post-retirement behaviors could positively influence satisfaction with life in retirement among active retirees.

  3. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular

  4. The Relationship Between Online Video Game Involvement and Gaming-Related Friendships Among Emotionally Sensitive Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones. PMID:24660878

  5. The relationship between online video game involvement and gaming-related friendships among emotionally sensitive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowert, Rachel; Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones.

  6. Individual differences at high perceptual load: the relation between trait anxiety and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith

    2011-06-01

    Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.

  7. The interplay between feedback-related negativity and individual differences in altruistic punishment: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Enge, Sören; Strobel, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To date, the interplay betwexen neurophysiological and individual difference factors in altruistic punishment has been little understood. To examine this issue, 45 individuals participated in a Dictator Game with punishment option while the feedback-related negativity (FRN) was derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Unlike previous EEG studies on the Dictator Game, we introduced a third party condition to study the effect of fairness norm violations in addition to employing a first person perspective. For the first time, we also examined the role of individual differences, specifically fairness concerns, positive/negative affectivity, and altruism/empathy as well as recipients' financial situation during altruistic punishment. The main results show that FRN amplitudes were more pronounced for unfair than for fair assignments in both the first person and third party perspectives. These findings suggest that FRN amplitudes are sensitive to fairness norm violations and play a crucial role in the recipients' evaluation of dictator assignments. With respect to individual difference factors, recipients' current financial situation affected the FRN fairness effect in the first person perspective, indicating that when being directly affected by the assignments, more affluent participants experienced stronger violations of expectations in altruistic punishment decisions. Regarding individual differences in trait empathy, in the third party condition FRN amplitudes were more pronounced for those who scored lower in empathy. This may suggest empathy as another motive in third party punishment. Independent of the perspective taken, higher positive affect was associated with more punishment behavior, suggesting that positive emotions may play an important role in restoring violated fairness norms.

  8. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, P.; Miranda-Filho, D.B.; Bandeira, F.; Lacerda, H.R.; Chaves, H.; Albuquerque, M.F.P.M.; Montarroyos, U.R.; Ximenes, R.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4 + T-cell count <200 cells/mm 3 had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4 + T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV

  9. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, P. [Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, D.B. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bandeira, F. [Serviço de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, H.R. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, H. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Albuquerque, M.F.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães,FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE (Brazil); Montarroyos, U.R. [Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Ximenes, R.A.A. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count <200 cells/mm{sup 3} had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  10. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Monteiro

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261 and a comparison group (N = 82 of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France. The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ had a higher PWV (P = 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  11. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  12. Antigen-specific H1N1 influenza antibody responses in acute respiratory tract infections and their relation to influenza infection and disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, John Patrick; Hoaglin, David C; Chen, Huaiqing; Boyer, Edward W; Lu, Shan

    2014-08-01

    Early antibody responses to influenza infection are important in both clearance of virus and fighting the disease. Acute influenza antibody titers directed toward H1-antigens and their relation to infection type and patient outcomes have not been well investigated. Using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, we aimed to characterize the H1-specific antibody titers in patients with influenza infection or another respiratory infection before and after the H1N1-pandemic influenza outbreak. Among patients with acute influenza infection we related duration of illness, severity of symptoms, and need for hospitalization to antibody titers. There were 134 adult patients (average age 34.7) who presented to an urban academic emergency department (ED) from October through March during the 2008-2011 influenza seasons with symptoms of fever and a cough. Nasal aspirates were tested by viral culture, and peripheral blood serum was run in seven H1-subtype HI assays. Acutely infected influenza patients had markedly lower antibody titers for six of the seven pseudotype viruses. For the average over the seven titers (log units, base 2) their mean was 7.24 (95% CI 6.88, 7.61) compared with 8.60 (95% CI 8.27, 8.92) among patients who had a non-influenza respiratory illness, pinfection, titers of some antibodies correlated with severity of symptoms and with total duration of illness (pacute respiratory infections, lower concentrations of H1-influenza-specific antibodies were associated with influenza infection. Among influenza-infected patients, higher antibody titers were present in patients with a longer duration of illness and with higher severity-of-symptom scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytokine and nitric oxide levels in patients with sepsis--temporal evolvement and relation to platelet mitochondrial respiratory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander

    2014-01-01

    the correlation between observed changes in platelet mitochondrial respiration and a set of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as NO plasma levels in patients with sepsis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Platelet mitochondrial respiration and levels of TNFα, MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), INFγ (interferon......-γ), IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17 and NO were analyzed in 38 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at three time points during one week following admission to the ICU. Citrate synthase, mitochondrial DNA and cytochrome c were measured as markers of cellular mitochondrial content....... All mitochondrial respiratory states increased over the week analyzed (prespiration on day 6-7 (p = 0.02, r2 = 0.22) and was also higher in non-survivors compared to survivors on day 3-4 and day 6-7 (p = 0.03 respectively). Neither NO nor any...

  14. Do individual differences in children's curiosity relate to their inquiry-based learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates how individual differences in 7- to 9-year-olds' curiosity relate to the inquiry-learning process and outcomes in environments differing in structure. The focus on curiosity as individual differences variable was motivated by the importance of curiosity in science education, and uncertainty being central to both the definition of curiosity and the inquiry-learning environment. Curiosity was assessed with the Underwater Exploration game (Jirout, J., & Klahr, D. (2012). Children's scientific curiosity: In search of an operational definition of an elusive concept. Developmental Review, 32, 125-160. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.04.002), and inquiry-based learning with the newly developed Scientific Discovery task, which focuses on the principle of designing informative experiments. Structure of the inquiry-learning environment was manipulated by explaining this principle or not. As intelligence relates to learning and possibly curiosity, it was taken into account. Results showed that children's curiosity was positively related to their knowledge acquisition, but not to their quality of exploration. For low intelligent children, environment structure positively affected their quality of exploration, but not their knowledge acquisition. There was no interaction between curiosity and environment structure. These results support the existence of two distinct inquiry-based learning processes - the designing of experiments, on the one hand, and the reflection on performed experiments, on the other - and link children's curiosity to the latter process.

  15. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eMueller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training three days per week over a period of three months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI, reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing.

  16. Individual visual working memory capacities and related brain oscillatory activities are modulated by color preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Subjective preferences affect many processes, including motivation, along with individual differences. Although incentive motivations are proposed to increase our limited visual working memory (VWM) capacity, much less is known about the effects of subjective preferences on VWM-related brain systems, such as the prefrontal and parietal cortices. Here, we investigate the differences in VWM capacities and brain activities during presentation of preferred and non-preferred colors. To this end, we used time-frequency (TF) analyses of electroencephalograph (EEG) data recorded during a delayed-response task. Behavioral results showed that the individual VWM capacities of preferred colors were significantly higher than those of non-preferred colors. The EEG results showed that the frontal theta and beta amplitudes for maintenance of preferred colors were higher than those of non-preferred colors. Interestingly, the frontal beta amplitudes were consistent with recent EEG recordings of the effects of reward on VWM systems, in that they were strongly and individually correlated with increasing VWM capacities from non-preferred to preferred colors. These results suggest that subjective preferences affect VWM systems in a similar manner to reward-incentive motivations.

  17. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  18. Individual visual working memory capacities and related brain oscillatory activities are modulated by color preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Subjective preferences affect many processes, including motivation, along with individual differences. Although incentive motivations are proposed to increase our limited visual working memory (VWM capacity, much less is known about the effects of subjective preferences on VWM-related brain systems, such as the prefrontal and parietal cortices. Here, we investigate the differences in VWM capacities and brain activities during presentation of preferred and non-preferred colors. To this end, we used time-frequency analyses of electroencephalograph (EEG data recorded during a delayed-response task. Behavioral results showed that the individual VWM capacities of preferred colors were significantly higher than those of non-preferred colors. The EEG results showed that the frontal theta and beta amplitudes for maintenance of preferred colors were higher than those of non-preferred colors. Interestingly, the frontal beta amplitudes were consistent with recent EEG recordings of the effects of reward on VWM systems, in that they were strongly and individually correlated with increasing VWM capacities from non-preferred to preferred colors. These results suggest that subjective preferences affect VWM systems in a similar manner to reward-incentive motivations.

  19. Reactive Balance in Individuals With Chronic Stroke: Biomechanical Factors Related to Perturbation-Induced Backward Falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salot, Pooja; Patel, Prakruti; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-03-01

    An effective compensatory stepping response is the first line of defense for preventing a fall during sudden large external perturbations. The biomechanical factors that contribute to heightened fall risk in survivors of stroke, however, are not clearly understood. It is known that impending sensorimotor and balance deficits poststroke predispose these individuals to a risk of fall during sudden external perturbations. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of fall risk in survivors of chronic stroke when exposed to sudden, slip-like forward perturbations in stance. This was a cross-sectional study. Fourteen individuals with stroke, 14 age-matched controls (AC group), and 14 young controls (YC group) were exposed to large-magnitude forward stance perturbations. Postural stability was computed as center of mass (COM) position (XCOM/BOS) and velocity (ẊCOM/BOS) relative to the base of support (BOS) at first step lift-off (LO) and touch-down (TD) and at second step TD. Limb support was quantified as vertical hip descent (Zhip) from baseline after perturbation onset. All participants showed a backward balance loss, with 71% of the stroke group experiencing a fall compared with no falls in the control groups (AC and YC groups). At first step LO, no between-group differences in XCOM/BOS and ẊCOM/BOS were noted. At first step TD, however, the stroke group had a significantly posterior XCOM/BOS and backward ẊCOM/BOS compared with the control groups. At second step TD, individuals with stroke were still more unstable (more posterior XCOM/BOS and backward ẊCOM/BOS) compared with the AC group. Individuals with stroke also showed greater peak Zhip compared with the control groups. Furthermore, the stroke group took a larger number of steps with shorter step length and delayed step initiation compared with the control groups. Although the study highlights the reactive balance deficits increasing fall risk in survivors of stroke compared with healthy

  20. Association between respiratory and postural adaptations and self-perception of school-aged children with mouth breathing in relation to their quality of life

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    Suélen E. Uhlig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the respiratory and postural adaptations associated with mouth and nasal breathing and to evaluate the associations of such adaptations in mouth breathers' self-perceived quality of life. Method: Cross-sectional study with mouth breathers (initial n=116 and final n=48 and nasal breathers (initial n=131 and final n=24 from elementary school, aged between 7 and 14 years. Chest expansion, using cirtometry, the breathing pattern and the use of accessory muscles, by means of clinical evaluations and photogrammetry, and flexibility tests were evaluated in both groups. Subsequently, the mouth breathers were asked to complete the quality of life questionnaire. Statistical tests: Chi-square, odds ratio, Mann-Whitney, and binomial tests were first applied followed by logistic regressions. Results: Thoracic breathing (p=0.04, using of accessory muscles (p=0.03 and reductions in flexibility (p=0.001 increased the chances of an individual being a mouth breather when compared to nasal breathers. Subsequently, using of accessory muscles decreased the chances of snoring among mouth breathers (p=0.03; the presence of shoulder asymmetry reduced the chances of experiencing quiet sleep (p=0.05 and increased the chances of coughing or being tired when playing or running (p=0.008. Finally, forward head position reduced the chances of waking up at night (p=0.04 and experiencing shortness of breath (p=0.05. Conclusions: Respiratory and postural adaptations increased the chances of individuals persisting with mouth breathing. Additionally, these adaptations could be associated with mouth breathers' self-perceived quality of life.

  1. Individual factors and perceived community characteristics in relation to mental health and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Helen; Tully, Mark A; Hunter, Ruth F; Kouvonen, Anne; Veal, Philip; Stevenson, Michael; Kee, Frank

    2015-12-12

    It has been argued that though correlated with mental health, mental well-being is a distinct entity. Despite the wealth of literature on mental health, less is known about mental well-being. Mental health is something experienced by individuals, whereas mental well-being can be assessed at the population level. Accordingly it is important to differentiate the individual and population level factors (environmental and social) that could be associated with mental health and well-being, and as people living in deprived areas have a higher prevalence of poor mental health, these relationships should be compared across different levels of neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional representative random sample of 1,209 adults from 62 Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Belfast, Northern Ireland (Feb 2010 - Jan 2011) were recruited in the PARC Study. Interview-administered questionnaires recorded data on socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, individual social capital, self-rated health, mental health (SF-8) and mental well-being (WEMWBS). Multi-variable linear regression analyses, with inclusion of clustering by SOAs, were used to explore the associations between individual and perceived community characteristics and mental health and mental well-being, and to investigate how these associations differed by the level of neighbourhood deprivation. Thirty-eight and 30 % of variability in the measures of mental well-being and mental health, respectively, could be explained by individual factors and the perceived community characteristics. In the total sample and stratified by neighbourhood deprivation, age, marital status and self-rated health were associated with both mental health and well-being, with the 'social connections' and local area satisfaction elements of social capital also emerging as explanatory variables. An increase of +1 in EQ-5D-3 L was associated with +1SD of the population mean in both mental health and well-being. Similarly, a

  2. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

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    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  3. Study of dose and relative risk of occupationally exposed individuals in interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Filho, Jose A.M.; Reis, Charlene O.; Taniguti, Lana T.; Pacifico, Leonardo C.; SaintYves, Thalis L.A.; Mecca, Fernando A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the occupational effective dose and the relative risk of leukemia and cancers of the digestive tract mortality through dose study of the most radiosensitive anatomical regions (lens, thyroid, chest and gonads) of the professionals involved in interventional gonad procedures. It was considered a cumulative exposure time of 10,000 hours, which is the occupational exposure time of an IOE in throughout his professional life. It was also considered that they always use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Mathematical models derived from epidemiological data contained in the BEIR V and in the IAEA’s TECDOC 870 are used to estimate the relative risk. The results show a significant increase in mortality risk for these types of cancer for individuals occupationally exposed to three different distances from the x-ray beam, and reinforces that radiation protection measures are essential. (author)

  4. [Respiratory handicap. Recognition, evaluation and social benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, J; Pujet, J C

    1983-01-01

    The medico-social aspects of respiratory handicap pose some perplexing problems, notably in their recognition, rigorous evaluation and in the granting of social security benefits. The clinical and respiratory function data should be standardised and classified according to type and significance of respiratory disease and also according to the degree of co-operation and understanding of the patient. The respiratory handicap should be evaluated after considering the functional disability engendered by the disorder and their socio-professional repercussions. The abnormality in the lungs should be measured by resting tests; the degree of disability by exercise studies; the socio-professional handicap by ergonometric tests to assess the scale of the demands and requirements of family and social and professional life, indeed the cultural and economic style of the individual concerned. Such combined studies would enable recognition of severe chronic respiratory handicap leading to decisions for exemption certificates, such as cases of severe respiratory failure in patients requiring supplementary treatment for oxygen therapy or assisted ventilation. The benefits and grants offered to those with respiratory handicaps would involve a number of rights relating to: care, work, costs of replacement of workers in the event of prolonged sick leave or the benefits of an invalidity pension. There will be other allowances such as invalidity cards, lodging special studies and other rights particularly relating to lodging and special equipment. The present scale is difficult to use both because of its lack of specificity and its ill-chosen terminology. For better balance between the handicap and the benefits offered, a common and more flexible system, with a printed table should be at hand for the doctor to use for certain decisions: long term illness, period of invalidity or early retirement because of medical incapacity. Within each table a sub-section should exist to allow for

  5. Increased Rates of Respiratory and Diarrheal Illnesses in HIV-Negative Persons Living With HIV-Infected Individuals in a Densely Populated Urban Slum in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P 5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent work-related impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather K; Tompa, Emile; Wang, Ying; Liao, Qing

    2014-07-11

    Recent estimates indicate that at least one in five activity-limiting injuries occurs at work. Of individuals who suffer these injuries approximately 10% experience some degree of functional impairment. We were interested in investigating long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent impairment from work injury and to examine whether work disability is a significant explanatory factor. We used a retrospective matched cohort methodology to examine differences in mortality rates between individuals with permanent impairment from a work injury and a group of non-injured controls over a 19-year period. We used a sample of impaired workers to investigate the impact of work disability on mortality risk using percentage of earnings recovery after injury as the key proxy measure. All analyses were stratified by sex. Permanent impairment from a work injury was predictive of premature mortality in both male and female claimants, though the risk was slightly higher among women. Work disability was a key explanatory factor in the rate of death among impaired workers, the effects being more pronounced in men. We also found that higher impairment level was associated with mortality in men but not in women. The study demonstrates the impact of permanent work-related impairment on longevity and identifies work disability as an important determinant of mortality risk. Given the disconnect between impairment ratings derived from standard diagnostic tools and labour-market activity after accident, more research is needed on the specific factors that contribute to work disability, particularly those related to psycho-social health and well-being.

  7. Computed tomography assessment of hip joints in asymptomatic individuals in relation to femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Alan C L; Gooding, Andrew J; Coates, Mark H; Goh, Tony D; Armour, Paul; Rietveld, John

    2010-06-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement has become a well-recognized entity predisposing to acetabular labral tears and chondral damage, and subsequently development of osteoarthritis of the hip joint. In the authors' experience, it is common to see bony abnormalities predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement in the contralateral asymptomatic hips in patients with unilateral femoroacetabular impingement. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of bony abnormalities predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement in asymptomatic individuals without exposing study participants to unnecessary radiation. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty individuals (100 hip joints), ranging from 15 to 40 years of age, who were seen at a local hospital between March and August 2008 with abdominal trauma or nonspecific abdominal pain in whom abdominal computed tomography was performed to aid diagnosis were prospectively studied. These patients were not known to have any history of hip-related problems. Raw data from the abdominal computed tomography scan, performed on a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography scanner, were reformatted using bone algorithm into several different planes. Several measurements and observations of the hip joints were made in relation to femoroacetabular impingement. The 100 hip joints from 50 patients with no history of hip problems demonstrated that 39% of the joints (31% of female, 48% of male joints) have at least 1 morphologic aspect predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement. The majority (66% to 100% ) of the findings were bilateral; 33% of female and 52% of male asymptomatic participants in our study had at least 1 predisposing factor for femoroacetabular impingement in 1 or both of their hip joints. Based on the data collected from this study, the acetabular crossover sign had a 71% sensitivity and 88% specificity for detecting acetabular retroversion. Nonquantitative assessment of the femoral head at the anterior

  8. Reduced reward-related neural response to mimicry in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Neufeld, Janina; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2018-03-01

    Mimicry is a facilitator of social bonds in humans, from infancy. This facilitation is made possible through changing the reward value of social stimuli; for example, we like and affiliate more with people who mimic us. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are marked by difficulties in forming social bonds. In this study, we investigate whether the reward-related neural response to being mimicked is altered in individuals with ASD, using a simple conditioning paradigm. Multiple studies in humans and nonhuman primates have established a crucial role for the ventral striatal (VS) region in responding to rewards. In this study, adults with ASD and matched controls first underwent a conditioning task outside the scanner, where they were mimicked by one face and 'anti-mimicked' by another. In the second part, participants passively viewed the conditioned faces in a 3T MRI scanner using a multi-echo sequence. The differential neural response towards mimicking vs. anti-mimicking faces in the VS was tested for group differences as well as an association with self-reported autistic traits. Multiple regression analysis revealed lower left VS response to mimicry (mimicking > anti-mimicking faces) in the ASD group compared to controls. The VS response to mimicry was negatively correlated with autistic traits across the whole sample. Our results suggest that for individuals with ASD and high autistic traits, being mimicked is associated with lower reward-related neural response. This result points to a potential mechanism underlying the difficulties reported by many of individuals with ASD in building social rapport. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hederstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the pattern of age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise exposure. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals aged 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three age cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women. Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise exposure. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those aged 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women. This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and age-related hearing loss (ARHL. The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified.

  10. Factors related to suicide attempts among individuals with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwatananun W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chidchanok Ruengorn1,2, Kittipong Sanichwankul3, Wirat Niwatananun2, Suwat Mahatnirunkul3, Wanida Pumpaisalchai3, Jayanton Patumanond11Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: Major depressive disorder (MDD is the leading cause of suicidal behaviors. Risk related to suicide attempts among individuals with MDD remains uninvestigated in upper northern Thailand, where the completed suicide rate is the highest in the nation.Objective: To examine risk related to suicide attempts among individuals with MDD.Methods: Individuals diagnosed with MDD using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10, codes F32.x and F33.x, seeking care at Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital between October 2006 and May 2009 were eligible. All individuals with MDD admitted due to suicide attempts were defined as cases (n = 186, and four controls per case were selected from those who did not attempt suicide on the same day or within a week of case selection (n = 914. Their medical charts were reviewed for sociodemographic and clinical factors influencing suicide attempts using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Results: Factors related to suicide attempts were stressful life events (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–4.24, alcohol use (adjusted OR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.29–3.34, intermittent or poor psychiatric medications adherence (adjusted OR, 2.25; 95% CI: 1.44–3.51, up to two previous suicide attempts (adjusted OR, 3.64; 95% CI: 2.32–5.71, more than two previous suicide attempts (adjusted OR, 11.47; 95% CI: 5.73–22.95, and prescribed antipsychotics (adjusted OR, 3.84; 95% CI: 2.48–5.95. Risk factors that were inversely related to suicide attempts were increasing years of MDD treatment; one to

  11. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction by respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Lorcan; Buckley, Thomas; Hoo, Soon Y S; Hansen, Peter S; McCormack, Catherine; Shaw, Elizabeth; Fethney, Judith; Tofler, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory infection has been associated with an increased short-term risk of myocardial infarction (MI). However, previous studies have predominantly been conducted without angiographic confirmation of MI. The possibility can therefore not be excluded that raised troponin levels or electrocardiogram abnormalities that may be seen with respiratory infections are due to non-ischaemic causes. To investigate the association between respiratory infection and angiographically confirmed MI. Interviews were conducted within 4 days of hospitalisation in 578 patients with angiographically confirmed MI, to assess for recent exposure to respiratory infection symptoms and the usual annual frequency of these symptoms. Using case-crossover methodology, exposure to respiratory infection prior to the onset of MI was compared against the usual frequency of exposure in the past year. Symptoms of respiratory infection were reported by 100 (17%) and 123 (21%) within 7 and 35 days, respectively, prior to MI. The relative risk (RR) for MI occurring within 1-7 days after respiratory infection symptoms was 17.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.2-21.8), and declined with subsequent time periods. In a subgroup analysis, the RR tended to be lower in groups taking regular cardiac medications. For those who reported milder, upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, the RR for the 1-7-day time period was 13.5 (95% CI 10.2-17.7). These findings confirm that respiratory infection can trigger MI. Further study is indicated to identify treatment strategies to decrease this risk, particularly in individuals who may have increased susceptibility. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Correlation between asthma and climate in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Rolando; De Marco, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey, performed during 1991-1993, found a remarkable geographical variability in the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms in individuals aged 20-44 yr. The highest values occurred in the English-speaking centers. In the present investigation, the ecological relationship between climate and symptom prevalence was evaluated in the 48 centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Meteorological variables were derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network and were averaged over an 11-yr period (i.e., 1980-1990). Respiratory symptom prevalence was directly related to temperature in the coldest month and was related inversely to the temperature in the hottest month. Warm winters and cool summers are features of oceanic climate found in most English-speaking centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (i.e., England, New Zealand, and Oregon). In conclusion, climate can account for significant geographic variability in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  13. Atomoxetine effects on attentional bias to drug-related cues in cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Luca; Luijten, M; Ziauddeen, H; Coyle-Gilchrist, I T S; Rittman, T; Brain, S A E; Regenthal, R; Franken, I H A; Sahakian, B J; Bullmore, E T; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D

    2017-08-01

    Biased attention towards drug-related cues and reduced inhibitory control over the regulation of drug-intake characterize drug addiction. The noradrenaline system has been critically implicated in both attentional and response inhibitory processes and is directly affected by drugs such as cocaine. We examined the potentially beneficial effects of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine in improving cognitive control during two tasks that used cocaine- and non-cocaine-related stimuli. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and cross-over psycho-pharmacological design was employed. A single oral dose of atomoxetine (40 mg) was administered to 28 cocaine-dependent individuals (CDIs) and 28 healthy controls. All participants performed a pictorial attentional bias task involving both cocaine- and non-cocaine-related pictures as well as a verbal go/no-go task composed of cocaine- and food-related words. As expected, CDIs showed attentional bias to cocaine-related cues whilst controls did not. More importantly, however, atomoxetine, relative to placebo, significantly attenuated attentional bias in CDIs (F 26  = 6.73, P = 0.01). During the go/no-go task, there was a treatment × trial × group interaction, although this finding only showed a trend towards statistical significance (F 26  = 3.38, P = 0.07). Our findings suggest that atomoxetine reduces attentional bias to drug-related cues in CDIs. This may result from atomoxetine's modulation of the balance between tonic/phasic activity in the locus coeruleus and the possibly parallel enhancement of noradrenergic neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex. Studying how cognitive enhancers such as atomoxetine influence key neurocognitive indices in cocaine addiction may help to develop reliable biomarkers for patient stratification in future clinical trials.

  14. Age related differences in individual quality of life domains in youth with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lett Syretta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating individual, as opposed to predetermined, quality of life domains may yield important information about quality of life. This study investigated the individual quality of life domains nominated by youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Eighty young people attending a diabetes summer camp completed the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting interview, which allows respondents to nominate and evaluate their own quality of life domains. Results The most frequently nominated life domains were 'family', 'friends', 'diabetes', 'school', and 'health' respectively; ranked in terms of importance, domains were 'religion', 'family', 'diabetes', 'health', and 'the golden rule'; ranked in order of satisfaction, domains were 'camp', 'religion', 'pets', and 'family' and 'a special person' were tied for fifth. Respondent age was significantly positively associated with the importance of 'friends', and a significantly negatively associated with the importance of 'family'. Nearly all respondents nominated a quality of life domain relating to physical status, however, the specific physical status domain and the rationale for its nomination varied. Some respondents nominated 'diabetes' as a domain and emphasized diabetes 'self-care behaviors' in order to avoid negative health consequences such as hospitalization. Other respondents nominated 'health' and focused more generally on 'living well with diabetes'. In an ANOVA with physical status domain as the independent variable and age as the dependent variable, participants who nominated 'diabetes' were younger (M = 12.9 years than those who nominated 'health' (M = 15.9 years. In a second ANOVA, with rationale for nomination the physical status domain as the independent variable, and age as the dependent variable, those who emphasized 'self care behaviors' were younger (M = 11.8 years than those who emphasized 'living well with diabetes' (M = 14.6 years

  15. A prospective study (SCOPE) comparing the cardiometabolic and respiratory effects of air pollution exposure on healthy and pre-diabetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwen; Han, Yiqun; Zhu, Tong; Li, Weiju; Zhang, Hongyin

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is known to be a major risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease, but this is unclear for cardiometabolic disease (e.g. diabetes). This is of considerable public health importance, given the nationwide epidemic of diabetes, accompanied by severe air pollution, in China. The evidence so far remained inadequate to answer questions of whether individuals with cardiometabolic dysfunctions are susceptible to air pollution and whether air pollution exacerbates diabetes development via certain biological pathways. In this manuscript, we summarize the results and limitations of studies exploring these two topics and elaborate our design of a prospective panel study (SCOPE) as a solution. We assessed and compared the health effect of air pollution among pre-diabetic individuals and matched healthy controls through four repeated clinical visits over 1 year. Comprehensive evaluation was made to both health endpoints and exposure. The primary biomarkers were assessed to reveal the impact on multiple biological pathways, including glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance, endothelial function, and inflammation. Detailed chemical and size fractional components of particulate matter were measured in this study, along with the application of personal monitors. The work should increase our understanding of how air pollution affects individuals with cardiometabolic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Individual and classroom variables associated with relational aggression in elementary-school aged children : A multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, S.; Grietens, H.; Onghena, P.; Michiels, D.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Relational aggression was studied within classroom environments by examining individual and classroom correlates among 2731 children (3rd-5th graders) during two successive measurement years. Multilevel analyses yielded small gender differences for relational aggression, indicating that such

  17. Individual and hospital-related determinants of potentially inappropriate admissions emerging from administrative records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Marco; Buja, Alessandra; Piergentili, Paolo; Golfetto, Maria Teresa; Serafin, Gianni; Gallo, Silvia; Dalla Barba, Livio; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    The appropriate use of health care is an important issue in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent of potentially inappropriate hospital admissions and their individual, clinical and hospital-related determinants. Medical records were analyzed for the year 2014 held by the Local Heath Unit n. 13 in the Veneto Region of north-east Italy (19,000 records). The outcomes calculated were: admissions for conditions amenable to day hospital care; brief medical admissions; outlier lengths of stay for elderly patients' medical admissions; and medical admissions to surgical wards. Univariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to test associations with demographic, clinical and hospital ward covariates, including organizational indicators. Inappropriate reliance on acute care beds ranged from 6% to 28%, depending on the type of quality indicator analyzed. Some individual features, and wards' specific characteristics were associated with at least one of the phenomena of inappropriate hospital resource usage. In particular, male gender, younger age and transferals seemed to affect inappropriate admissions to surgical wards. Potentially avoidable admissions featuring inpatients amenable to day hospital care were associated with subjects with fewer comorbidities and lower case-mix wards, while inappropriately short medical stays were influenced by patients' higher functional status and local residency and by lower bed occupancy rates. In conclusion, inappropriately long hospital stays for elderly cases were associated with patients with multiple pathologies in wards with a low bed-occupancy. Education level and citizenship did not seem to influence inappropriate admissions. Some individual, clinical ad structural characteristics of patients and wards emerging from administrative records could be associated with inappropriate reliance on acute hospital beds. Analyzing the indicators considered in this study could generate

  18. Defining Swallowing-Related Quality of Life Profiles in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, Joy; Watts, Stephanie; Robison, Raele; Plowman, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that dysphagia contributes to significant malnutrition, pneumonia, and mortality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it remains unclear how swallowing impairment impacts quality of life in this vulnerable patient population. The aim of the current study was to (1) delineate swallow-related quality of life (SR-QOL) profiles in individuals with ALS and (2) evaluate relationships between SR-QOL, degree of swallowing impairment, and ALS global disease progression. Eighty-one ALS patients underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study and completed the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) instrument and ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R). Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were derived by a blinded rater. Correlation analyses and a between groups ANOVA (safe vs. penetrators vs. aspirators) were performed. Mean SWAL-QOL score for this cohort was 75.94 indicating a moderate degree of SR-QOL impairment with fatigue, eating duration, and communication representing the most affected domains. Correlations were revealed between the SWAL-QOL and (1) PAS (r = −0.39, p < 0.001) and (2) ALSFRS-R (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). Mean (SD) SWAL-QOL scores for safe versus penetrator versus aspirator groups were 81.2 (2.3) versus 77 (3.4) versus 58.7 (5.9), respectively, with a main effect observed [F(2,78) = 9.71, p < 0.001]. Post hoc testing revealed lower SWAL-QOL scores for aspirators versus safe swallowers (p < 0.001) and aspirators versus penetrators (p < 0.001). Overall, SR-QOL was moderately reduced in this cohort of ALS patients and profoundly impacted in ALS aspirators and individuals with advanced disease. These findings highlight the importance of early multidisciplinary intervention to not only avoid malnutrition, weight loss, and pulmonary sequelae but also the associated reduced QOL seen in these individuals. PMID:26837611

  19. Individual Differences in the Rubber Hand Illusion Are Related to Sensory Suggestibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marotta

    Full Text Available In the rubber hand illusion (RHI, watching a rubber hand being stroked in synchrony with one's own hidden hand may induce a sense of ownership over the rubber hand. The illusion relies on bottom-up multisensory integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information, and on top-down processes through which the rubber hand is incorporated into pre-existing representations of the body. Although the degree of illusory experience varies largely across individuals, the factors influencing individual differences are unknown. We investigated whether sensory suggestibility might modulate susceptibility to the RHI. Sensory suggestibility is a personality trait related to how individuals react to sensory information. Because of its sensory nature, this trait could be relevant for studies using the RHI paradigm. Seventy healthy volunteers were classified by Sensory Suggestibility Scale (SSS scores as having high or low suggestibility and assigned to either a high- (High-SSS or a low-suggestibility (Low-SSS group. Two components of the RHI were evaluated in synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions: subjective experience of sense of ownership over the rubber hand via a 9-statement questionnaire, and proprioceptive drift as measured with a ruler. The High-SSS group was generally more susceptible to the subjective component; in the synchronous condition, they rated the statement assessing the sense of ownership higher than the Low-SSS group. The scores for this statement significantly correlated with the total SSS score, indicating that the higher the sensory suggestibility, the stronger the sense of ownership. No effect of sensory suggestibility on proprioceptive drift was observed, suggesting that the effect is specific for the subjective feeling of ownership. This study demonstrates that sensory suggestibility may contribute to participants' experience of the illusion and should be considered when using the RHI paradigm.

  20. Individual Differences in the Rubber Hand Illusion Are Related to Sensory Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Angela; Tinazzi, Michele; Cavedini, Clelia; Zampini, Massimiliano; Fiorio, Mirta

    2016-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked in synchrony with one's own hidden hand may induce a sense of ownership over the rubber hand. The illusion relies on bottom-up multisensory integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information, and on top-down processes through which the rubber hand is incorporated into pre-existing representations of the body. Although the degree of illusory experience varies largely across individuals, the factors influencing individual differences are unknown. We investigated whether sensory suggestibility might modulate susceptibility to the RHI. Sensory suggestibility is a personality trait related to how individuals react to sensory information. Because of its sensory nature, this trait could be relevant for studies using the RHI paradigm. Seventy healthy volunteers were classified by Sensory Suggestibility Scale (SSS) scores as having high or low suggestibility and assigned to either a high- (High-SSS) or a low-suggestibility (Low-SSS) group. Two components of the RHI were evaluated in synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions: subjective experience of sense of ownership over the rubber hand via a 9-statement questionnaire, and proprioceptive drift as measured with a ruler. The High-SSS group was generally more susceptible to the subjective component; in the synchronous condition, they rated the statement assessing the sense of ownership higher than the Low-SSS group. The scores for this statement significantly correlated with the total SSS score, indicating that the higher the sensory suggestibility, the stronger the sense of ownership. No effect of sensory suggestibility on proprioceptive drift was observed, suggesting that the effect is specific for the subjective feeling of ownership. This study demonstrates that sensory suggestibility may contribute to participants' experience of the illusion and should be considered when using the RHI paradigm.

  1. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  2. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  3. 45 CFR 2526.60 - May an individual receive an education award and related interest benefits from the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an individual receive an education award and related interest benefits from the National Service... education award and related interest benefits from the National Service Trust for a term of service and have... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May an individual receive an education award and...

  4. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions: an event-related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Tamamiya

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that early posterior components of event-related potentials (ERPs are modulated by facial expressions. The goal of the current study was to investigate individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions by examining the relationship between ERP components and the discrimination of facial expressions. Pictures of 3 facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral were presented to 36 young adults during ERP recording. Participants were asked to respond with a button press as soon as they recognized the expression depicted. A multiple regression analysis, where ERP components were set as predictor variables, assessed hits and reaction times in response to the facial expressions as dependent variables. The N170 amplitudes significantly predicted for accuracy of angry and happy expressions, and the N170 latencies were predictive for accuracy of neutral expressions. The P2 amplitudes significantly predicted reaction time. The P2 latencies significantly predicted reaction times only for neutral faces. These results suggest that individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions emerge from early components in visual processing.

  6. Individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamiya, Yoshiyuki; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that early posterior components of event-related potentials (ERPs) are modulated by facial expressions. The goal of the current study was to investigate individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions by examining the relationship between ERP components and the discrimination of facial expressions. Pictures of 3 facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral) were presented to 36 young adults during ERP recording. Participants were asked to respond with a button press as soon as they recognized the expression depicted. A multiple regression analysis, where ERP components were set as predictor variables, assessed hits and reaction times in response to the facial expressions as dependent variables. The N170 amplitudes significantly predicted for accuracy of angry and happy expressions, and the N170 latencies were predictive for accuracy of neutral expressions. The P2 amplitudes significantly predicted reaction time. The P2 latencies significantly predicted reaction times only for neutral faces. These results suggest that individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions emerge from early components in visual processing.

  7. Liver-related death among HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related ......BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver.......7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered...

  8. Cognitive Impairments in LRRK2-Related Parkinson’s Disease: A Study in Chinese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. LRRK2 S1647T has been identified as a polymorphic risk variant for Parkinson’s disease (PD in Chinese individuals. As LRRK2 is the most common genetic cause for PD, it has drawn great interest regarding whether cognitive impairments in PD are related with LRRK2. Purpose. This study aimed to explore the effects of LRRK2 S1647T polymorphism on cognitive function in PD. Method. 90 PD patients were randomly recruited. They underwent a series of clinical evaluations and genetic testing for the LRRK2 S1647T polymorphism. Global intellect and five cognitive domains (language fluency, visuospatial function, attention, memory, and executive function were compared between S1647T carriers and noncarriers. Results. No differences in motor features were found between two groups, but the executive function evaluation showed that Stroop word colour test time (SWCT-TIME scores were lower in LRRK2 S1647T carriers than in noncarriers (P=0.017. However, multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the correlation between S1647T polymorphism and SWCT-TIME scores did not reach significant level (P=0.051. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that cognitive impairments are not correlated with different LRRK2 S1647T polymorphisms in Chinese PD individuals.

  9. Human inferior colliculus activity relates to individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M

    2012-03-01

    A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.

  10. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants' neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward.

  11. Are individual differences in appetitive and defensive motivation related? A psychophysiological examination in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Katz, Andrea C; Nelson, Brady D; Campbell, Miranda L; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Robison-Andrew, E Jenna; Altman, Sarah E; Gorka, Stephanie M; Shankman, Stewart A

    2014-01-01

    Appetitive and defensive motivation account for a good deal of variance in personality and mental health, but whether individual differences in these systems are correlated or orthogonal has not been conclusively established. Previous investigations have generally relied on self-report and have yielded conflicting results. We therefore assessed the relation between psychophysiological indices of appetitive and defensive motivation during elicitation of these motivational states: specifically, frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry during reward anticipation and startle response during anticipation of predictable or unpredictable threat of shock. Results in a sample of psychopathology-free community members (n=63), an independent sample of undergraduates with a range of internalising symptoms (n=64), and the combination of these samples (n=127) revealed that differences in responding to the two tasks were not significantly correlated. Average coefficients approached zero in all three samples (community: .04, undergraduate: -.01, combined: .06). Implications of these findings for research on normal and abnormal personality are discussed.

  12. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus in adults with severe acute respiratory illness in a high HIV prevalence setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Walaza, Sibongile; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Haffejee, Sumayya; Variava, Ebrahim; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-10-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was calculated for the one site with population denominators. Of 7796 participants investigated, 329 (4%) tested positive for RSV. On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected individuals with RSV-associated SARI had greater odds of being in the age groups 18-44 and 45-64 years (odd ratios (OR) 26.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2-112.1 and OR 11.4; 95% CI 2.6-50.0) compared with those ≥65 years and being female (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.4). The relative risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated SARI was 12-18 times higher in HIV infected individual compared to that of HIV-uninfected. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was higher in HIV-infected individuals and those aged 65 years and older. Further studies are warranted to describe the disease association of RSV detected in adults with SARI. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in relation to wood dust and monoterpene exposure in the wood pellet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfstedt, Håkan; Hagström, Katja; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Holmström, Mats; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Wood pellets are used as a source of renewable energy for heating purposes. Common exposures are wood dust and monoterpenes, which are known to be hazardous for the airways. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of occupational exposure on respiratory health in wood pellet workers. Thirty-nine men working with wood pellet production at six plants were investigated with a questionnaire, medical examination, allergy screening, spirometry, and nasal peak expiratory flow (nasal PEF). Exposure to wood dust and monoterpenes was measured. The wood pellet workers reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms, dry cough, and asthma medication compared to controls from the general population. There were no differences in nasal PEF between work and leisure time. A lower lung function than expected (vital capacity [VC], 95%; forced vital capacity in 1 second [FEV 1 ], 96% of predicted) was noted, but no changes were noted during shifts. There was no correlation between lung function and years working in pellet production. Personal measurements of wood dust at work showed high concentrations (0.16-19 mg/m 3 ), and exposure peaks when performing certain work tasks. Levels of monoterpenes were low (0.64-28 mg/m 3 ). There was no association between exposure and acute lung function effects. In this study of wood pellet workers, high levels of wood dust were observed, and that may have influenced the airways negatively as the study group reported upper airway symptoms and dry cough more frequently than expected. The wood pellet workers had both a lower VC and FEV 1 than expected. No cross-shift changes were found.

  15. MEG event-related desynchronization and synchronization deficits during basic somatosensory processing in individuals with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Frank

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent, complex disorder which is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Convergent evidence from neurobiological studies of ADHD identifies dysfunction in fronto-striatal-cerebellar circuitry as the source of behavioural deficits. Recent studies have shown that regions governing basic sensory processing, such as the somatosensory cortex, show abnormalities in those with ADHD suggesting that these processes may also be compromised. Methods We used event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine patterns of cortical rhythms in the primary (SI and secondary (SII somatosensory cortices in response to median nerve stimulation, in 9 adults with ADHD and 10 healthy controls. Stimuli were brief (0.2 ms non-painful electrical pulses presented to the median nerve in two counterbalanced conditions: unpredictable and predictable stimulus presentation. We measured changes in strength, synchronicity, and frequency of cortical rhythms. Results Healthy comparison group showed strong event-related desynchrony and synchrony in SI and SII. By contrast, those with ADHD showed significantly weaker event-related desynchrony and event-related synchrony in the alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz bands, respectively. This was most striking during random presentation of median nerve stimulation. Adults with ADHD showed significantly shorter duration of beta rebound in both SI and SII except for when the onset of the stimulus event could be predicted. In this case, the rhythmicity of SI (but not SII in the ADHD group did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion Our findings suggest that somatosensory processing is altered in individuals with ADHD. MEG constitutes a promising approach to profiling patterns of neural activity during the processing of sensory input (e.g., detection of a tactile stimulus, stimulus predictability and facilitating our

  16. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. A respiratory monitoring device based on clavicular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, D G; Aspinall, R; Patel, M K; Lang, P-O; Sinclair, A J

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory rate is one of the key vital signs yet unlike temperature, heart rate or blood pressure, there is no simple and low cost measurement device for medical use. Here we discuss the development of a respiratory sensor based upon clavicular motion and the findings of a pilot study comparing respiratory rate readings derived from clavicular and thoracic motion with an expiratory breath flow reference sensor. Simultaneously sampled data from resting volunteers (n = 8) was analysed to determine the location of individual breaths in the data set and from these, breath periods and frequency were calculated. Clavicular sensor waveforms were found to be more consistent and of greater amplitude than those from the thoracic device, demonstrating good alignment with the reference waveform. On comparing breath by breath periods a close agreement was observed with the reference, with mean clavicular respiratory rate R 2 values of 0.89 (lateral) and 0.98 (longitudinal-axis). This pilot study demonstrates the viability of clavicular respiratory sensing. The sensor is unobtrusive, unaffected by bioelectrical or electrode problems and easier to determine and more consistent than thoracic motion sensing. With relatively basic signal conditioning and processing requirements, it could provide an ideal platform for a low-cost respiratory monitor. (note)

  18. Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings.

  19. Relative importance and interrelations between psychosocial factors and individualized quality of life of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, David; Gidron, Yori; Jean, Tzipora; Granovsky, Ricardo; Schnieder, Alla

    2003-09-01

    Since quality of life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and frequently difficult to improve by medical therapy, it is important to identify psychosocial correlates and life-domains important for HD patients' QOL. Our hypothesis was that psychosocial factors reflecting appraisal, external and internal resources/impediments correlate with QOL and compensate for adverse effects of disease-related variables on QOL. Forty-eight chronic HD-patients identified and rank-ordered life-domains important for QOL and rated their level of satisfaction with those domains. This was performed using a slightly modified version of the Self-Evaluated Individualized QOL (SEiQOL) Scale. Psychosocial factors included perceived-control (PC), social-support and hostility. Demographic and disease-related factors included age, gender, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hematocrit, albumin and C-reactive protein. QOL was significantly correlated with PC (r = 0.65) and social-support (r = 0.38), and inversely correlated with hostility (r = -0.31), diabetes and hypoalbuminemia (all at least p < 0.05). PC mediated effects of certain variables (e.g., albumin, gender, hostility) and moderated effects of little social-support and hypoalbuminemia on QOL. Patients' most important QOL domains were health, with which satisfaction was lowest, followed by family, with which satisfaction was highest. Pending replication with larger samples, assessment and enhancement of PC may improve HD patients' QOL.

  20. Individual Differences in the Habitual Use of Cognitive Reappraisal Predict the Reward-related Feedback Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang eSai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life can influence brain activity associated with reward processing. In the present study, participant’s neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG recorded during a gambling task, while their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ. Event-related potential (ERP results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants, such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e. amplified FN difference between losses and gains. This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal influences the neural processing of reward.

  1. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta

    2011-03-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days.

  2. An Investigation of Self-reported Health-related Productivity Loss in Office Workers and Associations With Individual and Work-related Factors Using an Employer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Michelle Jessica; Johnston, Venerina; Straker, Leon Melville; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Melloh, Markus; O'Leary, Shaun Patrick; Comans, Tracy Anne

    2017-07-01

    Office workers have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions. This can be a significant economic burden due to health-related productivity loss. Individual and work-related factors related to office worker health-related productivity were investigated. A survey including the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, which estimated productivity loss, also recorded individual and work-related factors with potential associations with health-related productivity. Muscle function and workstation ergonomics were examined through physical assessments. Linear models investigated the relationships between these factors and health-related productivity. Significant factors identified were occupational category (0.001 productivity loss was greater in office workers working as managers, with lower job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing, and those with musculoskeletal pain. Office worker health-related productivity loss is represented by a combination of both individual and work-related factors.

  3. 26 CFR 1.401-10 - Definitions relating to plans covering self-employed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not include a self-employed individual when the term “common-law” employee is used or when the context... insurance salesmen as employees. Furthermore, an individual who is a common-law employee is not a self... is a common-law employee is not a self-employed individual with respect to income attributable to...

  4. Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jade M; Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Menz, Hylton B; Munteanu, Shannon E; Collins, Natalie J

    2018-01-01

    Age-related changes in midfoot mobility have the potential to influence success with foot orthoses intervention in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). The aim of this study was to determine whether older people with PFP demonstrate less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. One hundred ninety four participants (113 (58%) women, age 32 ± 7 years, BMI 25 ± 4.9 kg/m 2 ) with PFP (≥ 6 weeks duration) were included, with foot mobility quantified using reliable and valid methods. K-means cluster analysis classified participants into three homogenous groups based on age. After cluster formation, univariate analyses of co-variance (covariates: sex, weight) were used to compare midfoot height mobility, midfoot width mobility, and foot mobility magnitude between age groups (significance level 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct age groups: 18-29 years ( n  = 70); 30-39 years ( n  = 101); and 40-50 years ( n  = 23). There was a significant main effect for age for midfoot height mobility ( p  mobility magnitude ( p  = 0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed that midfoot height mobility differed across all three groups (moderate to large effect sizes), and that foot mobility magnitude was significantly less in those aged 40-50 years compared to those aged 18-25 years (moderate effect size). There were no significant main effects for age for midfoot width mobility ( p  > 0.05). Individuals with PFP aged 40-50 years have less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. These findings may have implications for evaluation and treatment of older individuals with PFP.

  5. Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed changes in community members’ ratings of the dimensions of individual community related empowerment (ICRE before and two years after the implementation of an empowerment expansion framework in three community health promotion initiatives within the Estonian context. We employed a self-administered questionnaire, the adapted mobilisation scale–individual. As the first step, we investigated the multidimensional nature of the ICRE construct and explored the validity and reliability (internal consistency of the ICRE scale. Two datasets were used. The first dataset comprised a cross-sectional random sample of 1,000 inhabitants of Rapla County selected in 2003 from the National Population Register, which was used to confirm the composition of the dimensions of the scale and to examine the reliability of the dimensions. The second dataset comprised two waves of data: 120 participants from three health promotion programs in 2003 (pre-test and 115 participants in 2005 (post-test, and the dataset was used to compare participants’ pre-test and post-test ratings of their levels of empowerment. The content validity ratio, determined using Lawshe’s formula, was high (0.98. Five dimensions of ICRE, self-efficacy, intention, participation, motivation and critical awareness, emerged from the factor analysis. The internal consistency (α of the total empowerment scale was 0.86 (subscales self-efficacy α = 0.88, intention α = 0.83, participation α = 0.81 and motivation α = 0.69; critical awareness comprised only one item. The levels of ICRE dimensions measured after the application of the empowerment expansion framework were significantly more favourable for the dimensions self-efficacy, participation, intention and motivation to participate. We conclude that for Rapla community workgroups and networks, their ICRE was rendered more favourable after the implementation of the empowerment expansion framework.

  6. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  7. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  8. A genomic background based method for association analysis in related individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Amin

    in related individuals.

  9. Neural correlates of emotional distractibility in bipolar disorder patients, unaffected relatives, and individuals with hypomanic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Forneck, Johanna; Wessa, Michèle

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological deficits and emotion dysregulation are present in symptomatic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. However, there is little evidence on how cognitive functioning is influenced by emotion, what the neural correlates of emotional distraction effects are, and whether such deficits are a consequence or a precursor of the disorder. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate these questions. fMRI was used first to localize the neural network specific to a certain cognitive task (mental arithmetic) and then to test the effect of emotional distractors on this network. Euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (N=22), two populations at high risk for developing the disorder (unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder [N=17]), and healthy participants with hypomanic personality traits [N=22]) were tested, along with three age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy comparison groups (N=22, N=17, N=24, respectively). There were no differences in performance or activation in the task network for mental arithmetic. However, while all participants exhibited slower responses when emotional distractors were present, this response slowing was greatly enlarged in bipolar patients. Similarly, task-related activation was generally increased under emotional distraction; however, bipolar patients exhibited a further increase in right parietal activation that correlated positively with the response slowing effect. The results suggest that emotional dysregulation leads to exacerbated neuropsychological deficits in bipolar patients, as evidenced by behavioral slowing and task-related hyperactivation. The lack of such a deficit in high-risk populations suggests that it occurs only after disease onset, rather than representing a vulnerability marker.

  10. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  11. Carbon dioxide induces erratic respiratory responses in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Dean F; Craighead, Brandie; Lorenz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    CO(2) respiration stimulates both anxiety and dyspnea ("air hunger") and has long been used to study panic vulnerability and respiratory control. High comorbidity with panic attacks suggests individuals with bipolar disorder may also mount a heightened anxiety response to CO(2). Moreover, problems in the arousal and modulation of appetites are central to the clinical syndromes of mania and depression; hence CO(2) may arouse an abnormal respiratory response to "air hunger". 72 individuals (34 bipolar I, 25 depressive and bipolar spectrum, 13 with no major affective diagnosis) breathed air and air with 5% CO(2) via facemask for up to 15 min each; subjective and respiratory responses were recorded. Nearly half the subjects diverged from the typical response to a fixed, mildly hypercapneic environment, which is to increase breathing acutely, and then maintain a hyperpneic plateau. The best predictors of an abnormal pattern were bipolar diagnosis and anxiety from air alone. 25 individuals had a panic response; panic responses from CO(2) were more likely in subjects with bipolar I compared to other subjects, however the best predictors of a panic response overall were anxiety from air alone and prior history of panic attacks. Heterogeneous sample, liberal definition of panic attack. Carbon dioxide produces abnormal respiratory and heightened anxiety responses among individuals with bipolar and depressive disorders. These may be due to deficits in emotional conditioning related to fear and appetite. Although preliminary, this work suggests a potentially useful test of a specific functional deficit in bipolar disorder.

  12. Immunosenescence-Related Transcriptomic and Immunologic Changes in Older Individuals Following Influenza Vaccination

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    Richard Kennedy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of annual influenza vaccination is to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with this disease through the generation of protective immune responses. The objective of the current study was to examine markers of immunosenescence and identify immunosenescence-related differences in gene expression, gene regulation, cytokine secretion, and immunologic changes in an older study population receiving seasonal influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Surprisingly, prior studies in this cohort revealed weak correlations between immunosenescence markers and humoral immune response to vaccination. In this report we further examined the relationship of each immunosenescence marker (age, T cell receptor excision circle frequency, telomerase expression, percentage of CD28- CD4+ T cells, percentage of CD28- CD8+ T cells, and the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio with additional markers of immune response (serum cytokine and chemokine expression and measures of gene expression and/or regulation. Many of the immunosenescence markers indeed correlated with distinct sets of individual DNA methylation sites, miRNA expression levels, mRNA expression levels, serum cytokines, and leukocyte subsets. However, when the individual immunosenescence markers were grouped by pathways or functional terms, several shared biological functions were identified: antigen processing and presentation pathways, MAPK, mTOR, TCR, BCR, and calcium signaling pathways, as well as key cellular metabolic, proliferation and survival activities. Furthermore, the percent of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells lacking CD28 expression also correlated with miRNAs regulating clusters of genes known to be involved in viral infection. Integrated (DNA methylation, mRNA, miRNA, and protein levels network biology analysis of immunosenescence-related pathways and genesets identified both known pathways (e.g., chemokine signaling, CTL and NK cell activity, as well as a gene expression module not previously annotated with a

  13. Postnatal Development of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Tyrosine Protein Kinase B (TrkB) Receptor Immunoreactivity in Multiple Brain Stem Respiratory-Related Nuclei of the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuli; Wong-Riley, Margaret T.T.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we found a transient imbalance between suppressed excitation and enhanced inhibition in the respiratory network of the rat around postnatal days (P) 12–13, a critical period when the hypoxic ventilatory response is at its weakest. The mechanism underlying the imbalance is poorly understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB) receptors are known to potentiate glutamatergic and attenuate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, and BDNF is essential for respiratory development. We hypothesized that the excitation-inhibition imbalance during the critical period stemmed from a reduced expression of BDNF and TrkB at that time within respiratory-related nuclei of the brain stem. An in-depth, semiquantitative immunohistochemical study was undertaken in seven respiratory-related brain stem nuclei and one nonrespiratory nucleus in P0–21 rats. The results indicate that the expressions of BDNF and TrkB: 1) in the pre-Bötzinger complex, nucleus ambiguus, commissural and ventrolateral subnuclei of solitary tract nucleus, and retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group were significantly reduced at P12, but returned to P11 levels by P14; 2) in the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus and parapyramidal region were increased from P0 to P7, but were strikingly reduced at P10 and plateaued thereafter; and 3) in the nonrespiratory cuneate nucleus showed a gentle plateau throughout the first 3 post-natal weeks, with only a slight decline of BDNF expression after P11. Thus, the significant downregulation of both BDNF and TrkB in respiratory-related nuclei during the critical period may form the basis of, or at least contribute to, the inhibitory-excitatory imbalance within the respiratory network during this time. PMID:22678720

  14. An Investigation of Self-reported Health-related Productivity Loss in Office Workers and Associations With Individual and Work-related Factors Using an Employer's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Michelle Jessica; Johnston, Venerina; Straker, Leon Melville

    2017-01-01

    the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, which estimated productivity loss, also recorded individual and work-related factors with potential associations with health-related productivity. Muscle function and workstation ergonomics were examined through physical assessments. Linear models investigated...... in office workers working as managers, with lower job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing, and those with musculoskeletal pain. CONCLUSION: Office worker health-related productivity loss is represented by a combination of both individual and work-related factors.......OBJECTIVE: Office workers have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions. This can be a significant economic burden due to health-related productivity loss. Individual and work-related factors related to office worker health-related productivity were investigated. METHODS: A survey including...

  15. The Effect of individual Difference on Perceptions of Job-related Stress among National College and University Librarians in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-may Sheih Chen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined as an environmental force in the workplace, either real or imagined, job-related stress interacts with an individual’s perception. Individuals’ perceptions alter with age, gender, work experience, job characteristics, and personality behavior of individuals. In an attempt to gain a comprehensive understanding, this study examines the relationship between individual difference and the perceptions of job-related stress in the library settings of national colleges and universities on Taiwan. The result shows that individual difference is influential for librarians’ perceptions of job-related stress. [Article content in Chinese

  16. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  17. Time trends for risk of severe age-related diseases in individuals with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; May, Margaret T; Kronborg, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether the reported high risk of age-related diseases in HIV-infected people is caused by biological ageing or HIV-associated risk factors such as chronic immune activation and low-grade inflammation is unknown. We assessed time trends in age-standardised and relative risks of nine...... serious age-related diseases in a nationwide cohort study of HIV-infected individuals and population controls. METHODS: We identified all HIV-infected individuals in the Danish HIV Cohort Study who had received HIV care in Denmark between Jan 1, 1995, and June 1, 2014. Population controls were identified...... from the Danish Civil Registration System and individually matched in a ratio of nine to one to the HIV-infected individuals for year of birth, sex, and date of study inclusion. Individuals were included in the study if they had a Danish personal identification number, were aged 16 years or older...

  18. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  19. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  20. Individual differences in personality in laying hens are related to learning a colour cue association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Elske N; Lee, Caroline; Hernandez, Carlos E; Naguib, Marc; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2017-01-01

    Personality can influence how animals perceive and learn cues. The behaviour and physiological responses animals show during stressful events is indicative of their personality. Acute induced stress prior to a cognitive test are known to affect the judgement of a stimulus, but personality of an individual could also affect learning of a specific cognitive paradigm. Here, we assessed if adult laying hens' behaviour and physiological responses, as indicators of their personality, were related to their cognitive performance. We assessed their behavioural responses to a tonic immobility test, an open field test, and a manual restraint test, and measured plasma corticosterone levels after manual restraint. After that, hens (n=20) were trained in a pre-set training schedule to associate a colour-cue with a reward. In a two-choice go-go test, hens needed to choose between a baited or non-baited food container displayed randomly on the left or right side of an arena. Success in learning was related to personality, with better performance of hens which showed a reactive personality type by a long latency to walk, struggle or vocalize during the tests. Only eight out of 20 hens reached the training criteria. The non-learners showed a strong side preference during all training days. Side preferences were strong in hens with high levels of plasma corticosterone and with a long duration of tonic immobility, indicating that fearful, stress-sensitive hens are more prone to develop side biases. Our results show that learning can be hindered by side biases, and fearful animals with a more proactive personality type are more sensitive to develop such biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages.

  2. Improving Diabetes-Related Parent-Adolescent Communication With Individualized Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dana K K; Ellis, Deborah A; Cano, Annmarie; Dekelbab, Bassem

    2017-11-01

    To pilot a brief individualized feedback intervention to improve the communication skills of parents with an adolescent with type 1 diabetes. Parent-adolescent dyads (N = 79) discussed a diabetes-related problem, while an interventionist rated the parent's communication skills to give feedback to the parents. Parents were then randomized to a brief feedback session to target person-centered communication skills or an educational session. Dyads discussed another diabetes care problem to assess for change in communication skills. Independent raters coded parent communication skills from video recordings to rate behaviors in the service of examining possible changes in communication skills. Dyads completed ratings of perceived closeness and empathy after each conversation. Controlling for overall positive communication at baseline, parents who received feedback showed more improvement in specific person-centered communication skills than parents in the control group. Adolescents in the feedback group reported greater increases in parental empathy and intimacy from pre- to postmanipulation than the control. The feedback intervention showed preliminary efficacy for increasing person-centered communication skills and perceived empathy and intimacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Exploration of Individual and Family Factors Related to Community Reintegration in Veterans With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Helene; Winter, Laraine; Robinson, Keith; True, Gala; Piersol, Catherine; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Iacovone, Dolores Blazer; Holbert, Laura; Newhart, Brian; Fishman, Deborah; Short, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Community reintegration (CR) poses a major problem for military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors contributing to CR after TBI are poorly understood. To address the gap in knowledge, an ecological framework was used to explore individual and family factors related to CR. Baseline data from an intervention study with 83 veterans with primarily mild to moderate TBI were analyzed. Instruments measured CR, depressive symptoms, physical health, quality of the relationship with the family member, and sociodemographics. Posttraumatic stress disorder and TBI characteristics were determined through record review. Five variables that exhibited significant bivariate relationships with CR (veteran rating of quality of relationship, physical functioning, bodily pain, posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, and depressive symptoms) were entered into hierarchical regression analysis. In the final analysis, the five variables together accounted for 35% of the variance, but only depression was a significant predictor of CR, with more depressed veterans exhibiting lower CR. Efforts to support CR of Veterans with TBI should carefully assess and target depression, a modifiable factor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Event-related potential correlates of suspicious thoughts in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-bing; Huang, Jia; Cheung, Eric F C; Gong, Qi-yong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-01-01

    Suspiciousness is a common feature of schizophrenia. However, suspicious thoughts are also commonly experienced by the general population. This study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of suspicious thoughts in individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)-proneness, using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when the "feeling of being seen through" was evoked in the participants. The findings showed a prominent positive deflection of the difference wave within the time window 250-400 ms after stimuli presentation in both SPD-prone and non-SPD-prone groups. Furthermore, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced in the SPD-prone group compared to the non-SPD-prone group. The current density analysis also indicated hypoactivity in both frontal and temporal regions in the SPD-prone group, suggesting that the frontotemporal cortical network may play a role in the onset of suspicious thoughts. The P3 of difference wave was inversely correlated with the cognitive-perception factor and the suspiciousness/paranoid ideation trait, which provided preliminary electrophysiological evidence for the association of suspiciousness with SPD features.

  5. Within and between Individual Variability of Exposure to Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zare

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies indicate a tendency to eliminate variations in operator strategies, particularly following implementation of the lean principle. Companies believe when the operators perform the same prescribed tasks, they have to execute them in the same manner (completing the same gestures and being exposed to the same risk factors. They attempt to achieve better product quality by standardizing and reducing operational leeway. However, operators adjust and modify ways of performing tasks to balance between their abilities and the requirements of the job. This study aims to investigate the variability of exposure to physical risk factors within and between operators when executing the same prescribed tasks. The Ergonomic Standard method was used to evaluate two workstations. Seven operators were observed thirty times between repeated cycle times at those workstations. The results revealed the variability of exposure to risk factors between and within operators in the repeated execution of the same tasks. Individual characteristics and operators’ strategies might generate the variability of exposure to risk factors that may be an opportunity to reduce the risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs. However, sometimes operators’ strategies may cause overexposure to risk factors; operators most often adopt such strategies to undertake their tasks while reducing the workload.

  6. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  7. Footprints in the Sand: Personal, Psychological, and Relational Profiles of Religious, Spiritual, and Atheist LGB Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Aasha B; Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon L; Eklund, Austin; Keum, Brian T

    2017-01-01

    The present study offers a comparison of the demographic features and lived experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals with religious, spiritual, or atheist (R/S/A) belief systems. In this sample of 212 participants, the relationship of participants' R/S/A beliefs to personal variables (e.g., age, gender, race), mental health variables (e.g., life satisfaction, psychological distress, internalized heterosexism, self-esteem), and relational variables (e.g., outness, connection to LGBTQ communities) were assessed. Correlational analyses indicated that level of R/S/A belief was unrelated to self-esteem, life satisfaction, or psychological distress; however, greater religious belief was correlated positively and significantly with internalized heterosexism and outness as LGB. To test the interactions of R/S/A beliefs and categorical variables of interest (e.g., race), log-linear analyses with follow-up chi-square tests were conducted. Findings suggested more similarities than differences for LGB people across R/S/A systems of belief. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

  8. Relation between Motivational Factors, Age, and Gender of Individuals Participating in a Swimming Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodriguez Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivational factors, sex and age on the participants at a project of swimming. The study included 107 subjects (71% of the total of active participants in the project, of which 51 were men and 56 women, aged between 18 and 63 years (36,27 ± 10,67. The sample was divided into four age categories (18-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years and 50 and over and by sex. To know the reasons that lead people to engage physical exercise, self-report questionnaire Motives for the Practice of Physical Exercises (AMPEF, adapted by and Pintanel Niñerola Capdevila (2004 was applied. The results of the individual analysis showed that the factors: positive health and prevention; well-being and fun; muscular strength and endurance are important reasons for both men and women in all age categories, with values ≥ 7 (between 1 to 10. There were no significant differences in the total score between variables. The data reported are consistent with those reported in the literature. It is concluded that the main reasons for people to be physically active are: health, fun, well-being and improvement of physical, also found significant differences in the reasons relating to the challenge and competition between men and women, results also agree with previous publications.

  9. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  10. Effects of dietary coenzyme Q10 supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and the activities of respiratory chain-related enzymes in ascitic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M

    2005-10-01

    1. One hundred and sixty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were fed with maize-soybean based diets for 6 weeks in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. The factors were CoQ10 supplementation (0 or 40 mg/kg) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (LPS or saline). 2. CoQ10 was supplemented from d 1. From d 18, the chickens received three weekly i.p. injections of LPS (1.0 mg/kg BW) or an equivalent amount of sterile saline as control. From d 10 on, all chickens were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 15 degrees C) to induce ascites. 3. The blood packed cell volume and ascites heart index of broiler chickens were reduced by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. Mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration, respiratory control ratio and phosphate oxygen ratio were not changed, but H+/site stoichiometry of complex II + III was elevated by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. 4. Cytochrome c oxidase and H+-ATPase activity were increased by CoQ10 supplementation, whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase and succinate cytochrome c reductase were not influenced. Mitochondrial anti-ROS capability was increased and malondialdehyde content was decreased by CoQ10 supplementation. 5. The work suggested that dietary CoQ10 supplementation could reduce broiler chickens' susceptibility to ascites, which might be the result of improving hepatic mitochondrial function, some respiratory chain-related enzymes activities and mitochondrial antioxidative capability.

  11. The prevalence of Middle East respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in livestock and temporal relation to locations and seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem, Samy; Qasim, Ibrahim; Al-Doweriej, Ali; Hashim, Osman; Alkarar, Ali; Abu-Obeida, Ali; Saleh, Mohamed; Al-Hofufi, Ali; Al-Ghadier, Hussein; Hussien, Raed; Al-Sahaf, Ali; Bayoumi, Faisal; Magouz, Asmaa

    2018-01-29

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has been reported for the first time infecting a human being since 2012. The WHO was notified of 27 countries have reported cases of MERS, the majority of these cases occur in the Arabian Peninsula, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Dromedary camels are likely to be the main source of Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS-CoV) infection in humans. MERS-CoV infection rates among camels in livestock markets and slaughterhouses were investigated in Saudi Arabia. A total of 698 nasal swabs were collected and examined with Rapid assay and rtRT-PCR. Ten MERS-CoV positive samples were subjected to full genomic sequencing. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of the Rapid immunochromatographic assay (BioNote, South Korea) was evaluated as a diagnostic tool for MERS-CoV compared to rtRT-PCR. The results showed a high percentage of dromedaries (56.4%) had evidence for nasal MERS-CoV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the ten MERS-CoV isolates showed that the sequences were closely related to the other MERS-CoV strains recovered from camels and human cases. Moreover, the results showed that 195 samples were positive for MERS-CoV by rapid assay compared to 394 positive samples of rtRT-PCR, which showed low rapid assay sensitivity (49.49%) while, the specificity were found to be 100%. These findings indicate that these sites are a highly-hazardous to zoonotic diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kee Park

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

  13. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  14. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  15. Treatment Needs and Adverse Events Related to Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia for Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism can be quite challenging to treat in a routine dental-office setting, especially when extensive dental treatment and disruptive behavioral issues exist. Individuals with autism may also be at higher risk for oral disease. Frequently, general anesthesia is the only method to facilitate completion of the needed dental…

  16. 75 FR 3122 - Policy Statement Concerning Cooperation by Individuals in Its Investigations and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... individuals. DATES: Effective Date: January 19, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joan McKown, Chief.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Securities and Exchange Commission is issuing a policy statement announcing the... (``Investigation''); the importance of the underlying matter in which the individual cooperated; the societal...

  17. Unlocking the forest inventory data: relating individual tree performance to unmeasured environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy W. Lichstein; Jonathan Dushoff; Kiona Ogle; Anping Chen; Drew W. Purves; John P. Caspersen; Stephen W. Pacala

    2010-01-01

    Geographically extensive forest inventories, such as the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, contain millions of individual tree growth and mortality records that could be used to develop broad-scale models of forest dynamics. A limitation of inventory data, however, is that individual-level measurements of light (L) and other...

  18. Individual Differences in Components of Reaction Time Distributions and Their Relations to Working Memory and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedek, Florian; Oberauer, Klaus; Wilhelm, Oliver; Suss, Heinz-Martin; Wittmann, Werner W.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together approaches from cognitive and individual differences psychology to model characteristics of reaction time distributions beyond measures of central tendency. Ex-Gaussian distributions and a diffusion model approach are used to describe individuals' reaction time data. The authors identified common latent factors for each…

  19. Exploring the relation between individual moral antecedents and entrepreneurial opportunity recognition for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploum, Lisa; Blok, Vincent; Lans, Thomas; Omta, Onno

    2018-01-01

    When dealing with complex value-driven problems such as sustainable development, individuals need to have values and norms that go beyond the appropriation of tangible business outcomes for themselves. This raises the question of the role played by individual moral antecedents in the entrepreneurial

  20. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics...... affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day...... care absences on web-based questionnaires. RESULTS: Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2...

  1. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  2. lme4qtl: linear mixed models with flexible covariance structure for genetic studies of related individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Vázquez-Santiago, Miquel; Brunel, Helena; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Aschard, Hugues; Soria, Jose Manuel

    2018-02-27

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in genetic data often involves analysis of correlated observations, which need to be accounted for to avoid false association signals. This is commonly performed by modeling such correlations as random effects in linear mixed models (LMMs). The R package lme4 is a well-established tool that implements major LMM features using sparse matrix methods; however, it is not fully adapted for QTL mapping association and linkage studies. In particular, two LMM features are lacking in the base version of lme4: the definition of random effects by custom covariance matrices; and parameter constraints, which are essential in advanced QTL models. Apart from applications in linkage studies of related individuals, such functionalities are of high interest for association studies in situations where multiple covariance matrices need to be modeled, a scenario not covered by many genome-wide association study (GWAS) software. To address the aforementioned limitations, we developed a new R package lme4qtl as an extension of lme4. First, lme4qtl contributes new models for genetic studies within a single tool integrated with lme4 and its companion packages. Second, lme4qtl offers a flexible framework for scenarios with multiple levels of relatedness and becomes efficient when covariance matrices are sparse. We showed the value of our package using real family-based data in the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2 (GAIT2) project. Our software lme4qtl enables QTL mapping models with a versatile structure of random effects and efficient computation for sparse covariances. lme4qtl is available at https://github.com/variani/lme4qtl .

  3. Sharing food, sharing taste? Consumption practices, gender relations and individuality in Czech families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldis Haukanes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A la lumière des théories sociologiques et anthropologiques de la famille et de la parenté, cet article pose la question de la préparation et de la consommation de nourriture dans les familles tchèques de différentes générations, et ce, aussi bien en milieu rural qu’urbain. Sur la base d’une enquête qualitative (entretiens ainsi que de données d’observation, l’article interroge le rôle que joue réellement le partage alimentaire dans la vie quotidienne des familles étudiées, ainsi que dans la construction de liens entre les membres de la famille, en particulier concernant les relations entre hommes et femmes. Ensuite, l’article se focalise sur la famille en tant qu’«unité de consommation», ainsi que sur son développement dans le temps. Comment se construit le régime alimentaire familial et jusqu’où se développent, entre les membres de la famille, des préférences alimentaires partagées? Sur la base des modèles émergeants relatifs aux pratiques alimentaires, le débat est ouvert quant aux rôles entre hommes et femmes ainsi que sur les thèmes relatifs au traditionalisme et au pouvoir. L’argument principal est que la formation de relations au sein même de la famille dépend moins du partage de nourriture que du rôle joué par les femmes dans la préparation et la distribution des repas, compte tenu des désirs de chacun des membres de la famille.In the context of sociological and anthropological theories about family and kinship, this article discusses the preparation and consumption of food in Czech families of different generations, both urban and rural. Based on a qualitative interview study and participant observation, the article begins by investigating the role played by the sharing of food in everyday family life and in the shaping of relations, including gender relations, between family members. Next, the article focuses on the family as a consumption unit and on its development over time. What

  4. Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Häggström, Jenny; Fowler, Christopher J; Nording, Malin L

    2017-06-01

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Respiratory muscle function and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charususin, Noppawan; Dacha, Sauwaluk; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc; Von Leupoldt, Andreas; Reijnders, Thomas; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Langer, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common and contributes to dyspnea and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Improving dynamic function of respiratory muscles during exercise might help to reduce symptoms and improve exercise capacity. Areas covered: The aims of this review are to 1) summarize physiological mechanisms linking respiratory muscle dysfunction to dyspnea and exercise limitation; 2) provide an overview of available therapeutic approaches to better maintain load-capacity balance of respiratory muscles during exercise; and 3) to summarize current knowledge on potential mechanisms explaining effects of interventions aimed at optimizing dynamic respiratory muscle function with a special focus on inspiratory muscle training. Expert commentary: Several mechanisms which are potentially linking improvements in dynamic respiratory muscle function to symptomatic and functional benefits have not been studied so far in COPD patients. Examples of underexplored areas include the study of neural processes related to the relief of acute dyspnea and the competition between respiratory and peripheral muscles for limited energy supplies during exercise. Novel methodologies are available to non-invasively study these mechanisms. Better insights into the consequences of dynamic respiratory muscle dysfunction will hopefully contribute to further refine and individualize therapeutic approaches in patients with COPD.

  6. Individual Differences in Spatial Relation Processing: Effects of Strategy, Ability, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Borst, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Categorical relations are propositional and abstract, and often related to a left hemisphere advantage. Coordinate relations specify the metric information of the relative locations of objects, and can be linked to right hemisphere processing.…

  7. Balance confidence is related to features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Wong, Jennifer S.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Reduced balance confidence is associated with impairments in features of balance and gait in individuals with sub-acute stroke. However, an understanding of these relationships in individuals at the chronic stage of stroke recovery is lacking. This study aimed to quantify relationships between balance confidence and specific features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke. Participants completed a balance confidence questionnaire and clinical balance assessment (quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping) at 6 months post-discharge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Regression analyses were performed using balance confidence as a predictor variable and quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping outcome measures as the dependent variables. Walking velocity was positively correlated with balance confidence, while medio-lateral centre of pressure excursion (quiet standing) and double support time, step width variability, and step time variability (walking) were negatively correlated with balance confidence. This study provides insight into the relationships between balance confidence and balance and gait measures in individuals with chronic stroke, suggesting that individuals with low balance confidence exhibited impaired control of quiet standing as well as walking characteristics associated with cautious gait strategies. Future work should identify the direction of these relationships to inform community-based stroke rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic stroke, and determine the potential utility of incorporating interventions to improve balance confidence into these programs. PMID:27955809

  8. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal with female university students living in Osaka (Japan, Poznan (Poland and Chiang Mai (Thailand. Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement. Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were

  9. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  10. Individual and Classroom Variables Associated with Relational Aggression in Elementary-School Aged Children: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, S.; Grietens, H.; Onghena, P.; Michiels, D.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Relational aggression was studied within classroom environments by examining individual and classroom correlates among 2731 children (3rd-5th graders) during two successive measurement years. Multilevel analyses yielded small gender differences for relational aggression, indicating that such aggressive behavior was more associated with girls as…

  11. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  12. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambaudi, L R; Rossi, E; Mantaras, M C; Perrone, M S; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display

  13. Effects of concurrent respiratory resistance training on health-related quality of life in wheelchair rugby athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchke, Lyn G; Lloyd, Lisa K; Schmidt, Eric A; Russian, Christopher J; Reardon, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effects of 9 weeks of training with a concurrent flow resistance (CFR) device versus a concurrent pressure threshold resistance (CPTR) device on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in wheelchair rugby (WR) athletes. Twenty-four male WR athletes (22 with tetraplegia, 1 with a spastic cerebral palsy, and 1 with congenital upper and lower limb deformities) were matched by lesion level, completeness of injury, and rugby classification prior to being randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) CPTR (n=8), (2) CFR (n=8), or (3) controls (CON, n=8). Pre/post testing included assessment of HRQoL as measured by the Short-Form Health Survey Version 2.0 (SF-36v2). Manufacturer protocol guidelines for the CFR and CPTR groups were followed for breathing exercises. Sixteen participants completed the study (CPTR=4, CFR=5, CON=7). The Mann-Whitney U rank order revealed significantly greater reductions in bodily pain (P = .038) and improvements in vitality (P = .028) for CFR versus CON. Results from this study suggest that training with a CFR device improves some aspects of HRQoL (eg, vitality and bodily pain) in WR athletes. Further research with a larger sample size is needed to examine the impact of these devices on improving HRQoL for wheelchair athletes.

  14. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Carter, Rickey E; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care ...

  15. Individual, contextual, and age-related acoustic variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor loud calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M Erb

    Full Text Available Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor. Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53% followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0 decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances.

  16. Individual behaviour of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to sex and reproductive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hüssy, Karin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    between sexes in the timing of the onset of migration and the duration of migration from feeding grounds to the spawning area. While there was no significant difference in duration of the spawning period between females and males, the histological indices suggest that females finish spawning before males...... of the spawning period differs between sexes, as does the level of activity during spawning events. Not all individuals followed the general pattern; a considerable number of individuals were found to spawn in shallow water in the Arkona Basin, and juvenile fish undertook the migration without spawning...

  17. Impact of respiratory motion on variable relative biological effectiveness in 4D-dose distributions of proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silke; Wieser, Hans-Peter; Cao, Wenhua; Mohan, Radhe; Bangert, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Organ motion during radiation therapy with scanned protons leads to deviations between the planned and the delivered physical dose. Using a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 linearly maps these deviations into RBE-weighted dose. However, a constant value cannot account for potential nonlinear variations in RBE suggested by variable RBE models. Here, we study the impact of motion on recalculations of RBE-weighted dose distributions using a phenomenological variable RBE model. 4D-dose calculation including variable RBE was implemented in the open source treatment planning toolkit matRad. Four scenarios were compared for one field and two field proton treatments for a liver cancer patient assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy and (α∕β) x  = 10 Gy: (A) the optimized static dose distribution with constant RBE, (B) a static recalculation with variable RBE, (C) a 4D-dose recalculation with constant RBE and (D) a 4D-dose recalculation with variable RBE. For (B) and (D), the variable RBE was calculated by the model proposed by McNamara. For (C), the physical dose was accumulated with direct dose mapping; for (D), dose-weighted radio-sensitivity parameters of the linear quadratic model were accumulated to model synergistic irradiation effects on RBE. Dose recalculation with variable RBE led to an elevated biological dose at the end of the proton field, while 4D-dose recalculation exhibited random deviations everywhere in the radiation field depending on the interplay of beam delivery and organ motion. For a single beam treatment assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy, D 95 % was 1.98 Gy (RBE) (A), 2.15 Gy (RBE) (B), 1.81 Gy (RBE) (C) and 1.98 Gy (RBE) (D). The homogeneity index was 1.04 (A), 1.08 (B), 1.23 (C) and 1.25 (D). For the studied liver case, intrafractional motion did not reduce the modulation of the RBE-weighted dose postulated by variable RBE models for proton treatments.

  18. Is Overall Mortality the Right Composite Endpoint in Clinical Trials of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Jesús; Martínez, Domingo; Mosteiro, Fernando; Ambrós, Alfonso; Añón, José M; Ferrando, Carlos; Soler, Juan A; Montiel, Raquel; Vidal, Anxela; Conesa-Cayuela, Luís A; Blanco, Jesús; Arrojo, Regina; Solano, Rosario; Capilla, Lucía; Del Campo, Rafael; Civantos, Belén; Fernández, María Mar; Aldecoa, César; Parra, Laura; Gutiérrez, Andrea; Martínez-Jiménez, Chanel; González-Martín, Jesús M; Fernández, Rosa L; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2018-06-01

    Overall mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome is a composite endpoint because it includes death from multiple causes. In most acute respiratory distress syndrome trials, it is unknown whether reported deaths are due to acute respiratory distress syndrome or the underlying disease, unrelated to the specific intervention tested. We investigated the causes of death after contracting acute respiratory distress syndrome in a large cohort. A secondary analysis from three prospective, multicenter, observational studies. A network of multidisciplinary ICUs. We studied 778 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with lung-protective ventilation. None. We examined death in the ICU from individual causes. Overall ICU mortality was 38.8% (95% CI, 35.4-42.3). Causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome modified the risk of death. Twenty-three percent of deaths occurred from refractory hypoxemia due to nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome. Most patients died from causes unrelated to acute respiratory distress syndrome: 48.7% of nonsurvivors died from multisystem organ failure, and cancer or brain injury was involved in 37.1% of deaths. When quantifying the true burden of acute respiratory distress syndrome outcome, we identified 506 patients (65.0%) with one or more exclusion criteria for enrollment into current interventional trials. Overall ICU mortality of the "trial cohort" (21.3%) was markedly lower than the parent cohort (relative risk, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43-0.70; p respiratory distress syndrome patients are not directly related to lung damage but to extrapulmonary multisystem organ failure. It would be challenging to prove that specific lung-directed therapies have an effect on overall survival.

  19. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Junne; Katrin Ziser; Katrin Elisabeth Giel; Kathrin Schag; Eva Skoda; Isabelle Mack; Andreas Niess; Stephan Zipfel; Martin Teufel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. Methods: N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable ...

  20. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel N. Jones; Aurelio José Figueredo; Erin Denise Dickey; W. Jake Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1) upset or bother (2) aversive emotional reactions (3) punitive impulses, and (4) punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher...

  1. Relationships between respiratory and airway resistances and activity-related dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plantier L

    2012-03-01

    were not equivalent, obviously. Correlative analyses further showed that Rawtot and Raweff (and their specific resistances can be considered as equivalent and correlated with indices that are considered to explore peripheral airways (residual volume (RV, RV/ total lung capacity (TLC, Rrsslope, while Rrsmean and Raw0.5 explored more central airways. Only specific resistances taking into account the specific resistance loop area (sRawtot and sRaweff and Rrsslope were statistically linked to dyspnea.Conclusion: Parameters obtained from both body plethysmography and FOT can explore peripheral airways, and some of these parameters (sRawtot, sRaweff, and Rrsslope are linked to activity-related dyspnea in moderate to severe COPD patients.Keywords: body plethysmography, forced oscillation technique, principal component analysis

  2. Individual and Contextual Factors Related to Secondary Special Education Teachers' Reading Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.; Chiu, Ming Ming; Roberts, Carly A.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports findings from an initial investigation of the impact multiple individual and contextual factors have on secondary special educators' reading instructional practices. Data from 577 special educators from 221 school districts in a large Midwestern state were collected via an online and paper survey and analyzed using…

  3. The Relation between Navigation Strategy and Associative Memory: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi T.; Weisberg, Steven M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent…

  4. Varieties of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related intra-individual variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, F.X.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Martino, A. Di; Hyde, C.; Walters, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Intra-individual variability in behavior and functioning is ubiquitous among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has not been systematically examined or integrated within causal models. This article seeks to provide a conceptual, methodologic, and analytic framework

  5. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

  6. An Analysis of Legal Hearings and Cases Related to Individualized Education Programs for Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etscheidt, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews 68 hearings and cases concerned with disputes regarding individualized education programs (IEPs) for students with disabilities. It concludes that IEP goals must be matched to evaluation data, team members must be qualified to develop programs, and the methodology selected must be able to assist the students in achieving…

  7. Translocation of Candida albicans is related to the blood flow of individual intestinal villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L; Alexander, J W; Fukushima, R; Childress, C P

    1993-08-01

    Splanchnic ischemia is associated with increased bacterial translocation, but previous observations showed that translocation of Candida albicans did not occur uniformly among individual intestinal villi. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the degree of Candida translocation and the microcirculation of individual villi. Thiry-Vella intestinal loops were created in eight guinea pigs. One week later, the distal aorta and right carotid artery were cannulated, and systemic blood pressure was recorded throughout the entire experiment. C. albicans (1 x 10(10)) was introduced into the Thiry-Vella loop, and the animals underwent a 40% full-thickness burn. Systolic hypotension was observed in the first 75 minutes postburn; then the systemic blood pressure returned to a normal range. Four hours after burn, 8 x 10(7) microspheres (10 microns) were injected into the aorta. The animals were sacrificed, and the Thiry-Vella loops were harvested and processed for light microscopy. At the microscopic level, within each villus, both the number of beads trapped in the arterioles and the number of Candida translocated into the enterocytes were counted. An inverse linear correlation between number of beads and number of translocated yeast per individual villus was found (r = -0.78; P flow is an important determinant of the magnitude of microbial translocation, even within individual villi.

  8. The 'new normal': relativity of quality of life judgments in individuals with bipolar disorder-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Emma; Michalak, Erin; Hole, Rachelle; Buzwell, Simone; Murray, Greg

    2018-06-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly a target of interventions for bipolar disorders (BD). While the subjective experience of consumers is often elevated as central to the construct of QoL in BD, limited investigation in this area means subjective QoL remains poorly understood. The present qualitative study seeks to address this by investigating how people with BD appraise the quality of their lives in the context of a QoL self-management intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 individuals who had participated in a self-management intervention for improving QoL in BD. Individuals were questioned about experiences of the intervention and perceptions of their QoL. Thematic analysis was used to explore participants' appraisal of their QoL. An overarching theme concerned the intrinsic relativity of subjective QoL: individuals located QoL as relative to self, others and possible futures. Incorporating illness-related reference points for QoL ('given my circumstances…') was associated with perceptions of improved QoL. Deliberately modifying reference points for QoL was perceived as self-compassionate. The present study generates novel hypotheses about how individuals with BD make sense of their QoL. Data suggest that individuals located their QoL relative to a variety of reference points, use of which was flexible. In accord with gap theories of QoL, individuals experienced acceptance of illness impacts as improving subjective sense of QoL. Rather than 'settling for' a lower standard of QoL, individuals experienced these changes as adaptive and positive. Findings are discussed in relation to the measurement and amelioration of QoL in BD.

  9. The Impacts of Cellular Senescence in Elderly Pneumonia and in Age-Related Lung Diseases That Increase the Risk of Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Shigehisa; Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Miura, Ayako; Matsuo, Ayako; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-25

    Pneumonia generates considerable negative impacts on the elderly. Despite the widespread uses of vaccines and appropriate antibiotics, the morbidity and mortality of elderly pneumonia are significantly higher compared to the counterparts of young populations. The definitive mechanisms of high vulnerability in the elderly against pathogen threats are unclear. Age-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation augments the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in the elderly. Cellular senescence, one of the hallmarks of aging, has its own characteristics, cell growth arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These properties are beneficial if the sequence of senescence-clearance-regeneration is transient in manner. However, persisting senescent cell accumulation and excessive SASP might induce sustained low-grade inflammation and disruption of normal tissue microenvironments in aged tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that cellular senescence is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which are known to be age-related and increase the risk of pneumonia. In addition to their structural collapses, COPD and IPF might increase the vulnerability to pathogen insults through SASP. Here, we discuss the current advances in understanding of the impacts of cellular senescence in elderly pneumonia and in these chronic lung disorders that heighten the risk of respiratory infections.

  10. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gabriela Karottki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF, lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16 and surfactant protein-D (SPD were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC, weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity.

  11. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Andraud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV. The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams’ antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms.

  12. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.

  13. Individual Income, Area Deprivation, and Health: Do Income-Related Health Inequalities Vary by Small Area Deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin; Mielck, Andreas; Maier, Werner

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to explore potential associations between health inequalities related to socioeconomic deprivation at the individual and the small area level. We use German cross-sectional survey data for the years 2002 and 2006, and measure small area deprivation via the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. We test the differences between concentration indices of income-related and small area deprivation related inequalities in obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Our results suggest that small area deprivation and individual income both yield inequalities in health favoring the better-off, where individual income-related inequalities are significantly more pronounced than those related to small area deprivation. We then apply a semiparametric extension of Wagstaff's corrected concentration index to explore how individual-level health inequalities vary with the degree of regional deprivation. We find that the concentration of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes among lower income groups also exists at the small area level. The degree of deprivation-specific income-related inequalities in the three health outcomes exhibits only little variations across different levels of multiple deprivation for both sexes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Individuation in relation to parents as a predictor of career goals and career optimism in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puklek Levpušček, Melita; Rauch, Victoria; Komidar, Luka

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of Slovenian emerging adults' individuation characteristics (in relation to mother and father) with career goals and career optimism. We were interested in contributions of age, gender, certainty of study choice, and individuation dimensions when predicting intrinsic/extrinsic career goals and career optimism. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Career Goals Scale and the Career Futures Inventory. The results showed that age did not relate to emerging adults' career goals; however, older students reported lower career optimism than their younger counterparts. Furthermore, certainty of study choice was the most important predictor of career optimism, and, along with gender, of intrinsic career goals. Emerging adults who reported higher connectedness with both parents and self-reliance in relation to mother had higher intrinsic career goals, while self-reliance in relation to mother was positively associated with stronger optimism about an individual's future career. Fear of disappointing both parents significantly contributed to the prediction of extrinsic career goals and optimism, while parental intrusiveness did not add significantly to the prediction of the two measured career outcomes. The study confirmed the correlational effects of positive and negative aspects of individuation on career outcomes in emerging adulthood. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Avoidance of Bereavement-Related Stimuli in Chinese Individuals Experiencing Prolonged Grief: Evidence from a Dot-Probe Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attentional bias refers to a preference for (e.g., vigilance or a shifting away (e.g., avoidance of one’s focus with respect to specific stimuli. Accumulating evidence suggests that an attentional bias toward death/threat-related stimuli exists in bereaved individuals experiencing prolonged grief (PG. Measuring for different processing may reflect different cognitive characteristics. Therefore, this study sought to compare information-processing biases in Chinese individuals with high versus low levels of PG symptomatology at supraliminal and subliminal levels, respectively.Method: A 2 (grief level × 2 (consciousness level × 2 (word type three-factor mixed design with supraliminal and subliminal tasks was utilized in the current study. Based on their Prolonged Grief Questionnaire-13 (PG-13 scores, 38 participants were included in the low-PG group, and 34 individuals were included in the high-PG group. All the participants completed a dot-probe task in which they were primed with death-related and life-related words paired with neutral stimuli.Results: High-PG individuals were slower in reacting to the death-related information in both supraliminal and subliminal tasks. After controlling for other symptoms in the backward deletion regression, PG-13 scores significantly predicted the avoidance tendency to death-related words in the supraliminal task, while anxiety was the best predictor of turning one’s vision away from death-related stimuli in the subliminal trials.Conclusion: The results suggested that high PG is associated with a tendency to avoid death-related words. Future research is needed to explore interventions that address the avoidance of death-related stimuli among individuals with elevated, or diagnosable, levels of PG.

  16. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  17. Respiratory care management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  18. Social capital in a lower socioeconomic palliative care population: a qualitative investigation of individual, community and civic networks and relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joanne M; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Currow, David C; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic populations live and die in contexts that render them vulnerable to poorer health and wellbeing. Contexts of care at the end of life are overwhelmingly determined by the capacity and nature of formal and informal networks and relations to support care. To date, studies exploring the nature of networks and relations of support in lower socioeconomic populations at the end of life are absent. This qualitative study sought to identify the nature of individual, community and civic networks and relations that defined the contexts of care for this group. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 patients and 6 informal carers who identified that they had social and economic needs and were from a lower socioeconomic area. A social capital questionnaire identifying individual, community and civic networks and relations formed the interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Participants identified that individual and community networks and relations of support were mainly inadequate to meet care needs. Specifically, data revealed: (1) individual (informal caregivers) networks and relations were small and fragile due to the nature of conflict and crisis; (2) community trust and engagement was limited and shifted by illness and caregiving; (3) and formal care services were inconsistent and provided limited practical support. Some transitions in community relations for support were noted. Levels of civic and government engagement and support were overall positive and enabled access to welfare resources. Networks and relations of support are essential for ensuring quality end of life care is achieved. Lower socioeconomic groups are at a distinct disadvantage where these networks and relations are limited, as they lack the resources necessary to augment these gaps. Understanding of the nature of assets and limitations, in networks and relations of support, is necessary to inform

  19. The Relationship Between Online Video Game Involvement and Gaming-Related Friendships Among Emotionally Sensitive Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kowert, Rachel; Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between...

  20. Correlates of individual, and age-related, differences in short-term learning☆

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P.; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2007-01-01

    Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verb...

  1. Identity related to living situation in six individuals with congenital quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Kenneth L

    2008-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of structural aspects of identity, particularly identity associated with living situation, in individuals who have quadriplegia due to cerebral palsy. A hierarchical classes algorithm (HICLAS) was used to construct idiographic 'identity structure' models for three individuals who are living in an inpatient hospital setting and for three individuals living in community-based group residences. Indices derived from the models indicate that the identity 'myself as one who has a disability' was structurally superordinate (i.e., resided at a high hierarchical level) for all six participants, suggesting a high level of importance of this identity in participants' sense of self. The models also indicate that while identity associated with one's particular living situation was superordinate for persons living in the hospital, it was not for persons living in community residences. While conclusions based on this small sample are necessarily limited, the data suggest that identity associated with living situation might differ in structural centrality, and presumably subjective importance, for persons living in inpatient versus community-based settings.

  2. The output, incomes and assets-capital relations in individual farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Ryś-Jurek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt was made to analyse the output, incomes as well as other components of assets and sources that provided their financing in Polish individual farms, in comparison with farms from other EU countries. A special emphasis was put on examination of the interrelations between income, output and stocks observed within individual farms. Research was based on the FADN database that included basic information about average individual farms in years 2004-2006. The research showed, that (among other things the average output and family farm income were three times lower in Poland than the average in the Union. Also the increase of income was possible only thanks to the subsidies from the Union. According to the regression models, in Poland the positive influence on the increase of family farm income had stocks, crops and livestock output. While in the EU positive influence had crops and livestock production and negative influence had the stocks on an income’s growth.

  3. Individual differences in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-related cues: Implications for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Shelly B; Akil, Huda; Robinson, Terry E

    2009-01-01

    Drugs of abuse acquire different degrees of control over thoughts and actions based not only on the effects of drugs themselves, but also on predispositions of the individual. Those individuals who become addicted are unable to shift their thoughts and actions away from drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Thus in addicts, exposure to places or things (cues) that has been previously associated with drug-taking often instigates renewed drug-taking. We and others have postulated that drug-associated cues acquire the ability to maintain and instigate drug-taking behavior in part because they acquire incentive motivational properties through Pavlovian (stimulus-stimulus) learning. In the case of compulsive behavioral disorders, including addiction, such cues may be attributed with pathological incentive value ("incentive salience"). For this reason, we have recently begun to explore individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues that predict rewards. When discrete cues are associated with the non-contingent delivery of food or drug rewards some animals come to quickly approach and engage the cue even if it is located at a distance from where the reward will be delivered. In these animals the reward-predictive cue itself becomes attractive, eliciting approach towards it, presumably because it is attributed with incentive salience. Animals that develop this type of conditional response are called "sign-trackers". Other animals, "goal-trackers", do not approach the reward-predictive cue, but upon cue presentation they immediately go to the location where food will be delivered (the "goal"). For goal-trackers the reward-predictive cue is not attractive, presumably because it is not attributed with incentive salience. We review here preliminary data suggesting that these individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to cues predictive of reward may confer vulnerability or resistance to compulsive behavioral disorders

  4. Assessment of the relative success of sporozoite inoculations in individuals exposed to moderate seasonal transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel André

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time necessary for malaria parasite to re-appear in the blood following treatment (re-infection time is an indirect method for evaluating the immune defences operating against pre-erythrocytic and early erythrocytic malaria stages. Few longitudinal data are available in populations in whom malaria transmission level had also been measured. Methods One hundred and ten individuals from the village of Ndiop (Senegal, aged between one and 72 years, were cured of malaria by quinine (25 mg/day oral Quinimax™ in three equal daily doses, for seven days. Thereafter, thick blood films were examined to detect the reappearance of Plasmodium falciparum every week, for 11 weeks after treatment. Malaria transmission was simultaneously measured weekly by night collection of biting mosquitoes. Results Malaria transmission was on average 15.3 infective bites per person during the 77 days follow up. The median reappearance time for the whole study population was 46.8 days, whereas individuals would have received an average one infective bite every 5 days. At the end of the follow-up, after 77 days, 103 of the 110 individuals (93.6%; CI 95% [89.0–98.2] had been re-infected with P. falciparum. The median reappearance time ('re-positivation' was longer in subjects with patent parasitaemia at enrolment than in parasitologically-negative individuals (58 days vs. 45.9; p = 0.03 and in adults > 30 years than in younger subjects (58.6 days vs. 42.7; p = 0.0002. In a multivariate Cox PH model controlling for the sickle cell trait, G6PD deficiency and the type of habitat, the presence of parasitaemia at enrolment and age ≥ 30 years were independently predictive of a reduced risk of re-infection (PH = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.3–0.9] and 0.4; [95% CI: 0.2–0.6] respectively. Conclusion Results indicate the existence of a substantial resistance to sporozoites inoculations, but which was ultimately overcome in almost every individual after 2 1/2 months of

  5. Sex-related differences in fuel utilization and hormonal response to exercise: implications for individuals with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Nicole K; Yardley, Jane E

    2018-06-01

    Sex-related differences in metabolic and neuroendocrine response to exercise in individuals without diabetes have been well established. Men and women differ in fuel selection during exercise, in which women rely to a greater extent on fat oxidation, whereas males rely mostly on carbohydrate oxidation for energy production. The difference in fuel selection appears to be mediated by sex-related differences in hormonal (including catecholamines, growth hormone, and estrogen) response to different types and intensities of exercise. In general, men exhibit an amplified counter-regulatory response to exercise, with elevated levels of catecholamines compared with women. However, women exhibit greater sensitivity to the lipolytic action of the catecholamines and deplete less of their glycogen stores than men during exercise, which suggests that women may experience a greater defense in blood glucose control after exercise than men. Conversely, little is known about sex-related differences in response to exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A single study investigating sex-related differences in response to moderate aerobic exercise in individuals with T1D found sex-related differences in catecholamine response and fuel selection, but changes in blood glucose were not measured. To our knowledge, there are no studies investigating sex-related differences in blood glucose responses to different types and intensities of exercise in individuals with T1D. This review summarizes sex-related differences in exercise responses that could potentially impact blood glucose levels during exercise in individuals with T1D and highlights the need for further research.

  6. The Association Between Dental Anxiety and Oral Health Related Quality of Life Among Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Keleş

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the oral health related quality of life and the effect of dental anxiety on the oral health related quality of life in young, mildly intellectually disabled individuals who are attending a special school. Materials and Methods: Eighty six mildly intellectually disabled students participated this cross-sectional study. Oral health-related quality of life-United Kingdom Scale and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 were used to evaluate the effects of oral health of the individuals on their quality of life. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was used to determine the dental anxiety levels of the individuals. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: The mean age of the participants was 17.12±1.40 years and the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score of the students was 3.10±2.76. According to the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, 28.0% of the students had dental anxiety. A significant inverse relationship was detected between dental anxiety levels and oral health-related quality of life (r=-0.239; p=0.028. Conclusion: Nearly 30% of individuals with mild intellectual disabilities were determined to have dental anxiety. Considering that the oral health-related quality of life decreases with increasing dental anxiety, it may be beneficial for dentists to administer premedication before treatment to decrease the anxiety levels of these patients.

  7. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kessler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which “unbearable” mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR].Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD, and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall.Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced.Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of

  8. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Henrik; Schmidt, Anna Christine; Hildenbrand, Oliver; Scharf, Daniela; Kehyayan, Aram; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT)] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR)]. Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD), and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall. Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced. Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of repression, in line

  9. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    OpenAIRE

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive eff...

  10. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-19

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM 2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and the risk of respiratory tract diseases, using relevant articles extracted from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. In results, of the 1,126 articles originally identified, 35 (3.1%) were included in this meta-analysis. PM 2.5 was found to be associated with respiratory tract diseases. After subdivision by age group, respiratory tract disease, and continent, PM 2.5 was strongly associated with respiratory tract diseases in children, in persons with cough, lower respiratory illness, and wheezing, and in individuals from North America, Europe, and Asia. The risk of respiratory tract diseases was greater for exposure to traffic-related than non-traffic-related air pollution. In children, the pooled relative risk (RR) represented significant increases in wheezing (8.2%), cough (7.5%), and lower respiratory illness (15.3%). The pooled RRs in children were 1.091 (95%CI: 1.049, 1.135) for exposure to respiratory tract diseases, especially in children exposed to high concentrations of PM 2.5 .

  11. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  12. Reducing Individual Variation for fMRI Studies in Children by Minimizing Template Related Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Weng

    Full Text Available Spatial normalization is an essential process for group comparisons in functional MRI studies. In practice, there is a risk of normalization errors particularly in studies involving children, seniors or diseased populations and in regions with high individual variation. One way to minimize normalization errors is to create a study-specific template based on a large sample size. However, studies with a large sample size are not always feasible, particularly for children studies. The performance of templates with a small sample size has not been evaluated in fMRI studies in children. In the current study, this issue was encountered in a working memory task with 29 children in two groups. We compared the performance of different templates: a study-specific template created by the experimental population, a Chinese children template and the widely used adult MNI template. We observed distinct differences in the right orbitofrontal region among the three templates in between-group comparisons. The study-specific template and the Chinese children template were more sensitive for the detection of between-group differences in the orbitofrontal cortex than the MNI template. Proper templates could effectively reduce individual variation. Further analysis revealed a correlation between the BOLD contrast size and the norm index of the affine transformation matrix, i.e., the SFN, which characterizes the difference between a template and a native image and differs significantly across subjects. Thereby, we proposed and tested another method to reduce individual variation that included the SFN as a covariate in group-wise statistics. This correction exhibits outstanding performance in enhancing detection power in group-level tests. A training effect of abacus-based mental calculation was also demonstrated, with significantly elevated activation in the right orbitofrontal region that correlated with behavioral response time across subjects in the trained group.

  13. Individual-level factors related to better mental health outcomes following child maltreatment among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kristene; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Fortier, Janique; Sareen, Jitender; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael H; Afifi, Tracie O

    2018-05-01

    Research on factors associated with good mental health following child maltreatment is often based on unrepresentative adult samples. To address these limitations, the current study investigated the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status among adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment in a representative sample. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) compute the prevalence of mental health indicators by child maltreatment types, 2) estimate the prevalence of overall good, moderate, and poor mental health by child maltreatment types; and 3) examine the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status of adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment. Data were from the National Comorbidity Survey of Adolescents (NCS-A; n = 10,123; data collection 2001-2004); a large, cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 13-17 years from the United States. All types of child maltreatment were significantly associated with increased odds of having poor mental health (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 3.2 to 9.5). The individual-level factors significantly associated with increased odds of good mental health status included: being physically active in the winter; utilizing positive coping strategies; having positive self-esteem; and internal locus of control (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.7 to 38.2). Interventions targeted to adolescents with a history of child maltreatment may want to test for the efficacy of the factors identified above. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relation between Degree and Strength in the Complex Network Derived from an Individual Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method based on coarse-graining to construct a directed weighted complex network which models the transformation of the trading data of an individual stock is introduced. The degree (strength distribution of derived network follows a power-law. A moderated regression equation with interaction effects of average return and out-degree (in-degree on out-strength (in-strength is established. Moreover, we found that the differences of nodes affect the network’s structure and average return level impacts nodes’ eigenvector centrality and pagerank, significantly.

  15. Correlates of individual, and age-related, differences in short-term learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P; Salthouse, Timothy A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2007-07-01

    Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verbal and spatial tasks, the learning parameters were not significantly correlated with one another across task modalities. These results are inconsistent with the existence of a general (e.g., material-independent) learning ability.

  16. The clinical implementation of respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, Paul; Vedam, Sastry; George, Rohini; Bartee, Chris; Siebers, Jeffrey; Lerma, Fritz; Weiss, Elisabeth; Chung, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    The clinical use of respiratory-gated radiotherapy and the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are 2 relatively new innovations to the treatment of lung cancer. Respiratory gating can reduce the deleterious effects of intrafraction motion, and IMRT can concurrently increase tumor dose homogeneity and reduce dose to critical structures including the lungs, spinal cord, esophagus, and heart. The aim of this work is to describe the clinical implementation of respiratory-gated IMRT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Documented clinical procedures were developed to include a tumor motion study, gated CT imaging, IMRT treatment planning, and gated IMRT delivery. Treatment planning procedures for respiratory-gated IMRT including beam arrangements and dose-volume constraints were developed. Quality assurance procedures were designed to quantify both the dosimetric and positional accuracy of respiratory-gated IMRT, including film dosimetry dose measurements and Monte Carlo dose calculations for verification and validation of individual patient treatments. Respiratory-gated IMRT is accepted by both treatment staff and patients. The dosimetric and positional quality assurance test results indicate that respiratory-gated IMRT can be delivered accurately. If carefully implemented, respiratory-gated IMRT is a practical alternative to conventional thoracic radiotherapy. For mobile tumors, respiratory-gated radiotherapy is used as the standard of care at our institution. Due to the increased workload, the choice of IMRT is taken on a case-by-case basis, with approximately half of the non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving respiratory-gated IMRT. We are currently evaluating whether superior tumor coverage and limited normal tissue dosing will lead to improvements in local control and survival in non-small cell lung cancer

  17. Individual traffic-related air pollution and new onset adult asthma:A GIS-based pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysbeck Hansen, Carl; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Baelum, Jesper

    The background for the project is that traffic-related air pollution may provoke the onset of asthma. The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the relation between asthma and wheeze debut and individually estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with a validated exposure...... system (AirGIS). The project applied the following methodology. A non-smoking cohort with recently acquired asthma or wheeze as well as matched controls were identified from a large cross-sectional study. All residential and working addresses with corresponding time periods for a 10 year period were...... successfully identified for all study participants (N=33). Using AirGIS traffic-related air pollutant levels from both urban background and street level were estimated for the 10 year study period on an hourly basis. Individual levels of air pollutants in the years preceding debut of asthma or wheeze were...

  18. Creating the final conversations scale: a measure of end-of-life relational communication with terminally ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generous, Mark Alan; Keeley, Maureen P

    2014-01-01

    Final conversations (FCs) are defined as the communicative interactions, both verbal and nonverbal, that occur between terminally ill patients and relational partners. In this study, the "Final Conversations Scale" was developed and tested. A total of 152 participants that had engaged in final conversations with individuals that were terminally ill completed the newly developed instrument. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure, including: messages of spirituality/religion; expressions of love; proactive difficult relationship talk; everyday communication; and talk about illness/death. Participants' perceptions of the relational closeness and difficulty with the deceased significantly influenced the individuals' recalled frequency of FCs messages. Practical and scholarly implications focus on the needs of the family members regarding their communication with terminally ill individuals, as well as directions for future research with the FCs Scale.

  19. Autism spectrum disorder in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their first- and second-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne V; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Mouridsen, Svend E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical and population-based studies report increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their relatives. No nationwide study has yet been published on co-occurrence of these disorders. AIMS: To investigate comorbidity of ASD...... in individuals with anorexia nervosa, and aggregation of ASD and anorexia nervosa in their relatives. METHOD: In Danish registers we identified all individuals born in 1981-2008, their parents, and full and half siblings, and linked them to data on hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Risk...... of comorbidity of ASD in probands with anorexia nervosa and aggregation of ASD in families of anorexia nervosa probands were increased. However, the risk of comorbid and familial ASD did not differ significantly from comorbid and familial major depression or any psychiatric disorder in anorexia nervosa probands...

  20. Individual and organizational factors related to work engagement among home-visiting nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Takashi; Sakai, Mahiro; Watai, Izumi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Kuwahara, Yuki; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2013-12-01

    The increasing number of elderly people has caused increased demand for home-visiting nurses. Nursing managers should develop healthy workplaces in order to grow their workforce. This study investigated the work engagement of home-visiting nurses as an index of workplace health. The aim of the present study was to reveal factors contributing to work engagement among Japanese home-visiting nurses. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was sent to 208 home-visiting nurses from 28 nursing agencies in three districts; 177 (85.1%) returned the questionnaires. The Job Demands-Resources model, which explains the relationship between work environment and employee well-being, was used as a conceptual guide. The authors employed three survey instruments: (i) questions on individual variables; (ii) questions on organizational variables; and (iii) the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Japanese version). Multiple regression analyses were performed in order to examine the relationships between individual variables, organizational variables, and work engagement. Nurse managers and nurses who felt that there was a positive relationship between work and family had significantly higher work engagement levels than others. The support of a supervisor was significantly associated with work engagement. Nurses in middle-sized but not large agencies had significantly higher work engagement than nurses in small agencies. Supervisor support and an appropriate number of people reporting to each supervisor are important factors in fostering work engagement among home-visiting nurses. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. BUSINESS PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INDIVIDUAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adriano Antonelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, much has been said about the impact of IT in organizations, but little about its impact on the individual. This study aims to identify IT benefits in individual work, choosing as a proxy some post-graduation “latu sensu” students, from a federal university in the south of Brazil. For data collecting, a questionnaire based on studies of Torkzadeh and Doll (1999 and Pereira (2003 has been prepared. Torkzadeh and Doll dealt with the process of working; Pereira, by using the four phases of decision making . The final instrument, after being validated and tested, amounted to 21 questions to detect the potential benefits of IT. The results demonstrated that users are satisfied, by pointing an average of 2.69 on a scale of "1" (little satisfied to "5" (very much satisfied. The framework, work process, got an overall average [2.82]. Managerial control [3.10] and productivity [3.06] had the highest ratings; innovation [2.34], the lowest one. Technologies fully implemented had greater satisfaction in all constructs of the survey with statistically significant differences. Such differences were also proven in the IT solutions that use ERP technology, the best-evaluated one. When comparing age, it was found that younger users were more satisfied with the benefits of technology. As concerning the number of employees, small business users were less satisfied with IT.

  2. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  3. Estimating differential reproductive success from nests of related individuals, with application to a study of the Mottled Sculpin, Cottus bairdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrix Jones; Gary D. Grossman; Daniel C.I. Walsh; Brady A. Porter; John C. Avise; Anthony C. Flumera

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how variation in reproductive success is related to demography is a critical component in understanding the life history of an organism. Parentage analysis using molecular markers can be used to estimate the reproductive success of different groups of individuals in natural populations. Previous models have been developed for cases where offspring are...

  4. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  5. The longitudinal relation between childhood autistic traits and psychosexual problems in early adolescence : The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early

  6. The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); L.A.M. Elders (Leo); B.C.H. Zwart, de; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were

  7. The Impact of Intensive Vocation-Related Course Taking on Employment Outcomes for Individuals Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Wendel, Erica M.; Bond, Mark P.; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who are deaf have historically faced significant obstacles to equity in employment. This secondary analysis of data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2) examined (a) intensive vocation-related courses taken by students who are deaf and (b) their impact on long-term employment outcomes. Deaf students in general…

  8. Rehabilitation-Related Research on Disability and Employer Practices Using Individual-Based National and Administrative Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…

  9. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Skoda, Eva; Mack, Isabelle; Niess, Andreas; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable and potential determinants of stress related to obesity. Based on the available evidence, a five factorial model of 'obesity-related obesogenic stressors' was hypothesized, including the dimensions, 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction'. The model was tested using multiple linear regression analyses. The five factorial model of 'potentially obesity-related stressors' resulted in a total variance explanation of adjusted R² = 0.616 for males and adjusted R² = 0.595 for females for perceived stress. The relative variance contribution of the five included factors differed substantially for the two sexes. The findings of this cross-sectional study support the hypothesized, potentially obesity-related factors: 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction' as relevant determinants of perceived stress in individuals with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Subgrouping Poor Readers on the Basis of Individual Differences in Reading-Related Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Catts, Hugh W.; Hogan, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of the Reading Component Model to subgroup poor readers. A large sample of poor readers was identified in second grade and subgrouped on the basis of relative strengths and weaknesses in word recognition and listening comprehension. Although homogeneous subgroups were not identified, poor readers could be classified into four subgroups that differed significantly in reading-related abilities. Further analyses showed that poor readers' strengths and weakn...

  11. Correlates of weight-related quality of life among individuals with binge eating disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Grilo, Carlos M; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) report poorer weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) compared to individuals with obesity alone. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the best available treatment for BED, does not consistently produce weight loss or improvements in weight QOL. The purpose of the current study was to examine baseline and longitudinal associations between eating-related and psychosocial variables and dimensions of weight QOL. We examined associations between predictor variables, including body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, and psychosocial factors, in relation to three dimensions of WRQOL among 171 patients whom received CBT for BED. Participants completed interviews and self-report measures at baseline prior to CBT and at end of treatment. At baseline the following associations were significant: BMI, ED psychopathology, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related self-esteem; gender, BMI, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related public distress (i.e., stigma and worry in public because of one's weight); and age, BMI, and ED psychopathology were associated with weight-related physical function. At end of treatment, the following associations were significant: changes in ED psychopathology and coping predicted weight-related self-esteem; changes in coping and self-esteem predicted weight-related public distress; and changes in BMI and subjective binge eating predicted weight-related physical function. Overall, changes in a number of ED and associated symptoms were associated with improvements in WRQOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  13. Plasma zinc in institutionalized elderly individuals: Relation with immune and cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; de Oliveira, Larissa Praça; de Araújo Cabral, Natalia Louise; de Sousa, Sara Estéfani Soares; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura; de Oliveira Lyra, Clélia; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Sena-Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; de Fatima Campos Pedrosa, Lucia

    2018-04-24

    Changes in zinc metabolism caused by aging and the institutionalization process may contribute to zinc deficiency in elderly individuals. Hypozincemia results in changes in glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma zinc concentrations and their relationships with sociodemographic, dietary, inflammatory, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in institutionalized elderly individuals. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 255 elderly adults living in nursing homes. The associations between plasma zinc and dietary zinc intake, sociodemographic indicators, and glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Independent variables were analyzed according to quartiles of plasma zinc concentrations (Q1: 93.7 μg/dL). The relationship between plasma zinc concentrations and predictor variables was also tested. In Q1, higher concentrations of the following variables were observed, compared with those in other quartiles: total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; Q1 > Q2, Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; p = 0.024 and p = 0.010, respectively); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Q1 > Q3, p = 0.003). A significant reduction in plasma zinc concentrations was observed with increasing age-adjusted institutionalization time (Δ = - 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.18 to -0.01). The concentrations of total cholesterol (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), LDL-c (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), triglycerides (Δ = - 0.11; 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.06), IL-6 (Δ = - 1.41; 95% CI: -2.64 to -0.18), and TNF-α (Δ = - 1.04; 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.36) were also significantly increased. In conclusion, decreased plasma zinc concentrations were associated with longer institutionalization time and worse lipid and inflammatory profiles in elderly institutionalized individuals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Occupational risk factors for chronic respiratory disease in a New Zealand population using lifetime occupational history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Anna; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Poole, Suzanne; Zock, Jan-Paul; Weatherall, Mark; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Travers, Justin; Beasley, Richard

    2014-03-01

    To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire information, including a lifetime occupational history. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with self-reported exposure to hairdressing, paint manufacturing, insecticides, welding, detergents and with ALOHA Job Exposure Matrix-assessed gases/fumes exposure. The strongest association was for hairdressing (odds ratio 6.91; 95% confidence interval: 2.02 to 23.70). Cumulative exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher FEV₁% (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration) predicted. Analyses were limited by relatively small numbers of cases. Increased risks of objectively defined respiratory disease, which have been previously documented, were not seen. Nevertheless, the study suggested increased risk of respiratory symptoms with various occupational exposures as well as likely healthy worker effect.

  15. Health-related quality of life and self-related health in patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva S; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness ...... of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients....

  16. Coping Strategies as Moderators of the Relation between Individual Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…

  17. HIV-Related Stigma, Social Support, and Psychological Distress Among Individuals Initiating ART in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis

    2018-02-16

    Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.

  18. Association between age associated cognitive decline and health related quality of life among Iranian older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazi, Leila; Foroughan, Mahshid; Nejati, Vahid; Shati, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    Age associated cognitive decline or normal cognitive aging is related with lower levels of functioning in real life, and may interfere with maintaining independence and health related quality of life (HRQL). In this study, health related quality of life and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults were evaluated with the aim of exploring the association between them by adjusting for potential confounders. This cross-sectional study, was implemented on 425 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over, between August 2016 and October 2016 in health centers of the municipality of Tehran, Iran, using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess cognitive function and Short Form-36 scales (SF-36) to assess HRQL. The relation between HRQL and cognitive function was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the impact of cognitive function on HRQL adjusted for potential confounders was estimated by linear regression model. All analyses were done using SPSS, version 22.0. A positive significant correlation between cognitive function and quality of life (r=0.434; pcognitive function was associated with HRQL in older adults with age associated cognitive function. Two variables of educational level and depression can affect the relation between cognitive decline and HRQL.

  19. Evaluating Individual Students' Perceptions of Instructional Quality: An Investigation of their Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Relations to Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Nilsen, Trude; Jansen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling), which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics). On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students), we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students' perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students' perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed.

  20. Evaluating individual students’ perceptions of instructional quality: An investigation of their factor structure, measurement invariance, and relations to educational outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny eScherer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling, which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics. On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students, we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students’ perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students’ perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed.

  1. Dysfunctional frontal lobe activity during inhibitory tasks in individuals with childhood trauma: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkean; Kim, Ji Sun; Jin, Min Jin; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Individuals who experience childhood trauma are vulnerable to various psychological and behavioral problems throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with childhood trauma show altered frontal lobe activity during response inhibition tasks. In total, 157 healthy individuals were recruited and instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography recording. Source activities of N2 and P3 of Nogo event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) were applied. Individuals were divided into three groups based on their total CTQ score: low CTQ, middle CTQ, and high CTQ groups. The high CTQ group exhibited significantly higher BIS scores than the low CTQ group. P3 amplitudes of the differences between Nogo and Go ERP waves exhibited higher mean values in the low CTQ than the high CTQ group, with trending effects. In Nogo-P3, the source activities of the right anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral medial frontal cortex (MFC), bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and right precentral gyrus were significantly lower in the high CTQ than the low CTQ group. Motor impulsivity showed a significant negative correlation with activities of the bilateral MFC and SFG in Nogo-P3 conditions. Our study revealed that individuals with childhood trauma have inhibitory failure and frontal lobe dysfunction in regions related to Nogo-P3.

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  4. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  6. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  7. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  8. Frequency of colorectal cancer in healthy individual's relatives: A cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family history of colorectal cancer has been shown to be related to the risk of developing colorectal cancer. This risk depends on the number of affected relatives and the age at diagnosis. In this study we aimed to estimate the frequency of a positive family history of colorectal cancer in a random sample from Tehran population. Materials and Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran province, Iran. A total of 5,500 peoples (age≥20 years drawn up randomly by random sampling according to postal codes and invited to participate in the study. All participants completed a detailed health data registry form on family history status of colorectal cancer. Results: The mean age of men with a positive family history was significantly different from men with negative family history. There was no significant difference between mean age of women responders with or without positive family history. Among all participants (n=5,500, 162 responders (2.9% had a history of colorectal cancer. Of 162, 67 responders (1.22% had one and 4(0.07% had two or more first-degree relative with colorectal cancer. Of 5,500 participants, 18 subjects (0.33% reported having two or more first-degree relative with colorectal cancer or one first-degree relative with colorectal cancer diagnosed at age <50 years. Four subjects (0.07% had three or more first-degree relative with colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Based on the findings, we estimate that more than 570,000 subjects in the Iran in the age group≥20 years have at least two to three times increased risk of developing colorectal cancer which should be identified and encourage to participate in screening and surveillance protocols of colorectal cancer.

  9. Acute exacerbations and deaths in the group of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases in the city of Lodzin relation to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiatczak, J; Olejnik, A

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution episodes (sulfur dioxide and dust) on the morbidity and mortality of a group of people suffering from upper respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease was studied by examining air monitoring data and health statistics (ambulance service records and death certificates) for the city of Lodz. During the month of January in 1971, when the atmospheric pollution reached a 7-year peak, ambulance station statistics revealed the incidnce of acute cardiovascular and respiratory diseases to be at a maximum. The number of deaths from these diseases reached a maximum of 18 on the first day of the episode; on subsequent days, however, the mortalities returned to average.

  10. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  11. Counter cross-cultural priming and relative deprivation: The role of individualism-collectivism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.; van Veldhuizen, Tanja; Au, A.K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses cross-cultural comparisons and comparisons obtained by experimental manipulation to examine how cultural and contextual factors influence responses to personal and group relative deprivation. Two studies were conducted, one in an individualistic country (The Netherlands) and one in a

  12. Text Processing of Domain-Related Information for Individuals with High and Low Domain Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilich, George J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The way in which previously acquired knowledge affects the processing on new domain-related information was investigated. Text processing was studied in two groups differing in knowledge of the domain of baseball. A knowledge structure for the domain was constructed, and text propositions were classified. (SW)

  13. Beyond individualism: Is there a place for relational autonomy in clinical practice and research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Kelly, Susan E; Lucivero, Federica; Machirori, Mavis; Dheensa, Sandi; Prainsack, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    The dominant, individualistic understanding of autonomy that features in clinical practice and research is underpinned by the idea that people are, in their ideal form, independent, self-interested and rational gain-maximising decision-makers. In recent decades, this paradigm has been challenged from various disciplinary and intellectual directions. Proponents of 'relational autonomy' in particular have argued that people's identities, needs, interests - and indeed autonomy - are always also shaped by their relations to others. Yet, despite the pronounced and nuanced critique directed at an individualistic understanding of autonomy, this critique has had very little effect on ethical and legal instruments in clinical practice and research so far. In this article, we use four case studies to explore to what extent, if at all, relational autonomy can provide solutions to ethical and practical problems in clinical practice and research. We conclude that certain forms of relational autonomy can have a tangible and positive impact on clinical practice and research. These solutions leave the ultimate decision to the person most affected, but encourage and facilitate the consideration of this person's care and responsibility for connected others.

  14. Atomoxetine effects on attentional bias to drug-related cues in cocaine dependent individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passamonti, L. (Luca); M. Luijten (Maartje); Ziauddeen, H.; I. Coyle-Gilchrist (Ian); Rittman, T.; Brain, S.A.E.; Regenthal, R.; I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); Sahakian, B.J.; Bullmore, E.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Ersche, K.D.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Biased attention towards drug-related cues and reduced inhibitory control over the regulation of drug-intake characterize drug addiction. The noradrenaline system has been critically implicated in both attentional and response inhibitory processes and is directly affected by

  15. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Use of Migration-Related Competencies in Continuing Education: Individual Strategies, Social and Institutional Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjed, Ariane; Sprung, Annette; Kukovetz, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Focusing especially on biographical competencies that are gained through the experience of migration and socialisation in a certain country or cultural context, this article analyses how professionals define and deploy these "migration-related competencies" when it comes to employment in the field of adult education in Austria. By means…

  17. Error-related ERP components and individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tops, Mattie; Wester, Anne E.; Meijman, Theo F.; Lorist, Monique M.

    2006-01-01

    Although the focus of the discussion regarding the significance of the error related negatively (ERN/Ne) has been on the cognitive factors reflected in this component, there is now a growing body of research that describes influences of motivation, affective style and other factors of personality on

  18. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  19. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hung, Chihya; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Participation in daily physical activity (PA) post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aims were 1) to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2) to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. Methods The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 ± 9....

  20. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Detection and full genome characterization of two beta CoV viruses related to Middle East respiratory syndrome from bats in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Lelli, Davide; de Sabato, Luca; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Boni, Arianna; Sozzi, Enrica; Prosperi, Alice; Lavazza, Antonio; Cella, Eleonora; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Vaccari, Gabriele

    2017-12-19

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belongs to beta group of coronavirus, can infect multiple host species and causes severe diseases in humans. Multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. In this study, we describe the detection and full genome characterization of two CoVs closely related to MERS-CoV from two Italian bats, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii. Pool of viscera were tested by a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Virus isolation was attempted by inoculation in different cell lines. Full genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent platform and phylogenetic trees were performed using IQtree software. Similarity plots of CoV clade c genomes were generated by using SSE v1.2. The three dimensional macromolecular structure (3DMMS) of the receptor binding domain (RBD) in the S protein was predicted by sequence-homology method using the protein data bank (PDB). Both samples resulted positive to the pan-coronavirus RT-PCR (IT-batCoVs) and their genome organization showed identical pattern of MERS CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed a monophyletic group placed in the Beta2c clade formed by MERS-CoV sequences originating from humans and camels and bat-related sequences from Africa, Italy and China. The comparison of the secondary and 3DMMS of the RBD of IT-batCoVs with MERS, HKU4 and HKU5 bat sequences showed two aa deletions located in a region corresponding to the external subdomain of MERS-RBD in IT-batCoV and HKU5 RBDs. This study reported two beta CoVs closely related to MERS that were obtained from two bats belonging to two commonly recorded species in Italy (P. kuhlii and H. savii). The analysis of the RBD showed similar structure in IT-batCoVs and HKU5 respect to HKU4 sequences. Since the RBD domain of HKU4 but not HKU5 can bind to the human DPP4 receptor for MERS-CoV, it is possible to suggest also for IT-batCoVs the absence of DPP4-binding potential. More surveillance studies are needed to better

  2. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J; Swanton, Laura L; Pavitt, Matthew J; Luo, Yuan-Ming; Backer, Vibeke; Polkey, Michael I; Hull, James H

    2018-02-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate exercise-related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics, and respiratory neural drive. We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (6 with EILO and 6 healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video and gastric, esophageal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography, and respiratory airflow. The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation (V̇e) (work rate: 227 ± 35 vs. 237 ± 35 W; V̇e: 103 ± 20 vs. 98 ± 23 l/min; P > 0.05). At submaximal work rates (140-240 W), subjects with EILO demonstrated increased work of breathing ( P respiratory neural drive ( P respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video, we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure in causing exertional dyspnea and exercise limitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals; yet, how laryngeal closure affects breathing is unknown. In this study we synchronized endoscopic video with respiratory physiological measurements, thus providing the first detailed commensurate assessment of respiratory mechanics and neural drive in relation to laryngeal closure. Laryngeal closure was associated with increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive preceded by an

  3. Corollary Discharge Failure in an Oculomotor Task Is Related to Delusional Ideation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassis, Raphaëlle; Del Cul, Antoine; Collins, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the sensory consequences of saccadic eye movements likely plays a crucial role in planning sequences of saccades and in maintaining visual stability despite saccade-caused retinal displacements. Deficits in predictive activity, such as that afforded by a corollary discharge signal, have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, and may lead to the emergence of positive symptoms, in particular delusions of control and auditory hallucinations. We examined whether a measure of delusional thinking in the general, non-clinical population correlated with measures of predictive activity in two oculomotor tasks. The double-step task measured predictive activity in motor control, and the in-flight displacement task measured predictive activity in trans-saccadic visual perception. Forty-one healthy adults performed both tasks and completed a questionnaire to assess delusional thinking. The quantitative measure of predictive activity we obtained correlated with the tendency towards delusional ideation, but only for the motor task, and not the perceptual task: Individuals with higher levels of delusional thinking showed less self-movement information use in the motor task. Variation of the degree of self-generated movement knowledge as a function of the prevalence of delusional ideation in the normal population strongly supports the idea that corollary discharge deficits measured in schizophrenic patients in previous researches are not due to neuroleptic medication. We also propose that this difference in results between the perceptual and the motor tasks may point to a dissociation between corollary discharge for perception and corollary discharge for action. PMID:26305115

  4. RELATED FACTORS FOR COLONIZATION BY Candida SPECIES IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralciane de Paula MENEZES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of the oral cavity is a prerequisite to the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Aims: The aims of this study were: to evaluate colonization and quantify Candida spp. in the oral cavity; to determine the predisposing factors for colonization; and to correlate the levels of CD4+ cells and viral load with the yeast count of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL in HIV-positive individuals treated at a University Hospital. Saliva samples were collected from 147 HIV patients and were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and chromogenic agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 h. Colonies with similar morphology in both media were counted and the result expressed in CFU/mL. Results: Of the 147 HIV patients, 89 had positive cultures for Candida spp., with a total of 111 isolates, of which C. albicans was the most frequent species (67.6%, and the mean of colonies counted was 8.8 × 10³ CFU/mL. The main predisposing factors for oral colonization by Candida spp. were the use of antibiotics and oral prostheses. The use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears to have a greater protective effect for colonization. A low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is associated with a higher density of yeast in the saliva of HIV patients.

  5. Family members' unique perspectives of the family: examining their scope, size, and relations to individual adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    Using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's "unique perspective" or nonshared, idiosyncratic view of the family. We used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (a) isolated for each family member's 6 reports of family dysfunction the nonshared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by 1 or more family members and (b) extracted common variance across each family member's set of nonshared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. In addition, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these "unique perspectives" reflect about the family are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

  7. Individual differences in simultaneous color constancy are related to working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth C; Beilock, Sian L; Shevell, Steven K

    2012-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the possible role of higher-level cognitive mechanisms in color constancy. Following up on previous work with successive color constancy [J. Exper. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 37, 1014 (2011)], the current study examined the relation between simultaneous color constancy and working memory-the ability to maintain a desired representation while suppressing irrelevant information. Higher working memory was associated with poorer simultaneous color constancy of a chromatically complex stimulus. Ways in which the executive attention mechanism of working memory may account for this are discussed. This finding supports a role for higher-level cognitive mechanisms in color constancy and is the first to demonstrate a relation between simultaneous color constancy and a complex cognitive ability. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  8. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Causal Beliefs and Effects upon Mental Illness Identification Among Chinese Immigrant Relatives of Individuals with Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Wonpat-Borja, Ahtoy J.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that facilitate treatment for psychotic disorders among Chinese-immigrants is crucial due to delayed treatment use. Identifying causal beliefs held by relatives that might predict identification of ‘mental illness’ as opposed to other ‘indigenous labels’ may promote more effective mental health service use. We examine what effects beliefs of ‘physical causes’ and other non-biomedical causal beliefs (‘general social causes’, and ‘indigenous Chinese beliefs’ or culture-speci...

  10. Individual, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors related to insomnia among Norwegian musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vaag, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Musicians report a considerably higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to community samples in the general workforce. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between insomnia and health, work-related, and lifestyle factors among musicians. A total of 645 full-time musicians completed a questionnaire measuring insomnia symptoms: personality, psychosocial factors (perceived job demands, job control, effort-reward imbalance, and general social support), and lifestyle (s...

  11. Individual differences in algebraic cognition: Relation to the approximate number and semantic memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2015-12-01

    The relation between performance on measures of algebraic cognition and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and memory for addition facts was assessed for 171 ninth graders (92 girls) while controlling for parental education, sex, reading achievement, speed of numeral processing, fluency of symbolic number processing, intelligence, and the central executive component of working memory. The algebraic tasks assessed accuracy in placing x,y pairs in the coordinate plane, speed and accuracy of expression evaluation, and schema memory for algebra equations. ANS acuity was related to accuracy of placements in the coordinate plane and expression evaluation but not to schema memory. Frequency of fact retrieval errors was related to schema memory but not to coordinate plane or expression evaluation accuracy. The results suggest that the ANS may contribute to or be influenced by spatial-numerical and numerical-only quantity judgments in algebraic contexts, whereas difficulties in committing addition facts to long-term memory may presage slow formation of memories for the basic structure of algebra equations. More generally, the results suggest that different brain and cognitive systems are engaged during the learning of different components of algebraic competence while controlling for demographic and domain general abilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  13. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  14. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  15. Resisting the siren call of individualism in pediatric decision-making and the role of relational interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2014-02-01

    The siren call of individualism is compelling. And although we have recognized its dangerous allure in the realm of adult decision-making, it has had profound and yet unnoticed dangerous effects in pediatric decision-making as well. Liberal individualism as instantiated in the best interest standard conceptualizes the child as independent and unencumbered and the goal of child rearing as rational autonomous adulthood, a characterization that is both ontologically false and normatively dangerous. Although a notion of the individuated child might have a place in establishing a threshold of care obligated and enforced by the state, beyond this context we should turn our attention more explicitly to the relational interests of children.

  16. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    . The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  20. Descriptive study of cleft lip and palate related to individual, systemic and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Verify the types of fissures that most affect patients under 12 years of age, at the Facial Deformity Rehabilitation Center in São Paulo, and evaluate individual, systemic and social factors.Methods: A sample of 100 children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate were selected with the purpose of collecting data as regards sex, race, type of fissure and side affected, syndromes, sequences and associated malformations, presence of family history of fissure, and age of parents at the time of the child’s conception. The patients’ parents answered a previously validated questionnaire with closed questions to provide data as regards the socio-economic factor. All the information was stored in a database and submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. Results: 61% of population sample was of the male gender and 92% was of the white race. The incisive trans-foramen fissure was prevalent (62% and the unilateral fissures were most frequent (65.8%, and the left side was the most affected (44.3%. As regards systemic factors, 22% of the patients had syndromes or sequences; the most frequently associated syndrome was the Pierre Robin. Among the malformation associated with cleft lip and palate fissures, congenital heart diseases were prevalent (37.9%. Family recurrence of fissures was shown in only 23% of cases. The family nuclei were composed of married parents (84%, who had higher education (47% and worked full time (81%. Conclusion: There was greater frequency of the incisive trans-foramen fissure and greater occurrence in the male gender. Congenital heart diseases and the Pierre Robin sequence were the syndromes most frequently associated with cleft lip and palate. There was no family tendency towards cleft lip and palate fissures, and the majority of families were in a good socio-economic and educational condition.

  1. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to three years of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, R. J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J. A.; Nožička, J.; Kotěšovec, F.; Dejmek, Jan; Loomis, D.; Šrám, Radim

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2006), s. 1126-1132 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ETS-environmental tobacco smoke * respiratory diseases * children health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.861, year: 2006

  2. Progranulin concentration in relation to bone mineral density among obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milajerdi, Alireza; Maghbooli, Zhila; Mohammadi, Farzad; Hosseini, Banafsheh; Mirzaei, Khadijeh

    2018-01-01

    Adipose tissue, particularly visceral adipose tissue, secretes a variety of cytokines, among which progranulin is a glycoprotein related to the immune system. Along with other secreted proteins, progranulin may be associated with bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are associations between the progranulin and bone mineral density among obese people. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 244 obese participants (aged 22-52). Serum progranulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, oxidised-low dencity lipoprotein, tumor necrosis factor-α, parathormone, vitamin D, and interleukins of 1 β, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 17 concentrations were measured. Anthropometric measurements, body composition and bone mineral density were also assessed. Serum progranulin was directly associated with interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, while it had a negative association with interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-α. We also observed a statistically significant direct association between progranulin concentration and visceral fat, abdominal fat, waist, abdominal and hip circumferences, hip T-score, and Z-score and T-score for the lumbar region. A partial correlation test has also shown a significant positive correlation regarding serum progranulin and the hip Z-score. Moreover, progranulin level is inversely associated with ospteopenia (P = 0.04 and CI: 0.17,0.96). Our study revealed that central obesity may be related to increased progranulin concentration. In addition, progranulin concentration was directly related to bone formation parameters, which indicates the protective effects of progranulin on bone density. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms underlying these associations.

  3. Causal Beliefs and Effects upon Mental Illness Identification Among Chinese Immigrant Relatives of Individuals with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Wonpat-Borja, Ahtoy J

    2012-08-01

    Identifying factors that facilitate treatment for psychotic disorders among Chinese-immigrants is crucial due to delayed treatment use. Identifying causal beliefs held by relatives that might predict identification of 'mental illness' as opposed to other 'indigenous labels' may promote more effective mental health service use. We examine what effects beliefs of 'physical causes' and other non-biomedical causal beliefs ('general social causes', and 'indigenous Chinese beliefs' or culture-specific epistemologies of illness) might have on mental illness identification. Forty-nine relatives of Chinese-immigrant consumers with psychosis were sampled. Higher endorsement of 'physical causes' was associated with mental illness labeling. However among the non-biomedical causal beliefs, 'general social causes' demonstrated no relationship with mental illness identification, while endorsement of 'indigenous Chinese beliefs' showed a negative relationship. Effective treatment- and community-based psychoeducation, in addition to emphasizing biomedical models, might integrate indigenous Chinese epistemologies of illness to facilitate rapid identification of psychotic disorders and promote treatment use.

  4. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala—lateral entorhinal cortex—DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging. PMID:27723500

  6. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala-lateral entorhinal cortex-DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive reserve and emotional stimuli in older individuals: level of education moderates the age-related positivity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Davide; Brown, Adam D; Kapucu, Aycan; Marmar, Charles R; Pomara, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: A frequently observed age-related effect is a preference in older individuals for positive stimuli. The cognitive control model proposes that this positivity effect may be mediated by executive functions. We propose that cognitive reserve, operationally defined as years of education, which tempers cognitive decline and has been linked to executive functions, should also influence the age-related positivity effect, especially as age advances. An emotional free recall test was administered to a group of 84 cognitively intact individuals aged 60 to 88, who varied in years of education. As part of a larger test battery, data were obtained on measures of executive functioning and depression. Multiple regression and moderation analyses were performed, controlling for general cognitive function, severity of depressive symptoms, and executive function. In our data, years of education appeared to moderate the effect of age on the positivity effect; age was negatively associated with recall of positive words in participants with fewer years of education, whereas a nonsignificant positive correlation was observed between age and positivity in participants with more education. Cognitive reserve appears to play a role in explaining individual differences in the positivity effect in healthy older individuals. Future studies should investigate whether cognitive reserve is also implicated in the ability to process a wide range of emotional stimuli and whether greater reserve is reflected in improved emotional regulation.

  8. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  9. A Multimodal Learning System for Individuals with Sensorial, Neuropsychological, and Relational Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Canazza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for an interactive multimodal environment able (i to train the listening comprehension in various populations of pupils, both Italian and immigrants, having different disabilities and (ii to assess speech production and discrimination. The proposed system is the result of a research project focused on pupils with sensorial, neuropsychological, and relational impairments. The project involves innovative technological systems that the users (speech terabits psychologists and preprimary and primary schools teachers could adopt for training and assessment of language and speech. Because the system is used in a real scenario (the Italian schools are often affected by poor funding for education and teachers without informatics skills, the guidelines adopted are low-cost technology; usability; customizable system; robustness.

  10. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  11. The relation among perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A; Tozzi, Federica; Thornton, Laura M; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Mitchell, James E; Plotnicov, Katherine H; Pollice, Christine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2005-12-01

    Perfectionism and obsessionality are core features of eating disorders (ED), yet the nature of their relation remains unknown. Understanding the relation between these traits may enhance our ability to identify relevant behavioral endophenotypes for ED. Six-hundred seven individuals with anorexia and bulimia nervosa from the International Price Foundation Genetic Study were assessed for perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No differences were found across ED subtypes in the prevalence of OCPD and OCD, nor with the association between OCD and OCPD. Perfectionism scores were highest in individuals with OCPD whether alone or in combination with OCD. Perfectionism appears to be more closely associated with obsessive-compulsive personality symptoms rather than OCD. The pairing of perfectionism with OCPD may be a relevant core behavioral feature underlying vulnerability to ED. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasheski, Kevin E; Scherzer, Rebecca; Kotler, Donald P; Dobs, Adrian S; Tien, Phyllis C; Lewis, Cora E; Kronmal, Richard A; Heymsfield, Steven B; Bacchetti, Peter; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-03-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM) mass decreases with advanced age and with disease in HIV infection. It is unknown whether age-related muscle loss is accelerated in the current era of antiretroviral therapy and which factors might contribute to muscle loss among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls. Whole-body (1)H-magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify regional and total SM in 399 HIV-infected and 204 control men and women at baseline and 5 years later. Multivariable regression identified associated factors. At baseline and Year 5, total SM was lower in HIV-infected than control men. HIV-infected women were similar to control women at both time points. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and total adipose tissue, HIV infection was associated with lower Year 5 SM in men and higher SM in women compared with controls. Average overall 5-year change in total SM was small and age related, but rate of change was similar in HIV-infected and control men and women. CD4 count and efavirenz use in HIV-infected participants were associated with increasing SM, whereas age and stavudine use were associated with decreasing SM. Muscle mass was lower in HIV-infected men compared with controls, whereas HIV-infected women had slightly higher SM than control women after multivariable adjustment. We found evidence against substantially faster SM decline i