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Sample records for relative growth performance

  1. The role of anthropometric, growth and maturity index (AGaMI) influencing youth soccer relative performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul

    2018-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop Anthropometric, Growth and Maturity Index (AGaMI) in soccer and explore its differences to soccer player physical attributes, fitness, motivation and skills. A total 223 adolescent soccer athletes aged 12 to 18 years old were selected as respondent. AGaMI was develop based on anthropometric components (bicep, tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, calf circumference and muac) with growth and maturity component using tanner scale. Meanwhile, relative performance namely physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes of soccer were measured as dependent variables. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are used to achieve the objective in this study. AGaMI had categorized players into three different groups namely; high (5 players), moderate (88 players) and low (91 players). PCA revealed a moderate to very strong dominant range of 0.69 to 0.90 of factor loading on AGaMI. Further analysis assigned AGaMI groups as treated as independent variables (IV) and physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes were treated as dependent variables (DV). Finally, ANOVA showed that flexibility, leg power, age, weight, height, sitting height, short and long pass are the most significant parameters statistically differentiate by the groups of AGaMI (p<0.05). As a summary, body fat mass, growth and maturity are an essential component differentiating the output of the soccer players relative performance. In future, information of the AGaMI model are useful to the coach and players for identifying the suitable biological and physiological demand reflects more comprehensive means of youth soccer relative performance. This study further highlights the importance of assessing AGaMI when identifying soccer relative performance.

  2. heat-induced biological changes as heat tolerance indices related to growth performance in buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldes, M.Z.N.

    2004-01-01

    the main objective of this study was to predict new heat tolerance indices related to hot summer growth performance, depending on heat - induced changes in some physiological and biochemical parameters of young water buffalo calves. the present study was carried out on 8 egyptian male buffalo calves of 6 months old and 106.8 kg mean body weight (B W), and on the same animals of 12 months old and 179.5 kg mean B W. the animals were maintained in a climatic chamber of the egyptian atomic energy authority. the animals were maintained in metabolic cages inside a climatic chamber for 3 weeks under mild climate (20-24 c and 50-60% Rh, equivalent to 62-72 THI) for 6 hours daily as adjustment period,followed by 5 and 7 days in the 6- and 12-month old calves, respectively at the same climatic conditions as a control period.this was followed by 6 hours of acute heat exposure period (33-43 c and 40-60% Rh, equivalent to 85-93 Thi), then by chronic heat exposure period of the same climatic conditions for 5 and 7 days in the 6- and 12- month old calves, respectively.Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were estimated daily, whereas BW was estimated at the beginning and the end of each exposure period

  3. Growth performance and stomatal behavior in relation to ecotypic adaptations in cynodon dactylon (L.) pers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, A.; Ahmad, F.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2017-01-01

    Evolution has great ecological significance in terms of plant morphological and stomatal characteristics that must have been genetically fixed during the long evolutionary period. Impact of environmental conditions on growth and stomatal features of twelve ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon that were collected from ecologically different habitats in the Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated. The collected ecotypes Derawar Fort-saline desert (DF-SD), Muzaffar garh-River bank (M-RB), Khabbeki Lake-hyper saline (KL-HS), Ucchali Lake-hyper saline (UL-HS), Kalar Kahar Lake-saline (KKL-S), Treemu-saline wetland (T-SW), Sahianwala-saline wetland (S-SW), Sahianwala-hyper saline (S-HS), Pakka Anna-hyper saline (PA-HS), Pakka Anna-reclaimed field (PA-RF), Botanic Garden-non saline (BG-NS) and Gatwala-saline semiarid (G-SSA) were grown in controlled environments at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad till their acclimatization to evaluate genetically fixed characteristics. After 6-month growth in soil, the plants were transferred to half-strength Hoagland's nutrient medium. There was a huge variation in all morphological characteristics recorded during the investigation, which were due to environmental heterogeniety to which these ecotypes were originally adapted. An exclusive feature of the DF-SD ecotypes is the long and numerous roots, and tillering capacity that surpassed all other ecotypes. Leaves per plant were also exceptionally high that may improve the photosymthetic efficiency of the plant. It showed a good potential of overall growth and biomass production. The robust growth was also recorded in the KKL-S ecotypes, and this can be related to the complete dominance of these two ecotypes in their respective habitats. Small stomata were recorded in the three ecotypes (DF-SD, KL-HS and PA-HS), which are of great ecological significance. Stomatal shape, however, is different in different ecotypes, but its contribution towards stress tolerance is still to be investigated. (author)

  4. How are arbuscular mycorrhizal associations related to maize growth performance during short-term cover crop rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Isobe, Katsunori

    2018-03-01

    Better cover crop management options aiming to maximize the benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to subsequent crops are largely unknown. We investigated the impact of cover crop management methods on maize growth performance and assemblages of AMF colonizing maize roots in a field trial. The cover crop treatments comprised Italian ryegrass, wheat, brown mustard and fallow in rotation with maize. The diversity of AMF communities among cover crops used for maize management was significantly influenced by the cover crop and time course. Cover crops did not affect grain yield and aboveground biomass of subsequent maize but affected early growth. A structural equation model indicated that the root colonization, AMF diversity and maize phosphorus uptake had direct strong positive effects on yield performance. AMF variables and maize performance were related directly or indirectly to maize grain yield, whereas root colonization had a positive effect on maize performance. AMF may be an essential factor that determines the success of cover crop rotational systems. Encouraging AMF associations can potentially benefit cover cropping systems. Therefore, it is imperative to consider AMF associations and crop phenology when making management decisions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of oral administration of probiotics on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility and stress-related indicators in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Zhou, M; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Deng, K D; Ma, T; Diao, Q Y

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility and stress-related indicators in dairy calves. Twenty-four neonatal Holstein calves were randomly allocated to three treatments: a basal diet with no supplementation (control), the basal diet supplemented with 1.7 × 10(10) CFU per head per day (CFU/h.d) of L. plantarum GF103 (LB group) or the basal diet supplemented with a mixture of L. plantarum GF103 (1.7 × 10(10) CFU/h.d) and B. subtilis B27 (1.7 × 10(8) CFU/h.d) (LBS group). Dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversation ratio (FCR), apparent digestibility of nutrients and stress-related indicators were measured in this trail. The result indicated that no significant differences were observed in DMI or ADG (p > 0.05), but the FCR was improved in the LB group over the first 12 weeks (p > 0.05). The apparent digestibility of nutrients was not altered by probiotics in week 6 (p > 0.05), but the apparent digestibility of total phosphorus was significantly greater in the LB and LBS groups in week 8 (p > 0.05); additionally, an increase in the apparent digestibility of crude protein was detected in the LBS group (p > 0.05). Oral administration of L. plantarum alone improved the T-lymphocyte transformation rate on days 58 and 62 (p > 0.05), while adding the mixture of L. plantarum and B. subtilis increased the T-lymphocyte transformation rate (p > 0.05) but decreased the content of cortisol on day 58 (p > 0.05). No significant differences were detected between the LB and LBS groups in growth performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients and stress-related indicators (p > 0.05). The results suggested that oral administration of L. plantarum improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility and relieved weaning stress in calves, but no additional effect was obtained by supplementation with B. subtilis. Journal of

  6. Interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological variables in broilers grown to 42 day of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological reactions in broilers grown to 42 day of age were investigated. The experiment consisted of 2 levels (Moderate=21.1, High=26.7 °C) of temperatures and 2 light sour...

  7. A combined genotype of three SNPs in the bovine gene is related to growth performance in Chinese cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available PPARD is involved in multiple biological processes, especially for those associated with energy metabolism. PPARD regulates lipid metabolism through up-regulate expression of genes associating with adipogenesis. This makes PPARD a significant candidate gene for production traits of livestock animals. Association studies between PPARD polymorphisms and production traits have been reported in pigs but are limited for other animals, including cattle. Here, we investigated the expression profile and polymorphism of bovine PPARD as well as their association with growth traits in Chinese cattle. Our results showed that the highest expression of PPARD was detected in kidney, following by adipose, which is consistent with its involvement in energy metabolism. Three SNPs of PPARD were detected and used to undergo selection pressure according the result of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium analysis (P < 0.05. Moreover, all of these SNPs showed moderate diversity (0.25 < PIC < 0.5, indicating their relatively high selection potential. Association analysis suggested that individuals with the GAAGTT combined genotype of three SNPs detected showed optimal values in all of the growth traits analyzed. These results revealed that the GAAGTT combined genotype of three SNPs detected in the bovine PPARD gene was a significant potential genetic marker for marker-assisted selection in Chinese cattle. However, this should be further verified in larger populations before being applied to breeding.

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Growth and Maturation of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can…

  9. Effects of dietary hawthorn extract on growth performance, immune responses, growth- and immune-related genes expression of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) and its susceptibility to Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhenzhu; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Tan, Lianjie; Xun, Pengwei; Huang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary hawthorn extract (HTE) supplementation on growth performance, immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, growth- and immune-related and heat shock protein genes expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet supplemented with HTE at 0 (Diet 1), 0.50 (Diet 2), 1.00 (Diet 3), 2.00 (Diet 4), 4.00 (Diet 5) and 10.00 (Diet 6) g kg -1 were fed to golden pompano for 8 weeks. The highest final body weight, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency rate were observed in fish fed Diet 2 (P Vibrio harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed Diet 2 and Diet 3 than the control group (P growth-related genes (IGF-I and IGF-II) were significantly up-regulated in fish fed HTE supplement (P growth performance and growth-related genes expression, strengthen immunity, and improve hepatic antioxidative abilities and resistance to Vibrio harveyi infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relative value of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  11. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, H; Qiao, S Y

    2015-12-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (pBCAA group improved ADG (pBCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (pBCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (pBCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (pBCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal immunoglobulin mentioned above. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation to protein restricted diet improved intestinal immune defense function by protecting villous morphology and by increasing levels of intestinal immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Our finding has the important implication that BCAA may be used to reduce the negative effects of a protein restricted diet on growth performance and intestinal immunity in weaned piglets.

  12. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  14. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control, liver (main site for lipogenesis and muscle (main site for thermogenesis.80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room. The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10. The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured.Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR. Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05. CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05, the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty

  15. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON, a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG (p0.05. The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (p<0.05 plasma concentration of methionine and threonine than the CON treatment. The level of some essential and functional amino acids (such as arginine, phenylalanine, histidine, glutamine etc. in plasma of the PR group was lower (p<0.05 than that of the CON group. Compared with CON group, BCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (p<0.01 and decreased urea concentration (p<0.01 in pig plasma indicating that the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization was increased. Compared with CON group, the small intestine of piglets fed PR diet showed villous atrophy, increasing of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs number (p<0.05 and declining of the immunoglobulin concentration, including jejunal immunoglobulin A (IgA (p = 0.04, secreted IgA (sIgA (p = 0.03 and immunoglobulin M (p = 0.08, and ileal IgA (p = 0.01 and immunoglobulin G (p = 0.08. The BCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (p<0.01, reversed the trend of an increasing IELs number. Notably, BCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal

  16. Effects of Dietary Chromium Methionine on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition, Meat Colour and Expression of the Colour-related Gene Myoglobin of Growing-finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr as Cr methionine (CrMet on growth performance, carcass traits, pork quality, meat colour and expression of meat colour-related genes in growing-finishing pigs, 189 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire growing-finishing pigs (male, castrated, average initial BW 74.58±1.52 kg were selected and randomly allocated into four groups. Dietary treatments per kg of feed were as follows: 0 (CT, 0.3 mg/kg (T1, 0.6 mg/kg (T2 and 0.9 mg/kg (T3 Cr (in the form of CrMet; as-fed basis, and each treatment was replicated five times with 8 to 10 pigs per replicate pen. During the 28 d of the experiment, both the ADG and the ADFI increased linearly (p<0.05 as the level of dietary Cr increased. The F/G ratio decreased linearly (p<0.05. As dietary Cr increased, loin muscle areas (linear, p = 0.013 and average backfat thickness (linear, p = 0.072 decreased. Shear force (linear, p = 0.070 and Commission Internationale de I’Éclairage (CIE redness (quadratic, p = 0.028 were increased. In addition, CIE Lightness (quadratic, p = 0.053 were decreased as dietary Cr increased. As dietary Cr increased, total myglobin (Mb content (quadratic, p = 0.015 and the mb mRNA levels (quadratic, p = 0.046 in longissimus muscles of pigs were up-regulated. In conclusion, supplementation of dietary Cr improved growth and meat colour, but increased shear force and decreased IMF reduced palatability of longissimus muscles. Moreover, the increasing total Mb content and mb mRNA levels indicated that CrMet dietary supplementation may improve meat colour via up-regulating expression of the mb gene.

  17. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S T.; Zheng, L.; Kwon, H. J.; Choo, Y. K.; Lee, K. W.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT®) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats. PMID:25557680

  18. Effects of Dietary Fermented (CBT on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T. Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001 increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001 and feed intake (p = 0.001 especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044. Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness, shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.

  19. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  20. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  1. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Increasing raw bambara nut waste levels also depressed (P < 0.05) nutrient absorption ... Key words: Raw bambara nut waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance.

  2. Comparative growth performance of different Australian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative growth performance of different Australian provenances and local land ... and Ubiri in the West Usambara Mountains (WUM), North East Tanzania. ... with local land races for subsequent management as seed production stands.

  3. Haematology, serum biochemistry and growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High performing does have the tendency of producing healthy kids with reasonable weight at birth compared to least performing does. A study was conducted to investigate the haematology, serum biochemistry and growth performance of grazing pregnant Kalahari Red does fed concentrate diets at three protein levels.

  4. Effect Of Dried Whey Milk Supplement On Some Blood Biochemical And Immunological Indices In Relation To Growth Performance Of Heat Stressed Bovine baladi Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was carried out under hot environmental conditions, where temperature-humidity index was equivalent to 86 - 90 and 78 - 80 during day and night, respectively. Twelve bovine Baladi calves of 8 - 10 months old and 112 kg average initial live body weight were used in this study. The calves were divided into two groups of 6 animals each to study the effect of supplementation of dried whey milk on some blood biochemical and immunological indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions of Egypt. The results showed that supplementation of dried whey milk to the diet of heat-stressed calves at the level of 150 g / calf / day reduced significantly each of respiration rate and rectal temperature as well as serum lipid concentrations and their fractions e.g. total cholesterol and phospholipids. Also, dried whey milk supplement caused a significant decline in both AST and ALT activities and reduced significantly alpha globulin concentration, while non-significant changes were observed in each of beta globulin, gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G. However, supplementing dried whey milk to growing calves increased significantly serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorous, T 3 and T 4 . Moreover, dried whey milk improved significantly both feed efficiency and daily gain of growing calves. It could be concluded that addition of dried whey milk to the diet reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate and induced an improvement in most blood biochemical parameters and growth performance of heat-stressed bovine Baladi calves.

  5. Stakeholder relations and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how shareholder performance can be associated with stakeholder relations. As such, we try to find out whether there is an association between financial performance and stakeholder relations with respect to different theoretical notions about the firm. Financial performance is

  6. Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the growth performance and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengjia; Zeng, Dong; Ni, Xueqin; Tu, Teng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2016-03-08

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens, has cost the poultry industry $2 billion in losses. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus licheniformis as dietary supplement on the growth, serum antioxidant status, and expression of lipid-metabolism genes of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. A total of 240 one-day-old broilers were randomly grouped into four: a negative control, an NE experimental model (PC), chickens fed a diet supplemented with 30 % of fishmeal from day 14 onwards and challenged with coccidiosis vaccine (FC), and NE group supplied with feed containing 1.0 × 10(6) CFU/g B. licheniformis (BL). Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, serum antioxidant status, and lipid-metabolism-gene expression were analyzed. In the PC group, FCR increased significantly whereas serum catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased compared with NC group. Dietary B. licheniformis supplementation improved FCR and oxidative stress in experimental avian NE. Using Bacillus licheniformis as a direct-fed microbial (DFM) could also significantly upregulate catabolism-related genes, namely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, in livers and changed the expression of lipid-anabolism genes. These results suggested that dietary B. licheniformis supplementation can enhance growth and antioxidant ability, as well as change the expression of genes related to fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation in the livers of NE-infected broilers.

  7. Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of rabbits fed graded levels of tiger nuts ( Cyperus esculentus ) ... (p>0.05) difference between treatments. Results demonstrated that (Cyperus esculentus) could be used up to 5% in rabbit's diets without adverse effect on the animals' performance and health.

  8. Computer-Related Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee

    2016-01-01

    The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...... that SP and CSE interact to influence performance. Implications are then discussed in terms of organizations’ ability to increase performance....

  9. Origins of scaling relations in nonequilibrium growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, Carlos; Korutcheva, Elka

    2012-01-01

    Scaling and hyperscaling laws provide exact relations among critical exponents describing the behavior of a system at criticality. For nonequilibrium growth models with a conserved drift, there exist few of them. One such relation is α + z = 4, found to be inexact in a renormalization group calculation for several classical models in this field. Herein, we focus on the two-dimensional case and show that it is possible to construct conserved surface growth equations for which the relation α + z = 4 is exact in the renormalization group sense. We explain the presence of this scaling law in terms of the existence of geometric principles dominating the dynamics. (paper)

  10. Growth performance and immunological responses of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens fed synbiotic and diet acidifier to Newcastle disease vaccinations. One hundred and forty four (144) day old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments replicated thrice with 12 birds per replicate ...

  11. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  12. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  13. Mean Field Games for Stochastic Growth with Relative Utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Minyi, E-mail: mhuang@math.carleton.ca [Carleton University, School of Mathematics and Statistics (Canada); Nguyen, Son Luu, E-mail: sonluu.nguyen@upr.edu [University of Puerto Rico, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This paper considers continuous time stochastic growth-consumption optimization in a mean field game setting. The individual capital stock evolution is determined by a Cobb–Douglas production function, consumption and stochastic depreciation. The individual utility functional combines an own utility and a relative utility with respect to the population. The use of the relative utility reflects human psychology, leading to a natural pattern of mean field interaction. The fixed point equation of the mean field game is derived with the aid of some ordinary differential equations. Due to the relative utility interaction, our performance analysis depends on some ratio based approximation error estimate.

  14. Mean Field Games for Stochastic Growth with Relative Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Minyi; Nguyen, Son Luu

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers continuous time stochastic growth-consumption optimization in a mean field game setting. The individual capital stock evolution is determined by a Cobb–Douglas production function, consumption and stochastic depreciation. The individual utility functional combines an own utility and a relative utility with respect to the population. The use of the relative utility reflects human psychology, leading to a natural pattern of mean field interaction. The fixed point equation of the mean field game is derived with the aid of some ordinary differential equations. Due to the relative utility interaction, our performance analysis depends on some ratio based approximation error estimate.

  15. Dietary zinc deficiency reduced growth performance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions related to NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, JNK and MLCK signaling pathway of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng-Xing; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Feng, Lin

    2017-07-01

    Our study investigated the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) deficiency on growth performance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 630 grass carp (244.14 ± 0.40 g) were fed graded levels of zinc lactate (10.71, 30.21, 49.84, 72.31, 92.56, 110.78 mg Zn/kg diet) and one zinc sulfate group (56.9 mg Zn/kg diet) for 60 days. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. These results indicated that compared with optimal dietary Zn level, dietary Zn deficiency (10.71 mg/kg diet) decreased the production of antibacterial compounds, up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines related to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and down-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines related to target of rapamycin (TOR) in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P zinc lactate as Zn source) based on percent weight gain (PWG), against enteritis morbidity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity in the proximal intestine (PI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the PI of young grass carp was estimated to be 61.2, 61.4, 69.2 and 69.5 mg/kg diet, respectively. Finally, based on specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and against enteritis morbidity of young grass carp, the efficacy of zinc lactate relative to zinc sulfate were 132.59%, 135.27% and 154.04%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth performance, haematological and biochemical study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant difference (P<0.05) was established in the growth parameters determined in the C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with the four frog formulations, namely, final weight, total weight, and mean feed gain, mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio The 40% R. galamensis ration elicited higher growth values than all ...

  17. growth performance in clarias gariepinus burchell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    bridge the gap between demand and supply of fish from capture fisheries. High cost ..... Table 4: Growth response and nutrient utilization* of the cultured fish fed different experimental diets ..... Netherlands, ISBN-13: 9789076998411,. Pp: 304.

  18. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan

    2012-07-01

    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  19. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  20. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-26

    Oct 26, 2012 ... Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth inhibition in rice (Oryza sativa ... growth of this cultivar when submitted to Al3+ stress. Moreover ..... Caiapó. Previous work has shown the IAC cultivar to be.

  1. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza contribution to the growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2009-06-12

    Jun 12, 2009 ... performance and heavy metal uptake of Helianthus ... growth performance and heavy metals (Cd and Pb) uptake of Helianthus annuus L. from polluted soils. Cadmium sulfate ..... Phytoextraction of Toxic Metals: A review of.

  3. Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in broilers fed Bacillus subtilis -supplemented diet. ... In conclusion, B. subtilis-type probiotics contributed positively to better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers. Keywords: ...

  4. Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. CI Ayo-Olalusi, AAA Ugwumba. Abstract. Investigations were carried out on the growth performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus using four different feeding frequencies. Two hundred and forty juveniles (8.6 +0.0 g) were stocked in eight aquaria ...

  5. Stress-Related Growth in Two Challenging Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 4. ISSN 1529-5168 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Mars-500 * cruise * personal growth * spirituality, cognitive growth * social growth Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  6. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. ... The fungus showed maximum growth at 92.5 and 100% relative humidity. .... recommended that fruits and vegetables should be stored at low ...

  7. Growth Properties of Wronskians in the Light of Relative Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Datta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the comparative growth properties of composition of entire and meromorphic functions on the basis of relative order (relative lower order of Wronskians generated by entire and meromorphic functions.

  8. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njb/index and ... for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw ... significant (P<0.05) differences among treatments in feed intake, weight gain, ... Keywords: Growth Performance, Bambara nut wastes, Weaner Pigs and ... waste used in the feeding of pigs (Okeke,.

  9. Fertility, hatchability and growth performance of native and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertility and hatchability serve as measures of genetic and reproductive fitness of individual bird. These two along with growth performance are important yardsticks in evaluating the economic efficiency of parent stocks. There is no previous study on the evaluation of Goliath and Sussex chickens for hatchability, growth and ...

  10. Relative growth rate of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    Rigkær er blandt den nordlige halvkugles mest artsrige naturtyper, og en lang række sjældne og truede plantearter er knyttet til netop disse områder. I dette forsøg undersøges den relative vækstrate hos to almindelige og to sjældne rigkærsmosser i relation til forskellige niveauer af næringsstoff...

  11. Influence of β-galacto-oligosaccharide on growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GOS) on growth performance, organ development and intestinal microarchitecture of broilers during heat stress. Day-old chicks (n = 125) were divided into five groups. The control or thermoneutral zone group (TNZ) was raised under standard ...

  12. Study on growth performance of Murrah buffaloes raised under farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    Non-genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in. Murrah ... Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were .... and permanent environmental effects due to dam.

  13. Growth and Biochemical performance of Cassava-Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    the crude oil polluted soil improved the growth and biochemical performance of cassava. For the qualitative .... delay in the rate of soil recovery and a decrease in crop yield ... enhances biodegradation of polluted soil presumably by removing ...

  14. Growth performance of crossbred kids (Boer x Indigenous Goat Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegay Teklebrhan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate growth performance of crossbred (Boer x Hararaghe Highland and Boer x Short Eared Somali kids at Haramaya University Goat Farm in Eastern Ethiopia. Breed (p

  15. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  16. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age. Kh M Mahrose, AI Attia, IE Ismail, DE Abou-Kassem, ME Abd El-Hack ...

  17. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, S.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  18. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40¢ªC were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained at 25¢ªC ...

  19. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An allometric scaling based on logistic process can be used to model urban growth. • The traditional allometry is based on exponential growth instead of logistic growth. • The exponential allometry represents a local scaling of urban growth. • The logistic allometry represents a global scaling of urban growth. • The exponential allometry is an approximation relation of the logistic allometry. - Abstract: The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed “exponential allometry”, which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the above mentioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed “logistic allometry”. The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The proper range of the allometric scaling exponent value is reconsidered through the logistic process. Then, a medium-sized city of Henan Province, China, is employed as an example to validate the new allometric relation. The logistic allometry is helpful for further understanding the fractal property and self-organized process of urban evolution in the right perspective

  20. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  1. Performance Related Pay and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; van Ours, Jan C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  2. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related party transactions and firms financial performance. ... African Research Review ... financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock ... on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. ... Result showed RPT has no significant effects on ROA and EPS and not used to ...

  3. Relating Performative and Ostensive Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    . Findings – The paper illustrates how the process is a balancing act. On the one hand, it requires performative researchers to relate more closely to aspects decisive for ostensive researchers; yet, on the other, they need to preserve the distinctiveness of the performative approach. Originality....../value – This paper exemplifies these issues with reference to management accounting research and contributes by clarifying the methodological implications of moving performative research closer to ostensive research....

  4. PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF ESTONIA IN A GROWTH ACCOUNTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien MOLNAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the economic growth tendencies in Estonia and other formal post-socialist countries and the interaction between productivity growth and their determinants after the transition decades. So this paper is structured as follows. Firstly we will introduce an alternative growth accounting method to determine the components of productivity growth based on this concept. In Section we will also provide our empirical results in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Hungary compared to the EU-15 countries between 1990 and 2011 how TFP (Total Factor Productivity, Physical and Labour Capital Accumulation can contribute to (increase or decrease economic performance of each country. Finally, we can conclude that the relationship between labour and output growth per capita has obviously and temporarily changed after the mid-1990s, which could be determined by the increasing role of such socio-economic factors as technological changes, capital accumulation and demographical fluctuations etc.

  5. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...

  6. Essays on predictability of emerging markets growth and financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Banegas, Maria Ayelen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to better understand the underlying factors driving financial performance and economic activity in international markets. The first chapter "Predictability of Growth in Emerging Markets: Information in Financial Aggregates" tests for predictability of output growth in a panel of twenty-two emerging market economies. I use pooled panel data methods that control for endogeneity and persistence in the predictor variables to test the predictive power of a large set of fina...

  7. Performance Agent Groups in the Promotion of Smart Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krūzmētra Maiga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Any country is interested in economic growth regardless of its development level in any period; yet an increasingly important role in defining growth is played by the term ‘smart growth’. The EU development strategy until 2020 defines smart growth as a strategic objective. Smart growth does not take place automatically. It is affected both by the condition of the economic, social and natural environments and by subjective factors - the competence of performance agents. The present research distinguished three groups of rural space and regional performance agents: national institutions, local governments and communities of residents of the territories examined by the research. The research summarised the opinions of experts (Latvia n=171; Lithuania n=163 from the south-eastern part of Latvia and the north-eastern part of Lithuania with the purpose of assessing the contribution of the performance agent groups to the promotion of smart economic growth. The research aimed to identify the positive indications of the contribution made by each performance agent group as well as the largest problems affecting the promotion of smart economic growth in each country. Despite the fact that the sample groups were not representative (did not reflect the views of the entire population, the obtained survey data and the results of this analysis provided insight into the performance agents’ action ratings from the bottom-up position and allowed comparing the situations in Latvia and Lithuania. The research has become an urgent task in project No. 5.2.3 “Rural and Regional Development Processes and Opportunities in Latvia in the Context of Knowledge Economy” in National Research Programme 5.2. "Economic Transformation, Smart Growth, Governance and Legal Framework for the State and Society for Sustainable Development - a New Approach to the Creation of a Sustainable Learning Community: EKOSOC-LV”.

  8. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed "exponential allometry", which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the abovementioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed "logistic allometry". The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The proper range of the allometric scaling exponent value is reconsidered through the logistic process. Then, a medium-sized city of Henan Province, China, is employed as an example to validate the new allometric relation. The logistic allometry is helpful for further understanding the fractal property and self-organized process of urban evolution in the right perspective.

  9. Employment, Economic Growth and Labor Market Performance: The Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Alparslan AKÇORAOĞLU

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental aim of this paper is to explore the empirical relationship between employment and economic growth in Turkey over the period 1995Q1-2007Q4 by using modern time series techniques. The employment growth performance is a concern for Turkey as its employment rate is well below any European Union (EU) member country. Some authors have argued that the rates of employment growth in Turkey have remained low over the same period despite relatively strong economic growth. The results of ...

  10. Relating corporate social investment with financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kgabo L. Kobo; Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers have found conflicting results between CSI and firm financial performance. This paper moves this debate further by examining the extent to which corporate social investment (CSI) relates with corporate financial performance (CFP) from a developing country perspective. The main aim of the paper was to determine the relationship between CSI, stock price, sales turnover and return on equity (ROE) amongst the socially responsible investing (SRI) companies in the Johannesburg ...

  11. Growth, Morphology and Growth Related Hormone Level in Kappaphycus alvarezii Produced by Mass Selection in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality seed can support the success of the seaweed cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, morphology and growth related hormone level of brown strain seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii seed produced by mass selection. Selection was performed in the Tomini Gulf, Gorontalo, based on mass selection of seaweed seed protocol with a slight modification in cut-off 10% of the highest daily growth rate. Selection was carried out for four generations. The selected 4th generation of seed was then used in cultivation performance test in the Celebes Sea, North Gorontalo, for three production cycles. The results showed that the selected K. alvarezii has higher clump weight and daily growth rate, longer thallus, more number of branches, and shorter internodes compared to the unselected control and seaweed from the farmer as external control. Furthermore, total sugar content, levels of kinetin hormone and kinetin:indole-3-acetic acid ratio were higher in selected seaweeds than that of unselected control and external control. Thus, mass selection method could be used to produce high growth of seed, and kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid play an important role in growth of K. alvarezii.

  12. Growth performance and feed utilization of Tilapia zillii (Gervais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Accepted 22 May, 2009. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Tilapia zillii fed diets where poultry by-product meal replaced fish meal protein at 0, 50 and 100% ... fish diets because of its high protein quality and palata- bility. However, fish ...

  13. Effect of Production System on Welfare Traits, Growth Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duck feather quality was greater and gait defects were reduced in NRS system compared with FRS and WRS systems. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was not affected by the production system. Growth performance was not significantly different between FRS and WRS systems. Average daily weight gain of FRS ducks was ...

  14. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) in concrete tanks was investigated. Four outdoor concrete tanks measuring 2.5 x 2 m was used for the study for 24 weeks culture period. The culture systems included the use of algae only at the stocking rates of 4 ...

  15. Effect of chicken genotype on growth performance and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...

  16. Feed utilization and growth performance of cockerels fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of soldier ant as dietary supplements on the growth performance of cockerels. Two hundred cockerels of Nera white strain (aged 6 weeks) were randomly assigned into 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 8 ...

  17. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  18. Growth Performance of Red Sokoto Bucks Fed Inclusion levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance of red Sokoto bucks fed two (2) inclusion levels of rawwater soaked and lime soaked Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds in rice offal based diets. A total of twenty one (21) red Sokoto bucks were randomly allotted into seven treatments with three (3) bucks per group while ...

  19. Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Merino, South African Mutton Merino and Dorper lambs. T.S. Brand, E.J. van der Westhuizen, D.A. van der Merwe, L.C. Hoffman ...

  20. Growth performance and nutrient quality of three Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and nutrient quality of three Moringa oleifera accessions grown as potherbs under varied manure rates and watering intervals were investigated at the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The treatments included three accessions of Moringa (Awo-Anaekpa, Idere and Kano), ...

  1. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds ... Herd of origin, year of testing and their interaction significantly affected all traits.

  2. Growth performance and economy of production of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meal-based diets. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Twenty-four landrace x large white grower pigs were used to study the effect of maize-cob- meal-based diets on the growth performance and economy of ...

  3. Effect of yoghurt waste on gut morphology and growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of yoghurt waste on intestinal morphology and growth performance of pigs weaned at 7 weeks of age. A total of 20 weaned pigs (15.6 ± 2kg, initial body weight {BW}) were randomly assigned in groups of four, to 5 experimental treatments in a randomized block design.

  4. Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata in produced water ... Toxicity symptoms of produced water on the plant include chlorosis, frond ... easily to various conditions and can tolerate a wide ... The aquatic macrophyte used for this experiment was .... the Kathloni oilfield in northeast India.

  5. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...

  6. Growth Performance, Haematological Indices and Cost Benefits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo pc

    Effect of replacing dietary maize with cassava peel meal (CPM) supplemented with Allzyme® SSF (SSF) on the growth performance, haematological indices and cost benefits of growing pigs was investigated. Chemical composition of CPM and diets used were determined using standard procedures. Twenty-four growing ...

  7. Growth performance and economics of sheep production with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve-week feeding trial was conducted using sixteen (16) growing Uda lambs to determine the growth performance of sheep fed varying levels of rice milling waste. Diets containing graded levels of rice milling waste replacing wheat offal at 15, 30 and 45% inclusion levels were formulated. Diet without rice milling waste ...

  8. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Bayero University Kano, to evaluate the effect of feeding graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in diets on growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of weaned rabbits. Twenty eight grower rabbits of ...

  9. Growth performance and immunity status of starter broiler birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM + GM) on growth performance and serum parameters of starter broiler birds. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve groups of fifteen chicks with ...

  10. Effects of exogenous tannase enzyme on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of tannase to feed of chicks including grape pomace (GP) on growth performance, antioxidant status, immune response, blood parameters, gut morphology, intestinal microflora, liver function, and histopathological responses. The experimental diets were i) ...

  11. Evaluation of Growth Performance of Tomato in Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunusi

    ABSTRACT. Field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate growth performance of two tomato genotypes in response to biochar application and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation at the. Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The experiment was laid out.

  12. Evaluation of Growth Performance of Tomato in Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate growth performance of two tomato genotypes in response to biochar application and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The experiment was laid out in a split-split ...

  13. Effects of different housing systems on growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different housing systems on growth performance and carcass yield of two breeds of turkey. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The results on carcass yield showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher plucked weight ...

  14. Study on Biodiesel plants growth performance and tolerance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this research, we studied the growth performance and tolerance of three biodiesel plants namely; Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis to water stress. Research conducted on the three different soils from Kaita, Jibiya and Mai'adua in the semi-desert environments of Katsina State, Nigeria.

  15. Effect of sage extract ( Salvia officinalis ) on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of different doses of sage extract on the growth and blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage in partridges. In total, 252 day-old partridges (Alectoris chukar) were used. The birds were divided into four groups: 0.1% flavomycin was included in the diet of the control ...

  16. Comparative study on the growth performance of the hybrid catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the hybrid catfish Heteroclarias reared in concrete and earthen pond systems were investigated in a 92-day experiment. Experiment was conducted using four rectangular ponds (2 concrete and 2 earthen) each measuring 14 × 6 × 1.5 metres in duplicates. The ponds were uniformly limed, fertilized ...

  17. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IFEOMA PIUS

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus ( ... from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated ... in the reduction of the availability of natural fish food ..... lowest profit, while algae only had the lowest cost and ... Also, maximizing production in terms of.

  18. Improved growth performance in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at high densities is linked to increased energy retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    performance. Manipulating aggressive behaviour through density may have advantages from a practical perspective. In the present study the energetic expenditure of rainbow trout held at three densities, 25, 80 and 140 kg m(-3), were related to growth performance parameters. Measurements for growth performance...

  19. Business factors related to manufacturing firms' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Vranakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them. 

  20. Growth performance of broilers in experimental Reovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar P. Awandkar

    Full Text Available Background: The avian reoviruses have emerged to induce various manifestations in chickens. They are associated with disease conditions including malabsorption syndrome, tenosynovitis etc. Reoviruses are an important cause of suboptimum performance in broilers, resulting in poor growth performance. Poultry industry in India is facing a catastrophe due to such infections which go unnoticed in field due to masking of the symptoms by secondary infections and commonly observed nutritional disorders. Aim: To investigate the effect of reovirus infection on overall performance of broiler birds. Material and Methods: The broiler birds were challenged with homologous strains of malabsorption syndrome and tenosynovitis syndrome of reovirus. The growth performance was recorded. Results and conclusion: The growth performance and immune response to NDV did not differ in the birds challenged with tenosynovitis syndrome strain of reo virus as compared to un challenged birds. However, poor live body weight, feed intake, FCR, PE and BPEI and better serum NDV titres were found in chicks challenged with malabsorption syndrome strain of reovirus as compared to the chicks from control group. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 685-689

  1. Evaluation of the comparative growth and reproductive performance of West African dwarf goats in the western highlands of Cameroon[(AFRA - African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E; Tendonkeng, F; Kadjio, J T.T.; Kwami, H N; Taboum, R K; Kana, J R; Tegodjeu, A [University of Dschang, FASA, Department of Animal Sciences, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2002-06-01

    On-farm and on-station evaluations of the comparative growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats supplemented at an iso-nitrogenous level (6 g/animal/day) with leguminous browse Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, or Gliricidia sepium, or with cotton seed cake, were conducted around Dschang in the Western Highlands of Cameroon and at the University Experimental Farm. The animals were weighed every 21 days during the rainy season and every 14 days during the dry season for three months to evaluate their response to supplementation. Cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala, C. calothyrsus were the most accepted supplements. The weight gain of the animals fed with these supplements was significantly higher compared to that of the control animals. Mean weight of animals supplemented with G. sepium was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control group during the rainy season. The average daily weight gains during the rainy period were 20.6, 19.1, 13.8, 4.5, and 3.1 g for L. leucocephala, cotton seed cake, C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and the control animals respectively, during the rainy season and 19.9, 16.1 and 1.7 g for cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala and the control animal respectively, during the dry season. Progesterone profiles were low and were unaffected by supplementation during the dry season. (author)

  2. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  3. Effects of thermo-resistant non-starch polysaccharide degrading multi-enzyme on growth performance, meat quality, relative weights of body organs and blood profile in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Gheisar, M; Hosseindoust, A; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with heat-treated non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme. A total of 432 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five treatments: (i) CON (basal diet), (ii) E1: CON + 0.05% multi-enzyme, (iii) E2: CON + 0.1% multi-enzyme, (iv) E3: CON + 0.05% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme and (v) E4: CON + 0.1% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme, each treatment consisted of six replications and 12 chickens in each replication. The chickens were housed in three floor battery cages during 28-day experimental period. On days 1-7, gain in body weight (BWG) improved by feeding the diets supplemented with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme. On days 7-21 and 1-28, chickens fed the diets containing thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed improved (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme affected the percentage of drip loss on d 1 (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme did not affect the relative weights of organs but compared to CON group, relative weight of breast muscle increased and abdominal fat decreased (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed higher (p thermo-resistant multi-enzyme improved performance of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The growth performance of F1 transgenic mutiara catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar; Buwono, I. D.; Agung, M. U. K.

    2018-04-01

    The growth of catfish (African or Sangkuriang strain) these days is tend to decreased. One of the solutions due to this problem is to improve the genetics of growth using transgenesis technology, toward more profitable. The specific objective of the research is to detect the transmission of exogenous GH (African catfish GH inserts) inside the F1 transgenic Mutiara catfish using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method and to evaluate the growth performance of transgenic Mutiara catfish made using the parameters of feed conversion (FCR = Feed Conversion Ratio). Transgenic catfish (strain mutiara) F0 and F1 carried African catfish GH (600 bp) can be produced. Superiority characters of transgenic catfish represented heritability (h2 ) and heterosis (H), indicating that the offspring of hybrid F1 transgenic mutiara catfish had phenotypes rapid growth (h2 = 17.55 % and H = 42.83 %) compared to non-transgenic catfish (h 2 = 10.07 % and H = 18.56 %). Evaluation of the efficiency of feed use parameters feed conversion ratio, shows that F1 transgenic mutiara catfish (FCR = 0.85) more efficient in converting feed into meat.

  5. Improved Performance in Mammalian Cell Perfusion Cultures by Growth Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Moritz K F; Closet, Aurélie; Bzowska, Monika; Bielser, Jean-Marc; Souquet, Jonathan; Broly, Hervé; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2018-05-21

    Mammalian cell perfusion cultures represent a promising alternative to the current fed-batch technology for the production of various biopharmaceuticals. Long-term operation at a fixed viable cell density (VCD) requires a viable culture and a constant removal of excessive cells. Product loss in the cell removing bleed stream deteriorates the process yield. In this study, the authors investigate the use of chemical and environmental growth inhibition on culture performance by either adding valeric acid (VA) to the production media or by reducing the culture temperature (33.0 °C) with respect to control conditions (36.5 °C, no VA). Low temperature significantly reduces cellular growth, thus, resulting in lower bleed rates accompanied by a reduced product loss of 11% compared to 26% under control conditions. Additionally, the cell specific productivity of the target protein improves and maintained stable leading to media savings per mass of product. VA shows initially an inhibitory effect on cellular growth. However, cells seemed to adapt to the presence of the inhibitor resulting in a recovery of the cellular growth. Cell cycle and Western blot analyses support the observed results. This work underlines the role of temperature as a key operating variable for the optimization of perfusion cultures. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Modeling lodgepole pine radial growth relative to climate and genetics using universal growth-trend response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Sierra C; LeMay, Valerie M; Aitken, Sally N

    2011-04-01

    Forests strongly affect Earth's carbon cycles, making our ability to forecast forest-productivity changes associated with rising temperatures and changes in precipitation increasingly critical. In this study, we model the influence of climate on annual radial growth using lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees grown for 34 years in a large provenance experiment in western Canada. We use a random-coefficient modeling approach to build universal growth-trend response functions that simultaneously incorporate the impacts of different provenance and site climates on radial growth trends under present and future annual (growth-year), summer, and winter climate regimes. This approach provides new depth to traditional quantitative genetics population response functions by illustrating potential changes in population dominance over time, as well as indicating the age and size at which annual growth begins declining for any population growing in any location under any present or future climate scenario within reason, given the ages and climatic conditions sampled. Our models indicate that lodgepole pine radial-growth levels maximize between 3.9 degrees and 5.1 degrees C mean growth-year temperature. This translates to productivity declining by the mid-21st century in southern and central British Columbia (BC), while increasing beyond the 2080s in northern BC and Yukon, as temperatures rise. Relative to summer climate indices, productivity is predicted to decline continuously through the 2080s in all locations, while relative to winter climate variables, the opposite trend occurs, with the growth increases caused by warmer winters potentially offsetting the summer losses. Trees from warmer provenances, i.e., from the center of the species range, perform best in nearly all of our present and future climate-scenario models. We recommend that similar models be used to analyze population growth trends relative to annual and intra-annual climate in other large-scale provenance

  7. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3.  The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Conclusions Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception. PMID:27570912

  8. Integrated healthcare networks' performance: a growth curve modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas T H; Wang, Bill B L

    2003-05-01

    This study examines the effects of integration on the performance ratings of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) in the United States. A strategic-contingency theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. To create a database for the panel study, the top 100 IHNs selected by the SMG Marketing Group in 1998 were followed up in 1999 and 2000. The data were merged with the Dorenfest data on information system integration. A growth curve model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' performance in 1998 and their subsequent rankings in the consecutive years were analyzed. IHNs' initial performance scores were positively influenced by network size, number of affiliated physicians and profit margin, and were negatively associated with average length of stay and technical efficiency. The continuing high performance, judged by maintaining higher performance scores, tended to be enhanced by the use of more managerial or executive decision-support systems. Future studies should include time-varying operational indicators to serve as predictors of network performance.

  9. Effect of relative humidity on growth of sodium oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarajan, A.R.; Mitragotri, D.S.; Mukunda Rao, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Behavior of aerosol resulting from sodium fires in a closed vessel is investigated and the changes in the particle size distribution of the aerosol due to coagulation and humidity have been studied. The initial mass concentration is in the range of 80 -- 500 mg/m 3 and the relative humidity is varied between 50 to 98%. The initial size of the released aerosol is found to be 0.9 μm. Equilibrium diameters of particles growing in humid air have been computed for various humidity levels using water activity of sodium hydroxide. Both theoretical and experimental results have yielded growth ratios of about 3 at about 95% relative humidity. It is recommended that the computer codes dealing with aerosol coagulation behavior in reactor containment should include an appropriate humidity-growth function. (author)

  10. Bacterial growth on surfaces: Automated image analysis for quantification of growth rate-related parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S.; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, L. K.

    1995-01-01

    species-specific hybridizations with fluorescence-labelled ribosomal probes to estimate the single-cell concentration of RNA. By automated analysis of digitized images of stained cells, we determined four independent growth rate-related parameters: cellular RNA and DNA contents, cell volume......, and the frequency of dividing cells in a cell population. These parameters were used to compare physiological states of liquid-suspended and surfacegrowing Pseudomonas putida KT2442 in chemostat cultures. The major finding is that the correlation between substrate availability and cellular growth rate found...

  11. Bioremediation performance as related to chemical availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, R.; Olivera, F.; Webster, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two side-by-side field prepared bed land treatment units (PBLTU) were evaluated. One PBLTU (H unit) treated soils containing chemicals from a diesel spill that had occurred about 12 months earlier. The other PBLTU (G unit) treated soils containing crude oil that had been in the soil for many decades. Laboratory slurry treatability studies and indicated that the hydrocarbons in both soils could be bioremediated if adequate nutrients were provided. The PBLTU had nutrients applied periodically, and were operated in a manner consistent with good operational guidelines. PBLTU performance was based on reductions in mobility, toxicity, and chemical concentration. Spatially random soil samples were taken from the two field PBLTU monthly and analyzed for the above parameters as well as nutrients and pH. Periodically, microbial numbers and type in the soil samples also were evaluated. Performance was monitored over an 18 month period. In the H unit, no detectable TPH reductions occurred although petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms existed in the soil and other conditions were appropriate for bioremediation. GC/MS analyses indicated reduction in some specific hydrocarbons. The H unit soils had low chemical mobility as determined by leachability tests (TCLP, SPLP) and had low relative toxicity as determined by Microtox trademark

  12. Relative performance of several inexpensive accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R.; Rogers, John A.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the performance of several low-cost accelerometers for highly cost-driven applications in recording earthquake strong motion. We anticipate applications for such sensors in providing the lifeline and emergency-response communities with an immediate, comprehensive picture of the extent and characteristics of likely damage. We also foresee their use as 'filler' instruments sited between research-grade instruments to provide spatially detailed and near-field records of large earthquakes (on the order of 1000 stations at 600-m intervals in San Fernando Valley, population 1.2 million, for example). The latter applications would provide greatly improved attenuation relationships for building codes and design, the first examples of mainshock information (that is, potentially nonlinear regime) for microzonation, and a suite of records for structural engineers. We also foresee possible applications in monitoring structural inter-story drift during earthquakes, possibly leading to local and remote alarm functions as well as design criteria. This effort appears to be the first of its type at the USGS. It is spurred by rapid advances in sensor technology and the recognition of potential non-classical applications. In this report, we estimate sensor noise spectra, relative transfer functions and cross-axis sensitivity of six inexpensive sensors. We tested three micromachined ('silicon-chip') sensors in addition to classical force-balance and piezoelectric examples. This sample of devices is meant to be representative, not comprehensive. Sensor noise spectra were estimated by recording system output with the sensor mounted on a pneumatically supported 545-kg optical-bench isolation table. This isolation table appears to limit ground motion to below our system noise level. These noise estimates include noise introduced by signal-conditioning circuitry, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and noise induced in connecting wiring by ambient electromagnetic fields in

  13. Growth Performance and Initial Heritability Estimates for Growth Traits in Juvenile Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Josefa Pante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of performance traits of maricultured species is becoming an important concern. Improvement of performance traits is important for two reasons: it enhances the growth and survival of the animals and it translates to economic gains to the fish farmer. In the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla, growth performance of the different families and heritabilities for wet weight, test diameter and test height were estimated from 1,020 offspring from a mating of each of the 15 males with 1 or 2 females. Measurements were done monthly starting at the grow-out stage or four months after hatching. There were significant family differences for the performance traits in sea urchin reared in tanks at the BML hatchery as revealed by ANOVA. Estimates of heritabilities based on the sire component of variance were low for wet weight (0.027, test diameter (0.033 and zero for test height. Heritabilities estimated from the dam component of variance were low for wet weight (0.063, moderate for test diameter (0.286 and test height (0.227. The results indicate that test diameter and wet weight have lowly heritable traits, which means that mass or individual selection may not be the best method for improving the traits for sea urchin populations in Bolinao. Other methods such as family and combined family selection should be explored.

  14. Variation in relative growth rate and growth traits in wild and cultivated Capsicum accessions grown under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Differences in environmental conditions are known to influence plant growth and growth-related traits. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in relative growth rate (RGR), and its underlying physiological and morphological traits, in a group of ten wild and cultivated Capsicum

  15. Performance Measurements, Critical Facts to Business Growth – Exemplification on Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Ileana ZAMFIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important consideration in the process of modeling business processes is that in order to improve, you must define the current state of work. Accordingly, the general argument for business growth based on performance measurement is that in order to improve the process in the future, you must know how activities are conducted in the present. The article presents the key elements of performance measurements in relation to business growth, taking also into account main challenges and obstacles. The author based the research upon a larger study of increasing performance, developed inside four companies from an extended supply chain in automotive industry, relating the theoretical discoveries in the field with the real business experience.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to casein protein hydrolysates and growth or maintenance of muscle mass (ID 1498), increase in endurance performance (ID 660, 1497) and faster recovery from muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to casein protein hydrolysates and growth or maintenance of muscle mass, increase in endurance performance and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article...

  17. INVESTMENT FUNDS’ PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolzan Carmen Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the performance of investment funds during the period 2006-2010, intending to comprise the portfolio performance’s dynamics before, during and after the present economic and financial crises climax. We categorize investment funds according to their investment strategy and geographical focus and distinguish a number of 11 classes. In order to analyze their returns’ dynamics, we create a fund performance index for each category using principal components method. The instability created in financial system in 2007 had a direct impact on institutional investors’ portfolios regardless of investment strategy, effects that have rapidly propagated on real economy. Analyzing index’s dynamics correlated with economic growth we conclude that financial and economic environment react in the same direction, but with a certain time delay, to instability factors. We also underline the major impact of boom and bust evolution of financial markets on real economy, cause of the current economic and financial crises.

  18. The relation between conscientiousness, empowerment and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riëtte Sutherland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, empowerment and job performance among information technology professionals. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire (EEQ, a Conscientiousness Scale and a Social Desirability Scale were administered to 101 information technology customer service engineers. Managers completed a Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ for each customer service engineer. The results indicated a significant relationship between conscientiousness and empowerment. A curvilinear relationship was found between empowerment and performance. The practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Growth performance of 5-year old Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    July 2012 to August 2013 in order to generate information needed to guide future interventions for improved ... trees registered good growth rates in Gulu and Mubende districts and poor growth rates in ..... We thank the field assistants and.

  20. Growth recovery in newly arrived international adoptees in Italy: relation to parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzi, Elena; Rosnati, Rosa; Miller, Laurie C

    2018-04-12

    Following initial adversities, most internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but research about risk or protective factors is still limited. Even less is known about the relationship between growth recovery and the quality of the family environment. 28 children in 26 adoptive families were involved in this longitudinal study. A comprehensive evaluation (including anthropometry, cognitive assessment [using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised], and completion by both parents of the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form) was done at arrival of the child, and 1 year later. Results evidenced that on arrival nearly half of children had growth measurements in the normal range. All the children showed a significant recovery in height and weight at 6 and 12 months post-placement. Initial and follow up growth measurements correlated strongly. Growth recovery was related to the age of the child at adoption, the proportion of time the child had resided in institutional care, as well as parenting stress. Results suggested that the higher the parenting stress experienced the less improvements occurred in children: for mothers for height and weight, for fathers for all the growth indicators. Results suggested the critical importance of family factor in influencing children's growth recovery.

  1. Effect of various probiotics on growth performance of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Sirsat

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various probiotics on the performance of Japanese Quails. One hundred Japanese quail chicks were weighed individually and they were uniformly distributed equally to four dietary treatments consisting 25 birds in each. The starter and finisher diets were containing ME 2800 and 2600 Kcal/kg and protein 25 and 23 % respectively. The group T0(Controll fed standard quail diet and T1,T2 and T3 were fed probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus sporogenes and Saccharomyces boulardii @ 0.05 % in diet. The study was conducted for six weeks in the same managemental condition. Weekly live body weight and feed consumption were recorded. The group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in significantly higher growth rate and showed higher weight gain. The average feed efficiency and nitrogen retention were significantly higher in group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of production /100gm of meat was found to be Rs.7.10, 6.84, 7.55 and 8.37 respectively in T0 to T3 groups. Thus, the study indicated that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diet of Japanese quails was effective in improving performance of the quails. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 321-322

  2. Modeling growth performances, survival, and feed efficiency of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolution of growth rate with age was similar in the four groups, but significant differences of growth curve parameters were found among breeds and/or sexes. Estimated hatch weight was lower in C hens and higher in FT hens. Initial specific growth rates and asymptotic body weight were higher in males for all breeds.

  3. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt.

  4. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt. (author)

  5. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Growth Performance Of Mono-Sex And Mixed Sex Population Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth performance of all-male, all-female and mixed sex population of Oreochromis niloticus fed similar diet was carried out. The fingerlings used in the study were of relatively similar weight ranges (24.8 g – 26.6 g) with initial mean weight of 25.7±1.3 g and initial mean total length of 3.8 ± 1.5 cm. The mean increase ...

  7. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L Y; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Xu, L; Zhang, J; Xing, H

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. In total, 336 healthy, 28-day-old, male Yangzhou goslings were randomly allotted to 30 plastic wire-floor pens according to 5 stocking densities (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 birds/m2). The results showed that with the stocking density increased from 2 birds/m2 to 6 birds/m2, the body weights of geese at 42 d (P density was increased to 6 birds/m2. Serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.013) and triiodothyronine (P density increased. The serum thyroxine concentration of geese from the 6 birds/m2 group was lower than that of geese from the other groups (P density will adversely influence thyroid function and the developments of the body weight, body size, feathers, and small intestine. Under our experimental conditions, we recommend that the stocking density of geese should be kept to 5 or fewer birds/m2 to avoid the negative effects of high stocking density on geese. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Conspecific and not performance-based attraction on immigrants drives colony growth in a waterbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenan, Simone; Fasola, Mauro; Volponi, Stefano; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2017-09-01

    Local recruitment and immigration play an important part in the dynamics and growth of animal populations. However, their estimation and incorporation into open population models is, in most cases, problematic. We studied factors affecting the growth of a recently established colony of Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia) and assessed the contribution of local recruits, i.e. birds born in the colony, and immigrants, i.e. birds of unknown origin, to colony growth. We applied an integrated population model that accounts for uncertainty in breeding state assignment and merges population surveys, local fecundity and individual longitudinal data of breeding and non-breeding birds, to estimate demographic rates and the relative role of recruitment and immigration in driving the local dynamics. We also used this analytical framework to assess the degree of support for the 'performance-based' and 'conspecific attraction' hypotheses as possible mechanisms of colony growth. Among the demographic rates, only immigration was positively and significantly correlated with population growth rate. In addition, the number of immigrants settling in the colony was positively correlated with colony size in the previous and current year, but was not correlated with fecundity of the previous year. Our results suggest that the variation in immigration affected colony dynamics and that conspecific attraction likely triggered the relevant role of immigration in the growth of a recently formed waterbird colony, supporting the need of including immigration in population analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  9. Growth Performance and Behaviour in Grouped Pigs Fed Fibrous Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter. Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively (p<0.05. Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05 compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05. Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05. Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05. It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided.

  10. Comparing cellular performance of Yarrowia lipolytica during growth on glucose and glycerol in submerged cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    . Growth on glycerol proceeded at approximately 0.30 h-1, and the substrate uptake rate was 0.02 mol L-1 h-1 regardless of the starting glycerol concentration (10, 20 or 45 g L-1). Utilisation of glycerol was accompanied by higher oxygen uptake rates compared to glucose growth, indicating import......Yarrowia lipolytica is an attractive host for sustainable bioprocesses due to its ability to utilize a variety of carbon substrates and convert them to a range of different product types (including lipids, organic acids and polyols) under specific conditions. Despite an increasing number...... of applications for this yeast, relatively few studies have focused on uptake and metabolism of carbon sources, and the metabolic basis for carbon flow to the different products. The focus of this work was quantification of the cellular performance of Y. lipolytica during growth on glycerol, glucose or a mixture...

  11. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  12. Performance relations in Capacitive Deionization systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van B.

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new deionization technology based on the temporary storage of ions on an electrically charged surface. By directing a flow between two oppositely charged surfaces, negatively charged ions will adsorb onto the positively charged surface, and positively

  13. RESEARCH ON QUALITY OF POULTRY MEAT RELATED TO GROWTH SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Zeicu E.; Boltea F.; Vatca Gh.; Vekony E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of extensive and intensive growth systems on some physically-chemically characteristics of poultry meat. Humidity, protein and fat contents are higher in case of meat coming from broilers growth in intensive system, and the alteration rate also. High content of minerals was determined in the meat coming from broilers growth in extensive system

  14. Explaining African Growth Performance: A Production-Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Houssa; Oleg Badunenko; Daniel J. Henderson

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a production frontier approach that allows distinguishing technologic progress from efficiency development. Data on 35 African countries in 1970-2007 show that efficiency losses have constrained growth in Africa while technology progress has played a marginal growth enhancing role in the region. Moreover, physical and human capital accumulation are the main factors that drive productivity growth at the country level. Examining the outcomes of successful countries suggests t...

  15. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  17. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  18. Asset growth strategy and bank performance in Nigeria | Toby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between asset growth rate and growth in such output variables as total cost, total income and net profit In the Nigerian banking industry. Based on the data of 25 quoted Nigerian banks, three linear regression models were estimated complemented by descriptive data ...

  19. Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...

  20. Relation of erythrocyte and iron indices to oral cancer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattathiri, Vasudevaru Narayanan

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Anaemia is known to influence prognosis of head and neck cancer patients, but how anaemia and tumour growth influences each other is not clear. The present study investigates the relation of erythrocyte and iron indices of oral cancer patients to primary tumour size (Tsize), invasiveness and lymph node involvement. Materials and methods: The haemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte count (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Serum iron (SFe), transferrin iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation (%Fe) were evaluated in 217 untreated patients with epidermoid cancer of the bucco-gingivo-palatine area. The association of erythrocyte and iron indices with sex, tumour size groups, invasion of adjacent structures and lymph node involvement, as well as the relation of SFe to Hb were analyzed. Results: Most of the patients were anaemic in terms of Hb (63%), RBC (43%) and PCV (48.4%) but almost all had normal or higher MCH (97.3%) and MCV (93.3%) though MCHC was less than normal in 70.7%. Normal or higher SFe was seen in nearly 70% and TIBC in 45% of patients. Hb, RBC and PCV were significantly lower in women, but there was no difference between men and women in the case of MCV, MCH and MCHC. Primary tumour size showed negative association with Hb, RBC and PCV but positive association with MCH ( 4 cm: 31. 7 pg; P=0.04) and MCHC ( 4 cm: 32.1; P=0.006). MCV, SFe, TIBC and %Fe did not show any relation to primary tumour size. None of the indices had any relation to invasion of adjacent structures or lymph node involvement. MCH, MCHC and MCV were not different in men and women but women had significantly lower Hb, RBC and PCV. The SFe showed poor correlation with Hb. Conclusions: The negative association of Hb, RBC and PCV with tumour size is most likely due to chronic RBC destruction, probably tumour induced, with the products of

  1. Role of nutraceuticals in gut health and growth performance of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Sugiharto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut is a fundamental organ system which makes up two equally important functions, i.e., the digestion and host defence. To elicit the well-functioning and healthy gut, the dynamic balance of gut ecosystem is of importance. A wide range of factors related to diets and infectious disease agents seem to affect this balance, and subsequently affect the health status and production performance of the chicken. With the ban and/or reduction of the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in poultry production, the alternatives to AGP are needed especially to preserve the balance of gut microbiota in chicken. This review provides a summary of the potentials and possible mechanisms of action of some alternatives to AGP (referred as nutraceuticals in improving the gut microbial ecosystem and immune system as well as growth performance of poultry.

  2. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  3. Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 © 2008 ... Growth rate and weight gain increased ... treatments. There was no significant difference in apparent feed conversion ratio and the nitrogen.

  4. Growth performance and nutrient quality of three Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APEH

    2015-06-12

    Jun 12, 2015 ... Judicious management of irrigation water in terms of volume and/or ..... conditions, seasonal fluctuations and other environmental factors. ... media on seedling emergence, growth and response to water stress of African ...

  5. and hyper-thyroidism on growth performance, organ weights and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRT

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... Induction of hyperthyroidism significantly impaired feed conversion ratio when compared with ... metabolism control via endocrine glands in poultry than in ..... lipogenic enzyme activity in broiler strains differing in growth and.

  6. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  7. The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, feed efficiency and specific growth rate (%) of juvenile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, weight 16.44±0.22 g) rearing in cold sea water conditions (5.8 to 9.3°C; 17 to 18 ppt). Fish were fed on a commercial feed to the apparent ...

  8. Funding of pensions and economic growth : are they really related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Eelco; Spierdijk, Laura

    We examine whether changes in the degree of pension funding affect economic growth. Our sample consists of 54 countries, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as non-OECD, during 2001-10. We do not find any effect of changes in the degree of funding on growth in the

  9. Effect of selection for relative growth rate and bodyweight of mice on rate, composition and efficiency of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for parameters of a growth curve, four selection lines and a control line were started from one base population. In the selection lines is selected for a large and a small relative growth rate between 21 and 29 days (RGH and RGL) and for a large and

  10. Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites under Different Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao; Bao, Chunxiong; Li, Faming; Yu, Tao; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Weidong; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Fu, Gao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-05-06

    Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite compounds are very promising materials for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. But how to fabricate high-quality perovksite films under controlled humidity conditions is still an important issue due to their sensitivity to moisture. In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient humidity on crystallization and surface morphology of one-step spin-coated perovskite films, as well as the performance of solar cells based on these perovskite films. On the basis of experimental analyses and thin film growth theory, we conclude that the influence of ambient humidity on nucleation at spin-coating stage is quite different from that on crystal growth at annealing stage. At the spin-coating stage, high nucleation density induced by high supersaturation prefers to appear under anhydrous circumstances, resulting in layer growth and high coverage of perovskite films. But at the annealing stage, the modest supersaturation benefits formation of perovskite films with good crystallinity. The films spin-coated under low relative humidity (RH) followed by annealing under high RH show an increase of crystallinity and improved performance of devices. Therefore, a mechanism of fast nucleation followed by modest crystal growth (high supersaturation at spin-coating stage and modest supersaturation at annealing stage) is suggested in the formation of high-quality perovskite films.

  11. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing, K.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage and inconsistent quality of forage in developing countries are the major constraints to the development of ruminant sector. To overcome these problems, feeding of ruminants with conserved forages is an important feeding strategy to ensure the success of ruminant production in the third world countries. The use of whole corn plant as silage has drawn many attention due to high protein efficiency, relatively high digestible energy and total digestible nutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine feed intake, growth performance and nutrients digestibility in goats fed different inclusion level of whole corn plant silage to Napier grass based diets. Fifteen male Boer cross goats around six months old and approximately 18.54 ? 1.83 kg of body weight were used as experimental animals. The goats were assigned into five treatment groups consisted of different proportions of Napier grass (G and whole plant corn silage (CS ?T1:100/0 G/CS; T2:75/25 G/CS; T3:50/50 G/CS; T4:25/75 G/CS and T5:0/100 G/CS. The increase of corn silage to Napier grass proportion demonstrates increase in dry matter intake and growth performance in the goats. The highest nutrient digestibility was observed in T5:0/100 G/CS and T3:50/50 G/CS. It can be concluded that high proportion of corn silage to grass diets had resulted in increases in feed intake and growth performance of goats. Feeding the animals with T5 and T3 resulted in high nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. However, the highest growth performance was observed in animals that were fed with T5 diets.

  12. Noonan syndrome and related disorders: alterations in growth and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Jacqueline A

    2006-12-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common multiple malformation syndrome with characteristic facies, short stature and congenital heart disease, most commonly pulmonary stenosis (Noonan, Clin Pediatr, 33:548-555, 1994). Recently, a mutation in the PTPN11 gene (Tartaglia, Mehler, Goldberg, Zampino, Brunner, Kremer et al., Nat Genet, 29:465-468, 2001) was found to be present in about 50% of individuals with Noonan syndrome. The phenotype noted in Noonan syndrome is also found in a number of other syndromes which include LEOPARD (Gorlin, Anderson, Blaw, Am J Dis Child, 17:652-662, 1969), Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (Reynolds, Neri, Hermann, Blumberg, Coldwell, Miles et al., Am J Med Genet, 28:413-427, 1986) and Costello syndrome (Hennekam, Am J Med Genet, 117C(1):42-48, 2003). All three of these syndromes share similar cardiac defects and all have postnatal short stature. Very recently, HRAS mutations (Aoki, Niihori, Kawame, Kurosawa, Ohashi, Tanaka et al., Nat Genet, 37:1038-1040, 2005) have been found in the Costello syndrome and germline mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes (Rodriguez-Viciana, Tetsu, Tidyman, Estep, Conger, Santa Cruz et al., Nat Genet, 2006; Niihori, Aoki, Narumi, Neri, Cave, Verloes et al., Nat Genet, 38:294-296, 2006) in the Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Phenotypic overlap between these genetic disorders can now be explained since each is caused by germline mutations that are major components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. This pathway plays an important role in growth factor and cytokine signaling as well as cancer pathogenesis.

  13. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... almost all physiological activities were suppressed. The superiority of the genotype Tema against Djadida genotype was attributed to quantitative rather than qualitative physiological response differences. Keywords: Salinity, fluridone, bean, growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  14. Effects of Phytosterol in Feed on Growth and Related Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The dietary phytosterol significantly improved (p < 0.05) the body weight and feed intake of ... developmental regulation of the activation of growth factor and nutrient components. Keywords: ..... Ubiquitin mediates cachexia muscle.

  15. Growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...

  16. Performance, Health and Growth of Brown Swiss Calves Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ziraat2

    weight gains and gains in body measurements, feed intake and feed efficiency values determined at different stages of growth of ... Table 1 Chemical composition of the milk replacer, starters and dry hay. Nutrients ... parameters were; 1) frequency of the daily milk replacer intake from bucket, 2) time spent watching around,.

  17. Intestinal health: Key to maximise growth performance in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beever, D.E.; Collet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is changing worldwide. It is also the case that the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift in animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing

  18. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty Weaner pigs with an average initial live weight of 6.81 ± 1.0kg were studied for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw bambara waste (BW) using a completely randomized design (CRD). They were fed five diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percentage composition for 5 months ...

  19. Growth performance of three commercial strains of turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 16 weeks of age correlation values for body parts against body weight were mostly negative across the treatment groups. It was evident from the results of this study that any of the turkey strains can be reared for meat without emphasis on plumage except at the discretion of the farmer. Keywords: Turkeys, Strains, Growth ...

  20. Influence of mixed culture system on the growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a novel strategy to improve the α-galactosidase and invertase production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by co-cultivating it with Aspergillus oryzae. In the mixed culture, the growth of the both strains was repressed, and the protein synthesis for the yeast cell wall was promoted significantly. As a result ...

  1. Effects of Prosopis laevigata pods on growth performance, ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UASLP

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... (P. juliflora), pods replacing forages at 30% of total diet did not affect growth ... The processing of diets was manual. ... Blood samples were centrifuged (3400 g x 15 min) and serum was stored at −20◦ .... improvements in the rumen fermentative process commonly induce increments of microbial N synthesis.

  2. Growth Performance, Yields and Economic Benefits of Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish culture integration in the growth, yields and economic benefits of fish and vegetables. Two 200 m2 earthen fishponds were stocked with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 20,000 fish fingerlings per hectare. Pond A was fertilized with ...

  3. Guided Growth of Horizontal ZnSe Nanowires and their Integration into High-Performance Blue-UV Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2015-07-15

    Perfectly aligned horizontal ZnSe nano-wires are obtained by guided growth, and easily integrated into high-performance blue-UV photodetectors. Their crystal phase and crystallographic orientation are controlled by the epitaxial relations with six different sapphire planes. Guided growth paves the way for the large-scale integration of nanowires into optoelectronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  5. The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward Strategy for ... over automatic pay increase (formal and transparent reward systems linked to ... of reward and compensation, and low level of motivation and performance.

  6. Breast meat quality of chickens with divergent growth rates and its relation to growth curve parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Muth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the increase of body weight of contemporary broilers during growth on functional meat quality and color characteristics of the chicken breast muscle are controversially debated. Therefore, male chickens (n = 264 of a fast-growing commercial broiler (Ross 308 and two slow-growing experimental meat-type chicken lines were compared at equal age and at similar body weight in order to investigate the effect of growth rate on selected functional breast meat traits and meat color. Additionally, the breast meat characteristics of birds with different growth profiles were compared within lines. When the body weight of commercial broilers reached about 40 to 60 % of their growth potential, they exhibited particularly high ultimate pH values compared with slow-growing lines. The ability of the meat of fast-growing broilers to retain water during cooking was impaired (5 to 16 percentage points increased cooking loss compared to slow-growing lines, which, in contrast to pH, was only marginally affected by body weight and/or age at slaughter. No unfavorable correlations of breast meat quality traits with the growth profile, represented by growth curve parameters derived from the Gompertz–Laird equation, were detected within any of the investigated chicken lines. It is noteworthy that the associations of ultimate pH and cooking loss with maximum growth speed indicate a non-linear relationship. Thus, some of the functional characteristics of breast meat of the fast-growing broiler resembled the white-striping defect described for poultry meat, but the hypothesis that selection on increased growth rates is detrimental for meat quality per se could not be confirmed. In fact, an elevated growth potential in particular, i.e., body weight at maturity, could have some beneficial effects for the water-holding capacity of breast meat, regardless of the genotypic growth rate.

  7. Relations among the crack growth modes resulting from tensor splitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-335 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : fracture mechanics * combination of crack-growth modes * non-local effect * tensor splitting Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://journal.it.cas.cz/60(15)4-Contents/60(15)4a.pdf

  8. Effects of Phytosterol in Feed on Growth and Related Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depressed antioxidant defence systems in the broiler chickens. Myogen, eIF4E, and S6k1 gene ... Furthermore, the data suggest that developmental decline in skeletal muscle protein synthesis, may be partly attributed to developmental regulation of the activation of growth factor and nutrient components. Keywords: Broiler ...

  9. Eucalyptus plantlet growth in relation to foliar application with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In one experiment at greenhouse, condition was established to determine the effects of complete fertilizers on growth of plantlet Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Southeast of Iran. This experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Center, University of Zabol, in autumn year of 2008. This study was designed as a ...

  10. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We correlated root growth inhibition with aluminium (Al3+) localization and toxicity symptoms in rice roots using seedlings of two genotypes (tolerant and sensitive) that were exposed to different AlCl3 concentrations. Al3+ localization was evaluated by hematoxylin in primary roots and by morin in cross-sections of the root ...

  11. Desferrioxamine-induced long bone changes in thalassaemic patients - Radiographic features, prevalence and relations with growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y.L.; Li, C.K.; Pang, L.M.; Chik, K.W

    2000-08-01

    AIM: To study the radiographic findings of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia, its prevalence and relation to growth in thalassaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 thalassaemic patients on a hypertransfusion scheme and chelation therapy at a dose not exceeding 50 mg/kg/day. Radiographs of the left hand taken for bone age assessment in consecutive patients over the past 12 months were evaluated for signs of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. The findings were correlated with data on growth, chelation and body iron content. RESULTS: Twelve of 35 patients had evidence of desferrioxamine-induced long bone dysplasia. There was no significant difference in the groups with and without radiographic evidence of bone dysplasia with respect to the height percentile at time of initiation of therapy, height percentile at time of radiography, skeletal age delay, age at starting chelation, chelation dose and duration, units of blood transfused, average chelation dose, and serum ferritin levels at time of radiography. Both groups showed a reduced percentile growth with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.03) in the patients with dysplastic change. CONCLUSION: Desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia is associated with height reduction and can be seen in patients receiving desferrioxamine chelation therapy at doses of less than 50 mg/kg/day. Awareness of the diagnosis is of importance as reduction of the desferrioxamine dose may improve bone growth. Chan, Y. L. (2000)

  12. Effects of KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC, basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L, 4×109 (M and 20×109 (H CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05, and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05. The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05, and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05. These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

  13. Psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance in rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance. It was hypothesized that lower perceived performance was related to longer reaction times. A total of 85 measurements were taken in 26 varsity rowers (mean age 21.3 years, s=1.6) on five

  14. Effect of litter treatment on growth performance, intestinal development, and selected cecum microbiota in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilaneh Taherparvar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of bedding materials (sand, wood shavings, and paper and of two chemical amendments (lime and bentonite could interfere with litter quality (moisture, pH, and total bacterial counts, thereby influencing also the growth performance and the development of intestinal traits and cecum microbiota of chickens. Two hundred and seventy male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned into nine treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Broiler productive parameters, relative weight of different intestinal segments, content of cecal total bacterial counts (total aerobic bacteria, Lactobacilli, and coliforms, as well as litter moisture, pH, and total aerobic bacteria and coliforms counts, were assessed. Litter material, per se, did not significantly affect the productivity parameters at the end of the experimental period (42 days with the exception of protein efficiency. A significant trend was found among treatments with regard to weight gain and feed intake, with lower performance in birds on sand beddings. Litter pH was relatively homogenous between bedding types and amendments, but the moisture was significantly lower when sand was used. Litter type did not influence the relative weight of the different intestinal segments; however, the type of amendment affected the relative jejunum weight, which was increased in bentonite-treated litter. The use of lime and bentonite treatments may be helpful to decrease the differences in litter moisture associated with particular bedding materials. The tested amendments do not interfere with the productive performance of birds.

  15. QTL variations for growth-related traits in eight distinct families of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Weihua; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Cao, Dingchen; Yan, Yunqin; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-05-05

    Comparing QTL analyses of multiple pair-mating families can provide a better understanding of important allelic variations and distributions. However, most QTL mapping studies in common carp have been based on analyses of individual families. In order to improve our understanding of heredity and variation of QTLs in different families and identify important QTLs, we performed QTL analysis of growth-related traits in multiple segregating families. We completed a genome scan for QTLs that affect body weight (BW), total length (TL), and body thickness (BT) of 522 individuals from eight full-sib families using 250 microsatellites evenly distributed across 50 chromosomes. Sib-pair and half-sib model mapping identified 165 QTLs on 30 linkage groups. Among them, 10 (genome-wide P <0.01 or P < 0.05) and 28 (chromosome-wide P < 0.01) QTLs exhibited significant evidence of linkage, while the remaining 127 exhibited a suggestive effect on the above three traits at a chromosome-wide (P < 0.05) level. Multiple QTLs obtained from different families affect BW, TL, and BT and locate at close or identical positions. It suggests that same genetic factors may control variability in these traits. Furthermore, the results of the comparative QTL analysis of multiple families showed that one QTL was common in four of the eight families, nine QTLs were detected in three of the eight families, and 26 QTLs were found common to two of the eight families. These common QTLs are valuable candidates in marker-assisted selection. A large number of QTLs were detected in the common carp genome and associated with growth-related traits. Some of the QTLs of different growth-related traits were identified at similar chromosomal regions, suggesting a role for pleiotropy and/or tight linkage and demonstrating a common genetic basis of growth trait variations. The results have set up an example for comparing QTLs in common carp and provided insights into variations in the identified QTLs

  16. Growth factors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: relative roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Jeremy T

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients has evolved very slowly; the fundamental approach of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents has had little impact on long-term survival. The continued use of corticosteroids is justified because of the lack of a more effective alternative. Current research indicates that the mechanisms driving idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis reflect abnormal, dysregulated wound healing within the lung, involving increased activity and possibly exaggerated responses by a spectrum of profibrogenic growth factors. An understanding of the roles of these growth factors, and the way in which they modulate events at cellular level, could lead to more targeted therapeutic strategies, improving patients' quality of life and survival.

  17. Growth Hormone Receptor Mutations Related to Individual Dwarfism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles; Zhang, Xiquan

    2018-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) promotes body growth by binding with two GH receptors (GHRs) at the cell surface. GHRs interact with Janus kinase, signal transducers, and transcription activators to stimulate metabolic effects and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) synthesis. However, process dysfunctions in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 axis cause animal dwarfism. If, during the GH process, GHR is not successfully recognized and/or bound, or GHR fails to transmit the GH signal to IGF-1, the GH dysfunction occurs. The goal of this review was to focus on the GHR mutations that lead to failures in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 signal transaction process in the dwarf phenotype. Until now, more than 90 GHR mutations relevant to human short stature (Laron syndrome and idiopathic short stature), including deletions, missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations, and four GHR defects associated with chicken dwarfism, have been described. Among the 93 identified mutations of human GHR, 68 occur extracellularly, 13 occur in GHR introns, 10 occur intracellularly, and two occur in the transmembrane. These mutations interfere with the interaction between GH and GHRs, GHR dimerization, downstream signaling, and the expression of GHR. These mutations cause aberrant functioning in the GH-GHR-IGF-1 axis, resulting in defects in the number and diameter of muscle fibers as well as bone development. PMID:29748515

  18. Growth Hormone Receptor Mutations Related to Individual Dwarfism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudai Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH promotes body growth by binding with two GH receptors (GHRs at the cell surface. GHRs interact with Janus kinase, signal transducers, and transcription activators to stimulate metabolic effects and insulin‐like growth factor (IGF synthesis. However, process dysfunctions in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 axis cause animal dwarfism. If, during the GH process, GHR is not successfully recognized and/or bound, or GHR fails to transmit the GH signal to IGF-1, the GH dysfunction occurs. The goal of this review was to focus on the GHR mutations that lead to failures in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 signal transaction process in the dwarf phenotype. Until now, more than 90 GHR mutations relevant to human short stature (Laron syndrome and idiopathic short stature, including deletions, missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations, and four GHR defects associated with chicken dwarfism, have been described. Among the 93 identified mutations of human GHR, 68 occur extracellularly, 13 occur in GHR introns, 10 occur intracellularly, and two occur in the transmembrane. These mutations interfere with the interaction between GH and GHRs, GHR dimerization, downstream signaling, and the expression of GHR. These mutations cause aberrant functioning in the GH-GHR-IGF-1 axis, resulting in defects in the number and diameter of muscle fibers as well as bone development.

  19. Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Van der Merwe, Daniel

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... 5.0. Phosphorous (g/kg). 30.0. Mono calcium phosphate. 2.1. Total ..... feed, increased feed intake, lower maintenance requirements (because of restricted movement) and more .... Productive performance of Dorper sheep.

  20. Effect of production system on welfare traits, growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2015-06-06

    Jun 6, 2015 ... 1 Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia ... performance and meat quality of the ducks were measured. ..... stocking density on broiler chicken bone quality and fluctuating asymmetry. Poult.

  1. The Effect of Dietary Oils on Growth Performance of Broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    chicks/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0.5% sunflower oil (Group A), ... improve performance and to decrease indices of inflammatory response in the ... protein synthesis and accretion in the skeletal muscle (Hentges et al., 1984).

  2. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bekezela

    There is a paucity of information on non-genetic ... herds. These data were obtained from the Integrated Recording and Genetic Information Systems .... performance is determined by muscle fibre characteristics (Larzul et al., 1997), which are ...

  3. Analysis of growth, yield potential and horticultural performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTC Lab

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... Lakadong. Key words: Turmeric, micropropagation, field performance, tissue culture. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... the changes in leaf morphology and colour. ... intervening callus phase (Dirk et al. ,1996; Smith, 1988;.

  4. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... This study determined the effect of space allowance on performance, carcass .... The individual pen for the pigs was considered the experimental unit for the ..... This work was carried out with the support of the Cooperative ...

  5. Effects of glucose oxidase on the growth performance, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2016-02-06

    Feb 6, 2016 ... The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of diets supplemented with ... Keywords: Glucose oxidase, intestinal health, performance, swine ..... This work was supported by the National High-Tech Research and ...

  6. GROWTH OF MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCE BY IMPROVING AUDITING ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DĂNECI-PĂTRĂU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To reflect the place and role of internal audit in the economic entity and its function as assistant manager in this paper we followed the presentation of the preliminary assumptions of a model for measuring the quality of internal audit. Also, we presented a possible model of research regarding managerial effectiveness. Questions that sought answer in this research are: How can we streamline internal audit? What is meant by effective internal audit? What is the relationship between internal audit efficiency and performance management? Recording a high level of performance of internal audit provide a high level of performance of the whole economic entity. Of course, responsible for the implementation of recommendations made by the Internal Auditor is the manager, but in our opinion, as long as the internal audit department conducts activities / tasks with maximum seriousness, conscientiousness and professionalism, the manager will be to some extent forced to implement the recommendations, having a high confidence in those.

  7. Distribution and number of epidermal growth factor receptors in skin is related to epithelial cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Basketter, D A; Couchman, J R

    1983-01-01

    receptors are detected on the epithelial cells overlying the basement membranes of the epidermis, sebaceous gland, and regions of the hair follicle all of which have proliferative capacity. In marked contrast, tissues which have started to differentiate and lost their growth potential, carry either...... and temporal control of epithelial proliferation....

  8. Documenting Teacher Candidates' Professional Growth through Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Suh, Jennifer; Parsons, Seth A.; Parker, Audra K.; Ramirez, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, colleges of education are responding to demands for increased accountability. The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's implementation of a performance evaluation tool during final internship that measures teacher candidates' development across four domains: Planning and Preparation,…

  9. Effects of probiotics on growth performance, blood parameters, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ziyanda Dlamini

    2017-09-25

    Sep 25, 2017 ... During this phase, the piglets have to cope with ... Pigs were kept individually in a temperature-controlled building in flat deck type ... Dilutions were subsequently plated in triplicate on selective agar media for enumeration of target bacterial ..... inactivated cells on the performance, microflora and blood ...

  10. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... the best feed cost/kg gain values at restriction and re-alimentation. It is concluded that restricting growing pigs at 80% of the ad libitum intake of the control yields best performance and ... largely proved not to be very effective due to availability.

  11. 6 Growth Performance and Innate Immune Response.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Studies have revealed antibacterial potential of some botanicals such as Curcuma ... production performance and high market ... measured with the aid of a digital pH ... Premixes = HI-MIX®AQUA (Fish) each one kilogram (1 kg) contains; vitamin A, ... using weighing scale (Model: M1207) and ..... fat (roasted): A comparison.

  12. Effects of various additives to enhance growth performance, blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina van Heerden

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... It was assigned to three pigs/pen and five pens/treatment. ... Essential oils have been demonstrated to improve performance and reduce .... were detected using Gastec GV-110S gas detection machine and tube namely, NH3 ...

  13. Effects of chitosan addition on growth performance, diarrhoea, anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present experiment was designed to determine the efficacy of a commercial source of chitosan (CS) to enhance performance, anti-oxidative function, and immune response in weaned pigs. A total of 60 crossbreed piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), with average live bodyweight of 8.85 ± 1.52 kg, were weaned at ...

  14. Effect of spent mushroom substrate on the growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at the rabbitary unit of the department of animal production, School of Agriculture, Lagos state polytechnic, Lagos. A total of twenty-four rabbits ... Performance was evaluated based on feed intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein intake and protein efficiency ratio. The economy of ...

  15. Relative Performance Information, Rank Ordering and Employee Performance: A Research Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.; Maas, V.S.; van Rinsum, M.

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether the provision of detailed relative performance information (i.e., information about the specific performance levels of peers) affects employee performance. We also investigate how – if at all – explicit ranking of performance levels affects how

  16. A systematic review of the routine monitoring of growth in children of primary school age to identify growth-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayter, D; Nixon, J; Hartley, S; Rithalia, A; Butler, G; Rudolf, M; Glasziou, P; Bland, M; Stirk, L; Westwood, M

    2007-06-01

    To clarify the role of growth monitoring in primary school children, including obesity, and to examine issues that might impact on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such programmes. Electronic databases were searched up to July 2005. Experts in the field were also consulted. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed on studies meeting the review's inclusion criteria. The performance of growth monitoring to detect disorders of stature and obesity was evaluated against National Screening Committee (NSC) criteria. In the 31 studies that were included in the review, there were no controlled trials of the impact of growth monitoring and no studies of the diagnostic accuracy of different methods for growth monitoring. Analysis of the studies that presented a 'diagnostic yield' of growth monitoring suggested that one-off screening might identify between 1:545 and 1:1793 new cases of potentially treatable conditions. Economic modelling suggested that growth monitoring is associated with health improvements [incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of 9500 pounds] and indicated that monitoring was cost-effective 100% of the time over the given probability distributions for a willingness to pay threshold of 30,000 pounds per QALY. Studies of obesity focused on the performance of body mass index against measures of body fat. A number of issues relating to human resources required for growth monitoring were identified, but data on attitudes to growth monitoring were extremely sparse. Preliminary findings from economic modelling suggested that primary prevention may be the most cost-effective approach to obesity management, but the model incorporated a great deal of uncertainty. This review has indicated the potential utility and cost-effectiveness of growth monitoring in terms of increased detection of stature-related disorders. It has also pointed strongly to the need for further research. Growth monitoring does not currently meet all NSC

  17. Understanding the mechanisms of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on animal production: linking gut microbiota and growth performance in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Unravelling the mechanisms of how antibiotics influence growth performance through changes in gut microbiota can lead to the identification of highly productive microbiota in animal production. Here we investigated the effect of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on growth performance and caecal microbiota in chickens and analysed associations between individual bacteria and growth performance. Two trials were undertaken; each used 96 individually caged 15-day-old Cobb broilers. Trial 1 had a control group (n = 48) and a zinc bacitracin (50 ppm) treatment group (n = 48). Trial 2 had a control group (n = 48) and an avilamycin (15 ppm) treatment group (n = 48). Chicken growth performance was evaluated over a 10-day period, and caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Avilamycin produced no effect on growth performance and exhibited little significant disturbance of the microbiota structure. However, zinc bacitracin reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treated birds, changed the composition and increased the diversity of their caecal microbiota by reducing dominant species. Avilamycin only produced minor reductions in the abundance of two microbial taxa, whereas zinc bacitracin produced relatively large shifts in a number of taxa, primarily Lactobacillus species. Also, a number of phylotypes closely related to lactobacilli species were positively or negatively correlated with FCR values, suggesting contrasting effects of Lactobacillus spp. on chicken growth performance. By harnessing such bacteria, it may be possible to develop high-productivity strategies in poultry that rely on the use of probiotics and less on in-feed antibiotics.

  18. Effects of dietary chitosan on growth performance and immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    2011-08-18

    Aug 18, 2011 ... relative to the body weight. Chitosan was provided by Golden-Shell. Biochemical Co., Ltd. Zhejiang, ... Soybean meal. 195. 150. Cottonseed meal. 20. 35. Rapeseed meal. 20. 35. Wheat bran. 100. 120. Fish meal. 25. 0. Rice bran. 53. Calcium carbonate. 6. 8.5. Calcium phosphate tribasic. 12. 7. Salt. 2. 2.5.

  19. growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    suggested that there is no economic justification for keeping local chicken under intensive management ... Poultry meat and eggs provide proteins of high biological value. Poultry production is a relatively simpler means of generating family income and employment ... In both cases, clean water was made available at.

  20. Performance-related pay and gender wage differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...

  1. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  2. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  3. Preharvest Interval Periods and their relation to fruit growth stages and pesticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alister, Claudio; Araya, Manuel; Becerra, Kevin; Saavedra, Jorge; Kogan, Marcelo

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticide formulations and fruit growth stages on the Pre-harvest Interval Period (PHI). Results showed that pesticide formulations did not affect the initial deposit and dissipation rate. However, the fruit growth stage at the application time showed a significant effect on the above-mentioned parameters. Fruit diameter increases in one millimeter pesticide dissipation rates were reduced in -0.033mgkg -1 day -1 (R 2 =0.87; p<0.001) for grapes and -0.014mgkg -1 day -1 (R 2 =0.85; p<0.001) for apples. The relation between solar radiation, air humidity and temperature, and pesticide dissipation rates were dependent on fruit type. PHI could change according to the application time, because of the initial amount of pesticide deposit in the fruits and change in the dissipation rates. Because Maximum Residue Level are becoming more restrictive, it is more important to consider the fruit growth stage effects on pesticide when performing dissipation studies to define PHI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Growth and photovoltaic performance of SnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepa, K.G., E-mail: deepachaithanya@gmail.com [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Nagaraju, J. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orthorhombic SnS quantum dots are synthesized by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HOMO-LUMO level alignments confirmed the electron transport from SnS to TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell characteristics are analyzed with different size quantum dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FF increased drastically from 15 to 51% on adding a buffer layer to the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SnS QDSSC showed highest V{sub oc} of 504 mV and 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: Tin sulphide (SnS) quantum dots of size ranging from 2.4 to 14.4 nm are prepared by chemical precipitation method in aqueous media. Growth of the SnS particles is monitored by controlling the deposition time. Both XRD and SAED patterns confirm that the particles possess orthorhombic structure. The uncapped SnS particles showed secondary phases like Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} and SnS{sub 2} which is visible in the SAED pattern. From the electrochemical characterization, HOMO-LUMO levels of both TiO{sub 2} and SnS are determined and the band alignment is found to be favorable for electron transfer from SnS to TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the HOMO-LUMO levels varied for different particle sizes. Solar cell is fabricated by sensitizing porous TiO{sub 2} thin film with SnS QDs. Cell structure is characterized with and without buffer layer between FTO and TiO{sub 2}. Without the buffer layer, cell showed an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 504 mV and short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5 condition. The low fill factor of this structure (15%) is seen to be increased drastically to 51%, on the incorporation of the buffer layer. The cell characteristics are analyzed using two different size quantum dots.

  5. Supercapacitor electrodes by direct growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Al: a study of performance versus layer growth evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fu; Vicenzo, Antonello; Hashempour, Mazdak; Bestetti, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitor electrodes were fabricated by direct growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Al current collectors via a chemical vapor deposition process in the presence of a spin-coated Co-Mo catalyst. A detailed study of the dependence of the CNT layer structure and thickness on growth time set the basis for the assessment of supercapacitors assembled with the CNTs/Al electrodes. As the main features of the layer growth evolution, an increase in the population of finer CNTs and a shift from a random entanglement to a rough vertical alignment of nanotubes were noted with proceeding growth. The growth time influence on the performance of supercapacitors was in fact apparent. Particularly, the specific capacitance of CNTs/Al electrodes in 0.5 M K 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte increased from 35 to 80 F g −1 as the CNT layer thickness varied from 20 to 60 μm, with a concurrent loss in rate capability (knee frequency from 1 kHz to 60 Hz). The latter was excellent in general, arguably due to both a fast ion transport through the interconnected CNT network and a negligible contribution of the active layer/current collector contact to the equivalent series resistance (0.15–0.22 mΩ g), a distinct advantage of the direct growth fabrication method. Overall, a relatively simple process of direct growth of CNTs on Al foils is shown to be an effective method to fabricate supercapacitor electrodes, notably in the absence of special measures and processing steps finalized to a tight control of nanotubes growth and organization

  6. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  7. Dimensions in Appraising Fatigue in Relation to Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the relation between fatigue and performance often fail to find a strong and direct link, implying that multiple factors may be involved. A literature search on the fatigue-performance relationship suggests that two different conceptual frameworks are employed concerning the appraisal of

  8. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  9. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A.; Carter, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  10. Effect of garlic and neem leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and carcass traits in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Rajendra Kharde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present experiment was designed to study the effect of supplementation of garlic and neem leaf powder (NLP on growth performance and carcass yields in broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 210-day-old commercial male broiler chicks (Ven Cobb were procured and randomly distributed in to seven treatments, each treatment had six replicates with five chicks per each replicate. Growth trial was conducted in a randomized block design comprising seven dietary treatments. T1 was served as control. T2 and T3 were fed with garlic powder (GP 0.5, 1 g/kg feed respectively. T4 and T5 were given with NLP 1, 2 g/kg feed respectively. T6 was fed with 0.5 g/kg GP and 1.0 g/kg NLP. T7 was treated with 1.0 g/kg GP and 2.0 g/kg NLP. The body weight, feed consumption of individual bird was recorded at weekly interval and the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR were calculated. At the end of 42 day, six birds from each dietary group were sacrificed to estimate the dressing yield and relative weights of giblet (liver, heart and gizzard. Results: Supplementation of garlic and NLP alone and their combination significantly (p0.05 influence was observed in carcass parameters like dressing yield and giblet yield (heart, gizzard and liver in all treatment groups. Conclusions: Supplementation of GP alone showed poor performance, but when it was supplemented in combination with NLP there was improvement in performance parameters. These results indicated that the combination of GP and NLP can be used as alternates to coccidiostats for improving the performance. Such meat can be used as a designer meat as fetch higher price if marketed as branded item.

  11. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaide, Boris; Goddek, Simon; Gott, James; Soyeurt, Hélène; Jijakli, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution

  12. Effect of feeding rate and ammonia build-up on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -up on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles in the Wet Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Completely Randomized Design was used; each treatment was ...

  13. Analysis of business process maturity and organisational performance relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski T. Bartosz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present results of the study on business process maturity in relation to organisational performance. A two-phase methodology, based on literature review and survey was used. The literature is a source of knowledge about business process maturity and organisational performance, whereas the research on process maturity vs organisational performance in Polish Enterprises provides findings based on 84 surveyed companies. The main areas of the research covered: identification and analysis of maturity related variables and identification of organisational performance perspectives and its relation to process maturity. The study shows that there is a significant positive relation between process maturity and organisational performance. Although there are research on such relation available, they are scarce and have some significant limitations in terms of research sample or the scope of maturity or organisational performance covered. This publication is part of a project funded by the National Science Centre awarded by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/HS4/04070.

  14. QUALITY GROWTH AND EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL PUBLIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Public sector reform aims to increase performance by improving its efficiency and effectiveness by improving the quality of services provided by public service in order to maximize individual welfare of citizens. The purpose of reform is to improve public services because they have to deal with uncertainties and rapid changes that take place in the internal environmental and external pressures. Public administration, in quality of service provider must make a series of efforts to ensure that citizens know their rights and public services on witch they can benefit taking into account the simplification of service delivery, a high quality of its, new administrative procedures for allocating resources in a transparent way and informing the citizens of standards of services and of the methods of compensation in case if the provided quality is different from that promised. Most important is the fact that the local government must realize that effectiveness involves defining objectives that must be achieved simultaneously with the estimation of the results obtained.

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of the Effects of Computer Self-efficacy Growth on Performance during Technology Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Downey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology training in the classroom is critical in preparing students for upper level classes as well as professional careers, especially in fields such as technology. One of the key enablers to this process is computer self-efficacy (CSE, which has an extensive stream of empirical research. Despite this, one of the missing pieces is how CSE actually changes during training, and how such change is related to antecedents and performance outcomes. Measuring change requires repeated data gathering and the use of latent growth modeling, a relatively new statistical technique. This study examines CSE (specifically general CSE or GCSE growth over time during training, and how this growth is influenced by anxiety and gender and influences performance, using a semester-long lab course covering three applications. The use of GCSE growth more accurately models how students actually learn in a technology classroom. It provides novel clarity in the interaction of gender, anxiety, GCSE, specific CSEs, and performance during training. The study finds that the relationship between anxiety and self-efficacy decreases over time during training, becoming non-significant; it clarifies the significant role gender plays in influencing GCSE at the start of and during training. It finds GCSE influences application performance only through specific CSEs.

  16. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread

  17. Performance of Jatropha curcas L. in Semi-arid Zone: Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Early Field Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif AHAMAD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on basic agronomic properties of Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha cultivation on the marginal lands in the semi-arids. Evaluation of agronomic performance of identified elite strains of J. curcas in marginal lands would be of paramount importance for addressing gap areas in their agronomic properties and subsequently for harnessing their optimum economic potentials. The present study undertook the task of analysing the growth performance of a high oil bearing elite strain of J. curcas–DARL-2 in degraded land in semi-arid zone of Deccan Plateau, India. While undertaking the assessment of growth performance of elite strain DARL-2, two other native (wild strains (namely AHN-1 and AHN-2 of J. curcas were also considered so that a comparative evaluation could be carried out. The role of gypsum was also investigated on J. curcas in the nursery stage as well its carry over effects on growth performance of transplanted trees in the field. Two types of substrates, gypsum-treated soil (GS and untreated soil (SL were used for growing seedlings of all the three jatropha strains. Seedlings (120-days-old of DARL-2 exhibited greater plant height, collar diameter and number of branches but root length was greater in the local strains. In the second year of field transplantation, DARL-2 strain exhibited significantly (p<0.05 greater plant height and number of branches/plant. No carry over effects of gypsum treatment were observed in field transplanted plants as none of the growth parameters significantly varied among the substrate types.

  18. Federalism, Education-Related Public Good and Growth when Agents are Heterogeneou

    OpenAIRE

    Floriana Cerniglia; Riccarda Longaretti

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use an endogeneous-growth model with human capital and heterogeneous agents to analyse the relationship between fiscal federalism and economic growth. Results show that federalism, which allows education-related public good levels to be tailored on the human capital of heterogeneous agents, increases human capital accumulation. This in turn leads to higher rates of growth. The benefits of federalism are stronger the larger the intra-jurisdiction variance of agents’ human capi...

  19. Recent Trends of Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    SOMOGYI, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses two related issues. One is whether, and how, growth patterns of standmean height have changed in Hungary in the last few decades, and the other is whether recentlyobserved increases in mean annual temperature might have caused changes in growth trends. Changesin tree growth were investigated for beech (Fagus sylvatica), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) andTurkey oak (Quercus cerris) by comparing stand mean heights over age using data from the forestinventories of 1981 and 200...

  20. Effects of sawdust thickness on the growth performance, environmental condition, and welfare quality of yellow broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dan; He, Jiao; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiang; Chang, Lingling; Shi, Shou Rong; Bing, Tong Hai

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of litter thickness on growth performance, immune status, environmental condition, and welfare quality in yellow broilers. In total, 1,800 one-day-old Suqin yellow broilers were raised for 21 d. On d 22, 1,600 birds of similar BW (404±12 g) were randomly selected and placed into 20 indoor pens (8 birds/m2, 10 m2/pen). These birds were assigned to a litter treatment of 4, 8, 12, and 16 cm. Each treatment was repeated in five pens. The results showed that a thicker litter was related to increased BW, daily weight gain, and daily feed intake (Plitter thickness (P=0.320, P=0.353, respectively). Absolute and relative liver weights showed a significant linear response to increasing litter thickness (P=0.01, P=0.001, respectively). The litter moisture content, air ammonia, and CO2 content decreased, whereas the air dust content increased with increasing litter thickness (PLitter thickness had no effect on gait, plumage damage, hock burn or breast skin crusting (P = 0.076, P=0.964, P=0.131, P=0.401, respectively). Plumage cleanliness, foot pad dermatitis, hock swelling and breast blister varied significantly with litter thickness (P=0.027, P=0.011, P=0.014, P=0.042, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an increasing litter thickness has a beneficial effect on the growth performance, environmental condition and welfare of birds. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Predicting plant performance under simultaneously changing environmental conditions – the interplay between temperature, light and internode growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eKahlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system’s analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modelling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  2. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p  0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have

  3. News Related to Future GDP Growth as a Risk Factor in Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Vassalou, Maria

    2001-01-01

    A model that includes a factor that captures news related to future Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth along with the market factor can explain the cross-section of equity returns about as well as the Fama-French model can. Furthermore, the Fama-French factors HML and SMB appear to contain mainly news related to future GDP growth. When news related to future GDP growth is present in the asset-pricing model, HML and SMB lose their ability to explain the cross-section.

  4. Finite element study of growth stress formation in wood and related distortion of sawn timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2009-01-01

    -related stresses in wood (drying distortions) and growth-related stresses (distortions appearing when logs are split up to timber boards by sawing). To get more knowledge on how these distortions can be reduced in wooden products, there is a need for improved understanding of this material behaviour through good...... numerical tools developed from empirical data. A three-dimensional finite element board distortion model developed by Ormarsson (1999) has been extended to include the influence of growth stresses by incorporating a one-dimensional finite element growth stress model developed here. The growth stress model...... is formulated as an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material for all new annual rings is progressively added to the tree during the analysis. The simulation results presented include how stresses are progressively generated during the tree growth, distortions related to the redistribution...

  5. The Relation between Sustainable Innovation Strategy and Financial Performance Mediated By Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyati Hariyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship of sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance through the mediation environmental performance. The hypothesis in this study is sustainable innovation strategy affect the financial performance which is mediated by environmental performance. This study is quantitative research in the explanatory level. The population of this study is all the manufacturer companies in East Java. The data is collected through questionnaire. The unit of analysis is a business unit. The respondent of this study is the manager of a business unit manufacturing company in East Java. The results showed that the environmental performance mediates partially the relation between sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance.

  6. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01. The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01. In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics.

  7. Predictors of Stress-Related Growth in Parents of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Triwitz, Yael Segal; Golubchik, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate stress-related growth in 71 parents of children with ADHD, compared with 80 parents of non-clinical children. Adopting Tedeschi and Calhoun's (2004) theoretical framework for predicting personal growth, the study investigated the contribution of emotional intelligence (individual characteristics), social…

  8. The relative contributions of forest growth and areal expansion to forest biomass carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Li; J. Zhu; H. Hu; Z. Guo; Y. Pan; R. Birdsey; J. Fang

    2016-01-01

    Forests play a leading role in regional and global terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. Changes in C sequestration within forests can be attributed to areal expansion (increase in forest area) and forest growth (increase in biomass density). Detailed assessment of the relative contributions of areal expansion and forest growth to C sinks is crucial to reveal the mechanisms...

  9. Quantitative trait local analysis of growth-related traits in a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Ruijs, G.J.; Koornneef, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis natural variation was used to analyze the genetics of plant growth rate. Screening of 22 accessions revealed a large variation for seed weight, plant dry weight and relative growth rate but not for water content. A positive correlation was observed between seed weight and plant area 10 d

  10. Causal relations between knowledge-intensive business services and regional employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, T.; Capasso, M.; Duschl, M.; Frenken, K.; Treibich, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the causal relations between regional employment growth in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and overall regional employment growth using German labour-market data for the period 1999-2012. Adopting a recently developed technique, we are able to estimate a structural

  11. Effect of dietary acidification in broiler chickens: 1. Growth performance and nutrients ileal digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Khooshechin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Orgacids® (organic acid; OA supplementation on the productive performance, nutrients ileal digestibility, relative weight of organs and serum enzyme activities in broiler chickens. One hundred-sixty Ross 308 male chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: a nutritionally balanced basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 OA g kg–1 of feed from 7 to 42 d of age. Each treatment had 4 replications with 10 broilers/replicate pen. As a result of this study, body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake increased (linear effect, P<0.05 at 3 g kg–1 of OA inclusion, whereas feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by dietary treatments (quadratic, P<0.05 as inclusion of OA increased to 2 g kg-1 and then decreased with further inclusion. Ileal digestibility of total phosphorus and relative weight of pancreas, heart and spleen increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion of OA. Metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention increased linearly and quadratically on increasing OA addition reaching a maximum at 2 g kg–1 diet. The results indicated that serum enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion levels of OA, but lactate dehydrogenase decreased. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the OA supplementation at 3 g kg–1 of the diet resulted in optimal growth performance and nutrients digestibility.

  12. Spatial transformation abilities and their relation to later mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea

    2018-04-10

    Using a longitudinal approach, this study investigated the relational structure of different spatial transformation skills at kindergarten age, and how these spatial skills relate to children's later mathematics performance. Children were tested at three time points, in kindergarten, first grade, and second grade (N = 119). Exploratory factor analyses revealed two subcomponents of spatial transformation skills: one representing egocentric transformations (mental rotation and spatial scaling), and one representing allocentric transformations (e.g., cross-sectioning, perspective taking). Structural equation modeling suggested that egocentric transformation skills showed their strongest relation to the part of the mathematics test tapping arithmetic operations, whereas allocentric transformations were strongly related to Numeric-Logical and Spatial Functions as well as geometry. The present findings point to a tight connection between early mental transformation skills, particularly the ones requiring a high level of spatial flexibility and a strong sense for spatial magnitudes, and children's mathematics performance at the beginning of their school career.

  13. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  14. Growth-related magnetic and physical structures in CMR films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.; Hundley, M.F. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) have proven to be powerful tools for revealing property-sensitive structures in magnetic materials. With the renewed interest in perovskite films as materials for read-heads in high density magnetic data storage, the same challenges faced by high temperature superconductor (HTS) film fabrication are repeated for these materials. To begin addressing these challenges, we used vapor phase epitaxy to fabricate La (Sr, Ca,) based manganate films on single crystal perovskite substrates under different conditions and characterized them with scanning probe microscopies, x-ray diffraction, and temperature-dependent magnetization and resistivity measurements (M(T) and {rho}(T)). The as-grown films were polygranular with grain sizes increasing with increasing temperature (T). The post-deposition annealed films consisted of coalesced layers with improved transport properties. The room temperature magnetic structure of the Sr-based films appeared to be related to defects and/or strain.

  15. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth of high-performance midinfrared diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.W.; Choi, H.K.; Calawa, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the performance of GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well diode lasers have been directly related to improvements in the quality of the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown epitaxial layers. These improvements have been based on careful measurement and control of lattice matching and intentional strain, changes in shutter sequencing at interfaces, and a generally better understanding of the growth of Sb-based epitaxial materials. By using this improved MBE-grown material, significantly enhanced performance has been obtained for midinfrared lasers. These lasers, which are capable of ∼2-μm emission at room temperature, presently exhibit threshold current densities of 143 A/cm 2 , continuous wave powers of 1.3 W, and diffraction-limited powers of 120 mW. Such high-performance midinfrared diode lasers are of interest for a wide variety of applications, including eye-safe laser radar, remote sensing of atmospheric contaminants and wind turbulence, laser surgery, and pumping of solid-state laser media. 12 refs., 3 figs

  16. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....

  17. Growth Related Carrier Mobility Enhancement of Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors with High-k Oxide Gate Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Fang, Yu; Qiong, Qi; Peng, Jiang; Chao, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Carrier mobility enhancement from 0.09 to 0.59 cm 2 /Vs is achieved for pentacene-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) by modifying the HfO 2 gate dielectric with a polystyrene (PS) thin film. The improvement of the transistor's performance is found to be strongly related to the initial film morphologies of pentacene on the dielectrics. In contrast to the three-dimensional island-like growth mode on the HfO 2 surface, the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode on the smooth and nonpolar PS/HfO 2 surface is believed to be the origin of the excellent carrier mobility of the TFTs. A large well-connected first monolayer with fewer boundaries is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode, which facilitates a charge transport parallel to the substrate and promotes higher carrier mobility. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Response of pine hypocotyl sections to growth regulators and related substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zakrzewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth response of Pinus silvestris hypocotyl sections to some synthetic growth regulators and related substances was studied. Elongation of hypocotyl sections was stimulated by naphtaleneacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, in-dole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indoleaoetic amide, indoleacetic nitrile and coumarin. Indole-3-acetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid extended period of growth up to 16 and 24 hours, respectively. Growth was inhibited by kinetin, trans-cinnamic acid and 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid. No effect of gibberellic acid, tryptophan and biotin was observed.

  19. Use of halide transport in epitaxial growth of InP and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Inst. for Technical Physics

    1996-12-31

    In this paper methods and results in the InP (and related) growth practice are reviewed, classified and summarized on the basis of the recent literature. The aim is to show the present place and role of the halogen transport in the epitaxial growth. In the case of InP the importance of the classical hydride method is still high. Though MOVPE technique dominates in the case of growth of the compounds with In content, atomic layer epitaxy and selective area growth are successful with auxiliary application of the halogen transport. Chlorine assisted MOVPE has an increasing role.

  20. The Budget-Related Antecedents of Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yilmaz Karakoc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate budget related antecedents of job performance of managers. For this purpose, relationships among budgetary participation, budget goal commitment, information sharing, and job performance of managers were examined. The sample consists of managers who are responsible from the budgets of their units in different private enterprises located in Turkey. Survey data was analyzed with confirmatory factor analyses and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that budgetary participation has statistically significant and positive impact on job performance. It also positively affects budget goal commitment and information sharing. Budget goal commitment and information sharing have significant and positive impact on job performance. In addition, budget goal commitment positively affects information sharing of managers. Analyses also revealed that budget goal commitment and information sharing have partial mediation effect on the relationship between budgetary participation and job performance.

  1. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid modifies growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Deng, J P; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-06-01

    Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (12 pigs/group, male:female ratio 1:1). The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet (basal diet group), and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.05% -alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.0% -arginine (Arg group), 1% glutamic acid + 1.44% -alanine (Glu group), or 1.0% -arginine + 1.0% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). After a 60-d period of supplementation, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in growth performance and carcass traits of the pigs in the Arg group relative to the basal diet group; however, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and back fat showed a decrease ( 0.05) on the final BW, phase 2 ADFI, and average daily weight gain in pigs but decreased ( acid composition without affecting growth performance and s.c. fat in pigs, providing a novel strategy to enhance meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

  2. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    that, in fact, that women are not impacted equally by energy policy preferences as men and that women in developing countries benefit from increased access to modern household energy. Thus, gender-differentiated energy usage illustrates why treating population as a homogenous group fails to capture how energy policy preferences and energy policy performance can affect different subgroups of population in terms of individual choices and how those differences can affect an overall economic growth and development. Fundamental theoretical implications emerge from this dissertation's empirical findings. First, improving gender equality through technological advancements in household electricity facilitates the progress of demographic transition in terms of reducing fertility rates. Time altering effects of increased access and use of household electricity modify intra-household relations by diminishing differing roles between men and women. When women gain greater autonomy facilitated by increasing time via access to modern household electricity for more economically and educationally productive activities, fertility rates and child births tend to decrease by altering choice in family size with increased investments in children. The effect that the reduction in fertility generated by increased gender equality has upon demographic transition is that it alters the change in age structure in a developing country by decreasing youth dependency ratios generating the demographic dividend. Gender equality-generated fertility reductions may also facilitate the return to human capital by lessening the burden of non-SNA work and activities including reducing child care, increasing female labor force participation rates.

  4. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A [Chicago, IL; Behanna, Heather A [Chicago, IL; Anthony, Shawn G [New Stanton, PA

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  5. The Impact of Servitization Strategy on Relational Capital and Relational Performance: Evidences from China's Industrial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua; ZHANG Song-bo

    2014-01-01

    By identifying the characteristics of services management and the levels of specialty resources,the servitization strategy in the service supply chain management can be defined as the following three types,i.e.the business process oriented services,the technique application oriented services and the system integrated or packaged services.At the same time,it is found based on an empirical study of the data of China's enterprises that these strategies have different impact on relational capital and relational performance of the customers with different types of size.For large-scale enterprises,the business process oriented services and the technique application oriented services are significant factors impacting their relational capital and relational performance,while for SMEs,their relational capital and relational performance are impacted more by the technique application oriented services and the system integrated and packaged services.

  6. The Effect of Relational Constructs on Relationship Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.C. Hoekstra (Janny)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the effect of relational constructs, such as satisfaction, trust and commitment on relationship performance (that is, positive word-of-mouth communication and the margin provided by each customer) of customers of an insurance company. A central issue concerns the effect of

  7. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Boschloo, A., Ouwehand, C., Dekker, S., Lee, N., De Groot, R., Krabbendam, L., & Jolles, J. (2012). The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6(2), 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228x.2012.01138.x

  8. Dynamic Incentive Effects of Relative Performance Pay: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four

  9. Age-related decrements in cycling and running performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... This study examined age-related decrements in athletic performance during running and cycling activities. ... These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on the muscles ...

  10. 34 CFR 75.732 - Records related to performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records related to performance. 75.732 Section 75.732 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative...) Determine progress in accomplishing project objectives; and (2) Revise those objectives, if necessary...

  11. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  12. The age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Samuel; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    The age-related changes in ultraendurance performance have been previously examined for running and triathlon but not mountain biking. The aims of this study were (i) to describe the performance trends and (ii) to analyze the age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking in a 120-km ultraendurance mountain bike race the "Swiss Bike Masters" from 1995 to 2009 in 9,325 male athletes. The mean (±SD) race time decreased from 590 ± 80 min to 529 ± 88 min for overall finishers and from 415 ± 8 min to 359 ± 16 min for the top 10 finishers, respectively. The mean (±SD) age of all finishers significantly (P Bike Masters" appears to start earlier compared with other ultraendurance sports.

  13. Hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles and its relation to nucleation scavenging in clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningsson, B.

    1997-11-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are important in several aspects. Some major aerosol constituents that are deposited in ecosystems are acidic or fertilizers and some minor or trace constituents are toxic. Aerosol particles are also involved in the earth`s radiation balance, both directly by scattering the sunlight and indirectly by influencing the clouds. All these effects are influenced by the interaction between the aerosol particles and water vapour. A tandem differential mobility analyser (TDMA) has been designed to measure hygroscopic growth, i.e. the particle diameter change due to uptake of water at well defined relative humidities below 100%. Tests of the instrument performance have been made using aerosol particles of pure inorganic salts. Three field experiments have been performed as parts of large fog and cloud experiments. Bimodal hygroscopic growth spectra were found: less-hygroscopic particles containing a few percent and more-hygroscopic particles around 50% by volume of hygroscopically active material. In general the fraction of less-hygroscopic particles decreases with particle size and it is larger in polluted continental aerosols than in remote background aerosols. This external mixing cannot be fully understood using present views on the formation of aerosols. Evidence or the importance of the external mixing on the cloud nucleating properties of the particles are found in comparisons between hygroscopic growth spectra for the total aerosol, the interstitial aerosol in clouds, and cloud drop residuals. Cloud condensation nuclei spectra, calculated using aerosol particle size distributions and hygroscopic growth spectra, in combination with information on the major inorganic ions are presented. These CCN spectra reveal for instance that the influence of less-hygroscopic particles on the cloud droplets increases with increasing peak supersaturation. The fraction of the particles that were scavenged to cloud drops, as a function of particle

  14. Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauts Amit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students′ performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students′ performance.

  15. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  16. Skill-related performance in soccer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and organize systematically the available literature on skill-related performance in young and adult male soccer players in an attempt to identify the most common topics, ascertain the weaknesses, and elucidate the main contributions of the scientific papers on this issue. A systematic review of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge database was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. The keywords ‘football’ and ‘soccer’ were used, each associated with the following terms: ‘technical analysis,’ ‘technical performance,’ ‘technical activity,’ ‘technical skill,’ ‘technical demands,’ ‘technical profiles,’ ‘technical characteristics,’ ‘technical actions,’ ‘technical scores,’ ‘technical ability,’ ‘motor skills,’ and ‘skill acquisition’. From the 2830 papers, only 60 were reviewed, of which 75% had been published in years 2011-2015 and 53.3% concerned professional or seniors players (above the U-20 category. Out of the 41 papers that analysed the skill-related performance in the match, 48.8% evaluated the performance in small-sided and conditioned games. Among the 27 papers that used validated instruments, 88.9% assessed technical actions outside the match context (e.g. dribbling, shooting tests. Future research should pay attention to the definition and classification of the skill-related variables under investigation in match context and propose tests for measured skill-related performance in soccer, considering that the representativeness task design allies the players’ possibilities of action to the situation of the match.

  17. Exploiting graph kernels for high performance biomedical relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam, Nagesh C; Verspoor, Karin; Cohn, Trevor; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2018-01-30

    Relation extraction from biomedical publications is an important task in the area of semantic mining of text. Kernel methods for supervised relation extraction are often preferred over manual feature engineering methods, when classifying highly ordered structures such as trees and graphs obtained from syntactic parsing of a sentence. Tree kernels such as the Subset Tree Kernel and Partial Tree Kernel have been shown to be effective for classifying constituency parse trees and basic dependency parse graphs of a sentence. Graph kernels such as the All Path Graph kernel (APG) and Approximate Subgraph Matching (ASM) kernel have been shown to be suitable for classifying general graphs with cycles, such as the enhanced dependency parse graph of a sentence. In this work, we present a high performance Chemical-Induced Disease (CID) relation extraction system. We present a comparative study of kernel methods for the CID task and also extend our study to the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction task, an important biomedical relation extraction task. We discuss novel modifications to the ASM kernel to boost its performance and a method to apply graph kernels for extracting relations expressed in multiple sentences. Our system for CID relation extraction attains an F-score of 60%, without using external knowledge sources or task specific heuristic or rules. In comparison, the state of the art Chemical-Disease Relation Extraction system achieves an F-score of 56% using an ensemble of multiple machine learning methods, which is then boosted to 61% with a rule based system employing task specific post processing rules. For the CID task, graph kernels outperform tree kernels substantially, and the best performance is obtained with APG kernel that attains an F-score of 60%, followed by the ASM kernel at 57%. The performance difference between the ASM and APG kernels for CID sentence level relation extraction is not significant. In our evaluation of ASM for the PPI task, ASM

  18. Re-parametrization of a swine model to predict growth performance of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhta, G.; van Milgen, Jacob; Kövér, G.; Halas, V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a pig growth model is suitable to be modified and adapted for broilers. As monogastric animals, pigs and poultry share many similarities in their digestion and metabolism, many structures (body protein and lipid stores) and the nutrient flows of the underlying metabolic pathways are similar among species. For that purpose, the InraPorc model was used as a basis to predict growth performance and body composition at slaughter in broilers. First...

  19. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  20. [Performance of Slovak hospitals as related to Porter's generic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacka, S; Bacharova, L; Rusnakova, V; Wagner, R

    2001-01-01

    Porter's generic strategies characterize organizations in terms of their competitiveness, and are related to the performance of the organization. The aim of this study was to analyze the Porter's generic strategies and their effect on performance in the context of the Slovak hospital industry. Acute care hospitals with more than 30 beds were included into the study. National institutes providing specialized service were excluded from the study. Strategy and performance were evaluated on the basis of self-reported questionnaires, completed by chief administrators of hospitals (total 76 completed questionnaires were obtained, out of 81 distributed, i.e. 94% response rate). The cluster analysis was used for the identification of strategic orientation. Performance differences across strategic groups were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The hierarchical cluster analysis uncovered a four-group taxonomy of hospitals: the group "Focused Cost Leadership" included 33% of hospitals, the group "Stuck-in-the middle" 49%, the group "Wait and See" 13% and the group "Cost leadership" 5%. Significant differences in performance were related to the Porter's pure, or hybrid strategies, respectively. In terms of industry evolution, the Slovak hospital industry could be characterized as fragmented, having a large number of small and medium size mainly state owned hospitals, with absence of market leaders, and with high exit barriers (mainly social and political) that hold back consolidation. (Tab. 1, Ref. 35.).

  1. Monolayer-Mediated Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films with Improved Device Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lizhen; Hu, Xiaorong; Chi, Lifeng

    2015-09-15

    Increased interest in wearable and smart electronics is driving numerous research works on organic electronics. The control of film growth and patterning is of great importance when targeting high-performance organic semiconductor devices. In this Feature Article, we summarize our recent work focusing on the growth, crystallization, and device operation of organic semiconductors intermediated by ultrathin organic films (in most cases, only a monolayer). The site-selective growth, modified crystallization and morphology, and improved device performance of organic semiconductor films are demonstrated with the help of the inducing layers, including patterned and uniform Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers, crystalline ultrathin organic films, and self-assembled polymer brush films. The introduction of the inducing layers could dramatically change the diffusion of the organic semiconductors on the surface and the interactions between the active layer with the inducing layer, leading to improved aggregation/crystallization behavior and device performance.

  2. Evaluation of growth performance of broiler chicks fed with raw and processed leucaena eucociphala seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minari, J.B.; Odutuga, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fourty-eight broiler chicks (day-old) were used in a 4 weeks feeding experiment to assess the growth response and the performance of broiler chicks fed raw Leucaena leucociphala seed meal (RLSM), roasted L. leucociphala seed meal (RoLSM) and steamed L. leucociphala seed meal (SLSM). The L. leucociphala seed, which serve as a source of protein were subjected to two treatments (roasting and steaming). Soybean based diet served as the control. There were four (4) experimental groups, each made up of four birds in three replicates allocated to the experimental diets. The results showed that the average final live weight, average weekly weight gain and average feed intake of birds fed with RoLSM performed better than birds fed with RLSM and SLSM. It was observed that the percentage organ to body weight of birds fed with the processed LSM were significantly (P < 0.05), higher as compared to the RLSM. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of aspartate transferase in the organs (heart, kidney and liver) of broilers fed with RoLSM was observed as compared to those fed with RLSM. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05), reduction in the activity of alanine transferase of organs of broilers chicks fed with processed L. leucociphala compared to the control. It is therefore, concluded that the processing techniques applied were able to improve the nutritional quality of L. leucociphala seed meal but relatively lower to the soybean based meal. (author)

  3. Research of psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators

  4. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  5. Natural Composites: Cellulose Fibres and the related Performance of Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Biobased materials are becoming of increasing interest as potential structural materials for the future. A useful concept in this context is the fibre reinforcement of materials by stiff and strong fibres. The biobased resources can contribute with cellulose fibres and biopolymers. This offers th...... in stiffness, on the packing ability of cellulose fibres and the related maximum fibre volume fraction in composites, on the moisture sorption of cellulose fibres and the related mass increase and (large) hygral strains induced, and on the mechanical performance of composites....

  6. The Growth Story: Canada's Long-run Economic Performance and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Nicholson

    2003-01-01

    In this lead article, Peter Nicholson, who until recently served as advisor to the Secretary General at the OECD and is currently serving as policy advisor to the Prime Minister, Paul Martin, discusses the long-run economic performance, prospects in Canada, and policy priorities based on the framework and insights that emerged from the recent study of economic growth released by the OECD. He argues that Canada has performed remarkably well since the mid-1990s, and that by the pro-growth polic...

  7. Nucleation, Growth, and Alignment of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanofibers for High-Performance OFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Nils E; Chu, Ping-Hsun; McBride, Michael; Grover, Martha; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2017-04-18

    Conjugated semiconducting polymers have been the subject of intense study for over two decades with promising advances toward a printable electronics manufacturing ecosystem. These materials will deliver functional electronic devices that are lightweight, flexible, large-area, and cost-effective, with applications ranging from biomedical sensors to solar cells. Synthesis of novel molecules has led to significant improvements in charge carrier mobility, a defining electrical performance metric for many applications. However, the solution processing and thin film deposition of conjugated polymers must also be properly controlled to obtain reproducible device performance. This has led to an abundance of research on the process-structure-property relationships governing the microstructural evolution of the model semicrystalline poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as applied to organic field effect transistor (OFET) fabrication. What followed was the production of an expansive body of work on the crystallization, self-assembly, and charge transport behavior of this semiflexible polymer whose strong π-π stacking interactions allow for highly creative methods of structural control, including the modulation of solvent and solution properties, flow-induced crystallization and alignment techniques, structural templating, and solid-state thermal and mechanical processing. This Account relates recent progress in the microstructural control of P3HT thin films through the nucleation, growth, and alignment of P3HT nanofibers. Solution-based nanofiber formation allows one to develop structural order prior to thin film deposition, mitigating the need for intricate deposition processes and enabling the use of batch and continuous chemical processing steps. Fiber growth is framed as a traditional crystallization problem, with the balance between nucleation and growth rates determining the fiber size and ultimately the distribution of grain boundaries in the solid state. Control of

  8. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Navarro

    Full Text Available The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE. This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES, and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders.The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5, in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest.The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance.The RAE remains, even

  9. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R

    2015-01-01

    The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance. The RAE remains, even with residual

  10. Relative health performance in BRICS over the past 20 years: the winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Dennis; Tang, Kam Ki

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether the health performance of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--has kept in step with their economic development. Reductions in age- and sex-specific mortality seen in each BRICS country between 1990 and 2011 were measured. These results were compared with those of the best-performing countries in the world and the best-performing countries with similar income levels. We estimated each country's progress in reducing mortality and compared changes in that country's mortality rates against other countries with similar mean incomes to examine changes in avoidable mortality. The relative health performance of the five study countries differed markedly over the study period. Brazil demonstrated fairly even improvement in relative health performance across the different age and sex subgroups that we assessed. India's improvement was more modest and more varied across the subgroups. South Africa and the Russian Federation exhibited large declines in health performance as well as large sex-specific inequalities in health. Although China's levels of avoidable mortality decreased in absolute terms, the level of improvement appeared low in the context of China's economic growth. When evaluating a country's health performance in terms of avoidable mortality, it is useful to compare that performance against the performance of other countries. Such comparison allows any country-specific improvements to be distinguished from general global improvements.

  11. Dieting and food cue-related working memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Meule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive functioning (e.g., working memory is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  12. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n -back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  13. Effect of feeding silkworm on growth performance and feed efficiency of snakehead (Channa striata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, U.; Lono

    2018-04-01

    The snakehead, Chana striata is a carnivorous freshwater fish and widely distributed in Asia. High demand of this fish has been triggering many aquaculturist to culture C. stiata. Feed was the important factor for fish growth. Silkworm has high protein content, low fat and can be used as natural feed for finfish. This study investigate the silkworm feed in C. striata. The treatment of this research were A (100 % pellet); B (100 % silkworm); C (combination of 75 % pellet and 25 % silkworm); D (combination of 50 % pellet and 50 % silkworm); and E (combination of 25 % pellet and 75 % silkworm). The variables measured in this study were relatif growth, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The result show that silkworm gave the high growth performance, feed efficiency and survival rate of the snakehead (Channa striata) compared with the control.

  14. Measuring the relative performance of stock market using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, investors used some basic financial ratios to measure the relative performance of various active industries based on two-digit ISIC classification. However, direct implementation of basic financial figures may not be practical in today's business environment since investors face with different criteria. The proposed model of this paper uses Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS to compare 37 various industries based on different financial figures. We gather the necessary data over the period of 2009-2010 from Tehran Stock Exchange and investigate the data in two stages. In the first stage, we perform fundamental analysis to select the most appropriate firms and the in the second stage, we use TOPSIS to rank selected firms based on different criteria. The results of the study confirm that information and communication technology, which is one of the biggest firms in this exchange is considered as the best option (relative ranking 0.88 in two years followed by some Cement industry (with relative ranking of 0.26 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010 and oil refinery units (with relative ranking of 0.23 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010. The figure also shows that other firms maintain low ratios varied from 0.23 to 0.01. The lowest industry ranking belongs to marine industry.

  15. Effects of Oridonin on growth performance and oxidative stress in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X C; Wu, Q J; Song, Z H; Zhang, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhang, T Y; Wang, C; Wang, T

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oridonin (ORI) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens that were repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 384 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 8 treatments with 6 replicate cages per treatment and 8 birds per replicate. There were 4 dietary treatments: the control group (birds fed the basal diet), the ORI 50 group, the ORI 80 group, and the ORI 100 group (the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, and 100 mg/kg oridonin, respectively). Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with either 250 μg/kg BW LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline at 16, 18, and 20 d of age. LPS decreased the average daily weight gain (ADG), the average daily feed intake (ADFI), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens (P 0.05). LPS stimulation increased the relative weight of the spleen and bursa (P < 0.05); oridonin inclusion markedly attenuated the increased spleen index (P < 0.05). Additionally, the LPS-induced increases in the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases in activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase (CAT) were dramatically attenuated by oridonin in both the serum and liver (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LPS down-regulated the mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and CAT in the liver (P < 0.05), However, oridonin inclusion increased the liver mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, and GPx1 (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the dietary oridonin supplementation at an optimum dose of 100 mg/kg improves the antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in MDA and the increase in total SOD activities and mRNA expression levels of the liver antioxidant genes, although

  16. Growth performance of commercial temperate mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. under local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    To date, the Malaysian mushroom industry focuses on only seven species of mushroom for commercial purpose. To expand and further develop the mushroom industry, new mushroom species should be introduced into our local market. Temperate mushrooms are possible to be cultivated commercially in Malaysia but the optimisation of growth performance for high quality spawn and high mushroom yield need to be studied. In the present study the growth performance of mycelia of Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. on culture media and substrates were investigated. Four types of culture media, viz. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Nutrient Agar (NA), Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) and Complete Yeast Media (CYM) were used to determine the suitable culturing media for mycelial growth. The mycelia were inoculated on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sawdust substrate and incubated at room temperature and in a low temperature in incubation room (10 - 12 degree Celsius). From the observation, Agaricus bisporus grew better on Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) medium with a growth rate of 0.306 cm/ day. Complete Yeast Media (CYM) was found more suitable for Hypsizygus sp. with a growth rate of 1.049 cm/ day. The linear growth rate of mycelium as measured on the surface of mushroom bag of Agaricus bisporus on EFB incubated at room temperature was 0.4364 cm/ day and cool temperature was 0.055 cm/ day. For Hypsizygus sp. the linear growth rate of the mycelium was 2.11 cm/ day. The linear growth of Hypsizygus sp. on sawdust substrate incubated in cool temperature was 1.4 cm/ day. (author)

  17. Molecular analysis of expansion, differentiation, and growth factor treatment of human chondrocytes identifies differentiation markers and growth-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Karin; Breit, Stephen; Lukoschek, Martin; Mau, Hans; Richter, Wiltrud

    2002-04-26

    This study is intended to optimise expansion and differentiation of cultured human chondrocytes by growth factor application and to identify molecular markers to monitor their differentiation state. We dissected the molecular consequences of matrix release, monolayer, and 3D-alginate culture, growth factor optimised expansion, and re-differentiation protocols by gene expression analysis. Among 19 common cartilage molecules assessed by cDNA array, six proved best to monitor differentiation. Instant down-regulation at release of cells from the matrix was strongest for COL 2A1, fibromodulin, and PRELP while LUM, CHI3L1, and CHI3L2 were expansion-related. Both gene sets reflected the physiologic effects of the most potent growth-inducing (PDGF-BB) and proteoglycan-inducing (BMP-4) factors. Only CRTAC1 expression correlated with 2D/3D switches while the molecular phenotype of native chondrocytes was not restored. The markers and optimised protocols we suggest can help to improve cell therapy of cartilage defects and chondrocyte differentiation from stem cell sources.

  18. Aloysia triphylla in the zebrafish food: effects on physiology, behavior, and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Daniane C; Santos, Alessandro C; Lanes, Carlos F C; Almeida, Daniela V; Koakoski, Gessi; de Abreu, Murilo S; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heinzmann, Berta M; Marins, Luis F; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Cunha, Mauro A

    2018-04-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by animals and humans and play key roles in diverse systems, such as the immune and reproductive systems, and in metabolism. Essential oils (EOs), which are natural substances, have potential for use in food supplementation; however, their effects on organisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we examine the effects of dietary Aloysia triphylla EO supplementation on zebrafish behavior, metabolism, stress response, and growth performance. We show that fish fed diets containing A. triphylla EO presented an anxiolytic response, with reduced exploratory activity and oxygen consumption; no changes were observed in neuroendocrine stress axis functioning and growth was not impaired. Taken together, these results suggest that the A. triphylla EO supplementation is a strong candidate for use in feed, since it ensures fish welfare (anxiolytic behavior) with decreased oxygen consumption. This makes it suitable for use in high-density production systems without causing damage to the neuroendocrine stress axis and without growth performance being impaired.

  19. The relation between the board of directors, performance, work and risk in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Martins de Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the Corporate Governance mechanisms, the Board of Directors is mentioned in academic research as fundamental in company performance and values in different countries. The important role in defense of the stockholders’ rights, preventing the managers from using the company in defense of their own interests, makes this a relevant mechanism in empirical research, even more when its relations with financial indicators is analyzed. In this study, the main objective was to analyze the relation between this mechanism and the value, performance and risk of Brazilian companies in 2012 and 2013, using panel data regression. Therefore, a Board of Directors index was created, based on binary questions, adapted from Silva, Santos and Almeida (2011, to be used as an independent variable in econometric models. A positive statistical relation was found between the proposed inedex and the variable Volatility, against expectations. The research also indicated relevant relations between the dependent and control variables. Among other results, it was concluded that: a positive relation exists between the company size and its performance; a positive relation exists between the growth of sales and the company value; a position relation between the risk variables beta and volatility; and belonging to the distinguished corporate governance levels on the stock exchange reduces the volatility of company stocks.

  20. Music-related reward responses predict episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-12-01

    Music represents a special type of reward involving the recruitment of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. According to recent theories on episodic memory formation, as dopamine strengthens the synaptic potentiation produced by learning, stimuli triggering dopamine release could result in long-term memory improvements. Here, we behaviourally test whether music-related reward responses could modulate episodic memory performance. Thirty participants rated (in terms of arousal, familiarity, emotional valence, and reward) and encoded unfamiliar classical music excerpts. Twenty-four hours later, their episodic memory was tested (old/new recognition and remember/know paradigm). Results revealed an influence of music-related reward responses on memory: excerpts rated as more rewarding were significantly better recognized and remembered. Furthermore, inter-individual differences in the ability to experience musical reward, measured through the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire, positively predicted memory performance. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the relationship between music, reward and memory, showing for the first time that music-driven reward responses are directly implicated in higher cognitive functions and can account for individual differences in memory performance.

  1. The Effect of Wallow on Growth Performance of Pre-Pubertal Pigs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of wallow on the growth performance of growing pigs. Sixteen (16) pre-pubertal pigs (8 males and 8 females) of large white breed, aged three months were randomly assigned to two treatments. There were eight animals per group designated as treatment A = with wallow ...

  2. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  3. Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Clay: Unique Nanostructured Filler for High-Performance Polymer Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei-De; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi

    2006-01-01

    High-performance composites are produced using nanostructured clay-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrids as a reinforcing filler. The intercalation of iron particles between the clay platelets serves as the catalyst for the growth of CNTs, while the platelets are exfoliated by the CNTs, forming the unique

  4. Effect of hatch location and diet density on footpad dermatitis and growth performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Lourens, A.; Harn, van J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hatch location and diet density on the prevalence of footpad dermatitis and growth performance in broiler chickenswas studied.Broilers (Ross 308), incubated at 2 different hatch locations but originating from the same parent stock,were subjected to 2 feeding programs differing in

  5. Growth and Divergence in Manufacturing Performance in South and East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Szirmai, Adam

    1997-01-01

    The growth experience in manufacturing in South and East Asian economies is well documented. Less is known about absolute levels of economic performance. This paper presents a star comparison of six Asian economies (China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan) and the USA, the world

  6. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Li, W.K.; Li, H.S.; Luo, J.Y.; Li, X.P.; Wei, Y.X.; Yan, Z.T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    1. This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler

  7. Influence of thermally peroxidized soybean oil on growth performance and oxidative status in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding peroxidized soybean oil (SO) on growth performance and oxidative status in growing pigs. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing either 10% fresh SO (22.5 C) or SO exposed to...

  8. Impact of iron supplementation and deworming on growth performance in preschool Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Koning, de F.L.H.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the effects of iron and deworming on linear growth performance of preschoolers. Design: Three-month randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. The children were allocated to four treatments: iron (60 mg elemental iron/day) albendazole (200 mg/day for 3 consecutive days,

  9. Dietary inclusion of direct fed microbe on the growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were obtained from a reputable hatchery and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments, each with three replicate of ten birds. ... The results show that the growth performance of the broiler chicken fed diet containing different level of direct fed microbes did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in initial weight, final ...

  10. Resources for Public Relations Teaching: Facilitating the Growth of Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses briefly events (including a 1998 summer conference, a report, and a 1999 Pre-Conference) leading up to this themed issue on public relations teaching. Introduces the seven remaining articles in the issue which represent six different content areas to be covered in a public relations curriculum, and which reflects recommendations for…

  11. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Fall, C. H. D.; van Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and

  12. Growth performance and nutrition value of Spirulina sp. under different photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the production of freshwater Spirulina sp. cultured with photoperiod manipulation treatment. In this study, photoperiod manipulation treatment performed on cultured spirulina using fiber tanks (100 L. Spirulina was grown with different photoperiod (bright/T and dark/G that are six hours per day (6T-18G, 12 hours per day (12T-12G, 18 hours per day (18T-6G, and 24 hours per day (24L-0G. The parameters were observed include dry biomass, population density (N, specific growth rate (SGR, doubling time (G, proximate analysis, and water quality. The results of this study showed that the optimum population density was achieved on day-3 days of cultured, and manipulation photoperiod showed no significant effect to the dry biomass harvest and population density, but significantly affect the specific growth rate and doubling time. Treatment of lighting 12, 18 and 24 hours per day to produce the maximum specific growth rate (0,345 to 0,366 per day and a maximum doubling time (1,89 to 2,01 days were not significantly different, whereas the old treatment six hours per day lighting showed the lowest maximum growth rate (0,323 per day and highest doubling time (2,15 days. At treatment of lighting 12 hours per day, relatively higher protein content (39,73% than others. In conclusion, the lighting 12 hours per day resulted in optimum production efficiency than other treatments.Keywords: Spirulina sp., photoperiod, density, biomass, growth, nutrition value. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis produksi spirulina Spirulina sp. air tawar yang dikultur dengan manipulasi fotoperiode.  Dalam penelitian ini, spirulina dikultur dalam wadah fiber 100 L dengan perlakuan fotoperiode (terang/T dan gelap/G berbeda, yaitu enam jam per hari (6T-18G, 12 jam per hari (12T-12G, 18 jam per hari (18T-6G, dan 24 jam per hari (24T-0G. Parameter yang diamati meliputi biomassa kering, kepadatan populasi (N, laju pertumbuhan spesifik

  13. The genetics of overwintering performance in two-year old common carp and its relation to performance until market size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, Martin; Kause, Antti; Vandeputte, Marc; Gela, David; Allamellou, Jean-Michel; Kumar, Girish; Bestin, Anastasia; Bugeon, Jérôme; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kocour, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Using farmed common carp, we investigated the genetic background of the second year overwintering performance and its relation to the performance during the third growing season and at market size. The experimental stock was established by partial factorial design with a series of 4 factorial matings of 5 dams and 10 sires each. The families were reared communally and pedigree was re-constructed with 93.6% success using 12 microsatellites on 2008 offspring. Three successive recordings (second autumn, third spring, and third autumn-market size) covering two periods (second overwintering, third growing season) were included. Body weight, Fulton's condition factor and percent muscle fat content were recorded at all times and headless carcass yield and fillet yield were recorded at market size. Specific growth rate, absolute and relative fat change and overall survival were calculated for each period. Heritability estimates were significantly different from zero and almost all traits were moderately to highly heritable (h2 = 0.36-1.00), except survival in both periods and fat change (both patterns) during overwintering (h2 = 0.12-0.15). Genetic and phenotypic correlations imply that selection against weight loss and fat loss during overwintering is expected to lead to a better winter survival, together with a positive effect on growth in the third growing season. Interestingly, higher muscle fat content was genetically correlated to lower survival in the following period (rg = -0.59; -0.53, respectively for winter and the third summer). On the other hand, higher muscle fat was also genetically linked to better slaughter yields. Moreover, selection for higher condition factor would lead to better performance during winter, growing season and at market size.

  14. Hybridization between Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout alters the expression of muscle growth-related genes and their relationships with growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  15. Effects of strains on growth performances of triploid bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satid Chatchaiphan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, limited empirical information is available on the effects of parental strains on the performance of triploid aquatic animals, especially of tropical species. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of strains on the growth performance of the triploid bighead catfish (Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864 which was produced using cold shock (7 °C, 25 min shock duration, applied to newly fertilized eggs obtained from all possible crosses between two catfish strains. The fingerlings of each group were reared until they were age 240 d. At age 60 d, the triploid fish had a lower specific growth rate (SGR, absolute growth rate (AGR, body length and body weight than the diploid counterparts. However, at harvest (age 240 d body length and body weight were not different between the two groups while SGR of the cold shock group was higher than the diploid during age 121–240 d. The results revealed that parental strains did not show significant direct effects on the growth performance of triploids, but the interaction between paternal strain × shock was significant for the following traits: body length at age 90 d, body weight at age 90 d and 120 d, AGR for age 61–90 d, and SGR for age 61–90 d and 91–120 d. The interaction between paternal × maternal strain × shock was significant for body length, body weight at age 180 d and AGR for age 121–180 d. These results suggested that the growth performance of triploid C. macrocephalus cannot be enhanced by improving the parental strains; rather, improvement may be accomplished by selecting the parental strains based on triploid performance.

  16. Effects of alternative promoters of growth on the performance and cost of production of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tomazini Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics were compared to antimicrobials as alternative growth promoters in male broilers grown from 1 to 42 days of age. Eight treatments were evaluated: a control feed without antimicrobials or alternative growth promoters, a control feed with antimicrobials, a control feed with the antimicrobials colistine and avilamicine, three rations with probiotic Bacillus subtilis in different concentrations and/or under recommended usage, one ration with probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae in addition to a mixture of probiotic Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, and one ration with mananoligossacarids (MOS plus betaglutanes. Antimicrobials and alternative growth promoters were added to an initial feed and to a growth feed common to all birds. Thirteen to 17 replicates of 50 birds of a Cobb line were utilized per treatment in a completely randomized design. Feed consumption, feed conversion and production costs did not significantly differ among treatments. The weights of 42-day-old birds fed on Bacillus subtilis (1,6 x 109CFU/g or the mixture of probiotics were higher or similar to the weights of birds fed on ration with antimicrobials. It was concluded that probiotics can replace antimicrobials as growth promoters for broilers up to 42 days of age without negative effects on growth performance and production cost.

  17. Effect of feed texture on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Altaf, H.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of two important forms of feed, mash and crumbles, fed alone or in combination (mash-crumbs), was studied on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers. One hundred twenty broiler chicks were used in the present study and were fed mash, crumbles and mash-crumbs feed for 0-6 weeks of age. Four treatments, designated as A, B, C and D were used in this experiment. Chicks in group A were kept on mash feeding serving as control and those in group B were offered crumbles. Group C was fed mash from day old to two weeks and crumbles from three to six weeks of age while group D was offered mash from day old to four weeks and then crumbles were fed for next two weeks of age. The results of the experiment showed that different forms of feed exhibited significant (P<0.05) effect on overall weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers. Whereas, feed consumption, dressing percentage and relative weights of liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, pancreas, intestine and abdominal fat pad of the birds remained unaffected due to different forms of feed. The broilers maintained upon crumbles throughout the experimental period, fetched maximum profit than other treatment groups. (author)

  18. Effects of incubation temperature on growth and performance of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    I evaluated the effect of incubation temperature on phenotypes of the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. I chose this species for study because its large clutch size (30-40 eggs or more) allows replication within clutches both within and among experimental treatments. The major research objectives were (1) to assess the effect of constant low, moderate, and high temperatures on embryonic development, (2) to determine whether the best incubation temperature for embryonic development also produced the "best" hatchlings, and (3) to determine how a change in incubation temperature during mid-development would affect phenotype. To meet these objectives, I established five experimental temperature regimes and determined egg survival and incubation length and measured body size and shape, selected body temperatures, and locomotory performance of lizards at regular intervals from hatching to 90 d, or just before sexual maturity. Incubation temperature affected the length of incubation, egg survival, and body mass, but did not affect sprint speed or selected body temperature although selected body temperature affected growth in mass independently of treatment and clutch. Incubation at moderate temperatures provided the best conditions for both embryonic and post-hatching development. The highest incubation temperatures were disruptive to development; eggs had high mortality, developmental rate was low, and hatchlings grew slowly. Changes in temperature during incubation increased the among-clutch variance in incubation length relative to that of constant temperature treatments. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF RABBITS FED ON DIETS OF GRADUAL LEVELS OF BARLEY GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Adawy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male New Zealand White rabbits of 6 weeks age (BW 875 ± 28.3 g were randomly allocated among six groups in different levels of barley grains (BG; 0 (B0, 5 (B5, 10 (B10, 15 (B15, 20 (B20, 25% (B25 of the total diet on growth performance and carcass composition of rabbits . The highest live BW value (P < 0.05 was obtained in B20 rabbits, whereas the highest feed intake (P < 0.05 value was obtained in B25 rabbits followed by those fed on the other diets. The better-feed conversion ratio (FCR was obtained in B20 rabbits followed by those of B15 and B25. Animals of B20 had better FCR than those of the other experimental diets. The relative contribution of soft feces to dry matter or crude protein intake differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental diets. The caecal turnover rate was increased (P < 0.05 in B15 and B20 rabbits than those other diets. The per-slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were differed (P < 0.05 among the experimental groups and highest values were recorded in B20 rabbits. Data suggested that a partial replacement of corn grains (CG by 20% BG in rabbit diets was increased live body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio.

  20. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances ...

  1. The effect of performance related pay in employment services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofie Johansen, Ann; Holm, Anders; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper investigates the effects of performance-related pay (PRP) in Danish local employment administration on unemployed social clients’ employment outcomes. PRP implies here that employees in the employment administration are rewarded each time a social client gets a job. There are different...... schemes involved in the programme – schemes with collective payoffs and schemes with private payoffs and schemes with monetary payoffs and non-monetary payoffs, such as training activities. The main conclusion is that PRP seems to promote employment chances of social clients. Especially it seems that PRP...

  2. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. Results: We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: −0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: −0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.112, −0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: −0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: −0.063, −0.003 kg/mo). Conclusion: In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. PMID:27075911

  3. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, M K; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: -0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: -0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.112, -0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: -0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: -0.063, -0.003 kg/mo). In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Aphysiologic performance on dynamic posturography in work-related patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, F; Durà, M J; Menacho, J; González-Sabaté, L; Cordón, A; Hernández, A; García-Ibáñez, L

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that malingering should be suspected in patients suffering from dizziness or imbalance and who had a potential gain associated with insurance and worker's compensation claims. This study aimed to assess and compare the prevalence of aphysiologic performance on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) in patients with the potential for secondary gain using a retrospective review of two groups of patients: work-related patients referred for dizziness and/or imbalance (Group 1) were compared against a group of patients with complaints of dizziness or imbalance, who had no history of work-related injury, or litigation procedures (Group 2). CDP and videonystagmography (VNG) were carried out in all patients. The Sensory Organization Test summaries were scored as normal, aphysiologic, or vestibular using the scoring method published by Cevette et al. in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112:676-688 (1995). 24 out of 88 (27%) patients had aphysiologic CDP in Group 1 and 9 out of 51 (18%) in Group 2 but these differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Definite signs of vestibular dysfunction were found in 12 out of 24 (50%) of patients with aphysiologic performance in Group 1 although the presence of VNG abnormalities was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in Group 2. The hypothesis that the occupational group could show a significantly higher rate of aphysiologic results than a control group is not confirmed. Furthermore, VNG abnormalities were found in 50% of the work-related cases with non organic sway patterns. These results suggest that patient's complaints should be considered genuine in work-related cases and due caution exercised when evaluating aphysiologic CDP patterns.

  5. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  6. Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and relation to growth and feed utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out aimed at clarifying variations in the digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout families and studying how differences in digestibility may be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates. The digestibility of protein, lipid...... the digestibility of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extracts and dry matter was measured. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that selective breeding still offers a large potential for improved growth and feed utilisation in rainbow trout strains. In the first study, family Dc showed a higher specific growth rate......, carbohydrates (nitrogen-free extracts, NFE) and dry matter was analysed in two experiments involving eight rainbow trout families [Ab, Ba, Cd, Dc (first study); V, X, Y, Z (second study)]. In the first experiment rainbow trout were reared for 128 days at 13.0A degrees C, and in the second experiment, they were...

  7. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Lane Manalili; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism...... (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth...

  8. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  9. IT and Fast Growth Small-to-Medium Enterprise Performance: An Empirical Study in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is regarded as a facilitator for both small and large firms to speed up transactions between firms and their suppliers and customers, achieve real-time communication, lower transaction costs, and enhance speed and flexibility. However, understanding whether and how IT helps small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs to create business value still remains unclear. Drawing upon resource-based view theory, source-positional advantage-performance framework, we develop and test a theoretical model to explore the interrelationships between IT resources (IT expertise, IT infrastructure, IT capability (IT integration, IT-enabled inter-firm partnership processes (activity integration, coordination, partnership enhancement, and organizational performance in the fast growth SME context. We propose that IT business value depends on how firms employ IT resources to develop IT capability which facilitates inter-firm partnership processes along value chains. Structural equation modeling is employed to test our theoretical conceptualization of 310 Australian fast-growth SMEs across different industrial sectors. Results show that IT contributes to fast growth SME performance through the development of IT capability and enhancement of inter-firm partnership activities. This research highlights the role of IT in business value creation and the ways in which IT is used by fast growth SMEs to foster core business competencies.

  10. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  11. Investigating Patterns of Automation and Growth Performance among Low Level Users of Manufacturing Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Kromann, Lene

    instrument with a new, innovative way of characterizing and measuring automation levels in the production process. The survey data is merged with elaborate Danish register data on economic performance, market, and worker characteristics. The data is available from 2000 to 2010 across a broad range......-movers; companies that develop their level of automation further and companies that remain on the 2005 level up until 2010. We compare the presence of drivers and enablers in the 5-year period leading up to 2005 and investigate patterns in growth performance on a range of economic indicators between the two groups....... However, the cross sectional nature of most studies prohibits analysis of direction; is growth and economic performance the driver of manufacturing technology investment or vice versa. Longitudinal data is required to study this. The present study analyses panel data obtained using a retrospective survey...

  12. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. Aerosols exposed to high humidity will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties due to their increased water content. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry and climate models often use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. This study explores the validity of these assumptions. A humidified cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS and a tandem hygroscopic DMA (differential mobility analyzer are used to measure the extinction coefficient and hygroscopic growth factors of humidified aerosols, respectively. The measurements are performed at 80% and 90%RH at wavelengths of 532 nm and 355 nm using size-selected aerosols with different degrees of absorption; from purely scattering to highly absorbing particles. The ratio of the humidified to the dry extinction coefficients (fRHext(%RH, Dry is measured and compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory. Using the measured hygroscopic growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing, the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements.

    We found a weak linear dependence or no dependence of fRH(%RH, Dry with size for hydrated absorbing aerosols in contrast to the non-monotonically decreasing behavior with size for purely scattering aerosols. No discernible difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 7% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. However, for substances with growth factor less than 1

  13. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.

  14. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  15. Strategic communication related to academic performance: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Lulu; He, Luwei; Heyman, Gail D

    2017-09-01

    We examined a range of forms of strategic communication relevant to academic performance among 151 seventh- and eleventh-grade adolescents in China. Participants were asked to rate the frequency of their engagement of strategic communication and to evaluate the possible motives for each strategy. The most commonly adopted strategy was to give a vague response about one's own performance, and the predominant motives for strategic communication were the desires to outcompete others, to be prosocial, and to be modest. Males were more likely than females to focus on gaining social approval, and eleventh graders were more likely than seventh graders to focus on being prosocial and modest when engaging in strategic communication. These findings provide insight into the development of strategic communication beyond Western culture. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Adolescents in the West often hide their effort to appear more competent or to gain social acceptance. Little is known about other communication strategies related to academic performance. Little is known about the development of these strategies in non-Western samples. What does this study add? We show that in China, as in Western cultures, children often engage in strategic communication. We demonstrate links between different forms of strategic communication and specific motives. We demonstrate that strategic communication can be motivated by outcompeting others, by being prosocial, and by being modest. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Priming performance-related concerns induces task-related mind-wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano, Megan L; Touron, Dayna R

    2017-10-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that priming of performance-related concerns would (1) increase the frequency of task-related mind-wandering (i.e., task-related interference; TRI) and (2) decrease task performance. In each experiment, sixty female participants completed an operation span task (OSPAN) containing thought content probes. The task was framed as a math task for those in a condition primed for math-related stereotype threat and as a memory task for those in a control condition. In both studies, women whose performance-related concerns were primed via stereotype threat reported more TRI than women in the control. The second experiment used a more challenging OSPAN task and stereotype primed women also had lower math accuracy than controls. These results support the "control failures×current concerns" framework of mind-wandering, which posits that the degree to which the environmental context triggers personal concerns influences both mind-wandering frequency and content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Defects in silicon effect on device performance and relationship to crystal growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, L.

    1985-01-01

    A relationship between material defects in silicon and the performance of electronic devices will be described. A role which oxygen and carbon in silicon play during the defects generation process will be discussed. The electronic properties of silicon are a strong function of the oxygen state in the silicon. This state controls mechanical properties of silicon efficiency for internal gettering and formation of defects in the device's active area. In addition, to temperature, time, ambience, and the cooling/heating rates of high temperature treatments, the oxygen state is a function of the crystal growth process. The incorporation of carbon and oxygen into silicon crystal is controlled by geometry and rotation rates applied to crystal and crucible during crystal growths. Also, formation of nucleation centers for oxygen precipitation is influenced by the growth process, although there is still a controversy which parameters play a major role. All these factors will be reviewed with special emphasis on areas which are still ambiguous and controversial.

  18. Bulbous epiphysis and popcorn calcification as related to growth plate differentiation in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizola, Evelise; McCarthy, Edward; Shapiro, Jay Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is an heritable systemic disorder of connective tissue due to different sequence variants in genes affecting both the synthesis of type I collagen and osteoblast function. Dominant and recessive inheritance is recognized. Approximately 90% of the OI cases are due to mutations in COL1A1/A2 genes. We clinically and radiologically describes an adult male with type III osteogenesis imperfecta who presents a rare bone dysplasia termed bulbous epiphyseal deformity in association with popcorn calcifications. Popcorn calcifications may occur with bulbous epiphyseal deformity or independently. Methods Molecular analysis was performed for COL1A1, COL1A2, LEPRE1 and WNT1 genes. Results An uncommon COL1A1 mutation was identified. Clinical and radiological exams confirmed a distinctive bulbous epiphyseal deformity with popcorn calcifications in distal femurs. We have identified four additional OI patients reported in current literature, whose X-rays show bulbous epiphyseal deformity related to mutations in CR-TAP, LEPRE1 and WNT1 genes. Conclusion The mutation identified here had been previously described twice in OI patients and no previous correlation with bulbous epiphyseal deformity was described. The occurrence of this bone dysplasia focuses attention on alterations in normal growth plate differentiation and the subsequent effect on endochondral bone formation in OI. PMID:26604951

  19. Population growth and development of Liposcelis pearmani (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatou, B A; Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Talley, J; Shakya, K

    2011-08-01

    Psocids of genus Liposcelis are now considered serious pests of stored products. We investigated the effects of eight temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, 37.5, and 40.0°C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis pearmani Lienhard. L. pearmani did not survive at 37.5 and 40.0°C, at all relative humidities tested; at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested; and at 55% RH, at 32.5 and 35°C. The greatest population growth was recorded at 32.5°C and 75% RH (32-fold growth). L. pearmani males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 17, 63, and 20%, respectively. Female L. pearmani have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 5, 39, 55, and 1%, respectively. We developed temperature-dependent development equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. Based on 30-d population growth, L. pearmani cannot survive at temperatures >35.0°C; does not thrive at low relative humidities (55%), at temperatures above 25°C; and has a high optimum relative humidity for population growth (75%). Therefore, we expect it to have a more limited distribution compared with other Liposcelis species. These data provide a better understanding of how temperature and RH may influence L. pearmani population dynamics and can be used in population growth models to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid, and to predict its occurrence.

  20. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine Growth Performance in Complemented Aquaponic Solution Outperforms Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Delaide

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP, aquaponic (AP, or complemented aquaponic (CAP solutions. The principal finding of this research was that AP and HP treatments exhibited similar (p > 0.05 plant growth, whereas the shoot weight of the CAP treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05 growth rate increase of 39% on average compared to the HP and AP treatments. Additionally, the root weight was similar (p > 0.05 in AP and CAP treatments, and both were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that observed in the HP treatment. The results highlight the beneficial effect of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS water on plant growth. The findings represent a further step toward developing decoupled aquaponic systems (i.e., two- or multi-loops that have the potential to establish a more productive alternative to hydroponic systems. Microorganisms and dissolved organic matter are suspected to play an important role in RAS water for promoting plant roots and shoots growth.

  1. Is vocabulary growth influenced by the relations among words in a language learner's vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Kevin M

    2013-09-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network. The current study combined subjective estimates of the age of acquisition (AoA) and associations among words in a large corpus to estimate the organization of semantic knowledge at multiple points in vocabulary growth. Consistent with previous studies, the number of connections or relations among words followed a power law distribution in which relatively few words were highly connected with other words and most words were connected to relatively few words. In addition, the growth in the number of connections of a word was a linear function of its initial number of connections, and the ratio of connections to any two words was relatively constant over time. Finally, number of connections to known words was a reliable predictor of a word's AoA. All of these findings can be shown to be consistent with the preferential attachment principle. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Role of growth factors and the wound healing response in age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2004-01-01

    Growth factors (GF) are important in several stages of the pathogenesis of age-related macular disease (AMD). In choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in exudative AMD, the GF involved are similar to those involved in wound healing of the skin. Like granulation tissue of skin, CNV is characterized by

  3. End-of-Decade Survey Shows Academic Growth in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Compared surveys of public relations education (1970, 1975, 1980). Found, among other results, that (1) enrollment growth is the most significant change; (2) students are graduating with weak backgrounds in business; (3) teachers need stronger backgrounds, interest, and records in research. For journal availability, see CS 705 902. (PD)

  4. Height-related growth declines in ponderosa pine are not due to carbon limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Anna; Hoch, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Decreased gas exchange as trees grow tall has been proposed to explain age-related growth declines in trees. We examined changes of mobile carbon stores (starch, sugars and lipids) with tree height in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) at two sites differing in water availability, and tested the following hypotheses: (1) carbon supply does not become increasingly limited as trees grow tall; rather, the concentration of mobile carbon compounds increases with tree height reflecting greater reductions of carbon sink activities relative to carbon assimilation; and (2) increases of stored mobile carbon compounds with tree height are greater in drier sites. Height-related growth reductions were associated with significant increases of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and lipid concentrations in all tissues in the upper canopy and of NSC in the bole. Lipid concentrations in the bole decreased with tree height, but such decrease is not necessarily inconsistent with non-limiting carbon supply in tall trees. Furthermore, we found stronger increases of mobile carbon stores with tree height at the dry site relative to the moist site. Our results provide first direct evidence that carbon supply does not limit growth in tall trees and that decreases of water availability might negatively impact growth processes more than net-photosynthesis.

  5. Practical Solutions for Addressing Labor-Related Barriers to Bhutan's Private Employment Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    This note provides practical solutions for addressing the labor-related barriers that impede Bhutan's private sector employment growth: (i) lack of workers with relevant experience and skills, (ii) restrictions on employing non-Bhutanese workers, and (iii) lack of interest among Bhutanese workers in private sector employment opportunities (Enterprise Survey 2015). This note draws on intern...

  6. Anthropometry of fetal growth in rural Malawi in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe fetal growth centiles in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status, using cross sectional measurements at birth. Design: A cross sectional study of pregnant women and their babies. Data on maternal socioeconomic status and current pregnancy, including HIV status and newborn

  7. Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG and Hospital Business Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szynkiewicz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present the possibility of using Diagnosis- Related Groups (DRG in the hospital management process and to analyse the need for business performance management on the part of hospital management staff. The following research methods were used: literature analysis, case studies, and poll analysis. It is not possible to increase the effectiveness of operation of healthcare entities without increasing the importance of IT systems and using DRG more effectively in the management process. Training users in IT and the use of DRGs is important to achieving hospital effectiveness. The increased importance of analyses and planning in a hospital should be reflected in the organisational structure of service providers. Hospital controllers should have a similar role to those present in most companies in other industries.

  8. Economic growth and health progress in England and Wales: 160 years of a changing relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A

    2012-03-01

    Using data for England and Wales during the years 1840-2000, a negative relation is found between economic growth--measured by the rate of growth of gross domestic product (GDP)--and health progress--as indexed by the annual increase in life expectancy at birth (LEB). That is, the lower is the rate of growth of the economy, the greater is the annual increase in LEB for both males and females. This effect is much stronger, however, in 1900-1950 than in 1950-2000, and is very weak in the 19th century. It appears basically at lag zero, though some short-lag effects of the same negative sign are found. In the other direction of causality, there are very small effects of the change in LEB on economic growth. These results add to an emerging consensus that in the context of long-term declining trends, mortality oscillates procyclically during the business cycle, declining faster in recessions. Therefore, LEB increases faster during recessions than during expansions. The investigation also shows how the relation between economic growth and health progress changed in England and Wales during the study period. No evidence of cointegration between income--as indexed by GDP or GDP per capita--and health--as indexed by LEB--is found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent Trends of Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOMOGYI, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses two related issues. One is whether, and how, growth patterns of standmean height have changed in Hungary in the last few decades, and the other is whether recentlyobserved increases in mean annual temperature might have caused changes in growth trends. Changesin tree growth were investigated for beech (Fagus sylvatica, sessile oak (Quercus petraea andTurkey oak (Quercus cerris by comparing stand mean heights over age using data from the forestinventories of 1981 and 2001, and for sessile oak using stand mean height data from permanentsample plots since 1961. Tree growth was found to have accelerated for each species mentioned, withTurkey oak showing the largest acceleration. To study the second issue, stand mean height was relatedto elevation, wich in turn was related to mean annual temperature and precipitation. For theseanalyses, too, data of many thousands of stands in the forest inventory was used. Stand mean heightwas found to increase with decreasing elevation, i.e. with increasing mean annual temperature, foreach of the three species. As the annual precipitation and air humidity decreases with decreasingelevation, it was concluded that increases of mean annual temperature could positively have affectedtree growth in the last few decades. However, this effect is expected to be soon limited by wateravailability.

  10. Role of dietary ginger Zingiber officinale in improving growth performances and immune functions of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding. Results showed that growth parameters such as final weight gain (93.47 ± 1.73 g) and specific growth rate (3.41 ± 0.14) were significantly higher in G8 than in the control. Among the skin mucosal immune parameters examined, lysozyme (46.5 ± 3.8 U mg(-1)), immunoglobulin level (8.9 ± 0.4 unit-mg mL(-1)), protein level (44.3 ± 2.2 mg mL(-1)) were significantly higher in G8. However, alkaline phosphatase activity (171.6 ± 10.2 IU L(-1)) was high (P ginger supplemented diet exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (65.52%) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplements of ginger (at 0.8%) can promote growth performance, skin mucus immune parameters, and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Therefore, ginger represents a promising food additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial substitution of barley for corn: effect on "Hamra" lamb growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Kaddour; Khaled, Méghit Boumédiène

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two kinds of given diets on growth, on some carcass characteristics and on the major meat nutrients of local Algerian sheep breed. The investigated sheep breed called "Hamra" is one of the most famous breeds in Algeria. Among one 106 animals, 40 lambs were selected according to their age, similar livestock characteristics and body weight. The samples were divided into two equal groups: control and experimental lambs according to their live weight; 24.63 ± 0.47 and 24.35 ± 0.64 kg, respectively. Both groups were fed with two varieties of concentrate diets: corn diet based for the first group of control lambs (n = 20) and corn substituted by barley (Variety Saïda 183) for the second experimental group lambs (n = 20). Both diets were supplemented with 200 g straw of barley/animal/ration. The chemical analysis of diets showed an elevated crude fibre content in the commercial concentrate. However, the experimental concentrate contained higher amounts of calcium. After 59 days of fattening, no significant difference was found among the two studied groups on the growth performance (p > 0.05), showing the same final body weight. In contrast, a significant difference was found (p ≤ 0.001) in relation to the cost of the given diet. This could affect the price of the produced meat. At 37.85 ± 0.78 kg live weight, 10 lambs fed with experimental concentrate were slaughtered. The dressing percentage was 46.65 %, with 2.49 % of carcass shrink. Furthermore, an interesting percentage of total muscle was obtained (63.73 %) with a good carcass conformation scoring 9.56. Compared to other breed sheep, Hamra carcass could be considered as the most valuable one economically.

  12. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...... performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  13. Locally derived traffic-related air pollution and fetal growth restriction: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gavin; Cook, Angus G; Haggar, Fatima; Bower, Carol; Nassar, Natasha

    2012-11-01

    Fetal growth restriction has been inconsistently associated with maternal exposure to elevated levels of traffic-related air pollution. We investigated the relationship between an individualised measure of fetal growth and maternal exposure to a specific marker for traffic-related air pollution. We estimated maternal residential exposure to a marker for traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, NO2) during pregnancy for 23,452 births using temporally adjusted land-use regression. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations with small for gestational age and sex (SGA) and fetal growth restriction, defined as proportion of optimal birth weight (POBW) below the 10th percentile. Sub-populations investigated were: women who spent most time at home, women who did not move house, women with respiratory or circulatory morbidity, women living in low/middle/high socio-economic areas, women who delivered before 37 weeks gestation, and women who delivered from 37 weeks gestation. An IQR increase in traffic-related air pollution in the second trimester across all women was associated with an OR of 1.31 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) for fetal growth restriction. Effects on fetal growth restriction (low POBW) were highest among women who subsequently delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. Effects on SGA were highest among women who did not move house: OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.69). Larger effect sizes were observed for low POBW than for SGA. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in mid to late pregnancy was associated with risk of SGA and low POBW in this study.

  14. The effects of anxiety and depression on stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits: Resilience and coping as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongju; Peng, Li; Liu, Botao; Liu, Yunbo; Li, Min; Chen, Long; Xie, Junrun; Li, Jing; Li, Jiawen

    2016-09-01

    Stress-related growth can occur after various traumas or stressful events. In order to investigate how anxiety and depression relate to stress-related growth, this study was conducted with 443 Chinese army recruits who had just finished a 3-month recruit training program. Path analyses revealed that resilience and positive/negative coping partially mediated the effect of anxiety on perceived stress-related growth, while negative coping fully mediated the relationship between depression and perceived stress-related growth. Moreover, positive coping partially carried the influence of resilience on perceived stress-related growth. Anxiety and depression may be potential targets for intervention to enhance the development of stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, Malcolm S.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Foster, Jane R.; Bradford, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change. To inform such adaptive management, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian state space model in which climate effects on tree growth are allowed to vary over time and in relation to past climate extremes, disturbance events, and forest dynamics. The model is an important step toward integrating disturbance and forest dynamics into predictions of forest growth responses to climate extremes. We apply the model to a dendrochronology data set from forest stands of varying composition, structure, and development stage in northeastern Minnesota that have experienced extreme climate years and forest tent caterpillar defoliation events. Mean forest growth was most sensitive to water balance variables representing climatic water deficit. Forest growth responses to water deficit were partitioned into responses driven by climatic threshold exceedances and interactions with insect defoliation. Forest growth was both resistant and resilient to climate extremes with the majority of forest growth responses occurring after multiple climatic threshold exceedances across seasons and years. Interactions between climate and disturbance were observed in a subset of years with insect defoliation increasing forest growth sensitivity to water availability. Forest growth was particularly

  17. Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, Malcolm S; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Foster, Jane R; Bradford, John B

    2017-06-01

    Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics-changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change. To inform such adaptive management, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian state space model in which climate effects on tree growth are allowed to vary over time and in relation to past climate extremes, disturbance events, and forest dynamics. The model is an important step toward integrating disturbance and forest dynamics into predictions of forest growth responses to climate extremes. We apply the model to a dendrochronology data set from forest stands of varying composition, structure, and development stage in northeastern Minnesota that have experienced extreme climate years and forest tent caterpillar defoliation events. Mean forest growth was most sensitive to water balance variables representing climatic water deficit. Forest growth responses to water deficit were partitioned into responses driven by climatic threshold exceedances and interactions with insect defoliation. Forest growth was both resistant and resilient to climate extremes with the majority of forest growth responses occurring after multiple climatic threshold exceedances across seasons and years. Interactions between climate and disturbance were observed in a subset of years with insect defoliation increasing forest growth sensitivity to water availability. Forest growth was particularly

  18. Some aspects related to the high performance in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Mihaiu, Ramona; Nistor, Viorica

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma spectroscopy is the science (or art) of identification and/or quantification of radionuclides through gamma-ray energy spectrum analysis. It is a recognized technique, well illustrated by the following examples: environmental radioactivity monitoring, health physics personnel monitoring, reactor corrosion monitoring, nuclear materials safeguards and homeland security, as well as nuclear forensics, materials testing, nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals, and industrial process monitoring. Within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory of INR Pitesti there is now available such a detector of high performance that includes all aspects related to cooling, signal processing (with a high resolution) and the dedicated software applications. At the present time, taking into account the 'nuclear renaissance' the new experimental testing laboratories require complete set-up rather than laboratories having a mixture of the old equipment. The paper presents the mechanically cooled HPGe spectrometers with an undergoing rapid evolution, which eliminate traditional intensive liquid nitrogen management. Also, there are described the digital signal processing virtually by eliminating system drift, and, at the same time, requiring recalibrations much less frequently. Another important aspect presented is related to the software applications, which cover a broad spectrum of nuclear measurement techniques. (authors)

  19. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Delaide, Boris; Goddek, Simon; Gott, James; Soyeurt, Hélène; Jijakli, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP), aquaponic (AP...

  20. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi; Alireza Seidavi; Ali Ahmad Alaw Qotbi; Vito Laudadio; Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows...

  1. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  2. Dietary integration with natural extract in rabbit: effects on growth performances and meat quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chiapparini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of Europe rabbit meat is consumed for its nutritional characteristics, (Dalle Zotte, 2014; Hernández and Gondret, 2006. Since the ban of the use of antibiotic as growth promoter, natural substances have been studied as alternative with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobic and antiviral properties. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation with natural extract mixture in growing rabbit on growth performances, carcass characteristics and Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle parameters. The trial was performed at the Research Institute for Animal Production (Nitra, Slovak Republic and lasted 42 days. At 35 days of age, 144 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly selected and divided in 3 experimental groups (4 rabbits/cage. The first fed a basal diet, the second (T1 and the third one (T2 received 0.3% and 0.6% of natural extract mixture, containing polyphenols from plants and seaweeds.  Dietary integration with natural extract improve (P<0.05 growth performances (ADG, FI and FC in T1 group. The fatty acid composition of LL muscle was positively affected (P=0.037 by natural extract supplementation with an increase of n-3 FA in T2 group than other treatments. Cholesterol content tended to be lower in T2 group (P=0.082 than T1 and C group (24.8 mg/100g T2 vs 34.6 mg/100g T1 vs 33.2 mg/100g C. Sensory analysis revealed that only the aroma was affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatments. Overall these results highlight that dietary supplementation with natural extract mixture, containing polyphenols from plants and seaweeds enhance growth performances, carcass weight, improving LL muscle nutritional parameters.

  3. Historic, economic and geographic approach to the relations between economic growth and oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze the complex relations between energy prices and economic growth. In part 1, the history of the last 30 years is used to analyze the consequences of energy price variations on world economic growth. In part 2, two interpretation schemes are described successively. One has to do with the international oil market, and the other concerns the impact of oil shocks on national economies. In part 3, an approach by type of country leads to conclusions respectively for the industrialized countries, for the developing countries and for the newly industrialized countries. 1 fig

  4. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  5. HERBAL METHIONINE (METHIOREP® IMPROVES GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS WITHOUT AFFECTING CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND BLOOD INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Makinde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Methiorep®, an herbal methionine premix, which is reported to contain herbal ingredients that mimic the activity of Methionine such as SAMe (S-Adenosyl Methionine and phosphatidyl choline, have recently introduced to Nigeria animal feed industry. An experiment was conducted with 120, one-week-old broilers to evaluate the effect of herbal methionine (methiorep® as substitute for synthetic methionine on growth performance of broiler chickens. Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated and Diet 1 (control, comprised of 0.25% methionine (NRC, 1994 while diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 comprised of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% Methiorep® as substitute for methionine in the diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five experimental treatments, each treatment was replicated three times with eight birds per pen in a completely randomized design. The study lasted 49-days. The results of growth performance revealed that body weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio at both starter and finisher phases were not  influenced by dietary treatments (P>0.05. However cost per kg feed decreased as the level of Methiorep® increased in the diets (P0.05 by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that Methiorep® can completely substitute for Methionine in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass yield of birds.

  6. Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation enhances growth performance and alleviates aluminum toxicity in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the protection offered by the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 against waterborne Al exposure in tilapia. Fish were allocated to control, CCFM639-only, Al-only or Al plus CCFM639 groups. The fish were exposed to 2.73mg/L Al ions for 4 weeks. The probiotic was incorporated into the fish diet at 10 8 CFU/g and provided twice daily. Our results showed that L. plantarum CCFM639 significantly enhanced feed utilization, growth performance and antioxidant ability in the absence of waterborne Al exposure. When fish were exposed to Al, dietary supplementation with the strain effectively decreased the death rate and accumulation of Al in tissues, and enhanced growth performance. Moreover, Al-induced changes in hematobiochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress and histopathology were also alleviated. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 may be a novel dietary supplement for fish to enhance growth performance and prevent aquaculture and food safety problems induced by Al pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  8. Differential Expression of Growth-, Angiogenesis- and Invasion-Related Factors in The Development of Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Jhy Tseng

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta is the major cause of maternal death complicated by massive peripartum hemorrhage. Its development is traditionally considered to be related to a decidual defect caused by previous cesarean deliveries or uterine curettages. Usually, placental villi firmly adhere to the superficial myometrium and deeply invade, or even penetrate, the uterine wall. Abnormal uteroplacental neovascularization is another characteristic. Therefore, we hypothesized that placenta accreta develops as a result of abnormal expressions of growth-, angiogenesis- and invasion-related factors in trophoblast populations. We have found, in pregnancies complicated by placenta accreta: upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor and downregulated c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in syncytiotrophoblasts; downregulated vasculoendothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and increased vasculoendothelial growth factor in placental lysates; and downregulated Tie-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and enhanced angiopoietin-2 level in placental lysates. However, matrix metalloproteinase expression was not upregulated, so the association of these invasion-related molecules with placenta accreta is less likely. Taken together, these findings imply that complex factors, either alone or in combination, might be responsible for the development of placenta accreta. Further studies are needed to understand the signaling pathways and possible genetic events.

  9. Basic considerations for the preparation of performance testing materials as related to performance evaluation acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, D.E.; Morton, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of performance testing (PT) materials for environmental and radiobioassay applications involves the use of natural matrix materials containing the analyte of interest, the addition (spiking) of the analyte to a desired matrix (followed by blending for certain matrices) or a combination of the two. The distribution of the sample analyte concentration in a batch of PT samples will reflect the degree of heterogeneity of the analyte in the PT material and/or the reproducibility of the sample preparation process. Commercial and government implemented radioanalytical performance evaluation programs have a variety of acceptable performance criteria. The performance criteria should take into consideration many parameters related to the preparation of the PT materials including the within and between sample analyte heterogeneity, the accuracy of the quantification of an analyte in the PT material and to what 'known' value will a laboratory's result be compared. How sample preparation parameters affect the successful participation in performance evaluation (PE) programs having an acceptance criteria established as a percent difference from a 'known' value or in PE programs using other acceptance criteria, such as the guidance provided in ANSI N42.22 and N13.30 is discussed. (author)

  10. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distance from the growth plate and Its relation to the outcome of unicameral bone cyst treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Saadallah George; Culliford, David J; Gent, Edward David; Clarke, Nicholas M P

    2011-04-01

    Interventions to treat unicameral bone cysts vary. Nonetheless, regardless of the intervention modality, the outcome is not certain. The purpose of this study was to determine if the distance between the growth plate and the cyst can be used to predict the outcome of the treatment. Retrospectively, we assessed the outcome of 39 interventions in nineteen children that were performed between 1994 and 2003. Seventeen different modalities of treatment were employed. There were three female and sixteen male patients. The average age was 8 years. Nine cysts were in the greater trochanter area, three were in the femoral capital area and seven were in the proximal humerus. According to the cyst's distance from the growth plate, at the intervention time, there were 18 cases within less than 2 cm and 21 cases of more than 2 cm. Complete healing was achieved in 10 children (employing seven different modalities). In nine of them, the cysts were more than 2 cm away from the growth plate. In one child, the cyst was within less than 2 cm of the growth plate, however, treatment here involved epiphyseodesis. This study confirmed that, regardless of intervention modality, complete healing was not achievable in those cysts that are within less than 2 cm of an active growth plate. Complete healing was possible in those cysts that are more than 2 cm away from the growth plate. The 2-cm distance from the growth plate could be used as a predictor of treatment outcome of unicameral bone cysts.

  12. Growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality and oxidative stability of beef cattle offered alternative silages in a finishing ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Yang, J; Chen, W; Zhou, Z; Wu, H; Meng, Q

    2018-03-01

    As lack of forage resource, alternative roughage sources have been developed for ruminant production and their inclusion would exert a great effect on the dietary nutrition, consequently affecting animal performance. Four silages (corn silage (CS), corn stalk silage (SS), inoculated CS and inoculated SS) were separately offered to 60 Bohai Black cattle (15 cattle/group) during a 24-week finishing period, in which the growth performance, carcass trait, beef quality and oxidative stability of steers were determined. Neither silage material nor silage inoculant exerted a significant effect on the growth performance, carcass trait and oxidative stability of beef cattle (P>0.05). As to beef quality, cattle offered CS had higher (P0.05) on the proximate components and fatty acids profile of beef muscle. There was neither an interaction (P>0.05) between inoculated treatment and silage material. There were no differences (P>0.05) in cholesterol content and meat quality traits in animals fed alternative silages. The collective findings suggest that it is not economical to substitute high-quality forage for relative low-quality forage in a high-concentrate finishing ration of beef cattle and silage inoculant inclusion would not exert a direct effect on animal performance.

  13. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3was a function of the concentration of NO3−ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local......Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation...

  14. Evaluation of growth performance of abergele goats under traditional management systems in Sekota District, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Belay; Taye, Mengistie

    2013-07-15

    The study was conducted at Abergele in the semi arid parts of Sekota district to evaluate growth performance of Abergele goats managed under traditional management systems. Data on growth and growth rates were collected from 724 kids for two years. The least squares mean birth, three months, six months and yearling weight of kids obtained were 1.91 +/- 0.04, 6.84 +/- 0.19, 9.13 +/- 0.31 and 16.42 +/- 1.20 kg, respectively. Parity of doe and birth type of kid significantly affected birth weight and three months weight while sex of kid and season of birth of kid affected birth, three months, six months and yearling weight consistently. Kids from first parity does were lighter at birth, three months and six months of age than kids from higher parity does. Twin born kids were lower in weight at birth and three months of ages than their single born counterparts. Female kids and kids born during the dry season had lower weight at all ages considered. The least squares mean pre-weaning and post-weaning growth rates obtained were 53.4 +/- 2.30 and 29.3 +/- 4.32 g day(-1), respectively. Parity of doe, type of birth and season birth of kid affected pre-weaning growth rate. Kids from first parity does, twin born kids and kids born during the dry season had lower growth rate. The significant effect of fixed factors needs to be considered in an effort to improve productivity of goats in the study areas.

  15. Plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with nitrogen fertilization at topdressing in popcorn agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teodoski Spolaor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is a promising alternative with low environmental impact to increase the efficiency of use of chemical fertilizers, ensuring high yield with better cost-effective ratio. In maize crops, several studies have demonstrated an increased yield when Azospirillum-based inoculants are used. In the case of popcorn, there are no available studies related to use of inoculation and its response on yield parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the field performance of popcorn when inoculated with the commercial product Masterfix L (A. brasilense Ab-V5 and A. brasilense Ab-V6 and the non-commercial inoculant UEL (A. brasilense Ab-V5 + Rhizobium sp. 53GRM1 associated with nitrogen fertilization. The trials were conducted in Londrina and Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, in a randomized block design with four replications, in a split plot design with the inoculation treatments located in the plots (uninoculated, Masterfix L, and UEL and the different N rates located in the subplots where ammonium sulphate was applied in the topdressing at the V6 stage (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg∙ha–1. The variance analysis showed significant effects (p < 0.05 of inoculation (Londrina environment and N rates (both environments only for grain yield. There was no inoculation effect in the grain yield when inoculants were applied together with N-fertilization at topdressing. In the absence of N-fertilization at topdressing, the inoculants Masterfix L. and UEL promoted higher grain yield as compared to the uninoculated plants, with resulting increases of 13.21 and 26.61% in yield, respectively.

  16. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: relation to growth and disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnhart, Birgitte; Juul, Anders; Nielsen, Susan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) has been identified as a prognostic marker of progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. In this population based study we evaluated associations between plasma concentrations of COMP, disease activity, and growth velocity...... in patients with recent-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). COMP levels in JIA and healthy children were compared with those in healthy adults. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), which has been associated with COMP expression and growth velocity, were studied in parallel. METHODS......: 87 patients with JIA entered the study, including oligoarticular JIA (n = 34), enthesitis-related arthritis (n = 8), polyarticular rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive JIA (n = 2), polyarticular RF-negative JIA (n = 27), systemic JIA (n = 6), and undifferentiated JIA (n = 10). Plasma levels of COMP were...

  17. Sugar maple growth in relation to nutrition and stress in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert P; Horsley, Stephen B; Hallett, Richard A; Bailey, Scott W

    2009-09-01

    Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern hardwood stands in northern Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, USA, and found that sugar maple growth was positively related to foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg and stand level estimates of sugar maple crown health during a high stress period from 1987 to 1996. Foliar nutrient threshold values for Ca, Mg, and Mn were used to analyze long-term BAI trends from 1937 to 1996. Significant (P maples sampled in the 1990s had decreased growth in the 1970s, 10-20 years in advance of the 1980s and 1990s decline episode in Pennsylvania. Even apparently healthy stands that had no defoliation, but had below-threshold amounts of Ca or Mg and above-threshold Mn (from foliage samples taken in the mid 1990s), had decreasing growth by the 1970s. Co-occurring black cherry, Prunus serotina, in a subset of the Pennsylvania and New York stands, showed opposite growth responses with greater growth in stands with below-threshold Ca and Mg compared with above-threshold stands. Sugar maple growing on sites with the highest concentrations of foliar Ca and Mg show a general increase in growth from 1937 to 1996 while other stands with lower Ca and Mg concentrations show a stable or decreasing growth trend. We conclude that acid deposition induced changes in soil nutrient status that crossed a threshold necessary to sustain sugar maple growth during the 1970s on some sites. While nutrition of these elements has not been considered in forest management decisions, our research shows species specific responses to Ca and Mg that may reduce health and growth of sugar maple or change species composition, if not addressed.

  18. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from...... the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...

  19. EFFECT OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES AND PROBIOTICS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Parkányi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4  The aim of this work was determined effect of supplemental humic substances and probiotics on growth performance and meat quality of rabbits.  The growth performances were observed on two hundred and twelve growing rabbits assigned randomly by weight to two treatments. The treatments included: 1 Control group: in this group were rabbits fed with basal diet during all experiment (35th – 77th day, 2 experimental group: the animals were fed with basal diet+3kg/t humic substances – Humac Nature during whole experiment.  In this group was during fattening period (35th – 49th and 63rd – 70th days of age added to feed the probiotic preparation – Propoul (Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 1x108 CFU 2 g per ten pieces. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly in order to determine the average daily gain, average daily feed intake and gain/feed. The characteristics of meat quality were determined on twelve rabbit males at the age of 77 days, when the rabbits achieved average slaughter weight 2500g. Results of the whole experimental period showed that addition humic substances and probiotic preparation to the diet had positive effect (not significantly on intensity of growth live weight in the last phase of fattening period. The results of this study suggest that humic substances with probiotics might be utilized as a feed additive in the rabbit diet. It could not significantly improve growth performance and meat quality of rabbits.doi:10.5219/192 

  20. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth and Psychosocial Variables in Survivors of State Terrorism and Their Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Faúndez-Abarca, Ximena; Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ceruti-Mahn, Cristián

    2017-08-01

    The present study explores reports of growth in survivors and family members of victims of state terrorism ( N = 254) in Chile from 1973 to 1990. The results indicate the presence of reports of posttraumatic growth ( M = 4.69) and a positive and statistically significant correlation with variables related to the life impact of the stressful events ( r = .46), social sharing of emotions ( r = .32), deliberate rumination ( r = .37), positive reappraisal ( r = .35), reconciliation ( r = .39), spiritual practices ( r = .33), and meaning in life ( r = .51). The relationship between growth and forgiveness is not statistically significant. The variables that best predict posttraumatic growth are positive reappraisal (β = .28), life impact (β = .24), meaning in life β = .23), and reconciliation (β = .20). The forward-method hierarchical model indicates that these variables are significant predictors of growth levels, R 2 = .53, F(8, 210) = 30.08, p state terrorism manage to grow after these experiences, and the redefinition of meaning in life and the positive reappraisal of the traumatic experiences are the elements that make it possible to create a new narrative about the past.

  1. The evolution of the concepts of growth, development and other related, during the last decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of such terms as growth, differentiation, development, morphogenesis etc. is discussed. It is proposed that the term (notion development should be understood to comprise "growth", "differentiation" and even "abscission, abortion and necrosis". The term "development" is already used in such a way by some authors. The relations among the phenomena denoted by the above terms are presented in a graphic form to show that they partly overlap. The concept that growth and development represent quantitative and qualitative aspects (respectively of plant augmentation is criticized. The newly introduced terms "development hormone" or "development regulator" seem more suitable than "growth hormone" and "growth regulator", however, these later ones are correct and may be used. The traditional term "phytohormone" and the newly introduced one "phytoregulator" seem convenient, but it must be kept in mind that such substances may transmit information both on a chemical basis as well as on a biophysical one. An example here can be auxin; a change in the wavy character of its transport may serve as information. In some cases a complex of two or more substances may play the role of a hormone, for instance ACC and ethylene, of which one is easily transportable but little active and the other is very active but exerts its action rather locally. Other combinations of activities may exist in other such pairs.

  2. SECULAR GROWTH AND MATURATION CHANGES IN HUNGARY IN RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzsar, Eva B; Zsakai, Annamaria; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyses the secular changes in the body development patterns of Hungarian children between the 1910s and the beginning of the 2000s in relation to socioeconomic and demographic changes in the country. Individual growth data of children were available from two national growth studies (1983-86, 2003-06), while sample-size weighted means of children's body dimensions were collected through regional studies between the 1920s and 1970s. Gross domestic product, Gini index, life expectancy at birth and under-5 mortality rate were used to assess the changes in economic status, income inequalities of the society and the population's general health status, respectively. Secular changes in food consumption habits were also examined. The positive Hungarian secular changes in socioeconomic status were associated with a continuous increase in children's body dimensions. The negative socioeconomic changes reflected only in wartime and post-war periods of children's growth, and the considerable socioeconomic changes at the beginning of the 1990s did not appear to influence the positive trend in children's growth. The positive secular trend in stature and body mass did not level off at the beginning of the 2000s: the socioeconomic conditions that support optimal growth and maturation could improve in Hungary.

  3. On the dimensionality of the stress-related growth scale: one, three, or seven factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C; Rowley, Anthony A; Vaughn, Allison A

    2004-06-01

    We examined the factorial validity and dimensionality of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS; Park, Cohen, & Murch, 1996) using a large multiethnic sample (n = 1,070). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a multidimensional representation of the SRGS fit better than a unidimensional representation. Specifically, we cross-validated both a 3-factor model and a 7-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis and were shown to be invariant across gender and ethnic groups. The 3-factor model was represented by global dimensions of growth that included rational/mature thinking, affective/emotional growth, and religious/spiritual growth. We replicated the 7-factor model of Armeli, Gunthert, and Cohen (2001) and it represented more specific components of growth such as Self-Understanding and Treatment of Others. However, some factors of the 7-factor model had questionable internal consistency and were strongly intercorrelated, suggesting redundancy. The findings support the notion that the factor structure of both the original 1-factor and revised 7-factor models are unstable and that the 3-factor model developed in this research has more reliable psychometric properties and structure.

  4. Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal.

  5. Histomorphometrical Study of the Prebiotic Effects on Intestine Morphology and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sayrafi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each. Dietary treatments were as follow: 1- Control (basal diet, 2- basal diet + antibiotic growth promoter and 3- basal diet + prebiotic. During the feeding experimental period, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of the experiment, small intestine segments were sampled and routine histological laboratory methods containing fixation, dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding were used. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy evaluation and the height and width of villi and depth of crypts were measured. The results showed that body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Prebiotic and antibiotic had significant (P < 0.05 effect on improvement of feed intake in 22 - 42 days and total period compared with the control. The addition of prebiotic or antibiotic increased the villus height in duodenum (P < 0.05 and prebiotic increased villus width of duodenum and ileum compared with other treatments. The duodenal crypt depth was increased by antibiotic compared with the prebiotic and control group. In conclusion, prebiotic can be used as a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.

  6. Empirical testing of Kotler's high-performance factors to increase sales growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Dayan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and/or objectives: The primary objective of this study is to empirically test Kotler's (2003 high-performance model which ensures an increase in sales growth. More specifically, the study explores the influence of process variables (as measured by marketing strategies, resources management (as measured by the management of labour, materials, machines, information technology and energy and organisational variables (as measured by TQM and organisational culture on sales growth in the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Problem investigated Various research studies suggest that the managers of firms are continuously challenged in their attempts to increase their sales (Morre, 2007; Pauwels, Silva Risso, Srinivasan & Hanssens, 2004: 142-143; Gray & Hayes, 2007: 1. Kotler (2003 suggests a model that leads to a high performing business. The question is posed as to whether this model can be used to increase sales growth in all businesses. This study seeks to develop a generic model to increase sales growth across industries by using an adapted version of Kotler's (2003 high-performance model. The study investigates the application of this adapted model on the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Design and/or methodology and/or approach: An empirical causal research design that includes 770 marketing and product development practitioners from multinational food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing firms, was used in this study. A response rate of 76.1% was achieved as only 571 useable questionnaires were returned. The internal reliability and discriminant validity of the measuring instrument were assessed by the calculation of Cronbach alpha coefficients and the conducting an exploratory factor analysis respectively. Structural Equation Modelling SEM was used to statistically test the relationships between the independent variables (marketing strategies, resource management, TQM and

  7. Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree in protective shelters during establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelgren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree [Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch] whips in translucent tubelike shelters were investigated. In a container study, 1.2-m-high shelters were placed over whips following transplanting, then diurnal microclimate, water relations, and water use were measured. Shelter air temperature and vapor pressure were substantially higher, and solar radiation was 70% lower, than ambient conditions. Sheltered trees responded with nearly three-times higher stomatal conductance than nonsheltered trees. However, due to substantially lower boundary layer conductance created by the shelter, normalized water use was 40% lower. In a second experiment, same-sized shelters were placed on whips following spring transplanting in the field. Predawn and midday leaf water potentials and midday stomatal conductance (g(s)) were monitored periodically through the season, and growth was measured in late summer. Midday g(s) was also much higher in field-grown trees with shelters than in those without. Sheltered trees in the field had four times greater terminal shoot elongation but 40% less stem diameter growth. Attenuated radiation in the shelters and lower-specific leaf area of sheltered trees indicated shade acclimation. Shelters can improve height and reduce water loss during establishment in a field nursery, but they do not allow for sufficient trunk growth

  8. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  9. GROWTH OF CORMORANT PHALACROCORAX-CARBO-SINENSIS CHICKS IN RELATION TO BROOD SIZE, AGE RANKING AND PARENTAL FISHING EFFORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLATTEEUW, M; KOFFIJBERG, K; DUBBELDAM, W

    1995-01-01

    Growth parameters of Cormorant hatchlings are described in relation to brood size and age ranking of each chick within individual broods. Growth rates, expressed as body mass increment per day over the period of linear, growth (5-30 days), ranged from 56.4-102.8 g . d(-1) and were found to be

  10. Relating leaf photosynthetic rate to whole-plant growth: drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero Perez, J.L.; Villar, R.; Marañón, T.; Zamora, R.; Vega, D.; Sack, L.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of combined resource supplies on seedlings is critical to enable prediction of establishment growth, and forest dynamics. We investigated the effects of irradiance and water treatments on absolute growth, and relative growth rate (RGR) and its components, for seedlings of

  11. Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L

    2018-04-13

    The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.

  12. The Work Performed within Special Legal Labour Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Prior Work Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. Results An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contr act so different from other contracts. Value We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by this types of labour performed in different legal labour relations.

  13. Performance indicators related to women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimi Pereira Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine performance indicators related to women’s health. Data were collected from 457 women living in the State of Parana, Brazil, classified according to age: 20-29 years (N=158, 30-39 years (N=171 and 40-49 years (N=128. The following variables were analyzed: height (m, body weight (kg, BMI, waist-hip ratio, abdominal strength (repetitions, flexibility (cm, and right and left hand grip strength (kgf. Descriptive statistics, one-factor ANOVA and the Tukey post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05. The results showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all categories of the variables analyzed, except for right hand grip strength (good and excellent at age 30-39 years and left hand grip strength at age 40-49 years. There was a higher incidence of inadequate BMI and waist-hip ratio and low abdominal strength among women aged 40-49 years. Low flexibility was more frequent in the 20-29 year group. The differences in right and left hand grip strength between age groups were small.

  14. Effects of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusup, Cep Hikmat Maulana; Nugroho, Rudy A.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the optimum concentration of copra meal as a fish meal replacement on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio. Various concentrations of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal, viz 3, 6, 9, and 12 % were used to determine the final weight, body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the C. carpio (Initial body weight 25-25.2 g/fish) and compare with control group (Basal diet) without copra meal replacement and commercial diet (CD). Six groups of C. carpio with three replicates were used and fed with different concentration of copra meal at satiation level five times per day for 12 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the C. carpio fed 9% copra meal in the diet had higher final weight, BWG, AWG, DWG, SGR than any other groups, except commercial diet (CD). Meanwhile, the highest PER was found on the fish fed CD, followed by fish fed 3 % of copra meal in the diet. However, FCR was not affected by any types of diets. These finding suggested that the 9% replacement of wheat in the diet with copra meal is beneficial to improve growth performance.

  15. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  16. Growth hormone deficiency after mild combat-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Hampstead, Benjamin M; Moore, Anna; Burgess, Elizabeth; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recognized as a cause of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in civilians. However, comparable data are sparse in veterans who incurred TBI during combat. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of GHD in veterans with a history of combat-related TBI, and its association with cognitive and psychosocial dysfunction. Single center prospective study. Twenty male veterans with mild TBI incurred during combat 8-72 months prior to enrollment. GHD was defined by a GH peak emotional, and quality of life of the GHD Veterans were described using Cohen's d. Large effect sizes were considered meaningful. Mean age was 33.7 years (SD 7.8) and all subjects had normal thyroid hormone and cortisol levels. Five (25%) exhibited a subnormal response to glucagon. Sixteen participants (80%) provided sufficient effort for valid neuropsychological assessment (12 GH-sufficient, 4 GHD). There were large effect size differences in self-monitoring during memory testing (d = 1.46) and inhibitory control (d = 0.92), with worse performances in the GHD group. While fatigue and post-traumatic stress disorder were comparable, the GHD group reported more depression (d = 0.80) and lower quality of life (d = 0.64). Our study found a 25% prevalence of GHD in veterans with mild TBI as shown by glucagon stimulation. The neuropsychological findings raise the possibility that GHD has adverse effects on executive abilities and mood. Further studies are needed to determine whether GH replacement is an effective treatment in these patients.

  17. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance...

  18. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janampet, Razia Sultana; Malavath, Kishan Kumar; Neeradi, Rajanna; Chedurupalli, Satyanarayana; Thirunahari, Raghunandan

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (preplacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  19. The growth performance of Osphronemus goramy reared in saline water with electrical field exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the optimal salinity level on growth rates of giant gouramy Osphronemus goramy  reared in different salinity with electrical field exposure. Four different salinities tested were 0; 3; 6 and 9‰ with the electrical field exposure of 10 Volt. The experiment design was arranged in completely randoumizes design with four treatments and three replications. Stock density was 3 fish/l with mean initial total body length of 7.18±0.30 cm and initial body weight of 5.68±0.67 g. Result of study showed that the treatment of 3‰ shows the best growth performance with specific growth rates of 1.02±0.10% and growth of absolute length of 0.56±0.18 cm. Key words: Salinity, electrical field, growth rate, Osphronemus goramy   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui salinitas optimal untuk pertumbuhan ikan gurame Osphronemus goramy yang dipelihara pada media bersalinitas berbeda dengan paparan medan listrik. Perlakuan meliputi empat salinitas media yang berbeda: 0, 3, 6, dan 9‰ dengan paparan medan listrik 10 Volt. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Padat penebaran ikan adalah 3 ekor/l dengan rata-rata panjang total 7,18±0,30 cm dan bobot rata-rata awal 5,68±0,67 g. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan ikan gurame terbaik pada penelitian ini dicapai pada salinitas 3‰ dengan pertumbuhan bobot 1,02±0,10% dan pertumbuhan panjang mutlak 0,56±0,18 cm.   Kata-kata kunci: Salinitas, medan listrik, laju pertumbuhan, Osphronemus goramy

  20. Comparisons of Growth and Survival Performance Among Selected Families and Wild Populations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie; Meng, Xianhong; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Chen, Baolong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, families of selected population for growth (SP_BWT), selected population for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance (SP_RW), Bohai wild population (WP_BH) and Huanghai wild population (WP_HH) of F. chinensis were constructed through artificial insemination and with the standardized procedure of larvae rearing. Growth and survival performance were studied among four populations after a 70 days common test. The results showed that the maximum least square mean of body weight was 17.50 g in SP_BWT while the minimum was 13.03 g in WP_HH. Compared with WP_BH, body weight of SP_BWT increased by 23.41% ( P 0.05). Body weights of SP_BWT and SP_RW were significantly higher than that of WP_HH, which increased by 34.31% ( P populations was 0.19, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.16 g d-1, respectively. Coefficient of variation of body weight among four populations was high, which ranged from 32.67% to 35.25%. Such a range showed that there was the potentiality for further improvement in selected populations. Coefficient of variation of survival rate among four populations was low, varying between 3.20% and 5.90%. The difference of survival was highly significant ( P populations ( P growth performances were also observed among different families in each population. The body weight of 798F family was the highest. The absolute growth rate (AGR) was 0.25 g d-1, 150% higher than that of the lowest one, 0.1 g d-1 in 807F family. Survival rate of families among four populations was different. The highest was 94.74%, and the lowest was 71.88%.

  1. The experience of acculturative stress-related growth from immigrants’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Hakjun

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has mainly focused on the positive effects of stress associated with disability and illness, called stressrelated growth. Little research has explored positive changes as a result of acculturative stress among a group of immigrants. In particular, older Asian immigrants may experience a high level of stress related to acculturation because they may face more challenges to adapt to and navigate a new culture. This study was designed to capture the characteristics of stress-...

  2. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  3. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  4. What doesn't kill me…: Adversity-related experiences are vital in the development of superior Olympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David; Brown, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Recent research suggests that experiencing some adversity can have beneficial outcomes for human growth and development. The purpose of this paper was to explore the adversities that the world's best athletes encounter and the perceived role that these experiences play in their psychological and performance development. A qualitative design was employed because detailed information of rich quality was required to better understand adversity-related experiences in the world's best athletes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Olympic gold medalists from a variety of sports. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that the participants encountered a range of sport- and non-sport adversities that they considered were essential for winning their gold medals, including repeated non-selection, significant sporting failure, serious injury, political unrest, and the death of a family member. The participants described the role that these experiences played in their psychological and performance development, specifically focusing on their resultant trauma, motivation, and learning. Adversity-related experiences were deemed to be vital in the psychological and performance development of Olympic champions. In the future, researchers should conduct more in-depth comparative studies of Olympic athletes' adversity- and growth-related experiences, and draw on existing and alternative theoretical explanations of the growth-performance relationship. For professional practitioners, adversity-related experiences offer potential developmental opportunities if they are carefully and purposely harnessed. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors on the levitation performance in the applied magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Liao, X. L.; Jing, H. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.

  6. Age-related changes in Serum Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Somatostatin in System Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malemud Charles J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is an age- and gender-associated autoimmune disorder. Previous studies suggested that defects in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis contributed to systemic lupus erythematosus disease progression which could also involve growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin function. This study was designed to compare basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels in female systemic lupus erythematosus patients to a group of normal female subjects. Methods Basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels were measured by standard radioimmunoassay. Results Serum growth hormone levels failed to correlate with age (r2 = 3.03 in the entire group of normal subjects (i.e. 20 – 80 years. In contrast, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were inversely correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.092. Of note, serum growth hormone was positively correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.269 in the 20 – 46 year range which overlapped with the age range of patients in the systemic lupus erythematosus group. In that regard, serum growth hormone levels were not significantly higher compared to either the entire group of normal subjects (20 – 80 yrs or to normal subjects age-matched to the systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly elevated (p 55 yrs systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions These results indicated that systemic lupus erythematosus was not characterized by a modulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 paracrine axis when serum samples from systemic lupus erythematosus patients were compared to age- matched normal female subjects. These results in systemic lupus erythematosus differ from those previously reported in other musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, diffuse idiopathic skeletal

  7. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Bardzardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  8. Job anxiety, work-related psychological illness and workplace performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Melanie; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses matched employee-employer data from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) 2004 to examine the determinants of employee job anxiety and work-related psychological illness. Job anxiety is found to be strongly related to the demands of the job as measured by factors such as occupation, education and hours of work. Average levels of employee job anxiety, in turn, are positively associated with work-related psychological illness among the workforce as reported by...

  9. Modeling and Performing Relational Theories in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; West, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Although directly related to students' everyday lives, the abstract and even intimidating nature of relational theories often bars students from recognizing the immediate relevance to their relationships. The theories of symbolic interactionism, social exchange, relational dialectics, social penetration, and uncertainty reduction offer students…

  10. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ENZYMES ON NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Fattah Z.M. Salem

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Six crossbred sheep (32.00±0.603 kg BW and 6 Baladi goats (18.00±0.703 kg BW were used in 2×2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzymes of ZADO® (i.e., ENZ and on digestibility and growth performance. Animals were fed on wheat straw ad libitum and restricted amount of commercial concentrate with (+ENZ or without (-ENZ 10 g/animal/day of ZADO to cover 120% of their maintenance requirements. Nutrients digestibilities were increased (P

  11. The Effects of Natural Zeolit Supplemented into Litter on Growth Performance and Welfare of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Erol BİNTAŞ; Kamil Küçükyılmaz; Mehmet Bozkurt; Abdullah Uğur Çatlı; Mustafa Çınar; Sabri Topbaş; Bahattin Koçer; Gökhan Ege

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinoptiolite (a natural zeolite) in two addition level (3 kg or 6 kg) and two particle size (ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 mm or 0.5 to 1.0 mm) as litter supplement on the growth performance, litter dry matter, ammonium release and foot pad lesion score of broilers. One thousand and eight hundred, one-day-old chickens were divided into five treatment groups with six replicates of 60 chicks. Bird density was 15/ m2 in floor pens where pine sha...

  12. Optimized diagnostic performance of brain magnetic resonance imaging in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rac, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to search for correlations between anatomic changes in the pituitary gland and hormonal disturbances in children with short stature. Material and methods: Children with short stature were enrolled when criteria of pituitary growth hormone deficiency were partly or completely met. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 87 children and particular attention was given to the pituitary gland. Measurements were compared with pituitary dimensions accepted as normal in the literature. Contrast with GdDTPA was used to visualize the pituitary gland and associated structures (stalk, infundibulum). T1-weighted images in the sagittal and coronal planes were obtained. The results were statistically analyzed with non-parametric tests. Conclusions: 1. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very sensitive method for detecting changes in the pituitary gland and may well be recommended as a method of choice even though the percentage of changes detected with it is rather small. 2. The use of contrast agent may be abandoned to limit costs when searching for cause of growth deficit in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency, save for the following cases: hypoplasia or aplasia of the pituitary gland, transection of the stalk, empty sella syndrome or tumor in the central nervous system. 3. Pituitary volume and height appear to be of greatest diagnostic significance, while width (which varies little) can serve as an auxiliary parameter. (author)

  13. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Kasiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW, dried Tubifex (DT, dried Gammarus (DG and prepared granulated feed (PGF, twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI, fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested.

  14. Performance of suspended and attached growth MBR systems in treating high strength synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal Khan, S; Ilyas, Shazia; Javid, Sadaf; Visvanathan, C; Jegatheesan, V

    2011-05-01

    The performance of laboratory-scale attached growth (AG) and suspended growth (SG) membrane bioreactors (MBRs) was evaluated in treating synthetic wastewater simulating high strength domestic wastewater. This study investigated the influence of sponge suspended carriers in AG-MBR system, occupying 15% reactor volume, on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), and compared it to that of SG-MBR. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP in AG-MBR were 98%, 89% and 58%, respectively as compared to 98%, 74% and 38%, respectively in SG-MBR. Improved TN removal in AG-MBR systems was primarily based on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. These results infer that the presence of small bio-particles having higher microbial activity and the growth of complex biomass captured within the suspended sponge carriers resulted in improved TN and TP removal in AG-MBR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analytical studies related to Indian PHWR containment system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haware, S.K.; Markandeya, S.G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1998-01-01

    Build-up of pressure in a multi-compartment containment after a postulated accident, the growth, transportation and removal of aerosols in the containment are complex processes of vital importance in deciding the source term. The release of hydrogen and its combustion increases the overpressure. In order to analyze these complex processes and to enable proper estimation of the source term, well tested analytical tools are necessary. This paper gives a detailed account of the analytical tools developed/adapted for PSA level 2 studies. (author)

  16. Childhood Stature and Growth in Relation to First Ischemic Stroke or Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line Klingen; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2018-03-01

    Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In a cohort of Danish schoolchildren born 1930 to 1989, with measured height from 7 to 13 years, we investigated associations of childhood stature and growth with risks of adult IS and ICH. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with CIs separately for women and men. Among 311 009 individuals, 10 412 were diagnosed with IS and 2546 with ICH. Height at 7 years was inversely and significantly associated with IS in both sexes (per z score, equivalent to ≈5.2 cm in women and 5.1 cm in men; women: HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.87-0.92]; men: HR=0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92]) and with ICH in men (HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.84-0.94]) but not in women (HR=0.97 [95% CI: 0.91-1.04]). Associations were similar at older childhood ages and were stable throughout the study period. No statistically significant associations for growth from 7 to 13 years were observed for IS or ICH. Short stature at 7 to 13 years is significantly associated with increased risks of IS in both sexes and with ICH in men. Growth during this period of childhood is not significantly associated with either of these stroke subtypes, suggesting that underlying mechanisms linking height with risks of stroke may exert their influence already by early childhood. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Age-related changes in visual temporal order judgment performance: Relation to sensory and cognitive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas; Craig, James; Clark, Chris; Humes, Larry

    2010-08-06

    Five measures of temporal order judgments were obtained from 261 participants, including 146 elder, 44 middle aged, and 71 young participants. Strong age group differences were observed in all five measures, although the group differences were reduced when letter discriminability was matched for all participants. Significant relations were found between these measures of temporal processing and several cognitive and sensory assays, and structural equation modeling revealed the degree to which temporal order processing can be viewed as a latent factor that depends in part on contributions from sensory and cognitive capacities. The best-fitting model involved two different latent factors representing temporal order processing at same and different locations, and the sensory and cognitive factors were more successful predicting performance in the different location factor than the same-location factor. Processing speed, even measured using high-contrast symbols on a paper-and-pencil test, was a surprisingly strong predictor of variability in both latent factors. However, low-level sensory measures also made significant contributions to the latent factors. The results demonstrate the degree to which temporal order processing relates to other perceptual and cognitive capacities, and address the question of whether age-related declines in these capacities share a common cause. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-Related Intraindividual Performance Variability with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne Bonneau; Odell, Katharine H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuations in cognitive task performance in older individuals have been reported. To examine intraindividual variability as a function of practice, 34 younger and 34 older female participants, aged 20-30 years and 70-82 years, respectively, performed a reading span task 16 times over four sessions. Each individual's recall accuracy was analyzed…

  19. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  20. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  1. Positivity in healthcare: relation of optimism to performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthans, Kyle W; Lebsack, Sandra A; Lebsack, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the linkage between nurses' levels of optimism and performance outcomes. The study sample consisted of 78 nurses in all areas of a large healthcare facility (hospital) in the Midwestern United States. The participants completed surveys to determine their current state of optimism. Supervisory performance appraisal data were gathered in order to measure performance outcomes. Spearman correlations and a one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a highly significant positive relationship between the nurses' measured state of optimism and their supervisors' ratings of their commitment to the mission of the hospital, a measure of contribution to increasing customer satisfaction, and an overall measure of work performance. This was an exploratory study. Larger sample sizes and longitudinal data would be beneficial because it is probable that state optimism levels will vary and that it might be more accurate to measure state optimism at several points over time in order to better predict performance outcomes. Finally, the study design does not imply causation. Suggestions for effectively developing and managing nurses' optimism to positively impact their performance are provided. To date, there has been very little empirical evidence assessing the impact that positive psychological capacities such as optimism of key healthcare professionals may have on performance. This paper was designed to help begin to fill this void by examining the relationship between nurses' self-reported optimism and their supervisors' evaluations of their performance.

  2. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingzhi; Gong, Yulong; Cao, Shenping; Lu, Fei; Han, Dong; Liu, Haokun; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Zhu, Xiaoming; Xie, Shouqi

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets containing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meal in partial substitution of fishmeal on growth performance and immune responses of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Four diets were formulated to contain 0 (the control diet), 9, 18 and 27 g mealworm meal per 100 g diet with 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of fishmeal replacement, respectively. Yellow catfish were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group. The fish in each group were fed with one of the four experimental diets for 5 weeks. Growth performance, plasma parameters (SOD, MDA, IgM, C3, lysozyme) and immune related genes (MHC II, IL-1, CypA, IgM, HE) of yellow catfish were determined at the end of the feeding trial, as well as 24 h post bacterial (Edwardsiella ictaluri) challenge. The present results showed that dietary inclusion of mealworm meal (MW) had no negative effects on the growth performance of the juvenile yellow catfish, compared to the control group. At the end of the feeding trial, plasma MDA contents of MW supplemented groups were significant lower than the control group. Plasma SOD activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial (pre-challenge) and 24 h post challenge with E. ictaluri. Significant increase of plasma lysozyme activity was found in MW supplemented groups compared to the control group 24 h post bacterial challenge. Plasma IgM levels increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial. Compared with the control group, the immune related genes of MHC II, IL-1, IgM and HE of the fish in the MW supplemented groups significantly upregulated pre-challenge or 24 h post bacterial challenge. Finally, it was observed that the survival rate of the 27% MW group was significant higher (P < 0.05) than the control group but was not significantly differed from the 18% MW group. The present results indicated that dietary

  3. Effect of Different Fatty Acid Sources of Diet on Growth Performance of Botia Botia macracanthus Bleeker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sunarto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish requires essential fatty acid for growth. Freshwater fish needs linoleat fatty acid (n-6 or combination of linoleat and a-linolenat acids (n-3.  Fish oil contains higher level of n-3, corn oil is rich of n-6, while coconut oil is rich of saturated fatty acids.  This study was conducted to determine the effect of fatty acid sources in diet on growth performance of botia Botia macracanthus. Sources of fatty acid examined were coconut oil (control, corn oil, fish oil, and corn oil + fish oil + coconut oil. The results of study show that daily growth rate of fish fed on diet containing mix of corn-coconut-fish oils (8.39% and only corn oil (8.15% was higher (p0.05.  Survival rate of fish at all treatments was similar, ranged from 90.00 to 93.33%.  Thus, the results suggested that diet containing only corn oil is suitable for botia to obtain higher growth rate and lower feed conversion rate. Keywords: fatty acid, growth performance, botia, Botia macracanthus ABSTRAK Ikan membutuhkan asam lemak essensial (EFA = Essential Fatty Acid untuk pertumbuhannya.  Ikan air tawar memerlukan asam lemak linoleat (n-6 atau gabungan asam lemak linoleat (n-6 dan alfa-linolenat (n-3.  Minyak ikan banyak mengandung asam lemak n-3, minyak jagung kaya akan asam lemak n-6, sementara minyak kelapa banyak mengandung asam lemak jenuh.  Sumber asam lemak yang diuji adalah minyak kelapa  (kontrol, minyak jagung, minyak ikan, dan minyak jagung + minyak ikan + minyak kelapa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan harian ikan botia yang diberi pakan yang mengandung campuran minyak jagung-kelapa-ikan (8,39% dan minyak jagung (8,15% saja lebih tinggi (p0,05.  Kelangsungan hidup ikan pada semua perlakuan relatif sama, yaitu berkisar antara 90,00-93,33%. Dengan demikian, pakan untuk ikan botia cukup mengandung minyak jagung saja untuk mendapatkan laju pertumbuhan yang tinggi dengan konversi pakan yang rendah. Kata kunci: asam lemak, kinerja pertumbuhan

  4. Modeling the dynamics of BMI changes during adolescence. The Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M C; Eisenmann, J C; e Santos, D V; de Chaves, R N; de Moraes Forjaz, C L; Maia, J A R

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to model changes in body mass index (BMI) of 10-18-year-old adolescents, and (ii) to investigate the effects of total physical activity (TPA), physical fitness (PF), sleep duration and fruit/vegetable consumption in BMI trajectories across time. Data were obtained from the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study and comprised 6894 adolescents (3418 girls) divided into four age cohorts (10, 12, 14 and 16 years) measured annually for 3 years. BMI was computed using the standard formula (kg m(-2)); TPA was estimated with the Baecke questionnaire; PF measures included 1-mile run/walk, 50 yard dash (50YD), standing long jump (SLJ), handgrip strength (HGr) and agility shuttle run. Longitudinal changes in BMI were analyzed using the multilevel modeling approach. The average BMI at age of peak of height velocity was 20.7±0.07 kg m(-2) for girls (P<0.001) and 20.58±0.06 kg m(-2) for boys (P<0.001). The annual increment in BMI was 1.36±0.04 kg m(-2), P<0.001 and 1.23±0.03 kg m(-2), P<0.001 for girls and boys, respectively. PF were related to BMI trajectories in both sexes (Girls: β1mile=0.12±0.02, P<0.001; βSLJ=-0.01±0.00, P<0.001; β50YD=0.28±0.05, P<0.001; βHGr=-8.91±0.54, P<0.001; Boys: β1mile=0.18±0.02, P<0.001; βSLJ=-0.01±0.00, P<0.001; β50YD=0.26±0.04, P<0.001; and βHGr=-8.15±0.45, P<0.001). TPA only showed significant, but positive, association with girls' BMI trajectories (β=0.10±0.03, P=0.001). After adjusting for the covariates, sleep duration and fruit/vegetable intake did not show any significant association with BMI trajectories either sex. BMI increased linearly with age in both gender. PF levels are negatively associated with BMI across time in both boys and girls. Therefore, promotion of PF in the adolescent years seems to be effective in the early prevention of obesity.

  5. Variation in nutrient digestibility and energy intake are key contributors to differences in postweaning growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C K; Patience, J F

    2014-05-01

    Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P ratio differed (P < 0.03), supposedly because of differences in thermoneutrality, and therefore maintenance requirements. Reduced postweaning ADG appears to be driven by a combination of poor nutrient digestibility, energy intake, and, possibly, cold stress, which may provide avenues

  6. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  7. Economic growth, CO2 emissions, renewable waste and FDI relation in Pakistan: New evidences from 3SLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsh, Khuda; Rose, Sobia; Ali, Muhammad Faisal; Ahmad, Najid; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    First attempt has been made to find the effects of foreign direct investment on environmental pollution and economic growth, in addition to finding the determinants of foreign direct investment inflows in Pakistan using the annual data set for the period of 1980-2014. Simultaneous equation model has been used to find relation between the variables of concern. Results from technique and composition effects show that increase in economic growth leads towards more pollution emissions. Scale effect shows stock of capital and labor have positive effect on the economic growth of Pakistan while pollution has negative effect on growth. In case of capital accumulation effect, economic growth and foreign direct investment have positive and significant effect on stock of capital. Although increase in economic growth increases pollution, however, economic growth declines as pollution crosses a certain limit. Foreign direct investment is also found positively related with pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Postnatal growth of children in relation to noise from Osaka International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, L. M.; Ando, Y.

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of different levels of exposure to airport noise on the physical growth of children. Heights and weights of 6686 three-year-old boys and girls were measured between April 1972 and March 1974. These children are grouped into one of five exposure levels according to their exposure to noise from nearby Osaka International Airport in Japan. The frequency of growth inhibition is examined in each noise group and compared across groups. The frequency of very short boys and girls (less than 87 cm) increases significantly ( p short stature (10th percentile of local standards), the presence of moderate growth inhibition also is related to the level of airport noise, more so in males than females. With a third and less restrictive definition (less than 91 cm), the association is still present. Parallel analyses with weight did not find significant effects of noise exposure. We conclude that airport noise exposure may be related to a greater frequency of children of very small stature. We interpret this as evidence for a long-term physical effect of airport noise on children.

  9. Pattern of relative growth in cockle Anadara antiquata in Ihamahu coastal waters, Central Maluku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, L.; Tuhumury, S. F.; Uneputty, P. A.; Tuhumury, N. C.

    2018-03-01

    Anadara antiquata is economically important species for fisheries and belong to phylum mollusc which also found in Maluku. However, the density of population begins to decrease recently due to high exploitation by people. The objective of the present study was to analyze relative growth pattern of A. antiquata including size distribution and growth pattern based on shell dimensions. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Ihamahu coastal waters. Data were collected by using purposive random sampling. All the individuals of A. antiquata found were measured the length, width and height by using a vernier caliper to the nearest 0.01mm. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20 and Microsoft Excel software. The results indicated that the A. antiquata mostly found in seagrass bed with a muddy substrate. The size distribution of shell dimensions was different during sampling. Overall, the length ranged from 15.87 mm to 57.5 mm, the width from 15.50 mm to 48.60 mm and the height was from 9.36 mm to 35.9 mm. The population of A. antiquata consisted of juvenile and mature size. The mature size (> 30 mm) was more dominant in the population. The A. antiquata showed allometric relative growth pattern based on shell dimensions.

  10. Performing political partnership - A study of EU-Liberia relations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Sigrid Bjerre

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the concept of political partnership as a way of describing relations between the European Union and the ACP countries (Africa, Carribean and Pacific). The concept reflects two trends in current development discourse. On the one hand, the renaming of donor-recipient relations as 'partnerships', implying a more equal status between donors and recipients. On the other hand, the bringing in of political principles into donor-recipient relations, based on the philosophy t...

  11. Algal Growth and Waste Stabilization Ponds Performance Efficiency in a Sub-Tropical Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, A.; Khan, M. A.; Shaukat, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Both irrigation and potable water are in diminutive supply in most of the developing countries particularly those situated in tropical and subtropical regions where, often untreated wastewater is utilized for the purpose of irrigation. Treated wastewater has proved to be a potential asset serving as an alternate source for the expansion of irrigated agriculture. Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) are considered as less costly and effective substitute for the wastewater water treatment in tropics. The principle of wastewater treatment in waste stabilization pond is based on the symbiotic relationship between bacteria and various algal species. In this study, an attempt was made to relate algal growth and different extrinsic factors using multiple regression models. The predominant algal species found in WSP systems were Chlorella, Euglena, Oscillatoria and Scenedesmus. The growth of individual algal species and overall algal growth was principally governed by temperature, total sunshine hours and Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen (TKN). The study suggested that algal bacterial symbiotic relationship works well and the dissolved oxygen production through algal photosynthesis was optimum to decompose heavy organic load resulting in oxygen-rich effluent (liquid fertilizer) which could be successfully exploited for unrestricted irrigation. (author)

  12. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Progression of Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rodríguez-de la Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with impairment of sensorial functions and with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. As pari passu circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 bioavailability progressively decreases, we see a direct correlation with sensory impairment and cognitive performance in older humans. Age-related sensory loss is typically caused by the irreversible death of highly differentiated neurons and sensory receptor cells. Among sensory deficits, age-related hearing loss (ARHL, also named presbycusis, affects one third of the population over 65 years of age and is a major factor in the progression of cognitive problems in the elderly. The genetic and molecular bases of ARHL are largely unknown and only a few genes related to susceptibility to oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and cell death have been identified. IGF-1 is known to be a neuroprotective agent that maintains cellular metabolism, activates growth, proliferation and differentiation, and limits cell death. Inborn IGF-1 deficiency leads to profound sensorineural hearing loss both in humans and mice. IGF-1 haploinsufficiency has also been shown to correlate with ARHL. There is not much information available on the effect of IGF-1 deficiency on other human sensory systems, but experimental models show a long-term impact on the retina. A secondary action of IGF-1 is the control of oxidative stress and inflammation, thus helping to resolve damage situations, acute or made chronic by aging. Here we will review the primary actions of IGF-1 in the auditory system and the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  13. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  14. Drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance growth phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Garvey, T.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Smith, L.

    1991-04-01

    We have recently conducted a series of experiments on the MBE-4 heavy ion accelerator in which a velocity tilt was placed on the beam in the first accelerating section beyond the injector, followed by drift compression over the remaining 11 meters. Depending upon the magnitude of the velocity tilt and the accompanying mismatch in the focusing lattice, emittance growth was observed, manifested by ''butterfly'' shapes in x - x' phase space. We discuss various analytical limits on ion beam compression and relate them to these experiments and also to a driver for a heavy ion fusion reactor. We also present numerical simulations which investigate various aspects of compression and consequent emittance growth. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Relative growth pattern and hard tissue of vertebral centra by microradiography of bluefin tuna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, H.

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of three species, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus, bigeye tuna T. obesus and skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis (BL: 44.2, 39.5 and 40.0cm respectively). We examined the ratio of cetrum length to diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.9-1.3 in most centra among three species. This indicates that the examined species belong to the equivalent type of the relative growth pattern of vertebral centra. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm) cut through the center of notochordal pore. The major centra of the vertebral column were composed of characteristic simple structure like a cross, when seen in the microradiographs of cross sections. Microradiographs indicated that the bone has complicated canals with minute spaces like the bone cavities

  16. Growth of pulsed electric field exposed Escherichia coli in relation to inactivation and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Kristina; Borch, Elisabeth; Stenlöf, Bo; Rönner, Ulf

    2004-05-15

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have been proven to inactivate microorganisms during nonthermal conditions and have the potential to replace thermal processing as a method for food preservation. However, there is a need to understand the recovery and growth of survivors and potentially injured microorganisms following PEF processing. The purpose of this investigation was to study the growth of Escherichia coli at 10 degrees C following exposure to electrical field strengths (15, 22.5 and 30 kV/cm) in relation to inactivation and the amount of potentially sublethally injured cells. One medium was used as both a treatment medium and an incubation medium, to study the influence of environmental factors on the inactivation and the growth of the surviving population. The pH (5.0, 6.0 and 7.0) and water activity (1.00, 0.985 and 0.97) of the medium was varied by adding HCl and glycerol, respectively. Growth was followed continuously by measuring the optical density. The time-to-detection (td) and the maximum specific growth rate (micromax) were calculated from these data. Results showed that the PEF process did not cause any obvious sublethal injury to the E. coli cells. The number of survivors was a consequence of the combination of electrical field strength and environmental factors, with pH being the most prominent. Interestingly, the micromax of subsequent growth was influenced by the applied electrical field strength during the process, with an increased micromax at more intense electrical field strengths. In addition, the micromax was also influenced by the pH and water activity. The td, which could theoretically be considered as an increase in shelf life, was found to depend on a complex correlation between electrical field strength, pH and water activity. That could be explained by the fact that the td is a combination of the number of survivors, the recovery of sublethal injured cells and the growth rate of the survivors. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nutritional modulation of IGF-1 in relation to growth and body condition in Sceloporus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christine A; Jetzt, Amanda E; Cohick, Wendie S; John-Alder, Henry B

    2015-05-15

    Nutrition and energy balance are important regulators of growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. However, our understanding of these functions does not extend uniformly to all classes of vertebrates and is mainly limited to controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards can be useful models to improve our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis because many species are relatively easy to observe and manipulate both in the laboratory and in the field. In the present study, the effects of variation in food intake on growth, body condition, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA levels were measured in (1) juveniles of Sceloporus jarrovii maintained on a full or 1/3 ration and (2) hatchlings of Sceloporus undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. These parameters plus plasma IGF-1 were measured in a third experiment using adults of S. undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. In all experiments, plasma corticosterone was measured as an anticipated indicator of nutritional stress. In S. jarrovii, growth and body condition were reduced but lizards remained in positive energy balance on 1/3 ration, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and plasma corticosterone were not affected in comparison to full ration. In S. undulatus, growth, body condition, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, and plasma IGF-1 were all reduced by zero ration and restored by refeeding. Plasma corticosterone was increased in response to zero ration and restored by full ration in hatchlings but not adults of S. undulatus. These data indicate that lizards conform to the broader vertebrate model in which severe food deprivation and negative energy balance is required to attenuate systemic IGF-1 expression. However, when animals remain in positive energy balance, reduced food intake does not appear to affect systemic IGF-1. Consistent with other studies on lizards, the corticosterone response to reduced food intake is an unreliable indicator

  18. Expression of serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and the growth hormone-binding protein in heterozygote relatives of Ecuadorian growth hormone receptor deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, P J; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Carlsson, L; Hintz, R L; Rosenfeld, R G

    1992-04-01

    Recently, an isolated population of apparent GH-receptor deficient (GHRD) patients has been identified in the Loja province of southern Ecuador. These individuals presented many of the physical and biochemical phenotypes characteristic of Laron-Syndrome and are believed to have a defect in the GH-receptor gene. In this study, we have compared the biochemical phenotypes between the affected individuals and their parents, considered to be obligate heterozygotes for the disorder. Serum GH, insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) levels were measured by RIA Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. (IGFBPs) were measured by Western ligand blotting (WLB) of serum samples, following separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and relative quantitation of serum IGFBPs was performed with a scanning laser densitometer. Serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) levels were measured with a ligand-mediated immunofunctional assay using a monoclonal antibody raised against the GHBP. These values were then compared to values obtained from normal, sex-matched adult Ecuadorian controls, to determine if the above parameters were abnormal in the heterozygotes. The serum IGF-I levels of the GHRD patients were less than 13% of control values for adults and 2% for children. However, the IGF-I levels of both the mothers and fathers were not significantly different from that of the control population. The serum IGF-II levels of the GHRD patients were approximately 20% of control values for adults and 12% for the children. The IGF-II levels of the mothers were reduced, but were not significantly different from that of the control population. However, IGF-II levels of the fathers were significantly lower than those of controls (64% of control male levels). WLB analysis of serum IGFBP levels of the affected subjects demonstrated increased IGFBP-2 and decreased IGFBP-3, suggesting an inverse relationship between these IGFBPs. The GHRD patients who had the

  19. Effects of zinc-methionine on growth performance, intestinal flora and immune function in pigeon squabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yi, L; Zhao, M L; Wu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Cheng, X C

    2014-01-01

    1. Different concentrations of zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) were given to pigeon squabs, and the resulting effects on growth, immune functions and intestinal microflora were investigated from hatching to 28 d of age. A total of 180 artificially hatched pigeon squabs were randomly allotted to each of three treatments with three replicates of 20 squabs. The three treatments given were either one ml (2 mg/ml) Zn-Met, one ml (10 mg/ml) Zn-Met or one ml 0.9% NaCl solution. 2. The results showed that Zn-Met improved the growth performance of squabs. The average daily and average weekly weight gain was significantly greater in squabs treated with Zn-Met than in the control group. 3. The group given 2 and 10 mg supplemental Zn-Met had heavier thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius than the control group at d 28. 4. Maternal antibody titres against Newcastle disease haemagglutination inhibition and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase were significantly higher in squabs treated with supplemental 2 and 10 mg Zn-Met compared to the control group at d 14 and d 28. 5. Additionally, the squabs given supplemental 2 mg Zn-Met exhibited significantly higher Bacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations at d 14 and d 28, but lower Escherichia coli populations at d 28 compared to the control group. On the contrary, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations were significantly decreased with 10 mg Zn-Met at d 28. 6. This study indicates that supplementation with Zn-Met has a positive effect on growth performance, immune function and regulation of intestinal flora in pigeons. An inclusion level of 2 mg seems to be better than 10 mg Zn-Met per day per bird.

  20. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histo- morphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate. At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days, feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24, one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW, drumstick weight (DW, and jejunum length (JL as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01. The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04 and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01 and total periods (p < 0.05. The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059 and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079 as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL and villi number (p < 0.05 and, VL/CD (p < 0.01 and, villus surface area (p < 0.02. The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05. The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01. In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry.

  1. Interspecific correlates of plasticity in relative growth rate following a decrease in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Nitrogen availability varies greatly over short time scales. This requires that a well-adapted plant modify its phenotype by an appropriate amount and at a certain speed in order to maximize growth and fitness. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in each trait interact and whether or not these changes are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and root weight ratio (RWR), before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in 14 herbaceous species. Forty-four plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly decreased from 1 to 0.01 mm during the growth period. In the treatment series, and in comparison with the control, NAR and RGR decreased, RWR increased, and SLA did not change except for the timing of ontogenetic change. Species having greater increases in the maximum rate of change in RWR also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in RWR is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater decrease in NAR showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in NAR is therefore not adaptive. Plasticity in RGR was not related to plasticity in SLA. There were no significant relationships among the plasticities in NAR, RWR or SLA. Potentially fast-growing species experienced larger reductions in RGR following the nitrogen reduction. These results suggest that competitive responses to interspecific competition for nitrogen might be positively correlated with the plasticity in the maximum rate of change in RWR in response to a reduction in nitrogen supply.

  2. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  3. The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)

  4. Toward a unified representation system of performance-related data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailemariam, Ebenezer; Glueck, Michael; Attar, Ramtin; Tessier, Alex; McCrae, James; Khan, Azam [Autodesk Research, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], email: first.last@autodesk.com

    2010-07-01

    When performing a building performance analysis many interacting factors have to be taken into account. Moreover, buildings have a changing behavior due to the ever changing occupants and context. To assess a building's performance, then, an important amount of data has to be studied and the aim of this paper is to present the advances made in the creation of a unified framework where all data can be visualized in a high resolution 3D model. Existing visualization methods are combined into a single framework and both simulated and measured building performance data are used. The model has been tested on the author's office building in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The 3D model under development herein will help users make better use of their massive datasets and understand and analyze a building through its entire life whereas traditional 2D visualization methods make it difficult to interpret all data.

  5. Growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens fed on bacterial protein grown on natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, M; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A

    2010-10-01

    1. The effects of increasing concentrations (0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg) of bacterial protein meal (BPM) and bacterial protein autolysate (BPA) grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcase quality in broiler chickens were examined. 2. Adding BPM to diets reduced feed intake and improved gain: feed from 0 to 21 d and overall to 35 d, but did not significantly affect weight gain compared to the soybean meal based control diet. 3. Increasing concentrations of BPA significantly reduced growth rate, feed intake, gain: feed, carcase weight and dressing percentage, but significantly increased carcase dry matter, fat and energy content. 4. Adding BPM to diets had no effect on viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, and minor effects on litter quality, whereas BPA increased the viscosity of diets and jejunal digesta, improved litter quality at 21 d, but decreased litter quality at 32 d. 5. To conclude, broiler chickens performed better on a BPM product with intact proteins than on an autolysate with ruptured cell walls and a high content of free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides.

  6. A study using Andrographis paniculata in diet on growth performance of Betong chicken: Starting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waree, W.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An eight-week experiment was conducted to study using Andrographis paniculata (AP on the growth performance of Betong chickens (0-8 weeks of age. Three hundred and fifteen head of 1 day old (mixed sex betong chicks were randomly allotted to 7 dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 15 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + 0.1% AP, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.3% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.5% AP, 6 basal diet + 0.6% AP and 7 basal diet + antibiotic 0.2%, respectively. The results showed no significant (P>0.05 difference among treatments in terms of weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and feed cost when AP was included up to 0.1-0.3 % of the diet compared with basal diet and basal diet + antibiotic. However, at levels higher than 0.5% AP, it tended to lower growth performance and feed intake thus causing inferior feed conversion ratio. Feed cost was also dramatically increased with the increasing levels of AP in the diet. No significant difference in mortality rate was found among groups. The average mortality was 1.37%.

  7. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  8. Chelating effect of silver nitrate by chitosan on its toxicity and growth performance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemdjie Mane Divine Doriane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the chelating effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3 by chitosan on growth performances, hematological and biochemical parameters, and the histopathological structure of the liver and the kidney in broiler chicken. Materials and methods: A total of 192 day-old Cobb 500 strain chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 64 chicks each. Control group was fed on basal diet without supplement (R0 and the two others groups were fed on rations supplemented with 10 mg of unchelated (RAg or chelated (RCs-Ag AgNO3 per Kg of feed, respectively. Parameters that have been studied consisted of feed intake, weight gain, blood and serum biochemical, and histopathological analyses of liver and kidney. Results: Results revealed that chelation of AgNO3 by chitosan did not have any effect on growth performances and hematological parameters in chicken. However, chelated and unchelated AgNO3 increased the serum content in triglyceride, and cholesterol and decreased the serum content in creatinin, albumin and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT. Chelating AgNO3 with chitosan prevented and corrected the toxicity induced on the histological structure of liver and kidney. Conclusion: Chitosan can be used as a chelating agent to alleviate the harmful effects of AgNO3 as silver ion for poultry. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 187-193

  9. Predicting the Performance and Survival of Islamic Banks in Malaysia to Achieve Growth Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazuin Sapuan Noraina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the growth of the Islamic financial industry has increased tremendously in line with the Government’s ambition to make Malaysia as an international hub for Islamic finance since 2010. With the increasing number of foreign players in this industry plus with the increasing demand from domestic and foreign customers would further enhance the possibility for Malaysia to achieve this ambition. Currently, according to the Economic Transformation Programme, 2012 Malaysia is the world’s third largest market for Shariah assets that cover Islamic banks, Takaful, and sukuk. Malaysia as one of the main contributors to the global Islamic financial assets with Islamic assets in Malaysia grew by 23.8% in 2011 from RM350.8bil to RM434.6bil. The issues of predicting the performance and the survival of Islamic Banks in Malaysia become amongst crucial issues in academic research. By employing multi – layer perceptron neural network and pooled regression, we found that total assets/ size of the Islamic banks (GROWTH have high weightage and significantly influence in predicting the performance and the survival of Islamic banks in Malaysia. With the increasing number of Islamic banking institutions in Malaysia, this study can give insight on the sustainability of the Islamic banking system in Malaysia for the benefit of the investors, shareholder and depositors.

  10. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  11. Growth performance and protective effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) following by ammonia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chang-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Xun; Wang, An-Li

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, biochemical parameters, and antioxidant capacity of pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) exposed to ammonia stress. The experimental basal diets supplemented with vitamin E at the rates of 2.31 (control), 21.84, 40.23, 83.64, 158.93, and 311.64 mg kg -1 dry weight were fed to fish for 60 days. After the feeding trial, the fish were exposed to 100 mg L -1 ammonia-nitrogen for 48 h. The results shown that the vitamin E group significantly improved weight gain, specific growth rate, and the expression levels of growth hormone receptors and insulin-like growth factor. Fish fed with the vitamin E-supplemented diets could increase plasma alkaline phosphatase activities and decrease plasma glutamicoxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities. The relative expression levels of heat shock proteins (40.23-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group), manganese superoxide dismutase (83.64-158.93 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group), catalase (40.23-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group), and glutathione reductase (40.23-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group) were upregulated. On the other hand, the decreased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in the 83.64-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E additive group. These results showed that vitamin E might have a potentially useful role as an effective antioxidant to improve resistance in pufferfish.

  12. Developing a Behavioral Paradigm for the Performance of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Melvin L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides and supports a definition of public relations as behavior with a mode explaining the difficulty of achieving each behavior and the cost to organizations when the behavior is not achieved. Draws from the literature on ethics, rhetorical theory, public relations management, case studies, and from observation and experience to support this…

  13. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with succe...

  14. Relative performance of academic departments using DEA with sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S P

    2009-05-01

    The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of academic programs based on multiple criteria. Keeping this in view, this paper attempts to evaluate the performance efficiencies of 19 academic departments of IIT Roorkee (India) through data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. The technique has been used to assess the performance of academic institutions in a number of countries like USA, UK, Australia, etc. But we are using it first time in Indian context to the best of our knowledge. Applying DEA models, we calculate technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies and identify the reference sets for inefficient departments. Input and output projections are also suggested for inefficient departments to reach the frontier. Overall performance, research performance and teaching performance are assessed separately using sensitivity analysis.

  15. Effects of Dietary Fat Types on Growth Performance, Pork Quality, and Gene Expression in Growing-finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Park

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary fat sources, i.e., beef tallow, soybean oil, olive oil and coconut oil (each 3% in feed, on the growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 72 crossbred pigs (Landrace×Large White×Duroc were used at 71±1 kg body weight (about 130 d of age in 24 pens (320×150 cm in a confined pig house (three pigs per pen with six replicate pens per treatment. The growing diet was given for periods of 14±3 d and the finishing diet was given for periods of 28±3 d. The fat type had no significant effect either on growth performance or on chemical composition or on meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. Dietary fat type affected fatty acid composition, with higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs in the olive oil group. Microarray analysis in the Longissimus dorsi identified 6 genes, related to insulin signaling pathway, that were differentially expressed among the different feed groups. Real time-PCR was conducted on the six genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM. In particular, the genes encoding the protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha (PRKAR2A and the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1, beta isoform (PPP1CB showed the highest expression level in the olive oil group (respectively, p<0.05, p<0.001. The results of this study indicate that the type of dietary fat affects fatty acid composition and insulin signaling-related gene expression in the LM of pigs.

  16. Long-term monitoring of Sacramento Shade program trees: tree survival, growth and energy-saving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekang Ko; Jun-Hak Lee; E. Gregory McPherson; Lara A. Roman

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival and growth of urban forests are critical to achieve the targeted benefits of urban tree planting programs, such as building energy savings from tree shade. However, little is known about how trees perform in the long-term, especially in residential areas. Given this gap in the literature, we monitored 22-years of post-planting survival, growth, and...

  17. Relation between Belief and Performance in Perceptual Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugowitsch, Jan; Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Pouget, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In an uncertain and ambiguous world, effective decision making requires that subjects form and maintain a belief about the correctness of their choices, a process called meta-cognition. Prediction of future outcomes and self-monitoring are only effective if belief closely matches behavioral performance. Equality between belief and performance is also critical for experimentalists to gain insight into the subjects' belief by simply measuring their performance. Assuming that the decision maker holds the correct model of the world, one might indeed expect that belief and performance should go hand in hand. Unfortunately, we show here that this is rarely the case when performance is defined as the percentage of correct responses for a fixed stimulus, a standard definition in psychophysics. In this case, belief equals performance only for a very narrow family of tasks, whereas in others they will only be very weakly correlated. As we will see it is possible to restore this equality in specific circumstances but this remedy is only effective for a decision-maker, not for an experimenter. We furthermore show that belief and performance do not match when conditioned on task difficulty – as is common practice when plotting the psychometric curve – highlighting common pitfalls in previous neuroscience work. Finally, we demonstrate that miscalibration and the hard-easy effect observed in humans' and other animals' certainty judgments could be explained by a mismatch between the experimenter's and decision maker's expected distribution of task difficulties. These results have important implications for experimental design and are of relevance for theories that aim to unravel the nature of meta-cognition. PMID:24816801

  18. Relation between belief and performance in perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugowitsch, Jan; Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Pouget, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In an uncertain and ambiguous world, effective decision making requires that subjects form and maintain a belief about the correctness of their choices, a process called meta-cognition. Prediction of future outcomes and self-monitoring are only effective if belief closely matches behavioral performance. Equality between belief and performance is also critical for experimentalists to gain insight into the subjects' belief by simply measuring their performance. Assuming that the decision maker holds the correct model of the world, one might indeed expect that belief and performance should go hand in hand. Unfortunately, we show here that this is rarely the case when performance is defined as the percentage of correct responses for a fixed stimulus, a standard definition in psychophysics. In this case, belief equals performance only for a very narrow family of tasks, whereas in others they will only be very weakly correlated. As we will see it is possible to restore this equality in specific circumstances but this remedy is only effective for a decision-maker, not for an experimenter. We furthermore show that belief and performance do not match when conditioned on task difficulty--as is common practice when plotting the psychometric curve--highlighting common pitfalls in previous neuroscience work. Finally, we demonstrate that miscalibration and the hard-easy effect observed in humans' and other animals' certainty judgments could be explained by a mismatch between the experimenter's and decision maker's expected distribution of task difficulties. These results have important implications for experimental design and are of relevance for theories that aim to unravel the nature of meta-cognition.

  19. Determinants of International Outsourcing and Performance: A Relational Exchange Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Dresden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescriptive discussions regarding international outsourcing abound, but there are few previously proposed models of the antecedents leading to such sourcing. This empirical study utilizes the relational exchange framework proposed by Dwyer, Schurr and Oh (1987 and builds a conceptual model of the firm's use of international outsourcing within the context of relational exchange. The model concentrates on the aspects of relational exchange that are crucial antecedents to successful international outsourcing and empirically demonstrates how both economic and social factors have their influence. The resulting model demonstrates how cooperation, rather than competition, leads to successful international outsourcing.

  20. Biological and ecological evidences suggest Stipa krylovii (Pooideae), contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X B; McNeill, M R; Ma, J C; Qin, X H; Tu, X B; Cao, G C; Wang, G J; Nong, X Q; Zhang, Z H

    2017-06-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus Bey. Bienko is a significant grasshopper pest species occurring in north Asian grasslands. Outbreaks often result in significant loss in grasses and economic losses. Interestingly, we found this grasshopper was mainly restricted to Stipa-dominated grassland. We suspected this may be related to the dominant grasses species, Stipa krylovii Roshev, and hypothesized that S. krylovii contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of O. asiaticus. A 4 year investigation showed that O. asiaticus density was positively correlated to the above-ground biomass of S. krylovii and O. asiaticus growth performance variables (survival rate, size, growth rate) were significantly higher in Stipa-dominated grassland. A feeding trial also showed that O. asiaticus had a higher growth performance when feeding exclusively on S. krylovii. In addition, the choice, consumption and the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) by O. asiaticus was highest for S. krylovii compared with other plant species found in the Asian grasslands. These ecological and biological traits revealed why O. asiaticus is strongly associated with Stipa-dominated grasslands. We concluded that the existence of S. krylovii benefited the growth performance and explained the distribution of O. asiaticus. These results are useful for improved pest management strategies and developing guidelines for the monitoring of grasshopper population dynamics against the background of vegetation succession and changing plant communities in response to activities such as grazing, fire and climate change.

  1. Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.

  2. Growth performance and carcass traits in pigs selected for indirect genetic effects on growth rate in two environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Duijvesteijn, N.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Production traits such as growth rate may depend on the social interactions between group members. These social interactions might be partly heritable and are referred to as indirect genetic effects (IGE), social-, associative-, or competitive genetic effects. IGE may contribute to heritable

  3. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm ( larva on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01, average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.01. During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08. In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01, ADFI (p<0.05 and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07 during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05. In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05 and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03 were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  4. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to determine their effect on the growth performance of the fish. Two formulations were tested: Diet A - Formula 1 MARDI and Diet B - Formula 2 MARDI, which were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous with 32 % digestible protein and energy value of 14 MJ/kg. A commercial diet (Diet C was included as a control. At 15 wk of culture, fish fed diet C showed the highest growth performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR and specific growth rate (SGR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 found among diets for weight gain and feed intake. However, FCR and SGR of Diet C were significantly better (P<0.05 compared to the experimental diets. The best FCR was recorded in Diet C at 1.17, followed by Diet A (1.42 and Diet B (1.46. Diet C also had the highest SGR with 1.99%/day followed by Diet B (1.70 and Diet A (1.67. Cost of both diets, A and B, was RM 2.50/kg compared to RM 3.50/kg for Diet C. Although the FCR of the commercial feed was lower than the experimental diets, the production cost of fish was RM4.11/kg for the commercial feed compared to RM 3.54-3.65/kg for the experimental diets. It is concluded that local feed ingredients can be used in formulating diets for catfish and they have no detrimental effect on the growth of African catfish.

  5. Does student performance on preclinical OSCEs relate to clerkship grades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Chima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs have been used to assess the clinical competence and interpersonal skills of healthcare professional students for decades. However, the relationship between preclinical (second year or M2 OSCE grades and clerkship performance had never been evaluated, until it was explored to provide information to educators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC. In addition, the relationship between M2 OSCE communication scores (which is a portion of the total score and third-year (M3 Internal Medicine (IM clerkship OSCE scores was also explored. Lastly, conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between the amount of previous clinical experience and OSCE performance. Therefore, the relationship between M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores and the timing of the clerkship in the academic year was explored. Methods: Data from UNMC M2 OSCEs and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs were obtained for graduates of the 2013 and 2014 classes. Specifically, the following data points were collected: M2 fall OSCE total, M2 fall OSCE communication; M2 spring OSCE total, M2 spring OSCE communication; and M3 IM clerkship OSCE total percentages. Data were organized by class, M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance, and timing of the clerkship. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data organization and analysis. Results: Of the 245 records, 229 (93.5% had data points for all metrics of interest. Significant differences between the classes of 2013 and 2014 existed for average M2 spring total, M2 spring communication, and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs. Retrospectively, there were no differences in M2 OSCE performances based on how students scored on the M3 IM clerkship OSCE. M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance improved for those students who completed the clerkship last in the academic year. Conclusions: There were inconsistencies in OSCE performances between the classes of 2013 and 2014, but more information is needed to determine if

  6. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  7. Does student performance on preclinical OSCEs relate to clerkship grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Margot; Dallaghan, Gary Beck

    2016-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have been used to assess the clinical competence and interpersonal skills of healthcare professional students for decades. However, the relationship between preclinical (second year or M2) OSCE grades and clerkship performance had never been evaluated, until it was explored to provide information to educators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC). In addition, the relationship between M2 OSCE communication scores (which is a portion of the total score) and third-year (M3) Internal Medicine (IM) clerkship OSCE scores was also explored. Lastly, conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between the amount of previous clinical experience and OSCE performance. Therefore, the relationship between M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores and the timing of the clerkship in the academic year was explored. Data from UNMC M2 OSCEs and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs were obtained for graduates of the 2013 and 2014 classes. Specifically, the following data points were collected: M2 fall OSCE total, M2 fall OSCE communication; M2 spring OSCE total, M2 spring OSCE communication; and M3 IM clerkship OSCE total percentages. Data were organized by class, M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance, and timing of the clerkship. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data organization and analysis. Of the 245 records, 229 (93.5%) had data points for all metrics of interest. Significant differences between the classes of 2013 and 2014 existed for average M2 spring total, M2 spring communication, and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs. Retrospectively, there were no differences in M2 OSCE performances based on how students scored on the M3 IM clerkship OSCE. M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance improved for those students who completed the clerkship last in the academic year. There were inconsistencies in OSCE performances between the classes of 2013 and 2014, but more information is needed to determine if this is because of testing variability or heterogeneity

  8. On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oijen, Marcel; Schapendonk, Ad; Höglind, Mats

    2010-05-01

    The carbon balance of vegetation is dominated by the two large fluxes of photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). Mechanistic models have attempted to simulate the two fluxes separately, each with their own set of internal and external controls. This has led to model predictions where environmental change causes R to exceed P, with consequent dieback of vegetation. However, empirical evidence suggests that the R : P ratio is constrained to a narrow range of about 0.4-0.5. Physiological explanations for the narrow range are not conclusive. The aim of this work is to introduce a novel perspective by theoretical study of the quantitative relationship between the four carbon fluxes of P, R, growth and storage (or its inverse, remobilization). Starting from the law of conservation of mass - in this case carbon - equations are derived for the relative magnitudes of all carbon fluxes, which depend on only two parameters: the R : P ratio and the relative rate of storage of carbon in remobilizable reserves. The equations are used to explain observed flux ratios and to analyse incomplete data sets of carbon fluxes. The storage rate is shown to be a freely varying parameter, whereas R : P is narrowly constrained. This explains the constancy of the ratio reported in the literature. With the information thus gained, a data set of R and P in grassland was analysed, and flux estimates could be derived for the periods after cuts in which plant growth is dominated by remobilization before photosynthesis takes over. It is concluded that the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and substrate storage are indeed tightly constrained, but because of mass conservation rather than for physiological reasons. This facilitates analysis of incomplete data sets. Mechanistic models, as the embodiment of physiological mechanisms, need to show consistency with the constraints.

  9. The experience of acculturative stress-related growth from immigrants’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature has mainly focused on the positive effects of stress associated with disability and illness, called stress-related growth. Little research has explored positive changes as a result of acculturative stress among a group of immigrants. In particular, older Asian immigrants may experience a high level of stress related to acculturation because they may face more challenges to adapt to and navigate a new culture. This study was designed to capture the characteristics of stress-related growth associated with acculturative stress. Using in-depth interviews among 13 older Korean immigrants, three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were identified: (a the development of mental toughness, (b engagement in meaningful activities, and (c promotion of cultural understanding. These themes indicate that by following the stressful acculturation process, participants developed a better understanding of the new culture, engaged in various leisure activities, and enhanced mental strength. This finding provides information on how immigrants deal with acculturative stress and have positive psychological changes, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being.

  10. The experience of acculturative stress-related growth from immigrants’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Hakjun

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has mainly focused on the positive effects of stress associated with disability and illness, called stress-related growth. Little research has explored positive changes as a result of acculturative stress among a group of immigrants. In particular, older Asian immigrants may experience a high level of stress related to acculturation because they may face more challenges to adapt to and navigate a new culture. This study was designed to capture the characteristics of stress-related growth associated with acculturative stress. Using in-depth interviews among 13 older Korean immigrants, three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were identified: (a) the development of mental toughness, (b) engagement in meaningful activities, and (c) promotion of cultural understanding. These themes indicate that by following the stressful acculturation process, participants developed a better understanding of the new culture, engaged in various leisure activities, and enhanced mental strength. This finding provides information on how immigrants deal with acculturative stress and have positive psychological changes, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. PMID:24070225

  11. Shareholder/Stakeholder Value Management, Company Growth and Financial Performance: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Bo-Göran; Wallin, Jan

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion in the literature about the relative merits of shareholder value management and stakeholder value management, but relatively little empirical research has been reported concerning the relationship between these types of management and financial performance. The present study puts forward a hypothesis that true shareholder value management also encompasses stakeholder value management. This combination of shareholder/stakeholder value management is hypoth...

  12. Growth and Physiological Performance of Aerobic and Lowland Rice as Affected by Water Stress at Selected Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzariah Kamarul Zaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic rice technology is still new in Malaysia, and information regarding MARDI Aerob 1 (MA1, the first local aerobic rice variety, is still lacking. Therefore, comparative studies were carried out to determine the physiological performance of aerobic rice variety MA1 and lowland rice variety MR253 under water stress given at the panicle initiation, flowering and ripening stages. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design. Stomatal conductance (gs, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, leaf relative water content (leaf RWC, and soil moisture content (SMC as well as yield component parameters such as panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight were measured. Results revealed that gs and leaf RWC for both varieties decreased with depletion of SMC. The correlation study between the physiological parameters and SMC indicated that Fv/Fm was not affected by water stress, regardless of varieties. The yield components (panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight for both varieties greatly decreased when water stress was imposed at the panicle initiation stage. This study showed that the panicle initiation period was the most sensitive stage to water stress that contributed to a substantial reduction in yield for both varieties. Under the aerobic condition (control, MR253 produced higher panicle number, 100-grain weight and yield than MA1. Although MR253 is bred for lowland, it is well adapted to aerobic condition.

  13. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and bioavailability of isoflavones in pigs fed soy bean based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gerda; Hennig, U; Kalbe, Claudia; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Ren, M Q; Moors, S; Degen, Gisela H

    2004-08-01

    A growth trial with 38 weaners (castrated male pigs) was designed to compare the growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets containing either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate in a pair-feeding design. Soy bean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) differed in isoflavone (daidzein plus genistein) content (782 microg/g in SBM and 125 microg/g in SPC, respectively). During the experiment, all pigs were fed four-phases-diets characterized by decreasing protein concentrations with increasing age (weaner I, weaner II, grower, finisher diets). Rations of control and experimental groups were isoenergetic, isonitrogenous, and isoaminogen. The weanling pigs with an initial live weight of 8.4 +/- 1.1 kg were allotted to flat deck boxes. During the growing/finishing period (days 70-170 of age), the pigs were housed in single boxes. Both, the weaning and the grower/finishing performances (daily body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio) were similar in both groups. No differences were found between the groups in carcass composition (percentages of cuts, tissues, and protein/fat), and meat quality of pigs. Moreover, the IGF-1R mRNA expression in longissimus muscle was not influenced by the kind of soy product. However, circulating levels of isoflavones were clearly different between pigs fed SBM (genistein 239 +/- 44; daidzein 162 +/- 42; equol 12 +/- 4 ng/ml plasma) and animals fed SPC (genistein 22 +/- 9 and daidzein 8 +/- 3, and equol 10 +/- 3 ng/ml plasma). The results confirm the expected differences in the bioavailability of soy isoflavones, yet, there were no significant differences in performance of pigs fed either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate.

  14. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI .../week, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain was associated with a higher infant birth weight z-score independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, HbA1c and insulin dose at last visit, ethnicity and parity [β=0.1 (95% CI 0.06-0.14), P

  15. Growth Rate and Relocation Movements of Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) Nestlings in Relation to Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gunnar R.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    Relocation by dependent young is a survival strategy that occurs among a wide range of taxa. The Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) lays its eggs on bare substrate and, once hatched, nestlings may relocate to new sites daily. We located and monitored eight Common Nighthawk nests in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, quantified inter-use-site distances in relation to nestling age, and calculated a nestling growth rate curve. Common Nighthawk nestlings grow in a nearly linear fashion. Nestlings moved up to 48 m in a single day and larger, older nestlings tended to move greater distances between daily use-sites.

  16. On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijen, M.

    2012-04-01

    • Background and Aims. The carbon balance of vegetation is dominated by the two large fluxes of photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). Mechanistic models have attempted to simulate the two fluxes separately, each with their own set of internal and external controls. This has led to model predictions where environmental change causes R to exceed P, with consequent dieback of vegetation. However, empirical evidence suggests that the R:P ratio is constrained to a narrow range of about 0.4-0.5. Physiological explanations for the narrow range are not conclusive. We aim to introduce a novel perspective by theoretical study of the quantitative relationship between the four carbon fluxes of P, R, growth and storage (or its inverse, remobilisation). • Methods. Starting from the law of conservation of mass - in this case carbon - we derive equations for the relative magnitudes of all carbon fluxes which depend on only two parameters: the R:P ratio and the relative rate of storage of carbon into remobilisable reserves. The equations are used to explain observed flux ratios and to analyse incomplete data sets of carbon fluxes. • Key Results. Storage rate is shown to be a freely varying parameter, whereas R:P is narrowly constrained. This explains the constancy of the ratio reported in the literature. With the information thus gained, a data set of R and P in grassland was analysed, and flux estimates could be derived for the periods after cuts in which plant growth is dominated by remobilisation before photosynthesis takes over. • Conclusions. We conclude that the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and substrate storage are indeed tightly constrained, but because of mass conservation rather than for physiological reasons. This facilitates analysis of incomplete data sets. Mechanistic models, as the embodiment of physiological mechanisms, need to show consistency with the constraints. • Reference. Van Oijen, M., Schapendonk, A. & Höglind, M

  17. Performance of Product Codes and Related Structures with Iterated Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Several modifications of product codes have been suggested as standards for optical networks. We show that the performance exhibits a threshold that can be estimated from a result about random graphs. For moderate input bit error probabilities, the output error rates for codes of finite length can...

  18. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.M.; Ouwehand, C.; Dekker, S.J.; Lee, N.C.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades

  19. The Relation between Breakfast Skipping and School Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…

  20. Are study strategies related to medical licensing exam performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Courtney; Kurz, Terri; Smith, Sherry; Graham, Lori

    2014-11-02

    To examine the relationship between study strategies and performance on a high stakes medical licensing exam entitled the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. The action research project included seventy nine student participants at the Texas A & M Health Science Center College of Medicine during their pre-clinical education. Data collection included pre-matriculation and matriculation academic performance data, standardized exam data, and the Learning and Study Strategies Instrument. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. For both models, the dependent variable was the Step 1 score, and the independent variables included Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Grade Point Average, Year 1 Average, Year 2 Average, Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average, Comprehensive Basic Science Exam score, and Learning and Study Strategy Instrument sub-scores. Model 2 added Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment average. Concentration (Model 1 - β = .264; Model 2 - β = .254) was the only study strategy correlated with Step 1 performance. The other statistically significant predictors were Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average (β = .315) and Year 2 Average (β = .280) in Model 1 and Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment Average (β = .338) in Model 2. There does appear to be a relationship between the study strategy concentration and Step 1 licensing exam performance. Teaching students to practice and utilize certain techniques to improve concentration skills when preparing for and taking exams may help improve licensing exam scores.

  1. Relative Performance of Academic Departments Using DEA with Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of…

  2. General Video Game Evaluation Using Relative Algorithm Performance Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorbjørn; Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In order to generate complete games through evolution we need generic and reliably evaluation functions for games. It has been suggested that game quality could be characterised through playing a game with different controllers and comparing their performance. This paper explores that idea throug...

  3. Employability, Managerialism, and Performativity in Higher Education: A Relational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfa, Senia; Taksa, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    This article combines Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and cultural capital with Lyotard's account of performativity to construct a three-tiered framework in order to explore how managerialism has affected the academic habitus. Specifically, this article examines the adoption of group assignments as a means of developing teamwork skills in…

  4. Mastery and Performance Goals Predict Epistemic and Relational Conflict Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnon, Celine; Muller, Dominique; Schrager, Sheree M.; Pannuzzo, Nelly; Butera, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    The present research examines whether mastery and performance goals predict different ways of reacting to a sociocognitive conflict with another person over materials to be learned, an issue not yet addressed by the achievement goal literature. Results from 2 studies showed that mastery goals predicted epistemic conflict regulation (a conflict…

  5. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  6. Effects of different concentrations of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics of goat kids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froutan, Eisa; Azizi, Osman; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics. Twenty-four goat kids averaging 16.93 1.25 kg initial bodyweight were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a comple...... without any adverse effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. At this level of acorns, the goats received low concentrations of hydrolysable tannins (11 g/kg DM) in their diet....

  7. Stocking density affects the growth performance and metabolism of Amur sturgeon by regulating expression of genes in the GH/IGF axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang

    2017-07-01

    The effects of stocking density on the growth and metabolism of Amur sturgeon were assessed. Amur sturgeon were grown for 70 days at three different stocking densities (low stocking density, LSD: 5.5 kg/m3; medium stocking density, MSD: 8.0 kg/m3; and high stocking density, HSD: 11.0 kg/m3), and the biometric index, muscle composition, and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. In addition, pituitary, liver, and muscle samples were collected for gene cloning and expression analyses. After 70 days of growth, the fish maintained at HSD had significantly lower final body weight and specific growth rate, and a higher feed conversion ratio than those of the fish in the MSD and LSD groups. The HSD group had the lowest lipid and protein concentrations in serum and muscle. The serum cortisol concentration increased significantly in the HSD group, indicating that the stress-response system was activated in these fish. There was no change in the concentration of serum insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), while the concentrations of serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) decreased in the HSD group. The full-length cDNAs of GH and IGF-2 genes (995-bp and 1 207-bp long, respectively), were cloned and analyzed. In the HSD group, the expressions of GH in the pituitary and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF-1 in the liver were down-regulated at the end of the 70-day experiment. In the HSD group, the transcript level of IGF-2 significantly decreased in the liver, but did not change in muscle. Overall, our results indicated that a HSD negatively affects the growth performance and leads to changes in lipid and protein metabolism in Amur sturgeon. The down-regulated expression of genes related to the GH/IGF axis may be responsible for the poor growth performance of Amur sturgeon under crowding stress.

  8. Growth Performance of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Cultured in High Density on the Biofloc System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Fajar; Yuniarti, Tristiana; Harwanto, Dicky; Susilowati, Titik

    2018-02-01

    Start your The fish farmers and researchers have made efforts to increase catfish production through high levels of dispersal and application of biofloc systems. This system, in addition to increase production, can also predict when the harvest is done, control the quality of water causing death so that the Survival Rate (SR) is high. The purpose of this study is to determine the growth performance and predict the harvest weight and catfish survival rate (SR) that are cultured with different high density on the biofloc system. The research method used is experimental with test fish in the form of catfish seeds weighing of 8 ± 0.2 gram/fish with each density as treatment: P1. Density of 1,100 fish/m3; P2. Density of 1,200 fish/m3 and P3. Density of 1,300 fish/m3. Pond: The pond used is made of 3m in diameter of tarpaulin, equipped with a 6mm diameter of iron frame. Total volume of water in each pond is 3 m3. Catfish seeds have been adapted and put into the pond at random with the length of cultivation period is 4 weeks. Growth performance analysis uses the SPSS regression statistic series 20. The research results showed that the growth performance for 4 weeks showed that P1 generates the regression equation Y1 = 6.46 +7.81 X with r2 = 0.971 means that if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of catfish has reached 100 grams; P2 generates the regression equation Y2 = 6.53 + 6.0 X den r2 = 0.969 means if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 78.53 grams and P3 generates the regression equation Y3 = 6.71 + 5.94 X with r2 = 0.976 means if harvest is done on week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 77.99 grams. Survival rate at P1 = 97.73%; P2 = 95.91% and P3 = 94.55% while the oxygenated water quality is more than 3.5 ppm; pH ranged from 6.7-7 and ammonia content at week 3 is P1 = 0.04 mg/l; P2 = 0.13 mg/l and P3 = 0.27 mg/l.

  9. Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification of feeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. A. Ghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes. The experimental goats were divided into two groups of 15 animals each labeled as control and treatment groups, which were kept under intensive farming system. Goats in control group were fed with normal routine feeding protocol practiced by the farmer, while goats in the treatment group were fed with new feed formulation. Throughout the experimental period, on-farm monitoring and data collection were carried out. Initial BW and body condition score (BCS were recorded before the start of the experiment while final BW and BCS were gained after 7 months of the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG was calculated after the experiment end. Data on BW, ADG, and BCS were recorded from both groups for every 2 weeks and reported monthly. The feed intake for the control group was 2.8 kg/animal/day which practiced by the farmer and 3.2 kg/animal/day as new feed formulation for the treatment group. Results: After 7 months of the experimental period, final BW shows an improvement in treatment group (39.1±1.53 kg compared with control group (32.3±1.23 kg. The ADG in treatment group also gives promising result when comparing with control group. Goats in treatment group significantly attained better ADG than control group which were 126.7 g/day and 83.3 g/day, respectively. For the BCS, goats in the treatment group had shown an improvement where 86.67% (13 out of 15 of the group had BCS =3 (1-5 scoring scale and only 66.67% (10 out of 15 of the control group had

  10. Does Innovation Performance Depend on Economic Growth?: The Case of a Country in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej H Jasinski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze a possible influence of economic growth on innovation performance. Econometric model based on principal component analysis is the research tool. Poland, as a country in transition, is here a case-study. The analysis has confirmed an interesting pattern: in 1989-2007, corporate innovation performance was changing, in principle, in the same direction as macro-economic changes but with a one-to-two-year delay. This is some proof that the innovation activity followed the cyclical development of the national economy. Innovation performance was demand-driven, i.e., pulled by demand resulting from the economy's recovery and high economic growth. So, technological innovation appeared to be highly sensitive to the general economic situation in Poland as a transitional economy. Economic growth seems to be a kind of tag-boat pulling innovation activities in the business sector.Este artículo intenta analizar una posible influencia del crecimiento económico en el desempeño de la innovación. La herramienta de investigación empleada es el modelo econométrico basado en un componente principal de análisis. El estudio de caso es Polonia, una economía en transición. El análisis ha confirmado un patrón interesante: durante el periodo 1989-2007, el desempeño de la innovación cambió, en principio, en la misma dirección que los cambios macroeconómicos pero con un retraso de uno a dos años. Esto muestra de algún modo que la actividad innovadora correspondió al desarrollo cíclico de la economía nacional. El desempeño innovador se orientó por la demanda, es decir, una demanda impulsada por la recuperación económica y el alto crecimiento económico. Por lo tanto, la innovación tecnológica parece ser muy sensible a la situación económica en general de Polonia, como economía en transición. El crecimiento económico parece ser una especie de motor que impulsa las actividades innovadoras del sector de negocios.

  11. Stimulate feed intake before weaning and control intake after weaning to optimise health and growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehya Read

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-weaning feed restriction is a common practice in rabbit farming to reduce mortality, but results in lower growth performance and slaughter weights. This study aimed to assess the influence of 2 diets both rich in fibre and low in starch, with high or low digestible energy (DE and digestible protein (DP contents for a constant DP/DE ratio offered from 18 to 70 d of age, on the growth performance and health parameters of rabbits. Eight hundred rabbit kits were divided in 2 experimental groups differing in the feed offered from 18 to 70 d: a high concentrate diet (HC group; 10.37 MJ DE/kg DM and 102 g DP/kg DM or low concentrate diet (LC group; 9.63 MJ DE/kg DM and 95 g DP/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum before weaning (35 d and from 63 to 70 d, while feed offered from 35 to 63 d was controlled to obtain similar DE intake in both groups. Feed intake, animal weights and health status were recorded weekly. Mortality was recorded daily. Feed intake was similar in both groups before weaning (P=0.204, and consequently the DE intake was higher in the HC group compared to the LC group before weaning (3.91 vs. 3.39 MJ, respectively; P=0.017. Feed intake from 63 to 70 d was lower in the HC than in the LC group (229 vs. 239 g/d/kit, respectively; P<0.001.Total DE ingested after weaning was similar in both groups (45.44 MJ; P=0.143. Kits were heavier in the HC group throughout the study (P<0.05. A higher average daily gain during the periods of 18-28, 35-42 and 56-63 d was seen in the HC group (+8.1%, +16.8% and +4.5%, respectively; P<0.05. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar between groups throughout the study (P=1.0 and P=0.104, respectively. Our results suggest that when the feed intake after weaning is controlled, i the feeding strategy before weaning determines the weight at weaning and at slaughter age; and ii rabbits fed a diet more highly concentrated but rich in fibre increase their growth performance without negative

  12. Growth performance of African catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile fed on the diets containing various chromium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aryansyah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary chromium level on the growth performance of catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile. Five experimental diets contain different chromium level, namely diet A (as a control diet 0.01; B 1.30; C 2.60; D 3.90 and E 5.20 mg/kg diet were used in this experiment. Fish with body weight of  5.57 ± 0.01 g/ind, fed on the experimental diet, twice a day, at satiation. Feeding trial was conducted for 60 days. Based on the evaluation of protein level of the whole body, protein and lipid retention, daily growth rate and feed efficiency, it was concluded that the optimum dietary chromium level for catfish  juvenile was 2.60 mg/kg diet. Keywords: chromium, growth, Clarias sp.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian kromium dengan level berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan ikan lele (Clarias sp. juvenil.  Lima jenis pakan yang mengandung kromium berbeda, yaitu pakan A  (kontrol 0,01; B 1,30; C 2,60; D 3,90 dan pakan E 5,20 mg/kg digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Ikan dengan bobot 5,57 ± 0,01 g/ind., diberi pakan 2 kali sehari secara satiasi.  Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 60 hari.  Berdasarkan analisa retensi protein, kandungan protein dan retensi lemak dalam tubuh ikan lele, disimpulkan bahwa kadar kromium yang optimum untuk juvenil ikan lele adalah 2,60 mg/kg pakan. Kata kunci: kromium, pertumbuhan, Clarias sp.

  13. Growth, water relations and photosynthesis of seedlings and resprouts after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Adelaide S.; Rego, Francisco C.; Correia, Otília A.

    2005-05-01

    Seasonal patterns of growth, water relations, photosynthesis and leaf characteristics were compared between obligate seeders ( Cistus monspeliensis and Cistus ladanifer) and resprouters ( Arbutus unedo and Pistacia lentiscus) from the first to the second year after fire. We hypothesized that seedlings would be more water-limited than resprouts due to their shallower root systems. Regarding water use strategies, Cistus species are drought semi-deciduous and A. unedo and P. lentiscus are evergreen sclerophylls, therefore, comparisons were based on the relative deviation from mature conspecific plants. Seedlings and resprouts had higher shoot elongation and leaf production than mature plants, and over an extended period. Differences from mature plants were larger in resprouts, with two-fold transpiration, leaf conductance and photosynthesis in late spring/early summer. Seedlings of C. monspeliensis exhibited higher transpiration and leaf conductance than mature plants, while those of C. ladanifer only exhibited higher water potential. Growth increments and ameliorated water relations and photosynthesis after fire were attributed to an increase in water and nutrient availability. The small differences in water relations and photosynthesis between seedlings and mature conspecifics are in accordance with the prediction of seedlings experiencing higher water limitation than resprouts. We attribute these results to differences in root systems: resprouters benefited from an increase in root/shoot ratios and the presence of deep roots whereas Cistus seedlings relied on very shallow roots, which cannot provide assess to deep water during summer. Nevertheless, seedlings did not show evidence of experiencing a more severe water limitation than mature conspecifics, which we attributed to the presence of efficient mechanisms of avoiding and tolerating water stress. The results are discussed in relation to post-fire demography of seeders and resprouters in Mediterranean

  14. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... changes in growth performance parameters were observed, but only in those groups fed with 1% and 2% prebiotics. Specifically, marked improvements relative to the control group were observed in percentage weight gain, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate in prebiotic-fed fish....... The levels of plasma thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormones were significantly elevated in the group receiving 2% prebiotics. Activities of lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase in skin mucus were significantly enhanced in prebiotics-fed groups, particularly at an inclusion...

  15. Education scolaire, performance et equite sociale: des relations problematiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using critical theory, this paper first confronts critically the relationship between education and performance in light of globalisation and its underlying neo‑‑ liberal ideology. This comparison reveals that there is a definite compatibility between them, but it is fully slanted towards efficiency logic and human capital production. Then, adopting a critical attitude, the paper questions this direction, in the name of the emancipation and citizenship prospects, which brought the school system reorganisation by democratic nation‑‑ states. The current choices have distorted these objectives and have redirected them towards utilitarian learnings and an increasingly therapeutic socialisation. Finally, the paper stresses the inseparability between the performance issue, the social equity issue and the education/teaching effectiveness issue in order to highlight the need for taking into account qualitative dimensions, which stem from the background and the pupils, so as to focus much more on learning processes, rather than on learning outcomes themselves.

  16. Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Trager

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri. Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships.

  17. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed

  18. Growth performance and gastrointestinal responses of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diet without or with exogenous epidermal growth factor upon challenge with Eimeria1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Leung, H.; Akhtar, N.; Li, J.; Barta, J. R.; Wang, Y.; Yang, C.; Kiarie, E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d. A basal antibiotic-free corn-soybean diet containing TiO2 was used. Birds were offered fresh feed with respective treatments on daily basis and had free access to drinking water for 14 d. On d 5, birds (6 replicates per treatment) were challenged with 1 mL of E. acervulina and E. maxima mixture via oral gavage and the other 6 replicates were given sham. Growth performance was measured in pre- (d 0 to 5) and post- (d 6 to 14) challenge periods. Two birds per cage were necropsied on d 10 for intestinal lesion scores and tissue samples for histomorphology and expression of select intestinal genes. Excreta samples for AR of components and oocyst shedding were taken d 10 to 13 and all birds were necropsied on d 14 for gastrointestinal weight. The EGF linearly (P Eimeria interaction (P > 0.05) on growth performance, AR of GE, and intestinal histomorphology; the main effects were such that Eimeria depressed (P Eimeria (P Eimeria challenged birds whilst no effect in non-challenged control. In conclusion, Eimeria challenge reduced growth performance and impaired gut function; EGF showed beneficial effects on growth pre-challenge and improved indices of gut function upon Eimeria challenge. PMID:28938785

  19. Growth performance and gastrointestinal responses of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diet without or with exogenous epidermal growth factor upon challenge with Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E; Leung, H; Akhtar, N; Li, J; Barta, J R; Wang, Y; Yang, C; Kiarie, E

    2017-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d. A basal antibiotic-free corn-soybean diet containing TiO2 was used. Birds were offered fresh feed with respective treatments on daily basis and had free access to drinking water for 14 d. On d 5, birds (6 replicates per treatment) were challenged with 1 mL of E. acervulina and E. maxima mixture via oral gavage and the other 6 replicates were given sham. Growth performance was measured in pre- (d 0 to 5) and post- (d 6 to 14) challenge periods. Two birds per cage were necropsied on d 10 for intestinal lesion scores and tissue samples for histomorphology and expression of select intestinal genes. Excreta samples for AR of components and oocyst shedding were taken d 10 to 13 and all birds were necropsied on d 14 for gastrointestinal weight. The EGF linearly (P Eimeria interaction (P > 0.05) on growth performance, AR of GE, and intestinal histomorphology; the main effects were such that Eimeria depressed (P Eimeria (P Eimeria challenged birds whilst no effect in non-challenged control. In conclusion, Eimeria challenge reduced growth performance and impaired gut function; EGF showed beneficial effects on growth pre-challenge and improved indices of gut function upon Eimeria challenge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  20. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (pAndrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  1. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  3. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana Janampet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. Results: There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (p<0.05 in kids fed T2 ration with 50% replacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. Conclusion: It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  4. Growth performance, carcass and noncarcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs fed rosemary distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubi, Y; Hajji, H; Smeti, S; Mahouachi, M; Kamoun, M; Atti, N

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of total replacement of oat hay by rosemary distillation residues (RR) on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Barbarine lambs. A total of 21 lambs were divided into three groups. The control group (C) was offered 600 g of oat hay; the RR87 and RR60 groups received 600 g of pellets containing 87% and 60% of RR, respectively. The CP content was 9% and 14% for RR87 and RR60, respectively. All animals were supplemented by 600 g of concentrate. After 77 days of fattening, lambs were slaughtered. The DM and CP intakes were significantly increased with RR diets. The average daily gain was higher (Pcarcass composition did not differ among groups. The bony organs and gut weights were similar among groups, while functional ones (skin, liver, kidney and testicles) were significantly heavier for both RR groups than control. The ultimate pH, water cooking loss and color variables were similar among groups and the chemical composition (protein, fat, myoglobin, collagen and iron) did not differ also among groups. These results revealed the opportunity of RR use in fattening lambs without adverse effects on carcass and meat characteristics. Moreover, 9% CP in RR pellets are enough given the same growth performance recorded as that of RR with 14% CP.

  5. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p ++ -silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  6. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  7. Identification and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms in 6 growth-correlated genes in porcine by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dewu; Zhang, Yushan; Du, Yinjun; Yang, Guanfu; Zhang, Xiquan

    2007-06-01

    The growth-correlated genes that are part of the neuroendocrine growth axis play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development of pig. The identification of genetic polymorphisms in these genes will enable the scientist to evaluate the biological relevance of such polymorphisms and to gain a better understanding of quantitative traits like growth. In the present study, seven pairs of primers were designed to obtain unknown sequences of growth-correlated genes, and other 25 pairs of primers were designed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) technology in four pig breeds (Duroc, Landrace, Lantang and Wuzhishan), significantly differing in growth and development characteristics. A total of 101 polymorphisms were discovered in 10,707 base pairs (bp) from six genes of the ghrelin (GHRL), leptin (LEP), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and somatostatin (SS). The observed average distances between the SNP in the 5'UTR, coding regions, introns and 3'UTR were 134, 521, 81 and 92 bp, respectively. Four SNPs were found in the coding regions of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and LEP, respectively. Two synonymous mutations were obtained in IGF-II and LEP genes respectively, and two non-synonymous were found in IGFBP-2 and LEP genes, respectively. Seven other mutations were also observed. Thirty-two PCR-RFLP markers were found among 101 polymorphisms of the six genes. The SNP discovered in this study would provide suitable markers for association studies of candidate genes with growth related traits in pig.

  8. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of young Norway spruce clones related to growth and wood structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSNER, SABINE; KLEIN, ANDREA; MÜLLER, ULRICH; KARLSSON, BO

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem segments of eight five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones differing in growth characteristics were tested for maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (ks100), vulnerability to cavitation and behavior under mechanical stress. The vulnerability of the clones to cavitation was assessed by measuring the applied air pressure required to cause 12 and 50% loss of conductivity (Ψ12, Ψ50) and the percent loss of conductivity at 4 MPa applied air pressure (PLC4MPa). The bending strength and stiffness and the axial compression strength and stiffness of the same stem segments were measured to characterize wood mechanical properties. Growth ring width, wood density, latewood percentage, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness, tracheid length and pit dimensions of earlywood cells, spiral grain and microfibril angles were examined to identify structure–function relationships. High ks100 was strongly and positively related to spiral grain angle, which corresponded positively to tracheid length and pit dimensions. Spiral grain may reduce flow resistance of the bordered pits of the first earlywood tracheids, which are characterized by rounded tips and an equal distribution of pits along the entire length. Wood density was unrelated to hydraulic vulnerability parameters. Traits associated with higher hydraulic vulnerability were long tracheids, high latewood percentage and thick earlywood cell walls. The positive relationship between earlywood cell wall thickness and vulnerability to cavitation suggest that air seeding through the margo of bordered pits may occur in earlywood. There was a positive phenotypic and genotypic relationship between ks100 and PLC4MPa, and both parameters were positively related to tree growth rate. Variability in mechanical properties depended mostly on wood density, but also on the amount of compression wood. Accordingly, hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength or stiffness showed no tradeoff. PMID:17472942

  9. A brief dataset on the model-based evaluation of the growth performance of Bacillus coagulans and l-lactic acid production in a lignin-supplemented medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert; Venus, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Model-based characterization of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium (R. Glaser and J. Venus, 2016) [1]". This data survey provides the information on characterization of three Bacillus coagulans strains. Information on cofermentation of lignocellulose-related sugars in lignin-containing media is given. Basic characterization data are supported by optical-density high-throughput screening and parameter adjustment to logistic growth models. Lab scale fermentation procedures are examined by model adjustment of a Monod kinetics-based growth model. Lignin consumption is analyzed using the data on decolorization of a lignin-supplemented minimal medium.

  10. A brief dataset on the model-based evaluation of the growth performance of Bacillus coagulans and l-lactic acid production in a lignin-supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Glaser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Model-based characterization of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium (R. Glaser and J. Venus, 2016 [1]”. This data survey provides the information on characterization of three Bacillus coagulans strains. Information on cofermentation of lignocellulose-related sugars in lignin-containing media is given. Basic characterization data are supported by optical-density high-throughput screening and parameter adjustment to logistic growth models. Lab scale fermentation procedures are examined by model adjustment of a Monod kinetics-based growth model. Lignin consumption is analyzed using the data on decolorization of a lignin-supplemented minimal medium.

  11. The Role of State-business Relations in the Performance of Zambia’s Food Processing Sub-sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    . The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations......In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs) matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept...... of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing...

  12. The Entrepreneur`s Role in the Performance Growth of the Financial Audit Activity in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the study of entrepreneurship, a cornerstone of modern competitive economy, perhaps there is no liberal profession better suited to be analysed than the financial audit. The financial auditor is meant to be an entrepreneur, to take his destiny into his own hands, because, in order to be independent, a demand induced by the ethical code provides that he cannot work as an employee of his services’ users. This paper proposes a research for identifying and presenting the entrepreneur’s role in the performance growth in the financial audit. The main objective of the conducted research is to present an overview of the entrepreneurship environment, to identify opportunities and challenges faced by the entrepreneur involved in the financial auditing of the level of development reached by the auditing market in Romania, by analysing representative statistical indicators in the market development and financial management of the audit activity. The proposed research methodology focuses on the collection, processing and analysis of statistical data on entrepreneurship of financial audit activity, based on official data published by the Chamber of Financial Auditors of Romania (CAFR, and on the identification of the main factors leading to the development of supply and demand of financial auditing and of the shortcomings the financial audit contractor involved in his own surveys is facing. Being a fairly new regulated profession, I had the privilege to analyse the developments in the entrepreneurship activity of the financial audit market for the entire period of existence: 1999-2013, showing the dynamic structure of supply and demand of financial auditing, the development and characteristics of the business environment during the period under review, the specificity of the financial audit entrepreneurship and I could outline a sketch of the entrepreneur involved in the financial audit activity. The research results show that the number of financial

  13. Growth performance and oxidative status in piglets supplemented with verbascoside and teupolioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pastorelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred forty piglets, half female and half barrows, 8.1 ± 1.40 kg LW, were divided into 6 experimental groups and fed ad libitum with a diet supplemented with the following levels of antioxidants: 0 (CON + = positive control added with 100 mg lincomicine/kg, 5 (LT = low teupolioside or LV = low verbascoside, 10 (HT = high teupolioside; HV = high verbascoside; LT+LV mg/kg of diet for 56 days. Body weight and feed intake were recorded on d0, 14 and 56 of the trial. Ten piglets from each group were selected and blood collected by anterior vena cava puncture at 0, 14 and 56 d for reactive oxygen metabolite (ROMs determination. HV showed final weight higher than the other groups (P<0.05, and oxidative stability was improved by both integrations of verbascoside. These results support the view that Verbascoside influences the growth performances and oxidative status of piglets.

  14. Electrical Performance of Distribution Insulators with Chlorella vulgaris Growth on its Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Enrique Rojas Cubides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about electrical performance of ceramic and polymeric insulators bio-contaminated with alga Chlorella vulgaris. The performed tests involve ANSI 55-2 and ANSI 52-1 ceramic insulators and ANSI DS-15 polymeric insulators, all of them used in distribution systems of Colombia. Biological contamination of insulators is realized using a controlled environment chamber that adjusts the temperature, humidity and light radiation. The laboratory tests include measurements of flashover voltages and leakage currents and they were performed to determine how insulators are affected by biological contamination. After a series of laboratory tests, it was concluded that the presence of Chlorella vulgaris on the contaminated ceramic insulators reduces the wet flashover voltage up to 12% and increases their leakage currents up to 80%. On the other hand, for polymeric insulators the effect of algae growth on flashover voltages was not to strong, although the leakage currents increase up to 60%.

  15. Alternatives to antibiotics for maximizing growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, U; Kim, W H; Oh, S T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions. The classes of alternatives described include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, enzymes, phytogenics, antimicrobial peptides, hyperimmune egg antibodies, bacteriophages, clay, and metals. A brief description of the mechanism of action, efficacy, and advantages and disadvantages of their uses are also presented. Though the beneficial effects of many of the alternatives developed have been well demonstrated, the general consensus is that these products lack consistency and the results vary greatly from farm to farm. Furthermore, their mode of action needs to be better defined. Optimal combinations of various alternatives coupled with good management and husbandry practices will be the key to maximize performance and maintain animal productivity, while we move forward with the ultimate goal of reducing antibiotic use in the animal industry.

  16. Reproductive performance of gilts according to growth rate and backfat thickness at mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral Filha, W S; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2010-08-01

    The study evaluated the influence of growth rate (GR) and backfat thickness (BF), at first mating of gilts, on the reproductive performance until the first farrowing and on the variation in birth weight of piglets. Gilts were categorized into three groups according to GR from birth until the first mating: GRI (600-700 g/d; n = 345), GRII (701-770 g/d; n = 710) and GRIII (771-870 g/d; n = 366). Analyses were also performed considering three groups formed according to BF (mm) at mating: BFI (10-15 mm; n = 405); BFII (16-17 mm; n = 649)and BFIII (18-23 mm; n = 367). There were no differences in farrowing rate and return to estrus rate among BF or GR groups (P > 0.05). GRII and GRIII females had larger litter size compared to GRI gilts (P GRI and GRII females. Moreover GRIII females had more piglets (P GRI females. More total born and born alive piglets were observed in BFII compared with BFI females (P 0.05). These results show that there is no advantage, in terms of farrowing rate and number of born alive, in performing the first mating of gilts with GR> 770 g/d and BF > 17 mm.

  17. A near-null magnetic field affects cryptochrome-related hypocotyl growth and flowering in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yin, Xiao; Lv, Yan; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Yuxia; Song, Tao

    2012-03-01

    The blue light receptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to act as a magnetoreceptor based on the proposition that photochemical reactions are involved in sensing the geomagnetic field. But the effects of the geomagnetic field on cryptochrome remain unclear. Although the functions of cryptochrome have been well demonstrated for Arabidopsis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the growth of Arabidopsis and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. We eliminated the local geomagnetic field to grow Arabidopsis in a near-null magnetic field and found that the inhibition of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by white light was weakened, and flowering time was delayed. The expressions of three cryptochrome-signaling-related genes, PHYB, CO and FT also changed; the transcript level of PHYB was elevated ca. 40%, and that of CO and FT was reduced ca. 40% and 50%, respectively. These data suggest that the effects of a near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis are cryptochrome-related, which may be revealed by a modification of the active state of cryptochrome and the subsequent signaling cascade.

  18. Gene activated by growth factors is related to the oncogene v-jun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, K.; Lau, L.F.; Nathans, D.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have recently identified by cDNA cloning a set of genes that are rapidly activated in cultured mouse cells by protein growth factors. Here they report that the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA (clone 465) derived from one of these immediate early genes (hereafter called jun-B) encodes a protein homologous to that encoded by the avian sarcoma virus 17 oncogene v-jun. Homology between the jun-B and v-jun proteins is in two regions: one near the N terminus and the other at the C terminus. The latter sequence was shown to have regions of sequence similarity to the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcriptional regulatory protein GCN4 and to the oncogenic protein fos. Southern blots of human, mouse, and chicken DNA demonstrate that jun-B and c-jun are different genes and that there may be other vertebrate genes related to jun-B and c-jun. These findings suggest that there is a jun family of genes encoding related transcriptional regulatory proteins. The jun-B protein, and perhaps other members of the jun family, may play a role in regulating the genomic response to growth factors

  19. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  20. Anthropometric factors related to sprint and agility performance in young male soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathisen G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gunnar Mathisen, Svein Arne Pettersen School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Objective: To investigate the relationship between anthropometrics and sprint and agility performance and describe the development of sprint (acceleration and agility performance in 10- to 16-year-old male soccer players. Methods: One hundred and thirty-two participants were divided into three age groups, 10–12 years (mean 10.8±0.50, 13–14 years (mean 13.9±0.50, and 15–16 years (mean 15.5±0.24, with assessment of 20 m sprint with 10 m split time and agility performance related to body height and body mass within groups. Results: In the 10- to 12-year-olds, there were no significant correlations between height, weight, and the performance variables, except for body mass, which was correlated to 10–20 m sprint (r=0.30. In the 13- to 14-year-olds, body height was significantly correlated with 10 m sprint (r=0.50 and 20 m sprint (r=0.52, as well as 10–20 m sprint (r=0.50 and agility performance (r=0.28. In the 15- to 16-year-old group, body height was correlated to 20 m (r=0.38 and 10–20 m (r=0.45 sprint. Body mass was significantly correlated to 10 m spring (r=0.35 in the 13- to 14-year-olds, as well as 20 m (r=0.33 and 10–20 m (r=0.35 sprint in the 15- to 16-year-olds. Conclusion: Height and body mass were significantly correlated with sprint performance in 13- to 16-year-old male soccer players. However, the 10- to 12-year-olds showed no significant relationship between sprint performance and anthropometrics, except for a small correlation in 10–20 m sprint. This may be attributed to maturation, with large differences in body height and body mass due to different patterns in the growth spurt. The agility performance related to anthropometrics was insignificant apart from a moderate correlation in the 13- to 14-year-olds. Keywords: youth soccer, running speed, development, football, puberty, skills