WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative focus map

  1. Human brain mapping of language-related function on 1.5T magnetic resonance system: focused on motor language function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hee Young; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Taemin; Piao, Xiang Hao; Kim, Jae Soo; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Park, Il Soon; Park, Ji Hoon; Kang, Su Jin; You, Jin Jong; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of functional MR imaging of motor language function and its usefulness in the determination of hemispheric language dominance. In order to activate the motor center of language, six subjects ( 5 right-handed, 1 left-handed: 3 males: 3 females) generated words. They were requested to do this silently, without physical articulation, in response to English letters presented visually. Gradient-echo images (TR/TE/flip angle, 80/60/40 deg; 64 x 128 matrix; 10 mm thickness) were obtained in three axial planes including the inferior frontal gyrus. Functional maps were created by the postprocessing of gradient-echo images, including subtraction and statistics. Areas of activation were topographically analyzed and numbers of activated pixels in each region were compared between right and left sides. The reproducibility of functional maps was tested by repetition of functional imaging in the same subjects. Our results suggest that functional MR imaging can depict the activation of motor language function in the brain and can be used a useful non-invasive method for determining the hemispheric dominance of language. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  2. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  3. Is there a map between Galilean relativity and special relativity?

    OpenAIRE

    Shariati, Ahmad; Jafari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mandanici has provided a map which he claims to be a two way map between Galilean relativity and special relativity. We argue that this map is simply a curvilinear coordinate system on a subset of the two-dimensional Minkowski space-time, and is not a two way map between 1+1 dimensional Galilean relativity and 1+1 dimensional special relativity.

  4. Mapping Priorities to Focus Cropland Mapping Activities: Fitness Assessment of Existing Global, Regional and National Cropland Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Waldner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate information on the global cropland extent is critical for applications in the fields of food security, agricultural monitoring, water management, land-use change modeling and Earth system modeling. On the one hand, it gives detailed location information on where to analyze satellite image time series to assess crop condition. On the other hand, it isolates the agriculture component to focus food security monitoring on agriculture and to assess the potential impacts of climate change on agricultural lands. The cropland class is often poorly captured in global land cover products due to its dynamic nature and the large variety of agro-systems. The overall objective was to evaluate the current availability of cropland datasets in order to propose a strategic planning and effort distribution for future cropland mapping activities and, therefore, to maximize their impact. Following a very comprehensive identification and collection of national to global land cover maps, a multi-criteria analysis was designed at the country level to identify the priority areas for cropland mapping. As a result, the analysis highlighted priority regions, such as Western Africa, Ethiopia, Madagascar and Southeast Asia, for the remote sensing community to focus its efforts. A Unified Cropland Layer at 250 m for the year 2014 was produced combining the fittest products. It was assessed using global validation datasets and yields an overall accuracy ranging from 82%–94%. Masking cropland areas with a global forest map reduced the commission errors from 46% down to 26%. Compared to the GLC-Share and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis-International Food Policy Research Institute (IIASA-IFPRI cropland maps, significant spatial disagreements were found, which might be attributed to discrepancies in the cropland definition. This advocates for a shared definition of cropland, as well as global validation datasets relevant for the

  5. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  6. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  7. Ring relations and mirror map from branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assel, Benjamin [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-03-29

    We study the space of vacua of three-dimensional N=4 theories from a novel approach building on the type IIB brane realization of the theory and in which the insertion of local chiral operators in the path integral is obtained from integrating out light modes in appropriate brane setups. Most of our analysis focuses on abelian quiver theories which can be realized as the low-energy theory of D3-D5-NS5 brane arrays. Their space of vacua contains a Higgs branch, parametrized by the vevs of half-BPS meson operators, and a Coulomb branch, parametrized by the vevs of half-BPS monopole operators. We show that the Higgs operators are inserted by adding F1 strings and D3 branes, while Coulomb operators are inserted by adding D1 strings and D3 branes, with specific orientations, to the initial brane setup of the theory. This approach has two main advantages. First the ring relations describing the Higgs and Coulomb branches can be derived by looking at specific brane setups with multiple interpretations in terms of operator insertions. This provides a new derivation of the Coulomb branch quantum relations. Secondly the map between the Higgs and Coulomb operators of mirror dual theories can be derived in a trivial way from IIB S-duality.

  8. Geological hazards investigation - relative slope stability map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Won Young; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Lee, Sa Ro; Choi, Young Sup [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Korea is a mountainous country; the mountains occupy about three quarters of her land area, an increasing urban development being taken place along the mountainside. For the reason, planners as well as developers and others must realize that some of the urban areas may be threaten by geologic hazards such as landslides and accelerated soil and rock creeps. For the purpose of environmental land-use planning, a mapping project on relative slope-stability was established in 1996. The selected area encompasses about 5,900 km{sup 2} including the topographic maps of Ulsan, Yongchon, Kyongju, Pulguksa, and Kampo, all at a scale of 1:50,000. Many disturbed and undisturbed soil samples, which were collected from the ares of the landslides and unstable slopes, were tested for their physical properties and shear strength. They were classified as GC, SP, SC, SM, SP-SM, SC-SM, CL, ML, and MH according to the Unified Soil Classification System, their liquid limit and plasticity index ranging from 25.3% to as high as 81.3% and from 4.1% to 41.5%, respectively. X-ray analysis revealed that many of the soils contained a certain amount of montmorillonite. Based on the available information as well as both field and laboratory investigation, it was found out that the most common types of slope failures in the study area were both debris and mud flows induced by the heavy rainfalls during the period of rainy season; the flows mostly occurred in the colluvial deposits at the middle and foot of mountains. Thus the deposits generally appear to be the most unstable slope forming materials in the study area. Produced for the study area were six different maps consisting of slope classification map, soil classification map, lineament density map, landslide distribution map, zonal map of rainfall, and geology map, most of them being stored as data base. Using the first four maps and GIS, two sheets of relative slope-stability maps were constructed, each at a scale of 1

  9. Periodic cluster mutations and related integrable maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordy, Allan P

    2014-01-01

    One of the remarkable properties of cluster algebras is that any cluster, obtained from a sequence of mutations from an initial cluster, can be written as a Laurent polynomial in the initial cluster (known as the ‘Laurent phenomenon’). There are many nonlinear recurrences which exhibit the Laurent phenomenon and thus unexpectedly generate integer sequences. The mutation of a typical quiver will not generate a recurrence, but rather an erratic sequence of exchange relations. How do we ‘design’ a quiver which gives rise to a given recurrence? A key role is played by the concept of ‘periodic cluster mutation’, introduced in 2009. Each recurrence corresponds to a finite dimensional map. In the context of cluster mutations, these are called ‘cluster maps’. What properties do cluster maps have? Are they integrable in some standard sense?In this review I describe how integrable maps arise in the context of cluster mutations. I first explain the concept of ‘periodic cluster mutation’, giving some classification results. I then give a review of what is meant by an integrable map and apply this to cluster maps. Two classes of integrable maps are related to interesting monodromy problems, which generate interesting Poisson algebras of functions, used to prove complete integrability and a linearization. A connection to the Hirota–Miwa equation is explained. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (review)

  10. Effects of surface-mapping corrections and synthetic-aperture focusing techniques on ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements in ultrasonic imaging that can be obtained using algorithms that map the surface of targets are evaluated. This information is incorporated in the application of synthetic-aperture focusing techniques which also have the potential to improve image resolution. Images obtained using directed-beam (flat) transducers and the focused transducers normally used for synthetic-aperture processing are quantitatively compared by using no processing, synthetic-aperture processing with no corrections for surface variations, and synthetic-aperture processing with surface mapping. The unprocessed images have relatively poor lateral resolutions because echoes from two adjacent reflectors show interference effects which prevent their identification even if the spacing is larger than the single-hole resolution. The synthetic-aperture-processed images show at least a twofold improvement in lateral resolution and greatly reduced interference effects in multiple-hole images compared to directed-beam images. Perhaps more importantly, in images of test blocks with substantial surface variations portions of the image are displaced from their actual positions by several wavelengths. To correct for this effect an algorithm has been developed for calculating the surface variations. The corrected images produced using this algorithm are accurate within the experimental error. In addition, the same algorithm, when applied to the directed-beam data, produced images that are not only accurately positioned, but that also have a resolution comparable to conventional synthetic-aperture-processed images obtained from focused-transducer data. This suggests that using synthetic-aperture processing on the type of data normally collected during directed-beam ultrasonic inspections would eliminate the need to rescan for synthetic-aperture enhancement

  11. 2017 Military Services Gender Relations Focus Groups: Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Office of People Analytics Office of People Analytics (OPA) Defense Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 06E22...Relations (2017 MSGR) Focus Groups among active duty members. This is the third6 administration of gender relations focus groups. This introductory ...Enlisted, Male “It is true statistically , a majority of sexual assaults there is alcohol or drugs. In the military, it’s into the alcohol more than

  12. Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...

  13. How Narrative Focus and a Statistical Map Shape Health Policy Support Among State Legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Dreisbach, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to advance theorizing about health policy advocacy with combinations of narrative focus and a statistical map in an attempt to increase state legislators' support for policies to address the issue of obesity by reducing food deserts. Specifically, we examine state legislators' responses to variations in narrative focus (individual vs. community) about causes and solutions for food deserts in U.S. communities, and a statistical map (presence vs. absence) depicting the prevalence of food deserts across the United States. Using a Web-based randomized experiment (N=496), we show that narrative focus and the statistical map interact to produce different patterns of cognitive response and support for policies to reduce the prevalence of food deserts. The presence of a statistical map showing the prevalence of food deserts in the United States appeared to matter only when combined with an individual narrative, offsetting the fact that the individual narrative in isolation produced fewer thoughts consistent with the story's persuasive goal and more counterarguments in opposition to environmental causes and solutions for obesity than other message conditions. The image did not have an impact when combined with a story describing a community at large. Cognitive responses fully mediated message effects on intended persuasive outcomes. We conclude by discussing the study's contributions to communication theory and practice.

  14. EdgeMaps: visualizing explicit and implicit relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörk, Marian; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Williamson, Carey

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we introduce EdgeMaps as a new method for integrating the visualization of explicit and implicit data relations. Explicit relations are specific connections between entities already present in a given dataset, while implicit relations are derived from multidimensional data based on shared properties and similarity measures. Many datasets include both types of relations, which are often difficult to represent together in information visualizations. Node-link diagrams typically focus on explicit data connections, while not incorporating implicit similarities between entities. Multi-dimensional scaling considers similarities between items, however, explicit links between nodes are not displayed. In contrast, EdgeMaps visualize both implicit and explicit relations by combining and complementing spatialization and graph drawing techniques. As a case study for this approach we chose a dataset of philosophers, their interests, influences, and birthdates. By introducing the limitation of activating only one node at a time, interesting visual patterns emerge that resemble the aesthetics of fireworks and waves. We argue that the interactive exploration of these patterns may allow the viewer to grasp the structure of a graph better than complex node-link visualizations.

  15. A topographical map approach to representing treatment efficacy: a focus on positive psychology interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Lee, Josephine; Otto, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis by Bolier et al. indicated that positive psychology interventions have overall small to moderate effects on well-being, but results were quite heterogeneous across intervention trials. Such meta-analytic research helps condense information on the efficacy of a broad psychosocial intervention by averaging across many effects; however, such global averages may provide limited navigational guidance for selecting among specific interventions. Here, we introduce a novel method for displaying qualitative and quantitative information on the efficacy of interventions using a topographical map approach. As an initial prototype for demonstrating this method, we mapped 50 positive psychology interventions targeting well-being (as captured in the Bolier et al. [2013] meta-analysis, [Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 83]). Each intervention domain/subdomain was mapped according to its average effect size (indexed by vertical elevation), number of studies providing effect sizes (indexed by horizontal area), and therapist/client burden (indexed by shading). The geographical placement of intervention domains/subdomains was determined by their conceptual proximity, allowing viewers to gauge the general conceptual "direction" in which promising intervention effects can be found. The resulting graphical displays revealed several prominent features of the well-being intervention "landscape," such as more strongly and uniformly positive effects of future-focused interventions (including, goal-pursuit and optimism training) compared to past/present-focused ones.

  16. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended focused imaging and depth map reconstruction in optical scanning holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenbo; Chen, Ni; Lam, Edmund Y

    2016-02-10

    In conventional microscopy, specimens lying within the depth of field are clearly recorded whereas other parts are blurry. Although digital holographic microscopy allows post-processing on holograms to reconstruct multifocus images, it suffers from defocus noise as a traditional microscope in numerical reconstruction. In this paper, we demonstrate a method that can achieve extended focused imaging (EFI) and reconstruct a depth map (DM) of three-dimensional (3D) objects. We first use a depth-from-focus algorithm to create a DM for each pixel based on entropy minimization. Then we show how to achieve EFI of the whole 3D scene computationally. Simulation and experimental results involving objects with multiple axial sections are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  18. Mapping patterns of change in emotion-focused psychotherapy: Implications for theory, research, practice, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2018-05-01

    An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy outcome, and longer-term change. This is a challenging and long-term endeavour. Fine-grained descriptions of in-session processes that lead to resolution of specific interpersonal and intrapersonal issues linked with longer-term outcomes are the foundation of EFT, the process-experiential approach. In this paper, evidence in support of EFT as a treatment approach will be reviewed along with research on two mechanisms of change, viewed as central to EFT, clients' emotional processing and the therapeutic relationship conditions. The implications for psychotherapy research are discussed. Given the methodological constraints, there is a need for more innovative methodologies and strategies to investigate specific psychotherapy processes within and across different approaches to map patterns and mechanisms of change to enhance theory, research, practice, and training.

  19. Dynamic T2-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate ( 2 , since T 2 increases linearly in fat during heating. T 2 -mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T 2 . Calibration of T 2 -based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T 2 and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T 2 temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/°C was observed. Dynamic T 2 -mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  20. Focus maps: a means of prioritizing data collection for efficient geo-risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Pittore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available  Efficient Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR management constantly calls upon high-quality information to be collected or updated for vulnerability monitoring and risk assessment. This process is often resource- and time-intensive, which many economically developing states (including most Central Asian countries can seldom afford. In this paper, we introduce the concept of focus maps as a useful tool to quantify the spatial probability of sampling. Focus maps allow for a data collection prioritization scheme to be put in place, enabling the realization of optimized spatial sampling which assigns a higher priority to locations where the need for high-quality information is greater. In practice, smaller samples can be drawn with the same (or better resulting accuracy of the estimates, resulting in a more efficient use of time and resources. The factors that affect such a spatial sampling scheme include the usual components of risk assessment (hazard, exposure, vulnerability where available, as well as other potentially critical factors, such as the extent and quality of previously collected data. The practical application of the proposed approach to the case of Central Asia will be exemplified and discussed.

  1. Risk of vicarious trauma in nursing research: a focused mapping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016

  2. Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2017-06-01

    What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time. Results across samples suggest that personal attitudes toward time related to real life experiences may influence people's space-time mappings. The findings we report on shed further light on the high flexibility of human conceptualization system. While culture may exert an important influence on temporal focus, a person's conceptualization of time may be attributed to a culmination of factors. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Power relations in the family health team: focus on nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Iramildes Souza; Arantes, Cássia Irene Spinelli

    2017-01-01

    to analyze the power relations that permeate the work of the family health team, and to discuss perspectives of emancipation of these subjects, focusing on nursing and community health agents. a qualitative study with a family health team from a municipality in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through systematic observation and interview with workers. A thematic content analysis was performed. three categories were identified: the work of the family health team and power relations; power relations between the nurse and the healthcare team; and the relations among the nursing team and between community agents and the nurse. The team produces relations of power moved by hierarchical knowledge that move in the search for the reordering of powers. it is necessary to review the contradictions present in the performance scenario of the family health teams, with a view toward making power relations more flexible. analisar as relações de poder que permeiam o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e discutir perspectivas de emancipação desses sujeitos, com enfoque na enfermagem e agentes comunitários de saúde. estudo qualitativo com equipe de saúde da família de município do interior paulista. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observação sistemática e entrevista com os trabalhadores. Foi realizada análise de conteúdo temática. foram identificadas três categorias: o trabalho da equipe de saúde da família e as relações de poder; a relação de poder entre enfermeira e equipe de saúde; as relações da enfermagem e agentes comunitários com a enfermeira. A equipe produz relações de poder movidas por saberes hierarquizados que se movimentam na busca pelo reordenamento dos poderes. é necessário rever as contradições presentes no cenário de atuação das equipes de saúde da família, com vistas à flexibilidade nas relações de poder.

  4. Generalized string theory mapping relations between gravity and gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    A previous study of the Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theories, imposed by the relationship of closed and open strings, are here extended in the light of general relativity and Yang-Mills theory as effective field theories. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the traditional KLT mapping in this effective setting. A generalized mapping between the effective Lagrangians of gravity and Yang-Mills theory is presented, and the corresponding operator relations between gauge and gravity theories at the tree level are further explored. From this generalized mapping remarkable diagrammatic relations are found, linking diagrams in gravity and Yang-Mills theory, as well as diagrams in pure effective Yang-Mills theory. Also the possibility of a gravitational coupling to an antisymmetric field in the gravity scattering amplitude is considered, and shown to allow for mixed open-closed string solutions, i.e., closed heterotic strings

  5. MAPPING CHILDREN'S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2012-03-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children's geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively "always already" positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or "rational" speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children's political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children's politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau's notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin's concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children's representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10-13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors.

  6. Asymmetric focusing study from twin input power couplers using realistic rf cavity field maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced simulation codes now exist that can self-consistently solve Maxwell’s equations for the combined system of an rf cavity and a beam bunch. While these simulations are important for a complete understanding of the beam dynamics in rf cavities, they require significant time and computing power. These techniques are therefore not readily included in real time simulations useful to the beam physicist during beam operations. Thus, there exists a need for a simplified algorithm which simulates realistic cavity fields significantly faster than self-consistent codes, while still incorporating enough of the necessary physics to ensure accurate beam dynamics computation. To this end, we establish a procedure for producing realistic field maps using lossless cavity eigenmode field solvers. This algorithm incorporates all relevant cavity design and operating parameters, including beam loading from a nonrelativistic beam. The algorithm is then used to investigate the asymmetric quadrupolelike focusing produced by the input couplers of the Cornell ERL injector cavity for a variety of beam and operating parameters.

  7. On Controlled Iterated GSM Mappings and Related Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In [17] G. Paun studied families of languages generated by iterated gsm mappings, iterated finite substitutions, and iterated homomorphisms. In this note we generalize some results in [17], and we discuss the relation between iterated finite substitutions (homomorphisms) and (deterministic) tabled

  8. On Controlled Iterated GSM Mappings and Related Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In [17] G. Paun studied families of languages generated by iterated gsm mappings, iterated finite substitutions, and iterated homomorphisms. In this note we generalize some results in [17], and we discuss the relation between iterated finite substitutions (homomorphisms) and (deterministic) tabled

  9. Lunar terrain mapping and relative-roughness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; McCauley, John F.; Holm, Esther A.

    1971-01-01

    Terrain maps of the equatorial zone (long 70° E.-70° W. and lat 10° N-10° S.) were prepared at scales of 1:2,000,000 and 1:1,000,000 to classify lunar terrain with respect to roughness and to provide a basis for selecting sites for Surveyor and Apollo landings as well as for Ranger and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The techniques that were developed as a result of this effort can be applied to future planetary exploration. By using the best available earth-based observational data and photographs 1:1,000,000-scale and U.S. Geological Survey lunar geologic maps and U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center LAC charts, lunar terrain was described by qualitative and quantitative methods and divided into four fundamental classes: maria, terrae, craters, and linear features. Some 35 subdivisions were defined and mapped throughout the equatorial zone, and, in addition, most of the map units were illustrated by photographs. The terrain types were analyzed quantitatively to characterize and order their relative-roughness characteristics. Approximately 150,000 east-west slope measurements made by a photometric technique (photoclinometry) in 51 sample areas indicate that algebraic slope-frequency distributions are Gaussian, and so arithmetic means and standard deviations accurately describe the distribution functions. The algebraic slope-component frequency distributions are particularly useful for rapidly determining relative roughness of terrain. The statistical parameters that best describe relative roughness are the absolute arithmetic mean, the algebraic standard deviation, and the percentage of slope reversal. Statistically derived relative-relief parameters are desirable supplementary measures of relative roughness in the terrae. Extrapolation of relative roughness for the maria was demonstrated using Ranger VII slope-component data and regional maria slope data, as well as the data reported here. It appears that, for some morphologically homogeneous

  10. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  11. Topographic brain mapping of emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschmann, R; Wittling, W

    1992-03-01

    The study used topographic brain mapping of visual evoked potentials to investigate emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries. The stimulus material consisted of color photographs of human faces, grouped into two emotion-related categories: normal faces (neutral stimuli) and faces deformed by dermatological diseases (emotional stimuli). The pictures were presented tachistoscopically to 20 adult right-handed subjects. Brain activity was recorded by 30 EEG electrodes with linked ears as reference. The waveforms were averaged separately with respect to each of the two stimulus conditions. Statistical analysis by means of significance probability mapping revealed significant differences between stimulus conditions for two periods of time, indicating right hemisphere superiority in emotion-related processing. The results are discussed in terms of a 2-stage-model of emotional processing in the cerebral hemispheres.

  12. The human hippocampus: cognitive maps or relational memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2005-08-03

    The hippocampus is widely accepted to play a pivotal role in memory. Two influential theories offer competing accounts of its fundamental operating mechanism. The cognitive map theory posits a special role in mapping large-scale space, whereas the relational theory argues it supports amodal relational processing. Here, we pit the two theories against each other using a novel paradigm in which the relational processing involved in navigating in a city was matched with similar navigational and relational processing demands in a nonspatial (social) domain. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants determined the optimal route either between friends' homes or between the friends themselves using social connections. Separate brain networks were engaged preferentially during the two tasks, with hippocampal activation driven only by spatial relational processing. We conclude that the human hippocampus appears to have a bias toward the processing of spatial relationships, in accordance with the cognitive map theory. Our results both advance our understanding of the nature of the hippocampal contribution to memory and provide insights into how social networks are instantiated at the neural level.

  13. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  14. Mapping patients' experiences after stroke onto a patient-focused intervention framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, C; Martins, A; Conlon, A; Coughlan, T; O'Neill, D; Collins, D R

    2013-03-01

    Stroke patients' involvement in the rehabilitation process including decision making has made significant advances clinically over the past two decades. However, development of patient-focused interventions in stroke rehabilitation is a relatively under developed area of research. The aim of this study was to interpret the explanations that patients gave of their experience after stroke and how these may validate an already established patient-focused intervention framework - the Quest for quality and improved performance (QQUIP) (2006) that includes seven quality improvement goals. A random purposive sample of eight stroke patients was interviewed between 3 and 6 months following discharge. Patients' reports of their experience after stroke were obtained using in-dept semi-structured interviews and analysed using Qualitative Content Analysis. Explanations given by patients included both positive and negative reports of the stroke experience. Regardless of consequences as a result of physical, psychological and social impairments, there were other life style disruptions that were reported by all patients such as taking new medication and adverse effects of these, experiencing increasing fatigue, difficulties with social activities and situations and having to make changes in health behaviours and lifestyle. Some of the core themes that emerged reflected the aims of QQUIP improvement goals that include improving health literacy, clinical decision-making, self-care, patient safety, access to health advice, care experience and service development. Further recommendations based on the findings from this study would be to consider using the QQUIP framework for developing intervention studies in stroke rehabilitation care that are person-centred. This framework provides a template that is equipped to address some of the main concerns that people have following the experience of stroke and also focuses on improving quality of care.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  16. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  17. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. State space modeling of time-varying contemporaneous and lagged relations in connectivity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M; Beltz, Adriene M; Gates, Kathleen M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-01-15

    Most connectivity mapping techniques for neuroimaging data assume stationarity (i.e., network parameters are constant across time), but this assumption does not always hold true. The authors provide a description of a new approach for simultaneously detecting time-varying (or dynamic) contemporaneous and lagged relations in brain connectivity maps. Specifically, they use a novel raw data likelihood estimation technique (involving a second-order extended Kalman filter/smoother embedded in a nonlinear optimizer) to determine the variances of the random walks associated with state space model parameters and their autoregressive components. The authors illustrate their approach with simulated and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 daily cigarette smokers performing a verbal working memory task, focusing on seven regions of interest (ROIs). Twelve participants had dynamic directed functional connectivity maps: Eleven had one or more time-varying contemporaneous ROI state loadings, and one had a time-varying autoregressive parameter. Compared to smokers without dynamic maps, smokers with dynamic maps performed the task with greater accuracy. Thus, accurate detection of dynamic brain processes is meaningfully related to behavior in a clinical sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Delineating Groundwater Vulnerability and Protection Zone Mapping in Fractured Rock Masses: Focus on the DISCO Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Meerkhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hard-rock catchments are considered to be source of valuable water resources for water supply to inhabitants and ecosystems. The present work aims to develop a groundwater vulnerability approach in the Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system (Aguiar da Beira, Central Portugal in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual site model. Different types of information were overlaid, generating several thematic maps to achieve an integrated framework of key sectors in the study site. Thus, a multi-technical approach was used, encompassing field and laboratory techniques, whereby different types of data were collected from fields such as geology, hydrogeology, applied geomorphology and geophysics and hydrogeomechanics, with the fundamental aim of applying the so-called DISCO index method. All of these techniques were successfully performed and an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination assessment, based on the multicriteria methodology of GOD-S, DRASTIC-Fm, SINTACS, SI and DISCO indexes, was delineated. Geographic Information Systems (GIS provided the basis on which to organize and integrate the databases and to produce all the thematic maps. This multi-technical approach highlights the importance of groundwater vulnerability to contamination mapping as a tool to support hydrogeological conceptualization, contributing to improving the decision-making process regarding water resources management and sustainability.

  20. MAPPING THE GALAXY COLOR–REDSHIFT RELATION: OPTIMAL PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CALIBRATION STRATEGIES FOR COSMOLOGY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, Daniel; Steinhardt, Charles; Faisst, Andreas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Capak, Peter [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Rhodes, Jason [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Salvato, Mara [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Schmidt, Samuel [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Longo, Giuseppe [Department of Physics, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Paltani, Stephane; Coupon, Jean [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva ch. dcogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem H’´ugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Speagle, Josh [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS 46, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kalinich, Adam [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano [Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte—INAF, via Moiariello 16, I-80131, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    Calibrating the photometric redshifts of ≳10{sup 9} galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where—in galaxy color space—redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and where they are systematically missing. Crucially, the method lets us determine whether a spectroscopic training sample is representative of the full photometric space occupied by the galaxies in a survey. We explore optimal sampling techniques and estimate the additional spectroscopy needed to map out the color–redshift relation, finding that sampling the galaxy distribution in color space in a systematic way can efficiently meet the calibration requirements. While the analysis presented here focuses on the Euclid survey, similar analysis can be applied to other surveys facing the same calibration challenge, such as DES, LSST, and WFIRST.

  1. [Radioisotopic mapping of the arrhythmogenic focus in patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy and sustained ventricular tachycardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paola, A A; Balbão, C E; Castiglioni, M L; Barbieri, A; Mendonça, A; Netto, O S; Guiguer Júnior, N; Vattimo, A C; Souza, I A; Portugal, O P

    1993-06-01

    To localize the site of the origin of sustained ventricular tachycardia in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy patients refractory to antiarrhythmic therapy by radionuclide angiography techniques. Five patients underwent radionuclide angiography by intravenous administration of 25mCi 99mTc. The images were obtained in sinus rhythm and during sustained ventricular tachycardia induced in the electrophysiologic laboratory for endocardial mapping. Amplitude and phase images were obtained resulting in a contraction wave synchronic to ventricular dispolarization. All patients had haemodynamic stability during the arrhythmia. One patient had incessant ventricular tachycardia. Mean ejection fraction was 0.38. In 4 patients the site of the origin of ventricular tachycardia was posterior and in one it was localized in the interventricular septum. There was identity in the site of the origin of ventricular tachycardia obtained by endocardial mapping or radionuclide angiography in all patients. The therapy was chemical ablation in 3 patients, surgical aneurysmectomy in one and pharmacologic therapy in the last patient. The site of the origin of ventricular tachycardia can be estimated by analyzing the contraction wave obtained by radionuclide angiography techniques in patients with hemodynamic stable sustained ventricular tachycardia.

  2. T1 ρ mapping for the evaluation of high intensity focused ultrasound tumor treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effects of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation on tumor T1ρ . In vivo T1ρ measurements of murine tumors at various spin-lock amplitudes (B1 = 0-2000 Hz) were performed before (n = 13), directly after (n = 13) and 3 days (n = 7) after HIFU

  3. Combined passive acoustic mapping and magnetic resonance thermometry for monitoring phase-shift nanoemulsion enhanced focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crake, Calum; Meral, F. Can; Burgess, Mark T.; Papademetriou, Iason T.; McDannold, Nathan J.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2017-08-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has the potential to enable precise, image-guided noninvasive surgery for the treatment of cancer in which tumors are identified and destroyed in a single integrated procedure. However, success of the method in highly vascular organs has been limited due to heat losses to perfusion, requiring development of techniques to locally enhance energy absorption and heating. In addition, FUS procedures are conventionally monitored using MRI, which provides excellent anatomical images and can map temperature, but is not capable of capturing the full gamut of available data such as the acoustic emissions generated during this inherently acoustically-driven procedure. Here, we employed phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) embedded in tissue phantoms to promote cavitation and hence temperature rise induced by FUS. In addition, we incorporated passive acoustic mapping (PAM) alongside simultaneous MR thermometry in order to visualize both acoustic emissions and temperature rise, within the bore of a full scale clinical MRI scanner. Focal cavitation of PSNE could be resolved using PAM and resulted in accelerated heating and increased the maximum elevated temperature measured via MR thermometry compared to experiments without nanoemulsions. Over time, the simultaneously acquired acoustic and temperature maps show translation of the focus of activity towards the FUS transducer, and the magnitude of the increase in cavitation and focal shift both increased with nanoemulsion concentration. PAM results were well correlated with MRI thermometry and demonstrated greater sensitivity, with the ability to detect cavitation before enhanced heating was observed. The results suggest that PSNE could be beneficial for enhancement of thermal focused ultrasound therapies and that PAM could be a critical tool for monitoring this process.

  4. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  5. Superior cognitive mapping through single landmark-related learning than through boundary-related learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruojing; Mou, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive mapping is assumed to be through hippocampus-dependent place learning rather than striatum-dependent response learning. However, we proposed that either type of spatial learning, as long as it involves encoding metric relations between locations and reference points, could lead to a cognitive map. Furthermore, the fewer reference points to specify individual locations, the more accurate a cognitive map of these locations will be. We demonstrated that participants have more accurate representations of vectors between 2 locations and of configurations among 3 locations when locations are individually encoded in terms of a single landmark than when locations are encoded in terms of a boundary. Previous findings have shown that learning locations relative to a boundary involve stronger place learning and higher hippocampal activation whereas learning relative to a single landmark involves stronger response learning and higher striatal activation. Recognizing this, we have provided evidence challenging the cognitive map theory but favoring our proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M. [Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Philips Healthcare Canada, Markham, ON, L6C 2S3 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada)

    2012-11-28

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate (<1 Degree-Sign C) and dynamic (<5s) thermal maps in soft tissues. PRFS-MRT is ineffective in fatty tissues such as yellow bone marrow and, since accurate temperature measurements are required in the bone to ensure adequate thermal dose, MR-HIFU is not indicated for primary bone tumor treatments. Magnetic relaxation times are sensitive to lipid temperature and we hypothesize that bone marrow temperature can be determined accurately by measuring changes in T{sub 2}, since T{sub 2} increases linearly in fat during heating. T{sub 2}-mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T{sub 2}. Calibration of T{sub 2}-based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T{sub 2} and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T{sub 2} temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/ Degree-Sign C was observed. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  7. A note on Verhulst's logistic equation and related logistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, M Ranferi; Reyes, M A; Rosu, H C

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Verhulst logistic equation and a couple of forms of the corresponding logistic maps. For the case of the logistic equation we show that using the general Riccati solution only changes the initial conditions of the equation. Next, we consider two forms of corresponding logistic maps reporting the following results. For the map x n+1 = rx n (1 - x n ) we propose a new way to write the solution for r = -2 which allows better precision of the iterative terms, while for the map x n+1 - x n = rx n (1 - x n+1 ) we show that it behaves identically to the logistic equation from the standpoint of the general Riccati solution, which is also provided herein for any value of the parameter r.

  8. White Oak Creek Watershed topographic map and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrow, N.D.

    1981-04-01

    On March 22, 1978 a contract was let to Accu-Air Surveys, Inc., of Seymour, Indiana, to produce a topographic map of the White Oak Creek Watershed. Working from photography and ground control surveys, Accu-Air produced a map to ORNL's specifications. The map is in four sections (N.W., N.E., S.W., S.E.) at a scale of 1:2400. Contour intervals are 5 ft (1.5 m) with accented delineations every 25 ft (7.6 m). The scribe method was used for the finished map. Planimetric features, roads, major fence lines, drainage features, and tree lines are included. The ORNL grid is the primary coordinate system which is superimposed on the state plain coordinates

  9. Transitive Relational Mappings in Three- and Four-Year-Olds: The Analogy of Goldilocks and the Three Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha

    1995-01-01

    In three experiments, three- and four-year olds were asked to map relative size from one array of objects to another, map relative size to relative proportion, and map relative size to a variety of perceptual dimensions. Children were able to make relational mappings based on size when spatial positions and concrete representations of size of…

  10. MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound thermoablation under temperature mapping monitoring for the treatment of uterine fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yonghua; Fu Zhongxiang; Yang Lixia; Chen Wenzhi; Liu Yingjiang; Ye Fangwei; Wang Zhibiao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) thermoablation under temperature mapping monitoring for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods: MRgHIFU was carried out in 52 patients with a total of 61 uterine fibroids. The mean age was (39.6 ± 7.3) years (ranged between 23-56 years), and the average diameter of the fibroids was(6.1 ± 2.1) cm (ranged between 1.2-10.7 cm). This procedure was accomplished by a JM-HIFU system (Mode JM15100, Chongqing Haifu Technology Co., Ltd., China), in combination with a 1.5-Tesla MRI system (Avanto TIM, Siemens, Germany), which provided real-time guidance and temperature mapping. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed both immediately and three months after MRgHIFU treatment in order to evaluate the efficacy of thermal ablation. The treatment time and adverse events were recorded. The percentage of ablation volume was calculated after the procedure. The changes in the size of the uterine fibroid and in the clinical symptoms three months after the procedure were evaluated. Results: The mean fibroid volume for each case before and three months after MRgHIFU treatment was (113.3 ± 87.7) cm 3 and (58.1 ± 45.0) cm 3 respectively(P 3 (ranged between 7.7-282.9 cm 3 ) of fibroid volume was (19.8 ± 8.8) minutes. The mean energy of focused ultrasound delivered into the ablated fibroid tissue was (7.1 ± 6.7) J/mm 3 (ranged between 0.9-32.1 J/mm 3 ). The symptoms were relieved, the mean overall points decreased from (24.7 ± 4.8) to (16.7 ± 3.2) after therapy (P < 0.05). One patient experienced mild skin burn (small blisters), which subsided within two days. No other adverse events and complications were observed. Two patients got pregnant at three months after the treatment. Conclusion: MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment is a safe, effective and non-invasive technique for ablating uterine fibroids. A single thermoablation procedure is enough to

  11. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse and for t......This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...

  12. Mapping of uncertainty relations between continuous and discrete time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiù, Davide; Pigolotti, Simone

    2018-03-01

    Lower bounds on fluctuations of thermodynamic currents depend on the nature of time, discrete or continuous. To understand the physical reason, we compare current fluctuations in discrete-time Markov chains and continuous-time master equations. We prove that current fluctuations in the master equations are always more likely, due to random timings of transitions. This comparison leads to a mapping of the moments of a current between discrete and continuous time. We exploit this mapping to obtain uncertainty bounds. Our results reduce the quests for uncertainty bounds in discrete and continuous time to a single problem.

  13. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  14. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse and for t......This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....

  15. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....

  16. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Gerjo; Lo, Siu Hing; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  17. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  18. Courtesy stigma--a focus group study of relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schulze, Beate; Dietrich, Sandra

    2003-10-01

    Stigmatization of people with mental illness has been investigated in numerous studies. Little research, however, has been done to explore how relatives of people with schizophrenia perceive and experience stigmatization and how they can fight such stigmatization. Aiming to explore stigma from the perspective of relatives of people with schizophrenia, focus group interviews were conducted with 122 members of advocacy groups from different parts of Germany. Focus group sessions were tape- and video-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using an inductive method, generating categories (domains) from the material. The analysis of focus group data shows that, contrary to previous research findings, discrimination and disadvantages encountered by relatives of schizophrenia patients reach far beyond the spheres of direct social interaction and access to social roles. Our study revealed two additional domains in which relatives encounter stigmatization: structural discrimination and public images of mental illness. Furthermore, psychiatry has been identified as one important source of stigma. Relatives also suggested numerous anti-stigma interventions. These can be grouped into five main categories: communication measures, support for the ill and their relatives, changes in mental health care, education and training, and control and supervision. Based on our findings,ways of how relatives of schizophrenia patients and mental health professionals can fight against stigma are discussed.

  19. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Kindergartners' Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity in Relation to Their Number-Related Utterances during Numerical Picture Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathé, Sanne; Torbeyns, Joke; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna M.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between kindergartners' Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity (SFON) and their number-related utterances during numerical picture book reading. Forty-eight 4- to 5-year-olds were individually interviewed via a SFON Imitation Task and a numerical picture book reading activity. We expected differences in the…

  1. Palliative sedation: a focus group study on the experiences of relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Sophie; Rietjens, Judith; van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-04-01

    Most studies that have investigated the practice of palliative sedation have focused on physicians' practices and attitudes. The aim of this study was to explore relatives' experiences with palliative sedation and to gain more insight in positive and negative elements in their evaluation of palliative sedation. Focus groups and individual interviews. Various care settings in the Netherlands. A total of 14 relatives of patients who received palliative sedation until death participated. Most relatives evaluated the provision of palliative sedation of their dying family member positively. Positive experiences were related to: the beneficial impact of palliative sedation on the patient's suffering, the opportunity that was offered to prepare for the patient's death, their involvement in the decision-making and care for the patient, and the pleasant care environment. However, the majority of the relatives were unsatisfied with one or more aspects of how information was being provided for. Some relatives were frustrated about the fact that nurses were not authorized to make decisions about the care for the patient and about the absence of physicians during weekends. None of the relatives mentioned the loss of the ability to communicate with the patient during the sedation and the possibility of "hastening death" as disadvantages of palliative sedation. Relatives tend to evaluate the provision of palliative sedation to their severely suffering family member positively because it contributes to a peaceful dying process. However, relatives indicated discontent with how information was being provided and with the communication in general.

  2. Mapping Collaborative Relations among Canada's Chronic Disease Prevention Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Maximova, Katerina; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study – a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada – we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system. The network of relationships obtained through our study shows that provincial boundaries remain a major factor influencing collaborative patterns. Not only are collaborations scarce on the interprovincial level but they are also mostly limited to links with federal and multi-provincial organizations. Given this finding, federal or multi-provincial organizations that occupy central bridging positions in the Canadian CDP collaborative structure should serve as key players for shaping CDP practices in the country. PMID:27585030

  3. Implications of Age-Related Changes in Anatomy for Geriatric-Focused Difficult Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function surrounding the airway change by the age, which may ultimately result in having anatomic features of difficult airways in the elderly. Hence, we reviewed the literature focusing on the age-related anatomic changes and accordingly to compare the characteristics of difficult airways. With age, teeth wear and loss, protein and collagen synthesis reduction, and bone loss and muscle atrophy results in aged face (chin protrusion, cheek retraction and drooping, jaw restriction (temporo-madibular joint disc displacement and osteoarthritis, neck and back stiffness, and kyphotic deformities (degeneration of spinal articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and spinal osteoporosis. These age-related changes in anatomy are compatible with the predictors of a difficult airway. We hope that these age-related anatomic approaches will prospectively allow a detailed understanding of the hallmarks resulting in geriatric-focused difficult airways in the future studies.

  4. Mapping the geography of science: distribution patterns and networks of relations among cities and institutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Persson, O.

    2010-01-01

    Using Google Earth, Google Maps, and/or network visualization programs such as Pajek, one can overlay the network of relations among addresses in scientific publications onto the geographic map. The authors discuss the pros and cons of various options, and provide software (freeware) for bridging

  5. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehan Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM, which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8% and specificity (94.3% in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%. These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

  6. Analytical solutions of weakly coupled map lattices using recurrence relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Herrera, Dolores, E-mail: dsh@dfmf.uned.e [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); San Martin, Jesus [Applied Maths, EUITI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, 3-28012 Madrid (Spain); Dep. Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, UNED, Senda del Rey 9-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-20

    By using asymptotic methods recurrence relations are found that rule weakly CML evolution, with both global and diffusive coupling. The solutions obtained from these relations are very general because they do not hold restrictions about boundary conditions, initial conditions and number of oscilators in the CML. Furthermore, oscillators are ruled by an arbitraty C{sup 2} function.

  7. Relation between dependency and two aspects of self-consciousness : Focusing on dyadic relationships in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    田宮, 沙紀; 岡本, 祐子

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focused on dyadic relationships in adolescence and examined the dependent appearance for significant other and the relation with two aspects of the self-consciousness. Two aspects of the self-consciousness are public self-consciousness and private self-consciousness. As a result of factor analysis,it was indicated that adolescents have mature and immature dependencies on significant others and dependent anxiety was observed regardless of the object of dependence. Furthermore...

  8. Relations between focusing power of space-charge lenses and external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang; Qiu Hong; Huang Jiachang

    1991-01-01

    Under different external electromagnetic fields, the electron densities of the electron cloud in a self-sustaning spece-charge lens are measured with the radio-frequency method and the energy distributions of the ions produced in ionization are measured with the stopping field method. From them the relations between the focusing power of space-charge lenses and the external electromagnetic fields are determined. The available region of the Lebedev-Morozov formula is discussed

  9. Focus on classical and quantum analogues for gravitational phenomena and related effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Maia, Clovis; Schützhold, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Hawking's prediction that black holes are not black but radiate has been one of the intellectually most influential results of theoretical physics, but Hawking's theory has not so far been testable. Recent developments in analogue models of gravity might change that. This focus issue assembles a series of papers that report on steps towards this goal and related physical effects in a variety of physical systems. (editorial)

  10. Processing statistics: an examination of focused and distributed attention using event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijal, Shruti; Nakatani, Chie; van Leeuwen, Cees; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2013-06-07

    Human observers show remarkable efficiency in statistical estimation; they are able, for instance, to estimate the mean size of visual objects, even if their number exceeds the capacity limits of focused attention. This ability has been understood as the result of a distinct mode of attention, i.e. distributed attention. Compared to the focused attention mode, working memory representations under distributed attention are proposed to be more compressed, leading to reduced working memory loads. An alternate proposal is that distributed attention uses less structured, feature-level representations. These would fill up working memory (WM) more, even when target set size is low. Using event-related potentials, we compared WM loading in a typical distributed attention task (mean size estimation) to that in a corresponding focused attention task (object recognition), using a measure called contralateral delay activity (CDA). Participants performed both tasks on 2, 4, or 8 different-sized target disks. In the recognition task, CDA amplitude increased with set size; notably, however, in the mean estimation task the CDA amplitude was high regardless of set size. In particular for set-size 2, the amplitude was higher in the mean estimation task than in the recognition task. The result showed that the task involves full WM loading even with a low target set size. This suggests that in the distributed attention mode, representations are not compressed, but rather less structured than under focused attention conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping the frontier of theory in industrial relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapia, Maite; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Kochan, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    well industrial relations meta-theories, when combined with efforts to build middle-range theories, provide distinctive explanations and different predictions for the alternatives that have emerged to date to fill the void. We propose new directions for theory and research that expand the range...... of actors or institutions that shape employment relations and include social identities outside of the employment relationship as the basis for mobilizing collective actions and voice. Finally, we suggest using these theoretical arguments to test among alternatives as a means of revitalizing and reshaping...

  12. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  13. Video Games Related to Young Adults: Mapping Research Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the typological-research domain of the extant literature on video games related to college-age samples (18-29 years-of-age). A content analysis of 264 articles, from PsycINFO for these identifiers, was performed. Findings showed that negative or pathological aspects of video gaming, i.e., violence potential,…

  14. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  15. Expression and Organization of Geographic Spatial Relations Based on Topic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H. J.; Wang, H.; Cui, T. J.; Guo, J. F.

    2017-09-01

    Spatial Relation is one of the important components of Geographical Information Science and Spatial Database. There have been lots of researches on Spatial Relation and many different spatial relations have been proposed. The relationships among these spatial relations such as hierarchy and so on are complex and this brings some difficulties to the applications and teaching of these spatial relations. This paper summaries some common spatial relations, extracts the topic types, association types, resource types of these spatial relations using the technology of Topic Maps, and builds many different relationships among these spatial relations. Finally, this paper utilizes Java and Ontopia to build a topic map among these common spatial relations, forms a complex knowledge network of spatial relations, and realizes the effective management and retrieval of spatial relations.

  16. Mapping with MAV: Experimental Study on the Contribution of Absolute and Relative Aerial Position Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Skaloud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the benefit of precise aerial position control in the context of mapping using frame-based imagery taken by small UAVs. We execute several flights with a custom Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV octocopter over a small calibration field equipped with 90 signalized targets and 25 ground control points. The octocopter carries a consumer grade RGB camera, modified to insure precise GPS time stamping of each exposure, as well as a multi-frequency/constellation GNSS receiver. The GNSS antenna and camera are rigidly mounted together on a one-axis gimbal that allows control of the obliquity of the captured imagery. The presented experiments focus on including absolute and relative aerial control. We confirm practically that both approaches are very effective: the absolute control allows omission of ground control points while the relative requires only a minimum number of control points. Indeed, the latter method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified (e.g. the lever-arm between the camera perspective and antenna phase centers does not need to be determined and, second, its principle allows employing a single-frequency antenna and carrier-phase GNSS receiver. This reduces the cost of the system as well as the payload, which in turn increases the flying time.

  17. Monitoring of services with non-relational databases and map-reduce framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babik, M; Souto, F

    2012-01-01

    Service Availability Monitoring (SAM) is a well-established monitoring framework that performs regular measurements of the core site services and reports the corresponding availability and reliability of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure. One of the existing extensions of SAM is Site Wide Area Testing (SWAT), which gathers monitoring information from the worker nodes via instrumented jobs. This generates quite a lot of monitoring data to process, as there are several data points for every job and several million jobs are executed every day. The recent uptake of non-relational databases opens a new paradigm in the large-scale storage and distributed processing of systems with heavy read-write workloads. For SAM this brings new possibilities to improve its model, from performing aggregation of measurements to storing raw data and subsequent re-processing. Both SAM and SWAT are currently tuned to run at top performance, reaching some of the limits in storage and processing power of their existing Oracle relational database. We investigated the usability and performance of non-relational storage together with its distributed data processing capabilities. For this, several popular systems have been compared. In this contribution we describe our investigation of the existing non-relational databases suited for monitoring systems covering Cassandra, HBase and MongoDB. Further, we present our experiences in data modeling and prototyping map-reduce algorithms focusing on the extension of the already existing availability and reliability computations. Finally, possible future directions in this area are discussed, analyzing the current deficiencies of the existing Grid monitoring systems and proposing solutions to leverage the benefits of the non-relational databases to get more scalable and flexible frameworks.

  18. Migration-related detention centers: the challenges of an ecological perspective with a focus on justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca; Ornelas, José; Arcidiacono, Caterina

    2015-06-06

    In recent years, border control and migration-related detention have become increasingly widespread practices affecting the lives of undocumented migrants, their families, and communities at large. In spite of the concern within academia, few studies have directly witnessed the life and experiences of people confined to migration-related detention centers. In the medical and psychological fields, a considerable body of research has demonstrated the pathogenic nature of detention in terms of mental health, showing an association between length of detention and severity of distress. Nevertheless, it was limited to the assessment of individuals' clinical consequences, mainly focusing on asylum seekers. There currently exists a need to adopt an ecological perspective from which to study detained migrants' experiences as context-dependent, and influenced by power inequalities. This paper addresses this gap. Drawing upon advances in community psychology, we illustrate an ecological framework for the study of migration-related detention contexts, and their effects on the lives of detained migrants and all people exposed to them. Making use of existing literature, Kelly's four principles (interdependence, cycling of resources, adaptation, succession) are analyzed at multiple ecological levels (personal, interpersonal, organizational, communal), highlighting implications for future research in this field. A focus on justice, as a key-dimension of analysis, is also discussed. Wellbeing is acknowledged as a multilevel, dynamic, and value-dependent phenomenon. In presenting this alternative framework, the potential for studying migration-related detention through an ecological lens is highlighted, pointing the way for future fields of study. We argue that ecological multilevel analyses, conceptualized in terms of interdependent systems and with a focus on justice, can enhance the comprehension of the dynamics at play in migration-related detention centers, providing an

  19. Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands...... resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were......%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact...

  20. Factors related to attrition from trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamser-Nanney, Rachel; Steinzor, Cazzie E

    2017-04-01

    Attrition from child trauma-focused treatments such as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is common; yet, the factors of children who prematurely terminate are unknown. The aim of the current study was to identify risk factors for attrition from TF-CBT. One hundred and twenty-two children (ages 3-18; M=9.97, SD=3.56; 67.2% females; 50.8% Caucasian) who received TF-CBT were included in the study. Demographic and family variables, characteristics of the trauma, and caregiver- and child-reported pretreatment symptoms levels were assessed in relation to two operational definitions of attrition: 1) clinician-rated dropout, and 2) whether the child received an adequate dose of treatment (i.e., 12 or more sessions). Several demographic factors, number of traumatic events, and children's caregiver-rated pretreatment symptoms were related to clinician-rated dropout. Fewer factors were associated with the adequate dose definition. Child Protective Services involvement, complex trauma exposure, and child-reported pretreatment trauma symptoms were unrelated to either attrition definition. Demographics, trauma characteristics, and level of caregiver-reported symptoms may help to identify clients at risk for premature termination from TF-CBT. Clinical and research implications for different operational definitions and suggestions for future work will be presented. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. MAPPING CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors. PMID:25642017

  2. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2018-02-01

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  3. Assembly of inflammation-related genes for pathway-focused genetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Loza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent identifications of associations between novel variants in inflammation-related genes and several common diseases emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of these genes in disease susceptibility. Considering that many genes are involved in the complex inflammation responses and many genetic variants in these genes have the potential to alter the functions and expression of these genes, we assembled a list of key inflammation-related genes to facilitate the identification of genetic associations of diseases with an inflammation-related etiology. We first reviewed various phases of inflammation responses, including the development of immune cells, sensing of danger, influx of cells to sites of insult, activation and functional responses of immune and non-immune cells, and resolution of the immune response. Assisted by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we then identified 17 functional sub-pathways that are involved in one or multiple phases. This organization would greatly increase the chance of detecting gene-gene interactions by hierarchical clustering of genes with their functional closeness in a pathway. Finally, as an example application, we have developed tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (tSNP arrays for populations of European and African descent to capture all the common variants of these key inflammation-related genes. Assays of these tSNPs have been designed and assembled into two Affymetrix ParAllele customized chips, one each for European (12,011 SNPs and African (21,542 SNPs populations. These tSNPs have greater coverage for these inflammation-related genes compared to the existing genome-wide arrays, particularly in the African population. These tSNP arrays can facilitate systematic evaluation of inflammation pathways in disease susceptibility. For additional applications, other genotyping platforms could also be employed. For existing genome-wide association data, this list of key inflammation-related genes and

  4. Development of a training programme for home health care workers to promote preventive activities focused on a healthy lifestyle: an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Maaike E; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-09

    Lifestyle is an important aspect in maintaining good health in older adults, and home health care (HHC) workers can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle. However, there is limited evidence in the literature regarding how to develop an effective training programme to improve the physical activity level and fruit and vegetable consumption of older adults within a HHC setting. The aim of this paper is to describe how Intervention Mapping (IM) was used to develop a training programme to promote preventive activities of HHC workers relating to the physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake of older adults living at home. IM, a systematic theory and evidence-based approach was used to develop, implement and evaluate the training programme. This entailed a literature search, a survey, semi-structured interviews and consultation with HHC workers and various field experts, and a pilot training session. The determinants associated with the provision of preventive activities were identified, and an overview was created of those objectives, matching methods and practical applications that could influence these determinants. The performance objectives for the HHC workers were early detection and monitoring, promoting a healthy lifestyle, informing colleagues, continuing allocated preventive activities and referring to other experts and facilities. Findings were translated into a comprehensive training programme for HHC workers focused on motivating older adults to adopt and maintain a healthier lifestyle. IM was a useful tool in the development of a theory-based training programme to promote preventive activities by HHC workers relating to fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity of older adults.

  5. Designing patient-focused information: an opportunity for communicating anatomically related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darrell J R

    2008-01-01

    Literature clearly demonstrates that there has been a large increase in the time devoted to teaching oral communication skills within medical curricula worldwide. In contrast, the ability to communicate with patients through written means does not appear to be a feature in many programmes, despite its fundamental importance in creating understanding of medicine within the general population. This article investigates one way patient-centered written communication has been integrated into part of the early training years of medical students using anatomically related material as a focus. Following a series of interactive seminars and debates as part of a student-selected component, students were asked to prepare a patient-focused information leaflet on a particular birth defect. The leaflets included aspects of anatomy and embryology as well as causes of the birth defect, signs and symptoms, treatments, outlook, and support mechanisms. Evaluation of the leaflets using set marking criteria and readability indexes showed that students had successfully targeted the chosen audiences. Feedback showed that the component was rated highly by the students in terms of quality, usefulness, and interest. Students viewed sessions as an excellent forum for appreciating the importance of and developing their own effective written communication skills. It is hoped that such developments will enhance the capacity of all potential doctors to communicate more effectively with patients and colleagues in both the written and spoken form.

  6. Women's experience of SLE-related fatigue: a focus group interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Susanne; Möller, Sonia; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Gunnarsson, Iva; Welin Henriksson, Elisabet

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe women's experience of SLE-related fatigue, how they express the feeling of fatigue, impact on life and strategies developed to manage fatigue in daily living. Seven, semi-structured focus group discussions with 33 women were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Perceptions of SLE-related fatigue were sorted into four themes. Nature of Fatigue, involved the sensation, occurrence and character. Aspects Affected by Fatigue described emotions that arose together with fatigue as well as aspects of work, family life, social contacts and leisure activities that were affected by fatigue. Striving Towards Power and Control concluded the array of ways used to manage daily life and were categorized into the mental struggle, structure, restrict and provide. Factors Influencing the Perception of Fatigue described understanding from their surroundings and pain as strongly influencing the experience and perception of fatigue. SLE-related fatigue was portrayed as an overwhelming phenomenon with an unpredictable character, resulting in the feeling that fatigue dominates and controls most situations in life. The choice of strategies was described as a balance with implications for how fatigue limited a person's life. Health care professionals are advised to take a more active role to empower people with SLE to find their own balance as a way to achieve a feeling of being in control.

  7. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.

  8. Fast lesion mapping during HIFU treatment using harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Shutao; Payen, Thomas; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    The successful clinical application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation depends on reliable monitoring of the lesion formation. Harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) is an ultrasound-based elasticity imaging technique, which monitors HIFU ablation based on the stiffness change of the tissue instead of the echo intensity change in conventional B-mode monitoring, rendering it potentially more sensitive to lesion development. Our group has shown that predicting the lesion location based on the radiation force-excited region is feasible during HMIgFUS. In this study, the feasibility of a fast lesion mapping method is explored to directly monitor the lesion map during HIFU. The harmonic motion imaging (HMI) lesion map was generated by subtracting the reference HMI image from the present HMI peak-to-peak displacement map, as streamed on the computer display. The dimensions of the HMIgFUS lesions were compared against gross pathology. Excellent agreement was found between the lesion depth (r 2  =  0.81, slope  =  0.90), width (r 2  =  0.85, slope  =  1.12) and area (r 2  =  0.58, slope  =  0.75). In vivo feasibility was assessed in a mouse with a pancreatic tumor. These findings demonstrate that HMIgFUS can successfully map thermal lesions and monitor lesion development in real time in vitro and in vivo. The HMIgFUS technique may therefore constitute a novel clinical tool for HIFU treatment monitoring.

  9. Barriers related to physical activity practice in adolescents. A focus-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez Añez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to identify barriers to physical activity in adolescents. Focus group interviews were conducted with subjects aged 15 to 18 years (n=59, 50.8% girls and divided according to gender. Content analysis was used to classify the reports into specific dimensions. Descriptive statistics employing relative and absolute frequencies of similar reports was performed using the SPSS 11.0 software. The most frequent barriers among adolescents were those associated with “psychological, cognitive and emotional” and “cultural and social” dimensions. For boys, the most frequently reported barriers were “feeling lazy”, “lack of company” and “lack of time”. For girls, “feeling lazy”, “lack of com-pany” and “occupation” were the most common barriers. In conclusion, the perception of barriers by adolescents varies according to gender, a fact requiring specific actions for the promotion of physical activity in this group.

  10. Relational Issues Within Couples Coping With Parkinson's Disease: Implications and Ideas for Family-Focused Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Summer C

    2016-05-01

    The ways in which Parkinson's disease (PD) impacts, and is experienced by, the couple (i.e., the individual with PD and his or her spouse or other romantic partner) have not been fully elucidated. Such research is strongly warranted because when one member of a couple is chronically ill, it can cause major distress for not only the patient but also for his or her partner and their relationship. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how PD affects a couple's relationship. Data from 44 individual, in-depth interviews (with 21 persons with PD and 23 partners) revealed several challenges that PD commonly invokes in the patient-partner relationship, though most participants reported that PD had not decreased their overall relational closeness. The findings have significant practical implications for family-focused care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Motivation-focused thinking: Buffering against stress-related physical symptoms and depressive symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jeremy M; Perry, Raymond P; Chipperfield, Judith G; Stewart, Tara L; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Developmental transitions are experienced throughout the life course and necessitate adapting to consequential and unpredictable changes that can undermine health. Our six-month study (n = 239) explored whether selective secondary control striving (motivation-focused thinking) protects against the elevated levels of stress and depressive symptoms increasingly common to young adults navigating the challenging school-to-university transition. Path analyses supplemented with tests of moderated mediation revealed that, for young adults who face challenging obstacles to goal attainment, selective secondary control indirectly reduced long-term stress-related physical and depressive symptoms through selective primary control and previously unexamined measures of discrete emotions. Results advance the existing literature by demonstrating that (a) selective secondary control has health benefits for vulnerable young adults and (b) these benefits are largely a consequence of the process variables proposed in Heckhausen et al.'s (2010) theory.

  12. Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: review and analysis with focus on causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation

  13. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  14. Marketing Management Relational Approaches Focused on Consumer’s and Customer’s Needs and Desires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, because of the evolution in the knowledge-based society, the marketing reveals another dimension, the one of relational marketing, which represents the special relationship established between the company and its consumers, with win-win advantages over a long period. In these circumstances, the managerial approach of marketing has new connotations for a more efficient managerial approach of the new national and international business environment. Within the marketing management process of a company, consumers or customers play a very critical role as these are the people who finally buy the goods and services of the organization, and the firm is always on the move to make them buy so as to earn revenue.This article presents the managerial approach of marketing management concept toward the strategic planning of a company and the marketing planning focused on needs and desires of consumers and customers. Therefore, consumers are the beneficiaries of the general and marketing strategy of the company while customers are those who respond to the loyalty process established by the firm. In this context, the purpose of this analysis is to highlight the strategic planning process of a company by integrating the strategic and operational marketing.In addition, we also consider important the issues related to Michael Porter’s generic strategies, which are thus presented in the context of relational knowledge within the process of marketing management. All these approaches are related to winning customers’ loyalty and obviously to customers' value that determines the company to achieve a value chain in the business process. Hence, the consumers and customers are the most important people for any organization. They are the resources which trigger the success of the business.

  15. Praxis induction. Definition, relation to epilepsy syndromes, nosological and prognostic significance. A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Wolf, Peter

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing awareness that reflex epileptic mechanisms provide unique insight into ictogenesis in human epilepsies. Several of the described triggers have in common that they imply complex visuomotor coordination and decision-making; they are today regarded as variations of one principle, i.e. praxis induction (PI). This focused review considers PI from the aspects of history and delineation, clinical and electroencephalographic presentation, syndromatic relations, prevalence, mechanisms of ictogenesis and nosological implications, treatment and prognosis. We reviewed a series of published articles and case reports on PI in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings, treatment and outcome. Findings of both induction and inhibition by the same stimuli suggest widening the reflex epilepsy concept into a broader one of epilepsies with exogenous modification of ictogenesis. PI is closely related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) where hyperexcitability and hyperconnectivity of the entire network of visuomotor coordination seem to provide the precondition for eliciting reflex myocloni in the musculature active in the precipitating task. The conclusions on ictogenesis derived from PI support the concept of JME as a system disorder of the brain. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A double-mutant collection targeting MAP kinase related genes in Arabidopsis for studying genetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Heng; Krysan, Patrick J

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are conserved in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are approximately 80 genes encoding MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3K), 10 genes encoding MAP kinase kinases (MAP2K), and 20 genes encoding MAP kinases (MAPK). Reverse genetic analysis has failed to reveal abnormal phenotypes for a majority of these genes. One strategy for uncovering gene function when single-mutant lines do not produce an informative phenotype is to perform a systematic genetic interaction screen whereby double-mutants are created from a large library of single-mutant lines. Here we describe a new collection of 275 double-mutant lines derived from a library of single-mutants targeting genes related to MAP kinase signaling. To facilitate this study, we developed a high-throughput double-mutant generating pipeline using a system for growing Arabidopsis seedlings in 96-well plates. A quantitative root growth assay was used to screen for evidence of genetic interactions in this double-mutant collection. Our screen revealed four genetic interactions, all of which caused synthetic enhancement of the root growth defects observed in a MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) single-mutant line. Seeds for this double-mutant collection are publicly available through the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center. Scientists interested in diverse biological processes can now screen this double-mutant collection under a wide range of growth conditions in order to search for additional genetic interactions that may provide new insights into MAP kinase signaling. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Malaria in Africa: vector species' niche models and relative risk maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Moffett

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A central theoretical goal of epidemiology is the construction of spatial models of disease prevalence and risk, including maps for the potential spread of infectious disease. We provide three continent-wide maps representing the relative risk of malaria in Africa based on ecological niche models of vector species and risk analysis at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-minute (9 185 275 cells of approximately 4 sq km. Using a maximum entropy method we construct niche models for 10 malaria vector species based on species occurrence records since 1980, 19 climatic variables, altitude, and land cover data (in 14 classes. For seven vectors (Anopheles coustani, A. funestus, A. melas, A. merus, A. moucheti, A. nili, and A. paludis these are the first published niche models. We predict that Central Africa has poor habitat for both A. arabiensis and A. gambiae, and that A. quadriannulatus and A. arabiensis have restricted habitats in Southern Africa as claimed by field experts in criticism of previous models. The results of the niche models are incorporated into three relative risk models which assume different ecological interactions between vector species. The "additive" model assumes no interaction; the "minimax" model assumes maximum relative risk due to any vector in a cell; and the "competitive exclusion" model assumes the relative risk that arises from the most suitable vector for a cell. All models include variable anthrophilicity of vectors and spatial variation in human population density. Relative risk maps are produced from these models. All models predict that human population density is the critical factor determining malaria risk. Our method of constructing relative risk maps is equally general. We discuss the limits of the relative risk maps reported here, and the additional data that are required for their improvement. The protocol developed here can be used for any other vector-borne disease.

  18. Midwives' perceptions of women's preferences related to midwifery care in Germany: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Susanne; Mattern, Elke; Ayerle, Gertrud M

    2018-06-01

    To explore how midwives perceive patient preferences related to midwifery care in Germany. This qualitative study, which was part of a larger study, used a hermeneutic-interpretive approach and involved focus group interviews with midwives. Data collection and analysis were done in a conjoined fashion between April 2015 and September 2016. Four focus group interviews were conducted in four different federal states of Germany. The sample of 20 qualified midwives was heterogeneous with regards to age, educational level, professional experience, type of midwifery care provided, and setting (employed, caseload, education) in which they provided services. Three main themes were identified: Strengths and limitations of midwives' present professional profile (midwives' area of responsibility, range of services, and competency); lack of midwives and midwifery services; women's experiences of conflict in interprofessional care. Each main theme is broken down into several aspects of content. Many women are not aware of the scope of professional knowledge and expertise of midwives. Moreover, the poor delineation of midwives' and obstetricians' areas of competency in Germany's hospitals seems to be disadvantageous for the women. Midwives feel that due to context implications they cannot live up to the quality of midwifery care they aspire to. Lack of midwives results in midwives being overwhelmed, women underserved, and both disappointed. On the one hand, new models of midwifery/maternity care need to be developed to solve some of the existing problems; on the other hand, new forms of interprofessional cooperation and management of transition of care points are required. Overall it is important that changes are implemented in such a way that women are enabled, and welcome, to clearly state their preferences for midwifery and maternity care. Particularly in Germany, tertiary education of midwives is needed to broaden their expertise and place them on an equal footing with

  19. The quality of radiation care: the results of focus group interviews and concept mapping to explore the patient's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.L.; Sixma, H.; Triest, B. van; Keus, R.B.; Hendriks, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: In this study, we explore the quality aspects of radiation care from the patient’s perspective in order to develop a draft Consumer Quality Index (CQI) Radiation Care instrument. Materials and methods: Four focus group discussions with (former) cancer patients were held to

  20. Equilibrium relations and bipolar cognitive mapping for online analytical processing with applications in international relations and strategic decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Ran

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar logic, bipolar sets, and equilibrium relations are proposed for bipolar cognitive mapping and visualization in online analytical processing (OLAP) and online analytical mining (OLAM). As cognitive models, cognitive maps (CMs) hold great potential for clustering and visualization. Due to the lack of a formal mathematical basis, however, CM-based OLAP and OLAM have not gained popularity. Compared with existing approaches, bipolar cognitive mapping has a number of advantages. First, bipolar CMs are formal logical models as well as cognitive models. Second, equilibrium relations (with polarized reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity), as bipolar generalizations and fusions of equivalence relations, provide a theoretical basis for bipolar visualization and coordination. Third, an equilibrium relation or CM induces bipolar partitions that distinguish disjoint coalition subsets not involved in any conflict, disjoint coalition subsets involved in a conflict, disjoint conflict subsets, and disjoint harmony subsets. Finally, equilibrium energy analysis leads to harmony and stability measures for strategic decision and multiagent coordination. Thus, this work bridges a gap for CM-based clustering and visualization in OLAP and OLAM. Basic ideas are illustrated with example CMs in international relations.

  1. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time ... which would greatly enhance the use of G. darwinii-specific desirable genes in ... used to determine all linkage groups, the order of groups on the same ... age groups.

  2. Tangential derivative mapping of axial MEG applied to event-related desynchronization research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Knösche, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: A problem with the topographic mapping of MEG data recorded with axial gradiometers is that field extrema are measured at sensors located at either side of a neuronal generator instead of at sensors directly above the source. This is problematic for the computation of event-related

  3. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...

  4. Single acquisition electrical property mapping based on relative coil sensitivities: A proof-of-concept demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.P.; Sodickson, D.K.; Ipek, O.; Collins, C.M.; Gruetter, R.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeAll methods presented to date to map both conductivity and permittivity rely on multiple acquisitions to compute quantitatively the magnitude of radiofrequency transmit fields, B-1(+). In this work, we propose a method to compute both conductivity and permittivity based solely on relative

  5. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  6. Dutch Cyberbullying Victims’ Experiences, Perceptions, Attitudes and Motivations Related to (Coping with Cyberbullying: Focus Group Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the negative effects of cyberbullying; and because of its unique characteristics; interventions to stop cyberbullying are needed. For this purpose, more insightful information is needed about cyberbullying victims’ (i.e., the target group experiences, perceptions, attitudes and motivations related to (coping with cyberbullying. Five schools with 66 low-educated Dutch adolescents between 12 and 15 (53% female participated in 10 focus group interviews. Results show that victims do not perceive all behaviors as cyberbullying and traditional bullying is generally perceived as worse than cyberbullying. Cyberbullies are perceived as sad, cowards and embarrassing themselves. Victims are perceived as easy targets; they wear strange clothes, act in a provocative manner and have a bad appearance. These perceptions often depend on context, the level of anonymity, being in a fight or not, the person sending the message and his/her behavior. Further, victims reacted to cyberbullying by acting nonchalant, by not actually saying anything and seeking help from others (i.e., parents are not often asked for help because they do not want to bother them; fear of restricted Internet privileges. It can be concluded that asking cyberbullying victims about their experiences in an open manner, and allowing them to discuss these experiences, likely results in new and insightful information compared to using self-reports. In this questioning the perception of adolescents is key to see what is perceived as cyberbullying.

  7. [Advances in research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: focus on social cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2012-09-01

    Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients.

  8. Perceptions of Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PRMDs) in Irish traditional musicians: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Iseult M; Doherty, Liz; McKeown, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) are common in musicians and interfere with the ability to play an instrument at the accustomed level. There is limited research into injuries affecting folk musicians. To explore the Irish traditional musicians' experience of PRMDs. Focus group interviews were conducted in 2011 and 2012, in two venues in Ireland. Data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data collection ended when no new findings emerged from the analysis of interviews. The inclusion criteria were: males or females aged 18 and above, and who taught or played Irish traditional music on any instrument. The data were analysed using the interpretative phenomenological method. All participants (n=22) believed there was a link between playing music and musculoskeletal problems. The main body areas affected were the back, shoulders, arms and hands. The main theme that emerged was: 'PRMDs are an integral part of being a traditional musician', and that the musical experience was generally prioritised over the health of the musician. There were sub-themes of 'fear' and 'stresses that contributed to PRMDs'. PRMDs are an occupational hazard for Irish musicians. There is an awareness of PRMDs, but changes (technique, environment) may threaten identity.

  9. Age-related weakness of proximal muscle studied with motor cortical mapping: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    Full Text Available Aging-related weakness is due in part to degeneration within the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how changes to the representation of corticospinal output in the primary motor cortex (M1 relate to such weakness. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation that can map representation of corticospinal output devoted to a muscle. Using TMS, we examined age-related alterations in maps devoted to biceps brachii muscle to determine whether they predicted its age-induced weakness. Forty-seven right-handed subjects participated: 20 young (22.6 ± 0.90 years and 27 old (74.96 ± 1.35 years. We measured strength as force of elbow flexion and electromyographic activation of biceps brachii during maximum voluntary contraction. Mapping variables included: 1 center of gravity or weighted mean location of corticospinal output, 2 size of map, 3 volume or excitation of corticospinal output, and 4 response density or corticospinal excitation per unit area. Center of gravity was more anterior in old than in young (p<0.001, though there was no significant difference in strength between the age groups. Map size, volume, and response density showed no significant difference between groups. Regardless of age, center of gravity significantly predicted strength (β = -0.34, p = 0.005, while volume adjacent to the core of map predicted voluntary activation of biceps (β = 0.32, p = 0.008. Overall, the anterior shift of the map in older adults may reflect an adaptive change that allowed for the maintenance of strength. Laterally located center of gravity and higher excitation in the region adjacent to the core in weaker individuals could reflect compensatory recruitment of synergistic muscles. Thus, our study substantiates the role of M1 in adapting to aging-related weakness and subtending strength and muscle activation across age groups. Mapping from M1 may offer foundation for an examination of mechanisms that

  10. Mapping surface disturbance of energy-related infrastructure in southwest Wyoming--An assessment of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen S.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Baer, Lori; Fancher, Tammy; McBeth, Jamie; McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert; Bowen, Zachary H.; Diffendorfer, James; Garman, Steven; Hanson, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how well three leading information-extraction software programs (eCognition, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction) and manual hand digitization interpreted information from remotely sensed imagery of a visually complex gas field in Wyoming. Specifically, we compared how each mapped the area of and classified the disturbance features present on each of three remotely sensed images, including 30-meter-resolution Landsat, 10-meter-resolution SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre), and 0.6-meter resolution pan-sharpened QuickBird scenes. Feature Extraction mapped the spatial area of disturbance features most accurately on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization was most accurate on the SPOT imagery. Footprint non-overlap error was smallest on the Feature Analyst map of the Landsat imagery, the hand digitization map of the SPOT imagery, and the Feature Extraction map of the QuickBird imagery. When evaluating feature classification success against a set of ground-truthed control points, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction, and hand digitization classified features with similar success on the QuickBird and SPOT imagery, while eCognition classified features poorly relative to the other methods. All maps derived from Landsat imagery classified disturbance features poorly. Using the hand digitized QuickBird data as a reference and making pixel-by-pixel comparisons, Feature Extraction classified features best overall on the QuickBird imagery, and Feature Analyst classified features best overall on the SPOT and Landsat imagery. Based on the entire suite of tasks we evaluated, Feature Extraction performed best overall on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization performed best overall on the SPOT imagery, and eCognition performed worst overall on all three images. Error rates for both area measurements and feature classification were prohibitively high on Landsat imagery, while QuickBird was time and cost prohibitive for

  11. Cross-sensory mapping of feature values in the size-brightness correspondence can be more relative than absolute

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Laura; Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A role for conceptual representations in cross-sensory correspondences has been linked to the relative (context-sensitive) mapping of feature values, whereas a role for sensory-perceptual representations has been linked to their absolute (context-insensitive) mapping. Demonstrating the relative nature of the automatic mapping underlying a cross-sensory correspondence therefore offers one way of confirming its conceptual basis. After identifying several prerequisites for relative and absolute ...

  12. Milgrom Relation Models for Spiral Galaxies from Two-Dimensional Velocity Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Eric I.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Sellwood, Jerry A.

    2007-01-01

    Using two-dimensional velocity maps and I-band photometry, we have created mass models of 40 spiral galaxies using the Milgrom relation (the basis of modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND) to complement previous work. A Bayesian technique is employed to compare several different dark matter halo models to Milgrom and Newtonian models. Pseudo-isothermal dark matter halos provide the best statistical fits to the data in a majority of cases, while the Milgrom relation generally provides good fits...

  13. Learning from Nature - Mapping of Complex Hydrological and Geomorphological Process Systems for More Realistic Modelling of Hazard-related Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Tilch, Nils

    2010-05-01

    Introduction Hydrological or geomorphological processes in nature are often very diverse and complex. This is partly due to the regional characteristics which vary over time and space, as well as changeable process-initiating and -controlling factors. Despite being aware of this complexity, such aspects are usually neglected in the modelling of hazard-related maps due to several reasons. But particularly when it comes to creating more realistic maps, this would be an essential component to consider. The first important step towards solving this problem would be to collect data relating to regional conditions which vary over time and geographical location, along with indicators of complex processes. Data should be acquired promptly during and after events, and subsequently digitally combined and analysed. Study area In June 2009, considerable damage occurred in the residential area of Klingfurth (Lower Austria) as a result of great pre-event wetness and repeatedly heavy rainfall, leading to flooding, debris flow deposit and gravitational mass movement. One of the causes is the fact that the meso-scale watershed (16 km²) of the Klingfurth stream is characterised by adverse geological and hydrological conditions. Additionally, the river system network with its discharge concentration within the residential zone contributes considerably to flooding, particularly during excessive rainfall across the entire region, as the flood peaks from different parts of the catchment area are superposed. First results of mapping Hydro(geo)logical surveys across the entire catchment area have shown that - over 600 gravitational mass movements of various type and stage have occurred. 516 of those have acted as a bed load source, while 325 mass movements had not reached the final stage yet and could thus supply bed load in the future. It should be noted that large mass movements in the initial or intermediate stage were predominately found in clayey-silty areas and weathered material

  14. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  15. Database for geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furze, Andrew J.; Bard, Joseph A.; Robinson, Joel; Ramsey, David W.; Kuntz, Mel A.; Rowley, Peter D.; MacLeod, Norman S.

    2017-10-31

    This publication releases digital versions of the geologic maps in U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1950 (USGS I-1950), “Geologic maps of pyroclastic-flow and related deposits of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington” (Kuntz, Rowley, and MacLeod, 1990) (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/i1950). The 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions on May 18, May 25, June 12, July 22, August 7, and October 16–18 produced pyroclastic-flow and related deposits. The distribution and morphology of these deposits, as determined from extensive field studies and examination of vertical aerial photographs, are shown on four maps in I-1950 (maps A–D) on two map sheets. Map A shows the May 18, May 25, and June 12 deposits; map B shows the July 22 deposits; map C shows the August 7 deposits; and map D shows the October 16–18 deposits. No digital geospatial versions of the geologic data were made available at the time of publication of the original maps. This data release consists of attributed vector features, data tables, and the cropped and georeferenced scans from which the features were digitized, in order to enable visualization and analysis of these data in GIS software. This data release enables users to digitally re-create the maps and description of map units of USGS I-1950; map sheet 1 includes text sections (Introduction, Physiography of Mount St. Helens at the time of the 1980 eruptions, Processes of the 1980 eruptions, Deposits of the 1980 eruptions, Limitations of the maps, Preparation of the maps, and References cited) and associated tables and figures that are not included in this data release.

  16. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  17. Mapping and annotating obesity-related genes in pig and human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fontanesi, Luca; Piovesan, Damiano; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a major health problem in both developed and emerging countries. Obesity is a complex disease whose etiology involves genetic factors in strong interplay with environmental determinants and lifestyle. The discovery of genetic factors and biological pathways underlying human obesity is hampered by the difficulty in controlling the genetic background of human cohorts. Animal models are then necessary to further dissect the genetics of obesity. Pig has emerged as one of the most attractive models, because of the similarity with humans in the mechanisms regulating the fat deposition. Results. We collected the genes related to obesity in humans and to fat deposition traits in pig. We localized them on both human and pig genomes, building a map useful to interpret comparative studies on obesity. We characterized the collected genes structurally and functionally with BAR+ and mapped them on KEGG pathways and on STRING protein interaction network. Conclusions. The collected set consists of 361 obesity related genes in human and pig genomes. All genes were mapped on the human genome, and 54 could not be localized on the pig genome (release 2012). Only for 3 human genes there is no counterpart in pig, confirming that this animal is a good model for human obesity studies. Obesity related genes are mostly involved in regulation and signaling processes/pathways and relevant connection emerges between obesity-related genes and diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases.

  18. A high-density linkage map and QTL mapping of fruit-related traits in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Yang-Yang; Li, Jun-Xing; Yu, Ting; Wu, Ting-Quan; Luo, Jian-Ning; Luo, Shao-Bo; Huang, He-Xun

    2017-10-06

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is an economically worldwide crop. Few quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were reported previously due to the lack of genomic and genetic resources. In this study, a high-density linkage map of C. moschata was structured by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, using 200 F2 individuals of CMO-1 × CMO-97. By filtering 74,899 SNPs, a total of 3,470 high quality SNP markers were assigned to the map spanning a total genetic distance of 3087.03 cM on 20 linkage groups (LGs) with an average genetic distance of 0.89 cM. Based on this map, both pericarp color and strip were fined mapped to a novel single locus on LG8 in the same region of 0.31 cM with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of 93.6% and 90.2%, respectively. QTL analysis was also performed on carotenoids, sugars, tuberculate fruit, fruit diameter, thickness and chamber width with a total of 12 traits. 29 QTLs distributed in 9 LGs were detected with PVE from 9.6% to 28.6%. It was the first high-density linkage SNP map for C. moschata which was proved to be a valuable tool for gene or QTL mapping. This information will serve as significant basis for map-based gene cloning, draft genome assembling and molecular breeding.

  19. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan AO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  20. A high-resolution genetic linkage map and QTL fine mapping for growth-related traits and sex in the Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Fu, Beide; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Haiyang; Pang, Meixia; Tong, Jingou

    2018-04-02

    A high-density genetic linkage map is essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genome analysis, identification of candidate genes and marker-assisted selection for economic traits in aquaculture species. The Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) is one of the most important aquacultured strains in China. However, quite limited genetics and genomics resources have been developed for genetic improvement of economic traits in such strain. A high-resolution genetic linkage map was constructed by using 7820 2b-RAD (2b-restriction site-associated DNA) and 295 microsatellite markers in a F2 family of the Yangtze River common carp (C. c. haematopterus). The length of the map was 4586.56 cM with an average marker interval of 0.57 cM. Comparative genome mapping revealed that a high proportion (70%) of markers with disagreed chromosome location was observed between C. c. haematopterus and another common carp strain (subspecies) C. c. carpio. A clear 2:1 relationship was observed between C. c. haematopterus linkage groups (LGs) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) chromosomes. Based on the genetic map, 21 QTLs for growth-related traits were detected on 12 LGs, and contributed values of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) ranging from 16.3 to 38.6%, with LOD scores ranging from 4.02 to 11.13. A genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 10.83) and three chromosome-wide significant QTLs (mean LOD = 4.84) for sex were mapped on LG50 and LG24, respectively. A 1.4 cM confidence interval of QTL for all growth-related traits showed conserved synteny with a 2.06 M segment on chromosome 14 of D. rerio. Five potential candidate genes were identified by blast search in this genomic region, including a well-studied multi-functional growth related gene, Apelin. We mapped a set of suggestive and significant QTLs for growth-related traits and sex based on a high-density genetic linkage map using SNP and microsatellite markers for Yangtze River common carp. Several

  1. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  2. The Schroeder functional equation and its relation to the invariant measures of chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luevano, Jose-Ruben; Pina, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that the invariant measure for a class of one-dimensional chaotic maps, T(x), is an extended solution of the Schroeder functional equation, q(T(x)) = λq(x), induced by them. Hence, we give a unified treatment of a collection of exactly solved examples worked out in the current literature. In particular, we show that these examples belong to a class of functions introduced by Mira (see the text). Moreover, as a new example, we compute the invariant densities for a class of rational maps having the Weierstrass p function as an invariant one. Also, we study the relation between that equation and the well-known Frobenius-Perron and Koopman's operators

  3. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  4. Mapping tsunami impacts on land cover and related ecosystem service supply in Phang Nga, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, G.; Burkhard, B.; Römer, H.; Sangkaew, S.; Graterol, R.; Haitook, T.; Sterr, H.; Sakuna-Schwartz, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused damages to coastal ecosystems and thus affected the livelihoods of the coastal communities who depend on services provided by these ecosystems. The paper presents a case study on evaluating and mapping the spatial and temporal impacts of the tsunami on land use and land cover (LULC) and related ecosystem service supply in the Phang Nga province, Thailand. The method includes local stakeholder interviews, field investigations, remote-sensing techniques, and GIS. Results provide an ecosystem services matrix with capacity scores for 18 LULC classes and 17 ecosystem functions and services as well as pre-/post-tsunami and recovery maps indicating changes in the ecosystem service supply capacities in the study area. Local stakeholder interviews revealed that mangroves, casuarina forest, mixed beach forest, coral reefs, tidal inlets, as well as wetlands (peat swamp forest) have the highest capacity to supply ecosystem services, while e.g. plantations have a lower capacity. The remote-sensing based damage and recovery analysis showed a loss of the ecosystem service supply capacities in almost all LULC classes for most of the services due to the tsunami. A fast recovery of LULC and related ecosystem service supply capacities within one year could be observed for e.g. beaches, while mangroves or casuarina forest needed several years to recover. Applying multi-temporal mapping the spatial variations of recovery could be visualised. While some patches of coastal forest were fully recovered after 3 yr, other patches were still affected and thus had a reduced capacity to supply ecosystem services. The ecosystem services maps can be used to quantify ecological values and their spatial distribution in the framework of a tsunami risk assessment. Beyond that they are considered to be a useful tool for spatial analysis in coastal risk management in Phang Nga.

  5. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katie L.; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D. PMID:22947656

  6. Self-focusing and its related interactions at very high laser intensities for fast ignition at Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.A.; Kodama, R.; Izumi, N.; Takahashi, K.; Heya, M.; Fujita, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Norimatsu, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Sunahara, A.; Takabe, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Koase, T.; Iwatani, T.; Ohtani, F.; Miyakoshi, T.; Habara, H.; Tanpo, M.; Tohyama, S.; Weber, F.A.; Barbee, T.W.; Dasilva, L.B.; Dasilva, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    At the Institute of Laser Engineering, various type of experiments related to fast ignition were performed with the 12-beam laser system GEKKO XII and the newly added 100 TW beams line. Using both X-ray and UV laser probes, drilling via ponderomotive laser light self-focusing was studied to show drilling well into the overdense plasma over a distance of 100 μm at a self-focused laser intensity of 10 18 W/cm 2 . This type of self-focusing accelerated electrons up to 0.1 to 1 MeV and was also applied to an imploding shell. (authors)

  7. A dual-mode hemispherical sparse array for 3D passive acoustic mapping and skull localization within a clinical MRI guided focused ultrasound device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crake, Calum; Brinker, Spencer T.; Coviello, Christian M.; Livingstone, Margaret S.; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that passive acoustic imaging may be used alongside MRI for monitoring of focused ultrasound therapy. However, past implementations have generally made use of either linear arrays originally designed for diagnostic imaging or custom narrowband arrays specific to in-house therapeutic transducer designs, neither of which is fully compatible with clinical MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) devices. Here we have designed an array which is suitable for use within an FDA-approved MR-guided transcranial focused ultrasound device, within the bore of a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. The array is constructed from 5  ×  0.4 mm piezoceramic disc elements arranged in pseudorandom fashion on a low-profile laser-cut acrylic frame designed to fit between the therapeutic elements of a 230 kHz InSightec ExAblate 4000 transducer. By exploiting thickness and radial resonance modes of the piezo discs the array is capable of both B-mode imaging at 5 MHz for skull localization, as well as passive reception at the second harmonic of the therapy array for detection of cavitation and 3D passive acoustic imaging. In active mode, the array was able to perform B-mode imaging of a human skull, showing the outer skull surface with good qualitative agreement with MR imaging. Extension to 3D showed the array was able to locate the skull within  ±2 mm/2° of reference points derived from MRI, which could potentially allow registration of a patient to the therapy system without the expense of real-time MRI. In passive mode, the array was able to resolve a point source in 3D within a  ±10 mm region about each axis from the focus, detect cavitation (SNR ~ 12 dB) at burst lengths from 10 cycles to continuous wave, and produce 3D acoustic maps in a flow phantom. Finally, the array was used to detect and map cavitation associated with microbubble activity in the brain in nonhuman primates.

  8. Immunoglobulin G4-related prostatitis: a case-control study focusing on clinical and pathologic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jorie; Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas; van Leenders, Geert; Verheij, Joanne; van Onna, Ilze; Hansen, Bettina; van Heerde, Marianne; Krak, Nanda; Beuers, Ulrich; Bruno, Marco; van Buuren, Henk

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence and histopathologic characteristics of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related prostatic involvement in patients diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. Nine cases of IgG4-related prostatitis were identified among 117 men in the autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-associated

  9. Immunoglobulin G4-related prostatitis: A case-control study focusing on clinical and pathologic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Buijs (Jorie); L. Maillette De Buy Wenniger (Lucas); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); J. Verheij (Joanne); I. van Onna (Ilze); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); M. van Heerde (Marianne); N.C. Krak (Nanda); U. Beuers (Ulrich); M.J. Bruno (Marco); H.R. van Buuren (Henk)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE To evaluate the occurrence and histopathologic characteristics of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)- related prostatic involvement in patients diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. METHODS Nine cases of IgG4-related prostatitis were identified among 117 men in the

  10. A model of seismic focus and related statistical distributions of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Bogdan-Felix

    2006-01-01

    A growth model for accumulating seismic energy in a localized seismic focus is described, which introduces a fractional parameter r on geometrical grounds. The model is employed for deriving a power-type law for the statistical distribution in energy, where the parameter r contributes to the exponent, as well as corresponding time and magnitude distributions for earthquakes. The accompanying seismic activity of foreshocks and aftershocks is discussed in connection with this approach, as based on Omori distributions, and the rate of released energy is derived

  11. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  12. GRtoGR: a system for mapping GO relations to gene relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    We introduce in this paper a biological search engine called GRtoGR. Given a set of S genes, GRtoGR would determine from GO graph the most significant Lowest Common Ancestor (LCA) of the GO terms annotating the set S. This significant LCA annotates the genes that are the most semantically related to the set S. The framework of GRtoGR refines the concept of LCA by introducing the concepts of Relevant Lowest Common Ancestor (RLCA) and Semantically Relevant Lowest Common Ancestor (SRLCA). A SRLCA is the most significant LCA of the GO terms annotating the set S. We observe that the existence of the GO terms annotating the set S is dependent on the existence of this SRLCA in GO graph. That is, the terms annotating a given set of genes usually have existence dependency relationships with the SRLCA of these terms. We evaluated GRtoGR experimentally and compared it with nine other methods. Results showed marked improvement.

  13. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  14. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  15. [Action tendencies of respect-related emotions: Focus on emotion episodes in Japanese university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Sera

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the action tendencies of respect-related emotions in Japanese university students. Participants (n = 405) randomly received a questionnaire about one of six respect-related emotions: (a) keiai (respect mingled with mild love); (b) shinsui (idolatry worship, and adoration); (c) ifu (awe mingled with fear); (d) kanshin (admiration); (e) kyotan (wonder); and (f) sonkei (respect proper) and were asked to recall a situation they felt the emotion. Next, they rated how much they felt like doing the respect-related (intrapersonal or interpersonal) actions in the situation. Statistical analysis revealed several action tendencies of respect-related emotions, however, the degree of each differed between the prototypical episodes of the emotions (a)-(e). The action tendency pattern of sonkei was most similar to that of keiai, therefore keiai could be considered as the prototypical feeling of sonkei in university students. Furthermore, almost all the respect-related emotions tended to strongly motivate willingness for self-correction and improvement. These findings suggest that respect-related emotions play an important role in self-improvement and building good relationships with superiors, at least in late adolescence.

  16. QTL mapping of flag leaf-related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiye; Xu, Hao; Liu, Gang; Guan, Panfeng; Zhou, Xueyao; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin; Du, Jinkun

    2018-04-01

    QTL controlling flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area and flag leaf angle were mapped in wheat. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying morphological traits of the flag leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from ND3331 and the Tibetan semi-wild wheat Zang1817 was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), flag leaf area (FLA), and flag leaf angle (FLANG). Using an available simple sequence repeat genetic linkage map, 23 putative QTLs for FLL, FLW, FLA, and FLANG were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 3A, 3D, 4B, 5A, 6B, 7B, and 7D. Individual QTL explained 4.3-68.52% of the phenotypic variance in different environments. Four QTLs for FLL, two for FLW, four for FLA, and five for FLANG were detected in at least two environments. Positive alleles of 17 QTLs for flag leaf-related traits originated from ND3331 and 6 originated from Zang1817. QTLs with pleiotropic effects or multiple linked QTL were also identified on chromosomes 1B, 4B, and 5A; these are potential target regions for fine-mapping and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.

  17. Mapping the extent and relative toxicity of sediments, Winter Quarters Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, A.; White, G.; Huynh, H.

    1995-01-01

    McMurdo Station was established in the mid 1950s and is the largest research station in Antarctica. In earlier days, wastes were dumped on the steep shores of Winter Quarters Bay, dosed with up to 19,000 L of diesel or jet fuel and ignited. Along with periodic fuel spills, and the discharge of raw sewage the Bay became littered with trash and contaminated with elevated levels of metals, PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons. The original benthic community was essentially totally replaced with more opportunistic species. In 1993, a study was initiated to map the distribution of PCB and hydrocarbon contamination as well as determine sediment pore water toxicity. Sediments were collected from over forty locations with an Ekman dredge after drilling through about 210 cm of ice. Maps of sediment particle size distribution, percent organic carbon, total PCBs, total petroleum hydrocarbons, etc. were developed. Potential toxicity was mapped by normalizing the data to 1 percent organic carbon and comparing the data with various sediment quality criteria. While onsite sediment pore water toxicity tests showed essentially no impacts, the new Microtox trademark chronic bioassay on both pore water and solvent extra showed considerable toxic effects. This paper compares the relative levels of contamination, with sediment quality criteria and toxicity as determined by a chronic microbial bioassays

  18. Characterization of the order relation on the set of completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we characterize the order relation on the set of all nondegenerate completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras in terms of a self-dual Hilbert module induced by each completely n-positive linear map.

  19. Health beliefs and practices related to dengue fever: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16(th) December, 2011 and 12(th) May, 2012. The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments.

  20. Magnetic resonance fiber density mapping of age-related white matter changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Ganslandt, Oliver; Salomonowitz, Erich; Buchfelder, Michael; Hammen, Thilo; Bachmair, Johanna; Eberhardt, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To introduce fiber density mapping (FDM) for investigation of age-related white matter (WM) changes and to compare its capabilities with conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) post-processing. Methods: DTI data with 1.9 mm 3 isotropic voxels were acquired from 44 healthy volunteers (18–88 years) at 3 T. FDM is a 3-step approach which includes diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, fiber reconstruction for the whole brain, and calculation of fiber density (FD) values. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were additionally calculated. Voxel-based analyses were performed to determine volume clusters of significant correlation with age. Bivariate linear regression models and Hotelling–Williams tests were used to detect significant differences between correlations. Results: FDM detected a larger WM volume affected by age-related changes concomitant with fewer significant clusters compared to FA and MD. This indicates that WM alterations due to normal aging occur rather globally than locally. FD values showed a significant stronger correlation with age in frontal lobes (prefrontal and precentral gyrus), limbic lobes (cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus), the corpus callosum (genu) and temporal lobes. Conclusions: FDM shows higher sensitivity for detection of age-related WM changes because it includes all surrounding fiber structures into the evaluation of each DTI data voxel.

  1. Magnetic resonance fiber density mapping of age-related white matter changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Salomonowitz, Erich [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Buchfelder, Michael [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Hammen, Thilo [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-90429 Erlangen (Germany); Bachmair, Johanna [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Eberhardt, Knut [Krankenhaus Schloss Werneck, MRT-Kompetenzzentrum, Balthasar-Neumann-Platz 1, D-97440 Werneck (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To introduce fiber density mapping (FDM) for investigation of age-related white matter (WM) changes and to compare its capabilities with conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) post-processing. Methods: DTI data with 1.9 mm{sup 3} isotropic voxels were acquired from 44 healthy volunteers (18–88 years) at 3 T. FDM is a 3-step approach which includes diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, fiber reconstruction for the whole brain, and calculation of fiber density (FD) values. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were additionally calculated. Voxel-based analyses were performed to determine volume clusters of significant correlation with age. Bivariate linear regression models and Hotelling–Williams tests were used to detect significant differences between correlations. Results: FDM detected a larger WM volume affected by age-related changes concomitant with fewer significant clusters compared to FA and MD. This indicates that WM alterations due to normal aging occur rather globally than locally. FD values showed a significant stronger correlation with age in frontal lobes (prefrontal and precentral gyrus), limbic lobes (cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus), the corpus callosum (genu) and temporal lobes. Conclusions: FDM shows higher sensitivity for detection of age-related WM changes because it includes all surrounding fiber structures into the evaluation of each DTI data voxel.

  2. The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; S. L. Brown; R. Dodson; T. S Smith; H. H. Shugart

    1999-01-01

    Aim Our main goals were to develop a map of the life zones for the conterminous United States, based on the Holdridge Life Zone system, as a tool for ecosystem mapping, and to compare the map of Holdridge life zones with other global vegetation classification and mapping efforts. Location The area of interest is the forty-eight contiguous states of the United States....

  3. Educating teachers focusing on the development of reflective and relational competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Else Bengaard; Jensen, Elsebeth Solveig; Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive research review carried out on behalf of the Norwegian Ministry of Education in 2008 concluded that the competence to establish and maintain good teacher–student relations is a central and important one for a teacher in today’s schools. Together with teaching competence and classr......A comprehensive research review carried out on behalf of the Norwegian Ministry of Education in 2008 concluded that the competence to establish and maintain good teacher–student relations is a central and important one for a teacher in today’s schools. Together with teaching competence...... with the results from other meta-studies, and hence, research quite unanimously concludes that relations matter. However, a closer definition and breakdown into concrete skills is impeded not only at theoretical and definitional levels, but also at a practical level. How can relational competence be described...... and practice. The project is organised and carried out in cooperation between student teachers, teacher educators, qualified teachers and researchers, and this conceptual paper explains the theoretical ideas, implications and perspectives as well as the overall aims and the structure of the project. After...

  4. Family Reminiscing Style: Parent Gender and Emotional Focus in Relation to Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivush, Robyn; Marin, Kelly; McWilliams, Kelly; Bohanek, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Family reminiscing is a critical part of family interaction related to child outcome. In this study, we extended previous research by examining both mothers and fathers, in two-parent racially diverse middle-class families, reminiscing with their 9- to 12-year-old children about both the facts and the emotional aspects of shared positive and…

  5. Recreation as a Related Service: Focusing on the Quality of Life of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodati, Melissa R.

    2017-01-01

    Leisure participation is influential on the quality of life of individuals. Individuals with disabilities can face barriers in leisure participation, impacting their quality of life. IDEA (2004) recognizes recreation as a related service as one way to enhance the leisure experiences for students with disabilities. The purpose of this embedded case…

  6. Intensive care staff, the donation request and relatives' satisfaction with the decision: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vries, A. de; Hoedemaekers, C.W.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of the donation request is generally measured by consent rates, rather than by relatives' satisfaction with their decision. Our aim was to elicit Dutch ICU staffs' views and experiences with the donation request, to investigate their awareness of (dis)satisfaction with

  7. Focusing narrowly or broadly attention when judging categorical and coordinate spatial relations: a MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Franciotti

    Full Text Available We measured activity in the dorsal system of the human cortex with magnetoencephalography (MEG during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, where participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical or coordinate spatial relations (e.g., exchanges of left versus right positions or changes in the relative distances between images of pairs of animals. The attention window was primed in each trial to be either small or large by using cues that immediately preceded the matching image. In this manner, we could assess the modulatory effects of the scope of attention on the activity of the dorsal system of the human cortex during spatial relations processing. The MEG measurements revealed that large spatial cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the right inferior parietal lobe for coordinate trials, whereas small cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the left inferior parietal lobe for categorical trials. The activity in the superior parietal lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and visual cortex, was also modulated by the size of the spatial cues and by the type of spatial relation change. The present results support the theory that the lateralization of each kind of spatial processing hinges on differences in the sizes of regions of space attended to by the two hemispheres. In addition, the present findings are inconsistent with the idea of a right-hemispheric dominance for all kinds of challenging spatial tasks, since response times and accuracy rates showed that the categorical spatial relation task was more difficult than the coordinate task and the cortical activations were overall greater in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere.

  8. [Issues related to national university medical schools: focusing on the low wages of university hospital physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamuku, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    University hospitals, bringing together the three divisions of education, research, and clinical medicine, could be said to represent the pinnacle of medicine. However, when compared with physicians working at public and private hospitals, physicians working at university hospitals and medical schools face extremely poor conditions. This is because physicians at national university hospitals are considered to be "educators." Meanwhile, even after the privatization of national hospitals, physicians working for these institutions continue to be perceived as "medical practitioners." A situation may arise in which physicians working at university hospitals-performing top-level medical work while also being involved with university and postgraduate education, as well as research-might leave their posts because they are unable to live on their current salaries, especially in comparison with physicians working at national hospitals, who focus solely on medical care. This situation would be a great loss for Japan. This potential loss can be prevented by amending the classification of physicians at national university hospitals from "educators" to "medical practitioners." In order to accomplish this, the Japan Medical Association, upon increasing its membership and achieving growth, should act as a mediator in negotiations between national university hospitals, medical schools, and the government.

  9. NHL and RCGA Based Multi-Relational Fuzzy Cognitive Map Modeling for Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to model multi-dimensions and multi-granularities oriented complex systems, this paper firstly proposes a kind of multi-relational Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM to simulate the multi-relational system and its auto construct algorithm integrating Nonlinear Hebbian Learning (NHL and Real Code Genetic Algorithm (RCGA. The multi-relational FCM fits to model the complex system with multi-dimensions and multi-granularities. The auto construct algorithm can learn the multi-relational FCM from multi-relational data resources to eliminate human intervention. The Multi-Relational Data Mining (MRDM algorithm integrates multi-instance oriented NHL and RCGA of FCM. NHL is extended to mine the causal relationships between coarse-granularity concept and its fined-granularity concepts driven by multi-instances in the multi-relational system. RCGA is used to establish high-quality high-level FCM driven by data. The multi-relational FCM and the integrating algorithm have been applied in complex system of Mutagenesis. The experiment demonstrates not only that they get better classification accuracy, but it also shows the causal relationships among the concepts of the system.

  10. Relational safety and liberating training spaces: an application with a focus on sexual orientation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Pilar; Rankin, Pressley

    2008-04-01

    This article describes and discusses a teaching case of a clinical training situation involving a gay marriage and family therapy student working with a same-sex affectional couple. The conceptual pillars of this teaching case, relational safety and liberating spaces, are advanced as illustrations of how the student developed his voice in the training process. Pivotal moments in this process are discussed, as are implications for training and personal and professional growth.

  11. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Focus on Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Chang, Yu-Chi; Cole, Toby B

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that air pollution may negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. Several studies suggest that young individuals may be particularly susceptible to air pollution-induced neurotoxicity and that perinatal exposure may cause or contribute to developmental disabilities and behavioral abnormalities. In particular, a number of recent studies have found associations between exposures to traffic-related air pollution and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which are characterized by impairment in socialization and in communication and by the presence of repetitive and unusual behaviors. The cause(s) of ASD are unknown, and while it may have a hereditary component, environmental factors are increasingly suspected as playing a pivotal role in its etiology, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals. Autistic children present higher levels of neuroinflammation and systemic inflammation, which are also hallmarks of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Gene-environment interactions may play a relevant role in determining individual susceptibility to air pollution developmental neurotoxicity. Given the worldwide presence of elevated air pollution, studies on its effects and mechanisms on the developing brain, genetic susceptibility, role in neurodevelopmental disorders, and possible therapeutic interventions are certainly warranted.

  12. Using intervention mapping to develop a work-related guidance tool for those affected by cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Fehmidah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working-aged individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer require support and assistance to make decisions regarding work. However, healthcare professionals do not consider the work-related needs of patients and employers do not understand the full impact cancer can have upon the employee and their work. We therefore developed a work-related guidance tool for those diagnosed with cancer that enables them to take the lead in stimulating discussion with a range of different healthcare professionals, employers, employment agencies and support services. The tool facilitates discussions through a set of questions individuals can utilise to find solutions and minimise the impact cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may have on their employment, sick leave and return to work outcomes. The objective of the present article is to describe the systematic development and content of the tool using Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP. Methods The study used the first five steps of the intervention mapping process to guide the development of the tool. A needs assessment identified the ‘gaps’ in information/advice received from healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. The intended outcomes and performance objectives for the tool were then identified followed by theory-based methods and an implementation plan. A draft of the tool was developed and subjected to a two-stage Delphi process with various stakeholders. The final tool was piloted with 38 individuals at various stages of the cancer journey. Results The tool was designed to be a self-led tool that can be used by any person with a cancer diagnosis and working for most types of employers. The pilot study indicated that the tool was relevant and much needed. Conclusions Intervention Mapping is a valuable protocol for designing complex guidance tools. The process and design of this particular tool can lend itself to other situations both occupational and more health

  13. Using intervention mapping to develop a work-related guidance tool for those affected by cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Kalawsky, Katryna; Wallis, Deborah J; Donaldson-Feilder, Emma

    2013-01-05

    Working-aged individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer require support and assistance to make decisions regarding work. However, healthcare professionals do not consider the work-related needs of patients and employers do not understand the full impact cancer can have upon the employee and their work. We therefore developed a work-related guidance tool for those diagnosed with cancer that enables them to take the lead in stimulating discussion with a range of different healthcare professionals, employers, employment agencies and support services. The tool facilitates discussions through a set of questions individuals can utilise to find solutions and minimise the impact cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may have on their employment, sick leave and return to work outcomes. The objective of the present article is to describe the systematic development and content of the tool using Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP). The study used the first five steps of the intervention mapping process to guide the development of the tool. A needs assessment identified the 'gaps' in information/advice received from healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. The intended outcomes and performance objectives for the tool were then identified followed by theory-based methods and an implementation plan. A draft of the tool was developed and subjected to a two-stage Delphi process with various stakeholders. The final tool was piloted with 38 individuals at various stages of the cancer journey. The tool was designed to be a self-led tool that can be used by any person with a cancer diagnosis and working for most types of employers. The pilot study indicated that the tool was relevant and much needed. Intervention Mapping is a valuable protocol for designing complex guidance tools. The process and design of this particular tool can lend itself to other situations both occupational and more health-care based.

  14. Suitability aero-geophysical methods for generating conceptual soil maps and their use in the modeling of process-related susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilch, Nils; Römer, Alexander; Jochum, Birgit; Schattauer, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    In the past years, several times large-scale disasters occurred in Austria, which were characterized not only by flooding, but also by numerous shallow landslides and debris flows. Therefore, for the purpose of risk prevention, national and regional authorities also require more objective and realistic maps with information about spatially variable susceptibility of the geosphere for hazard-relevant gravitational mass movements. There are many and various proven methods and models (e.g. neural networks, logistic regression, heuristic methods) available to create such process-related (e.g. flat gravitational mass movements in soil) suszeptibility maps. But numerous national and international studies show a dependence of the suitability of a method on the quality of process data and parameter maps (f.e. Tilch & Schwarz 2011, Schwarz & Tilch 2011). In this case, it is important that also maps with detailed and process-oriented information on the process-relevant geosphere will be considered. One major disadvantage is that only occasionally area-wide process-relevant information exists. Similarly, in Austria often only soil maps for treeless areas are available. However, in almost all previous studies, randomly existing geological and geotechnical maps were used, which often have been specially adapted to the issues and objectives. This is one reason why very often conceptual soil maps must be derived from geological maps with only hard rock information, which often have a rather low quality. Based on these maps, for example, adjacent areas of different geological composition and process-relevant physical properties are razor sharp delineated, which in nature appears quite rarly. In order to obtain more realistic information about the spatial variability of the process-relevant geosphere (soil cover) and its physical properties, aerogeophysical measurements (electromagnetic, radiometric), carried out by helicopter, from different regions of Austria were interpreted

  15. Simulating Navigation with Virtual 3d Geovisualizations - a Focus on Memory Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokka, I.; Çöltekin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The use of virtual environments (VE) for navigation-related studies, such as spatial cognition and path retrieval has been widely adopted in cognitive psychology and related fields. What motivates the use of VEs for such studies is that, as opposed to real-world, we can control for the confounding variables in simulated VEs. When simulating a geographic environment as a virtual world with the intention to train navigational memory in humans, an effective and efficient visual design is important to facilitate the amount of recall. However, it is not yet clear what amount of information should be included in such visual designs intended to facilitate remembering: there can be too little or too much of it. Besides the amount of information or level of detail, the types of visual features (`elements' in a visual scene) that should be included in the representations to create memorable scenes and paths must be defined. We analyzed the literature in cognitive psychology, geovisualization and information visualization, and identified the key factors for studying and evaluating geovisualization designs for their function to support and strengthen human navigational memory. The key factors we identified are: i) the individual abilities and age of the users, ii) the level of realism (LOR) included in the representations and iii) the context in which the navigation is performed, thus specific tasks within a case scenario. Here we present a concise literature review and our conceptual development for follow-up experiments.

  16. Dialysis catheter-related septicaemia--focus on Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Ladefoged, S D; Kolmos, H J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dialysis catheters are a common cause of nosocomial septicaemia in haemodialysis units usually due to staphylococci, of which Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic. In this study, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dialysis catheter-related infections were studied, and methods...... to infection were measured. After catheter insertion, all patients were screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus, and a culture was taken from the skin overlying the catheter insertion site. Once a week, cultures were taken from the insertion site and from the hub, and aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were...... drawn from the catheter. If clinical signs of septicaemia occurred, peripheral blood cultures were also performed, when it was possible. RESULTS: The incidence of septicaemia was 49% (21/43) in patients, and 56% of all cases were caused by S. aureus. The mortality was 14% (3/21) and the incidence...

  17. Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

  18. Some comments on mapping from disease-specific to generic health-related quality-of-life scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari

    2013-01-01

    An article by Lu et al. in this issue of Value in Health addresses the mapping of treatment or group differences in disease-specific measures (DSMs) of health-related quality of life onto differences in generic health-related quality-of-life scores, with special emphasis on how the mapping is affected by the reliability of the DSM. In the proposed mapping, a factor analytic model defines a conversion factor between the scores as the ratio of factor loadings. Hence, the mapping applies to convert true underlying scales and has desirable properties facilitating the alignment of instruments and understanding their relationship in a coherent manner. It is important to note, however, that when DSM means or differences in mean DSMs are estimated, their mapping is still of a measurement error-prone predictor, and the correct conversion coefficient is the true mapping multiplied by the reliability of the DSM in the relevant sample. In addition, the proposed strategy for estimating the factor analytic mapping in practice requires assumptions that may not hold. We discuss these assumptions and how they may be the reason we obtain disparate estimates of the mapping factor in an application of the proposed methods to groups of patients. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-03-01

    Prevailing thinking about obesity and related diseases holds that quantifying calories should be a principal concern and target for intervention. Part of this thinking is that consumed calories - regardless of their sources - are equivalent; i.e. 'a calorie is a calorie'. The present commentary discusses various problems with the idea that 'a calorie is a calorie' and with a primarily quantitative focus on food calories. Instead, the authors argue for a greater qualitative focus on the sources of calories consumed (i.e. a greater focus on types of foods) and on the metabolic changes that result from consuming foods of different types. In particular, the authors consider how calorie-focused thinking is inherently biased against high-fat foods, many of which may be protective against obesity and related diseases, and supportive of starchy and sugary replacements, which are likely detrimental. Shifting the focus to qualitative food distinctions, a central argument of the paper is that obesity and related diseases are problems due largely to food-induced physiology (e.g. neurohormonal pathways) not addressable through arithmetic dieting (i.e. calorie counting). The paper considers potential harms of public health initiatives framed around calorie balance sheets - targeting 'calories in' and/or 'calories out' - that reinforce messages of overeating and inactivity as underlying causes, rather than intermediate effects, of obesity. Finally, the paper concludes that public health should work primarily to support the consumption of whole foods that help protect against obesity-promoting energy imbalance and metabolic dysfunction and not continue to promote calorie-directed messages that may create and blame victims and possibly exacerbate epidemics of obesity and related diseases.

  20. Effects of Hyperoxia on Oxygen-Related Inflammation with a Focus on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Muniesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown a pathological oxygenation (hypoxia/hyperoxia on the adipose tissue in obese subjects. Additionally, the excess of body weight is often accompanied by a state of chronic low-degree inflammation. The inflammation phenomenon is a complex biological response mounted by tissues to combat injurious stimuli in order to maintain cell homeostasis. Furthermore, it is believed that the abnormal oxygen partial pressure occurring in adipose tissue is involved in triggering inflammatory processes. In this context, oxygen is used in modern medicine as a treatment for several diseases with inflammatory components. Thus, hyperbaric oxygenation has demonstrated beneficial effects, apart from improving local tissue oxygenation, on promoting angiogenesis, wound healing, providing neuroprotection, facilitating glucose uptake, appetite, and others. Nevertheless, an excessive hyperoxia exposure can lead to deleterious effects such as oxidative stress, pulmonary edema, and maybe inflammation. Interestingly, some of these favorable outcomes occur under high and low oxygen concentrations. Hereby, we review a potential therapeutic approach to the management of obesity as well as the oxygen-related inflammation accompanying expanded adipose tissue, based on elevated oxygen concentrations. To conclude, we highlight at the end of this review some areas that need further clarification.

  1. Chiropractic curriculum mapping and congruence of the evidence for workplace interventions in work-related neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutiger, Martin; Tuchin, Peter Jeffery

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a best-synthesis summary of the literature for effective workplace health promotion interventions (WHPI) for work-related mechanical neck pain (MNP) and to determine the congruence between knowledge of WHPI for work-related MNP and coverage of MNP in the chiropractic postgraduate program at Macquarie University. A literature review was undertaken to determine effective WHPI for work-related MNP. We searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro (from 1991 to 2016) for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The PRISMA (2009) 27-item checklist was used to critically appraise included articles. Lectures, tutorials, and assessment tasks within the chiropractic postgraduate program were mapped to the literature review findings and analyzed. There was moderate-quality evidence for multidimensional WHPI, including aspects of mental and physical functioning, activity performance and modifications, and environmental modifications, to reduce MNP and disability in workers, particularly in the long term. Education on coverage of MNP and effective WHPI for MNP was inadequately covered although congruent with synthesis of current literature. Education on body functions and structures and personal factors were the most commonly covered components. Multidimensional WHPI, focusing on physical, mental, and environmental modifications, appear to reduce self-reported MNP primarily in office workers. There is adequate congruence between the chiropractic postgraduate program at Macquarie University and the published literature on some WHPI. However, there is inadequate coverage on aspects of MNP and effective WHPI for MNP, particularly those focusing on activity and participation and environmental factors.

  2. Global trends in research related to social media in psychology: mapping and bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2018-01-01

    Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h -index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin - Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication

  3. EU-Russia energy relations. What chance for solutions? A focus on the natural gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Dimo

    2011-07-01

    Public debate about energy relations between the EU and Russia is distorted. These distortions present considerable obstacles to the development of true partnership. At the core of the conflict is a struggle for resource rents between energy producing, energy consuming and transit countries. Supposed secondary aspects, however, are also of great importance. They comprise of geopolitics, market access, economic development and state sovereignty. The European Union, having engaged in energy market liberalisation, faces a widening gap between declining domestic resources and continuously growing energy demand. Diverse interests inside the EU prevent the definition of a coherent and respected energy policy. Russia, for its part, is no longer willing to subsidise its neighbouring economies by cheap energy exports. The Russian government engages in assertive policies pursuing Russian interests. In so far, it opts for a different globalisation approach, refusing the role of mere energy exporter. In view of the intensifying struggle for global resources, Russia, with its large energy potential, appears to be a very favourable option for European energy supplies, if not the best one. However, several outcomes of the strategic game between the two partners can be imagined. Engaging in non-cooperative strategies will in the end leave all stakeholders worse-off. The European Union should therefore concentrate on securing its partnership with Russia instead of damaging it. Stable cooperation would need the acceptance that the partner may pursue his own goals, which might be different from one's own interests. The question is, how can a sustainable compromise be found? This thesis finds that a mix of continued dialogue, a tit for tat approach bolstered by an international institutional framework and increased integration efforts appears as a preferable solution. (orig.)

  4. High resolution linkage maps of the model organism Petunia reveal substantial synteny decay with the related genome of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossolini, Eligio; Klahre, Ulrich; Brandenburg, Anna; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-04-01

    Two linkage maps were constructed for the model plant Petunia. Mapping populations were obtained by crossing the wild species Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris with Petunia inflata, and Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii with Petunia exserta. Both maps cover the seven chromosomes of Petunia, and span 970 centimorgans (cM) and 700 cM of the genomes, respectively. In total, 207 markers were mapped. Of these, 28 are multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 179 are gene-derived markers. For the first time we report on the development and mapping of 83 Petunia microsatellites. The two maps retain the same marker order, but display significant differences of recombination frequencies at orthologous mapping intervals. A complex pattern of genomic rearrangements was detected with the related genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicating that synteny between Petunia and other Solanaceae crops has been considerably disrupted. The newly developed markers will facilitate the genetic characterization of mutants and ecological studies on genetic diversity and speciation within the genus Petunia. The maps will provide a powerful tool to link genetic and genomic information and will be useful to support sequence assembly of the Petunia genome.

  5. Relative Effects of the Dollar and Yen on East Asian Currency Values: Focusing on the Post-Crisis Period

    OpenAIRE

    Bonghan Kim; Seeun Jeong

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the relative effects of the dollar and yen on the value of East Asian currencies. We focus especially on countries that have chosen to adopt floating regimes in the post-financial crisis period, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. First, we calculate a exchange rate flexibility index and carry out a regression using Frankel and Wei's (1994) methodology. The results confirm an increase in the coupling of East Asian currencies vi...

  6. Revisiting the "American Social Science" – Mapping the Geography of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    International Relations (IR) knows itself as an American social science. The paper first traces how the self-image as a uniquely dividing and American social science was established in the postwar period and is reproduced to this day. Second, it employs bibliometric methods to challenge this image....... It confirms the dominance of Americans in a comprehensive sample of IR journals, but in contrast to previous studies, the paper also compares IR to other disciplines only to find that it is actually one of the least American social sciences. It further studies the geography of IR over time and finds that IR...... has become less American since the 1960s—mainly because Anglo-Saxon and European countries account for a larger share of IR production. The final part uses novel visualization tools to map the geographical network structures of authorship and coauthorship in the discipline’s leading journals...

  7. [Young adult with psychotic disorders have problems relating to sexuality, intimacy and relationships. An explanatory study based on focus group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, J; Wolters, H A; Pijnenborg, G H M

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that young adults with psychotic disorders frequently have problems relating to sexuality, intimacy and relationships. Such problems are often neglected in clinical practice. To perform a study that explores, on the basis of focus groups, how issues such as sexuality, intimacy and relationships can be addressed as part of the treatment of adolescents suffering from a psychotic disorder. We created eight focus groups consisting of clients attending the department of psychotic disorders and caregivers who worked there. The meetings of each focus group were fully transcribed and analysed by means of Nvivo. Clients indicated they wanted to address the topics of sexuality, intimacy and relationships in a group setting. They expressed the wish to have mixed gender groups and decided that in the group discussions the main focus should be on the exchange of personal experiences. In our view, it is desirable that psychiatry should pay more attention to the subject of sexuality. By giving adolescents suffering from psychotic disorders the opportunity to discuss their experiences, problems and feelings of insecurity in a group setting and in a low-threshold environment, psychiatrists can greatly improve the quality of care that they provide for their patients.

  8. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  9. Health professionals perceive teamwork with relatives as an obstacle in their daily work - a focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jannie; Broholm, Malene; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    Health professionals must often balance between different rationalities within the hospital organisation. Having adequate time with patients, shorter waiting time and the ability to greater professional autonomy have been shown to help provide a higher quality of care. Empathy and sympathy appear to be crucial components for the health professionals and their relationship to patients. The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of relatives to critically ill patients in order to identify aspects that may facilitate a better understanding of this teamwork. The study was descriptive and exploratory and had a qualitative design with a phenomenological/hermeneutic orientation for the interviews. Focus group was the chosen methodology. The study comprised 19 health professionals in four focus groups. Two themes emerged from the interviews: the hospital culture does not integrate relatives, and health professionals felt that relatives took their resources and saw them as an obstacle in their daily work. Health professionals felt divided between the system and the individual sphere, which makes it difficult for them to integrate relatives more and see them as participants in a natural teamwork for the benefit of the patient. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. Spectral mapping of savanna tree species at canopy level, with focus on tall trees, using an integrated CAO Hyperspectral & LiDAR sensor approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection and mapping of tree/plant species in the savanna ecosystem can provide numerous benefits for the managerial authorities. This includes the accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of economically viable trees which are a key source...

  11. Use of airborne multispectral scanner data to map alteration related to roll-front uranium migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer-enhanced airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) images have been used to detect and map red oxidized alteration related to roll-front uranium migration in the southern Powder River basin, Wyoming. Information in the 0.4- to 1.1-μm spectral region was used to produce a color ratio composite image, upon which the red-altered areas can be differentiated. The red-altered and incipiently altered sandstones result from the migration of a roll-front (or geochemical cell) through the sandstone in the direction of the hydrologic gradient. Most uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at the boundary between this oxidized sandstone and reduced sandstone. Therefore, the ability to detect and map this alteration reliably can provide important information about the potential for uranium mineralization down gradient from the altered areas, at the surface in an area of interest. Spectral reflectance studies indicate that a shift in the absorption band edge from 0.52 μm (for goethitic sandstone) to 0.58 μm (for hematitic sandstone) and an intensification of an absorption band at 0.85 μm (for hematitic sandstone) are the bases for identifying the red-altered sandstone as green anomalous areas on the color ratio composite image. Some of the incipiently altered sandstone also appears green, whereas unaltered material and white-altered sandstone appear as blue to cyan colors. Therefore, the composite image is useful in discriminating hematitic sandstone from goethitic sandstone. At high densities (>65%), vegetation masks the sandstones on the color ratio composite image. Artemisia tridentata (sage) and Stipa comata (grass) are the species that have the greatest individual effect on the image

  12. Relation of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Morphology to the Dilatation Pattern of the Proximal Aorta: Focus on the Transvalvular Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Girdauskas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether the dilatation of proximal aorta in patients with bicuspid aortic valve is secondary to hemodynamic effects related to the abnormal aortic valve or a primary manifestation of the genetic disorder remains controversial. We discuss in this paper the recent data on the BAV function and transvalvular flow patterns in relation with the dilatation type of the proximal aorta. Different morphological forms of bicuspid aortic valve in relation with the specific transvalvular blood flow patterns are focus of the first paragraph of this paper. In the second part of this paper we present the pathogenetic insight into the different clinically observed phenotypes of bicuspid aortic valve disease (i.e., association of proximal aortic shapes with the specific cusp fusion patterns, based on the data from recent rheological studies.

  13. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early fatherhood: a mapping of the evidence base relating to pregnancy prevention and parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D; Brooks, F; Bunn, F; Graham, M

    2009-12-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual health programmes that are most effective from the perspective of young men. We conducted a systematic mapping to identify studies involving young men aimed at preventing teenage pregnancy, improving outcomes for teenage fathers or exploring the perspectives of young men around pregnancy and fatherhood. We searched a wide range of electronic databases from January 1996 to August 2008. Three quantitative and 15 qualitative studies were identified, of which nine were UK based. Key themes related to the inappropriateness of current sexual health promotion to respond to the needs of young men. While young men often possessed very similar ideals to young women, existing programmes were problematic when they negatively stereotyped young men and ineffectively addressed models of masculinity or the difficulties young men may have forming meaningful relationships. Further investigations are required on programme development for young men, particularly on sexual health promotion interventions for 'looked-after' young men and those from unstable childhoods.

  15. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  16. Mapping SLCO1B1 Genetic Variation for Global Precision Medicine in Understudied Regions in Africa: A Focus on Zulu and Cape Admixed Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoosain, Nisreen; Pearce, Brendon; Jacobs, Clifford; Benjeddou, Mongi

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. President Barack Obama has announced, in his State of the Union address on January 20, 2015, the Precision Medicine Initiative, a US$215-million program. For global precision medicine to become a reality, however, biological and environmental "variome" in previously understudied populations ought to be mapped and catalogued. Chief among the molecular targets that warrant global mapping is the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), encoded by solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1), a hepatic uptake transporter predominantly expressed in the basolateral side of hepatocytes. Human OATP1B1 plays a crucial role in the transport of a wide variety of substrates. This includes endogenous compounds such as bile salts as well as medicines, including benzylpenicillin, methotrexate, pravastatin, and rifampicin, and natural toxins microcystin and phalloidin. Genetic variations observed in the SLCO1B1 gene have been associated with altered in vitro and in vivo OATP1B1 transport activity, and consequently influencing patients' response to medicines, toxins, and susceptibility to common complex diseases. Well-characterized haplotypes, *5 (RS4149056C) and *15 (RS4149056T), have been associated with a strikingly reduced uptake of multiple OATP1B1 substrates, including estrone-3-sulfate, estradiol-17β-d-glucuronide, atorvastatin, cerivastatin, pravastatin, and rifampicin. In particular, RS4149056C is observed in 60% of the Cape admixed (CA) population and is associated with increased plasma concentrations of many statins as well as fexofenadine and repaglinide. We designed and optimized a SNaPshot minisequencing panel to characterize the variants of relevance for precision medicine in the clinic. We report here the first study on allele and genotype frequencies for 10 nonsynonymous, 4 synonymous, and 6 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 in the Zulu and CA populations of South Africa. These variants are further

  17. Usability Testing Of Web Mapping Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Voldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a usability testing as method, which can be used to improve controlling of web map sites. Study refers to the basic principles of this method and describes particular usability tests of mapping sites. In this paper are identified potential usability problems of web sites: Amapy.cz, Google maps and Mapy.cz. The usability testing was focused on problems related with user interfaces, addresses searching and route planning of the map sites.

  18. Transcriptome-enabled marker discovery and mapping of plastochron-related genes in Petunia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufang; Wiegert-Rininger, Krystle E; Vallejo, Veronica A; Barry, Cornelius S; Warner, Ryan M

    2015-09-24

    Petunia (Petunia × hybrida), derived from a hybrid between P. axillaris and P. integrifolia, is one of the most economically important bedding plant crops and Petunia spp. serve as model systems for investigating the mechanisms underlying diverse mating systems and pollination syndromes. In addition, we have previously described genetic variation and quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to petunia development rate and morphology, which represent important breeding targets for the floriculture industry to improve crop production and performance. Despite the importance of petunia as a crop, the floriculture industry has been slow to adopt marker assisted selection to facilitate breeding strategies and there remains a limited availability of sequences and molecular markers from the genus compared to other economically important members of the Solanaceae family such as tomato, potato and pepper. Here we report the de novo assembly, annotation and characterization of transcriptomes from P. axillaris, P. exserta and P. integrifolia. Each transcriptome assembly was derived from five tissue libraries (callus, 3-week old seedlings, shoot apices, flowers of mixed developmental stages, and trichomes). A total of 74,573, 54,913, and 104,739 assembled transcripts were recovered from P. axillaris, P. exserta and P. integrifolia, respectively and following removal of multiple isoforms, 32,994 P. axillaris, 30,225 P. exserta, and 33,540 P. integrifolia high quality representative transcripts were extracted for annotation and expression analysis. The transcriptome data was mined for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, yielding 89,007 high quality SNPs and 2949 SSRs, respectively. 15,701 SNPs were computationally converted into user-friendly cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers and a subset of SNP and CAPS markers were experimentally verified. CAPS markers developed from plastochron-related homologous transcripts

  19. Methods for geographical mapping of agricultural activities and the related environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgaard

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a three-step methodology to generate, map and simulate indicators of agricultural activity for use in landscape-scale analyses. Step one is the farm data set up combining digital agricultural registers and national statistics. Step two is the geographical mapping based discrete...

  20. Concept Mapping as a Learning Tool for the Employment Relations Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canas, Ricardo; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique to represent relationships between concepts that can help students to improve their meaningful learning. Using the cognitive theories proposed by Ausubel (1968), concept maps can help instructors and students to enhance their logical thinking and study skills by revealing connections among concepts that can simplify…

  1. Uncertainty relations and reduced density matrices: Mapping many-body quantum mechanics onto four particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, David A.; Erdahl, Robert M.

    2001-04-01

    For the description of ground-state correlation phenomena an accurate mapping of many-body quantum mechanics onto four particles is developed. The energy for a quantum system with no more than two-particle interactions may be expressed in terms of a two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM), but variational optimization of the 2-RDM requires that it corresponds to an N-particle wave function. We derive N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM that guarantee the validity of the uncertainty relations for all operators with two-particle interactions. One of these conditions is shown to be necessary and sufficient to make the RDM solutions of the dispersion condition equivalent to those from the contracted Schrödinger equation (CSE) [Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4219 (1998)]. In general, the CSE is a stronger N-representability condition than the dispersion condition because the CSE implies the dispersion condition as well as additional N-representability constraints from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Energy minimization subject to the representability constraints is performed for a boson model with 10, 30, and 75 particles. Even when traditional wave-function methods fail at large perturbations, the present method yields correlation energies within 2%.

  2. Technical issues relating to the statistical parametric mapping of brain SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Cordato, N.; Hutton, B.F.; Lau, Y.H.; Evans, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) is a software tool designed for the statistical analysis of functional neuro images, specifically Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and more recently SPECT. This review examines some problems associated with the analysis of SPECT. A comparison of a patient group with normal studies revealed factors that could influence results, some that commonly occur, others that require further exploration. To optimise the differences between two groups of subjects, both spatial variability and differences in global activity must be minimised. The choice and effectiveness of co registration method and approach to normalisation of activity concentration can affect the optimisation. A small number of subject scans were identified as possessing truncated data resulting in edge effects that could adversely influence the analysis. Other problems included unusual areas of significance possibly related to reconstruction methods and the geometry associated with nonparallel collimators. Areas of extra cerebral significance are a point of concern - and may result from scatter effects, or mis registration. Difficulties in patient positioning, due to postural limitations, can lead to resolution differences. SPM has been used to assess areas of statistical significance arising from these technical factors, as opposed to areas of true clinical significance when comparing subject groups. This contributes to a better understanding of the effects of technical factors so that these may be eliminated, minimised, or incorporated in the study design. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Intraoperative Mapping and Monitoring for Rootlets of the Lower Cranial Nerves Related to Vocal Cord Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Komatsu, Katsuya; Sugino, Toshiya; Suzuki, Kengo; Kanno, Aya; Ohtaki, Shunya; Noshiro, Shouhei; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Damage to the motor division of the lower cranial nerves that run into the jugular foramen leads to hoarseness, dysphagia, and the risk of aspiration pneumonia; therefore, its functional preservation during surgical procedures is important. Intraoperative mapping and monitoring of the motor rootlets at the cerebellomedullary cistern using endotracheal tube electrodes is a safe and effective procedure to prevent its injury. To study the location of the somatic and autonomic motor fibers of the lower cranial nerves related to vocal cord movement. Twenty-four patients with pathologies at the cerebellopontine lesion were studied. General anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl and propofol. A monopolar stimulator was used at amplitudes of 0.05 to 0.1 mA. Both acoustic and visual signals were displayed as vocalis muscle electromyographic activity using endotracheal tube surface electrodes. The average number of rootlets was 7.4 (range, 5-10); 75% of patients had 7 or 8 rootlets. As many as 6 rootlets (2-4 in most cases) were responsive in each patient. In 23 of the 24 patients, the responding rootlets congregated on the caudal side. The maximum electromyographic response was predominantly in the most caudal or second most caudal rootlet in 79%. The majority of motor fibers of the lower cranial nerves run through the caudal part of the rootlets at the cerebellomedullary cistern, and the maximal electromyographic response was elicited at the most caudal or second most caudal rootlet. EMG, electromyographic.

  4. Genetic testing for colorectal carcinoma susceptibility: focus group responses of individuals with colorectal carcinoma and first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, A Y; DeVellis, B M; Skrzynia, C; Millikan, R

    2001-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) may be the most frequent form of hereditary cancer. Genetic counseling and testing for heritable CRC is a promising approach for reducing the high incidence and mortality rates associated with the disease. Patients with CRC or those with at least one family member with the disease are the most likely persons to request or be offered genetic testing in the clinical or research setting. Currently, however, little is known about the behavioral, psychosocial, ethical, legal, and economic outcomes of CRC genetic counseling and testing. Eight focus group interviews, four for CRC patients (n = 28) and four for first-degree relatives (n = 33), were conducted to obtain insights into attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about genetic testing for hereditary CRC. Focus group interviews revealed a general lack of knowledge about cancer genetics and genetic testing; worry about confidentiality issues; strong concern for family members, particularly children; and a need for primary care providers to be informed about these issues. Major perceived advantages of genetic testing included improving health-related decisions, guiding physicians in making recommendations for surveillance, and informing relatives about risk potential. Disadvantages included potential discrimination, adverse psychologic effects, and financial costs associated with testing. As knowledge and media coverage of genetics continue to expand, it becomes increasingly important to continue efforts on behalf of, and in partnership with, those individuals most affected by genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes. These findings provide data needed to develop and implement informational, educational, counseling, and research-oriented programs that are sensitive to individuals' concerns and preferences. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  5. Benthic Habitat Mapping by Combining Lyzenga’s Optical Model and Relative Water Depth Model in Lintea Island, Southeast Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizt, M.; Manessa, M. D. M.; Adi, N. S.; Prayudha, B.

    2017-12-01

    Benthic habitat mapping using satellite data is one challenging task for practitioners and academician as benthic objects are covered by light-attenuating water column obscuring object discrimination. One common method to reduce this water-column effect is by using depth-invariant index (DII) image. However, the application of the correction in shallow coastal areas is challenging as a dark object such as seagrass could have a very low pixel value, preventing its reliable identification and classification. This limitation can be solved by specifically applying a classification process to areas with different water depth levels. The water depth level can be extracted from satellite imagery using Relative Water Depth Index (RWDI). This study proposed a new approach to improve the mapping accuracy, particularly for benthic dark objects by combining the DII of Lyzenga’s water column correction method and the RWDI of Stumpt’s method. This research was conducted in Lintea Island which has a high variation of benthic cover using Sentinel-2A imagery. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed new approach for benthic habitat mapping two different classification procedures are implemented. The first procedure is the commonly applied method in benthic habitat mapping where DII image is used as input data to all coastal area for image classification process regardless of depth variation. The second procedure is the proposed new approach where its initial step begins with the separation of the study area into shallow and deep waters using the RWDI image. Shallow area was then classified using the sunglint-corrected image as input data and the deep area was classified using DII image as input data. The final classification maps of those two areas were merged as a single benthic habitat map. A confusion matrix was then applied to evaluate the mapping accuracy of the final map. The result shows that the new proposed mapping approach can be used to map all benthic objects in

  6. A novel approach for monitoring writing interferences during navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation mappings of writing related cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogić Vidaković, Maja; Gabelica, Dragan; Vujović, Igor; Šoda, Joško; Batarelo, Nikolina; Džimbeg, Andrija; Zmajević Schönwald, Marina; Rotim, Krešimir; Đogaš, Zoran

    2015-11-30

    It has recently been shown that navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is useful in preoperative neurosurgical mapping of motor and language brain areas. In TMS mapping of motor cortices the evoked responses can be quantitatively monitored by electromyographic (EMG) recordings. No such setup exists for monitoring of writing during nTMS mappings of writing related cortical areas. We present a novel approach for monitoring writing during nTMS mappings of motor writing related cortical areas. To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of quantitative monitoring of motor evoked responses from hand by EMG, and of pen related activity during writing with our custom made pen, together with the application of chronometric TMS design and patterned protocol of rTMS. The method was applied in four healthy subjects participating in writing during nTMS mapping of the premotor cortical area corresponding to BA 6 and close to the superior frontal sulcus. The results showed that stimulation impaired writing in all subjects. The corresponding spectra of measured signal related to writing movements was observed in the frequency band 0-20 Hz. Magnetic stimulation affected writing by suppressing normal writing frequency band. The proposed setup for monitoring of writing provides additional quantitative data for monitoring and the analysis of rTMS induced writing response modifications. The setup can be useful for investigation of neurophysiologic mechanisms of writing, for therapeutic effects of nTMS, and in preoperative mapping of language cortical areas in patients undergoing brain surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring the effect of intimate partner violence on health-related quality of life: a qualitative focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kristie A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL can be measured by a wide range of instruments, many of which have been designed for specific conditions or uses. "Preference-based" measures assess the value individuals place on health, and are included in economic evaluations of treatments and interventions (such as cost effectiveness analysis. As economic evaluation becomes more common, it is important to assess the applicability of preference-based health related quality of life (HRQOL measures to public health issues. This study investigated the usefulness of such instruments in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV, a public health concern that that can seriously affect quality of life. Methods The study consisted of focus groups with abused women to determine the aspects of life affected by IPV, and an analysis of existing HRQOL measures. Eight focus groups (n = 40 were conducted in which participants discussed the domains of health affected by IPV. Results were content analyzed and compared with the domains of health included in four commonly-used, preference-based HRQOL measures. Results The average focus group participant was 43 years old, unemployed, African American, with 3 children. Domains of health reported to be affected by IPV included physical functioning, emotional and psychological functioning, social functioning and children's functioning. Psychological health was the most severely affected domain. The Short Form 36, the Health Utilities Index, the EuroQol 5D, and the Quality of Well-being Scale were found to vary in the degree to which they include domains of health important in IPV. Psychological health is included to a limited extent, and the spill-over effect of a condition on other family members, including children, is not included at all. Conclusion Emotional and psychological health plays an important role in the overall HRQOL of abused women but is relatively underemphasized in preference-based HRQOL

  8. A note on Verhulst's logistic equation and related logistic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M Ranferi; Reyes, M A [Depto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal E143, 37150 Leon, Gto. (Mexico); Rosu, H C, E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.m [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Apdo Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis PotosI (Mexico)

    2010-05-21

    We consider the Verhulst logistic equation and a couple of forms of the corresponding logistic maps. For the case of the logistic equation we show that using the general Riccati solution only changes the initial conditions of the equation. Next, we consider two forms of corresponding logistic maps reporting the following results. For the map x{sub n+1} = rx{sub n}(1 - x{sub n}) we propose a new way to write the solution for r = -2 which allows better precision of the iterative terms, while for the map x{sub n+1} - x{sub n} = rx{sub n}(1 - x{sub n+1}) we show that it behaves identically to the logistic equation from the standpoint of the general Riccati solution, which is also provided herein for any value of the parameter r.

  9. Friendship relations from the perspective of children with experience of cancer treatment: a focus group study with a salutogenic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einberg, Eva-Lena; Svedberg, Petra; Enskär, Karin; Nygren, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    Friendships are significant to child development and health but diseases such as cancer can interrupt the contact with friends. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of friendship from the perspective of children undergoing cancer treatment, in order to build knowledge that can be used in a health promotion intervention for these children. Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups, where a mixture of informative and creative techniques were used. The focus group discussions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three generic categories, "Common interests and experiences," "Mutual empathic actions." and "Mutual trust and understanding," incorporating seven subcategories. Based on children's descriptions from a salutogenic perspective, friendship emerged as An equal and mutual commitment that evolves over time and with interactions face-to-face and digitally, a child perspective on friendship should be central to the development of health promotion interventions designed to support friendship relations of children treated for cancer. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  10. Unified Common Fixed Point Theorems for a Hybrid Pair of Mappings via an Implicit Relation Involving Altering Distance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    implicit relation, we prove a new coincidence and common fixed point theorem for a hybrid pair of occasionally coincidentally idempotent mappings in a metric space employing the common limit range property. Our main result improves and generalizes a host of previously known results. We also utilize suitable illustrative examples to substantiate the realized improvements in our results.

  11. Comparison of numerical results between related shapes using a non-rigid mapping with statistical quantication of uncertainty

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, Gerhardus J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, numerical results obtained on different but related shapes are compared by using a non-rigid mapping. Non-rigid registration is employed to obtain mesh representations of different human skull geometries with the same mesh...

  12. Relation of project managers' personality and project performance: An approach based on value stream mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bevilacqua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work investigates the influence of project managers’ personality on the success of a project in a Multinational Corporation. The methodology proposed for analyzing the project managers’ personality is based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.Design/methodology/approach: Forty projects carried out in 2012 by multinational corporation, concerning new product development (NPD, have been analyzed, comparing the profile of project managers with results obtained in terms of traditional performance indexes (time delay and over-budget of projects and performance indexes usually used in “Lean Production” sector (waste time and type of “wastes”. A detailed analysis of the most important “wastes” during the project development is carried out using the Value Stream Mapping (VSM technique.Findings and Originality/value: Relying on the Myers–Briggs personality instrument, results show that extroverted managers (as opposed to introverted managers carry out projects that show lower delay and lower waste time. Introverted managers often make “Over-processing” and “Defect” types of waste. Moreover, lower delay and over-budget have been shown by perceiving managers.Research limitations: Regarding the limitations of this work it is necessary to highlight that we collected data from project managers in a retrospective way. While we believe that several aspects of our data collection effort helped enhance the accuracy of the results, future research could conduct real-time case study research to get more detailed insights into the proposed relationships and avoid retrospective bias. Moreover we focused on a single respondent, the project manager. This helped us ensure that their interpretations played an important role in product development. But, we cannot examined the opinion of team members that could be different from project managers opinion regarding some questions.Originality/value: This research provides insight useful

  13. Glycomics and glycoproteomics focused on aging and age-related diseases--Glycans as a potential biomarker for physiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao

    2016-08-01

    Since glycosylation depends on glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and sugar nucleotide donors, it is susceptible to the changes associated with physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, alterations in glycan structures may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions. Since human aging and longevity are affected by genetic and environmental factors such as diseases, lifestyle, and social factors, a scale that reflects various environmental factors is required in the study of human aging and longevity. We herein focus on glycosylation changes elucidated by glycomic and glycoproteomic studies on aging, longevity, and age-related diseases including cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and frailty. We also consider the potential of glycan structures as biomarkers and/or targets for monitoring physiological and pathophysiological changes. Glycan structures are altered in age-related diseases. These glycans and glycoproteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and, thus, be useful diagnostic markers. Age-dependent changes in N-glycans have been reported previously in cohort studies, and characteristic N-glycans in extreme longevity have been proposed. These findings may lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying aging as well as the factors influencing longevity. Alterations in glycosylation may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions, and be applicable to studies on age-related diseases and healthy aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mapping Relative Sea Level Influences of the Cape Fear Arch in southern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, A.; Kemp, A.; Capar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term relative sea-level (RSL) records are a necessary benchmark by which to gauge present accelerated rates of sea-level rise, future sea-level predictions, and their implications to the coastal zone. The east coast of the United States functions as a significant region of latitudinal RSL variability due to the continuous recovery of land from the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum. Differential glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) along the coastline has caused higher rates of subsidence in areas around the former forbulge maxima near New Jersey and Delaware and lower rates to the north and south of this maxima. However, the coast between southern North Carolina and northern South Carolina is experiencing a slower rate of RSL rise then is seen in reconstructed GIA latitudinal trends along the U.S. east coast. It was thought that this could have been attributed to non-isostatic, long-term tectonic processes causing less GIA subsidence of the lithosphere within the region impacted by uplift from the Cape Fear Arch (CFA), an underlying crystalline basement high. A recent study suggests that RSL rise is slower around the CFA than areas to the north and south due to suggested CFA uplift rates of 0.24+0.15mm a-1. An absence of RSL records for 200km north of the CFA make mapping of its influence difficult. Additional RSL records to the north of the CFA allow for a better understanding of the asymmetrical distribution in the rate of RSL rise in this region. Because the distribution in the rate of RSLR between records is not linear it is important for these low-lying coastal communities to better understand their risk to future RSLR.

  16. Inclusion as a focus of employment-related research in intellectual disability from 2000 to 2010: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Cobigo, Virginie; Hamilton, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping review of the research literature on community-based employment for individuals with intellectual disabilities from 2000 to 2010. The review examined the variables studied in each paper, and considered the degree to which elements of social inclusion were addressed. The search strategy identified a total of 245 articles, the total pool of which was reduced to 42 following abstract and text review. Two researchers reviewed the final set of articles and extracted information relevant to the study goals. Independent and dependent measures used in the studies were categorized relative to a conceptual model of social inclusion. The frequency with which each aspect of inclusion was addressed in the studies was totalled, and the resulting pattern analyzed qualitatively. The analysis revealed that the majority of papers identified the work role achieved (i.e. employment and pay rates, job titles) as the primary construct of interest, while fewer than 5 articles focused on central aspects of inclusion, such as sense of belonging, reciprocity, and need fulfillment. This study profiles the evidence base relative to inclusive employment for people with intellectual disabilities. The lack of evidence on the degree to which social inclusion is being achieved through community-based employment highlights a critical area requiring attention.

  17. Mapping hemispheric symmetries, relative asymmetries, and absolute asymmetries underlying the auditory laterality effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Functional hemispheric differences for speech and language processing have been traditionally studied by using verbal dichotic-listening paradigms. The commonly observed right-ear preference for the report of dichotically presented syllables is taken to reflect the left hemispheric dominance for speech processing. However, the results of recent functional imaging studies also show that both hemispheres - not only the left - are engaged by dichotic listening, suggesting a more complex relationship between behavioral laterality and functional hemispheric activation asymmetries. In order to more closely examine the hemispheric differences underlying dichotic-listening performance, we report an analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 104 right-handed subjects, for the first time combining an interhemispheric difference and conjunction analysis. This approach allowed for a distinction of homotopic brain regions which showed symmetrical (i.e., brain region significantly activated in both hemispheres and no activation difference between the hemispheres), relative asymmetrical (i.e., activated in both hemispheres but significantly stronger in one than the other hemisphere), and absolute asymmetrical activation patterns (i.e., activated only in one hemisphere and this activation is significantly stronger than in the other hemisphere). Symmetrical activation was found in large clusters encompassing temporal, parietal, inferior frontal, and medial superior frontal regions. Relative and absolute left-ward asymmetries were found in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, located adjacent to symmetrically activated areas, and creating a lateral-medial gradient from symmetrical towards absolute asymmetrical activation within the peri-Sylvian region. Absolute leftward asymmetry was also found in the post-central and medial superior frontal gyri, while rightward asymmetries were found in middle temporal and middle frontal gyri. We conclude that dichotic

  18. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  19. Return to work after work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial of a work-focused cognitive behavioral intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Glasscock, David John; Willert, Morten Vejs; Carstensen, Ole; Biering, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a stress management intervention (SMI) on lasting return to work (RTW) among patients with work-related stress complaints. Methods Sickness benefit departments from three local municipalities referred patients on sick leave with work-related adjustment disorders or mild depression to the Department of Occupational Medicine, Regional Hospital West Jutland. A 2× randomization procedure allocated patients into one of three groups: intervention (N=58), control A (which received a clinical assessment; N=56), or control B (no assessment; N=49). Treatment comprised individual work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an optional workplace intervention. The outcome was time until lasting RTW (16 and 44 weeks follow-up) using register data. Results Median number of weeks until lasting RTW was 15, 19, and 32 for the intervention group, control A, and control B respectively. However, for group B, clinical assessment was not part of the inclusion process, which may have introduced selection bias. In the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, the intervention group exhibited significantly faster lasting RTW at 44 weeks; hazard ratio (HR) 1.57 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-2.44] relative to control group A, with a non-significant trend evident at 16 weeks; HR 1.70 (95% CI 0.94-3.10), when controlling for age, gender, occupation, sick leave during previous year, full or partial sick leave, and diagnosis. Unadjusted analyses remained directionally consistent but were reduced to marginal significance. Conclusions There was a tendency towards faster lasting RTW in the intervention group compared to control A, which received clinical assessment, in all analyses. The intervention group returned to work about 4 weeks earlier than control A, which could translate into substantial financial gains.

  20. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Self-Construal and Well-Being between Japan and South Korea: The Role of Self-Focused and Other-Focused Relational Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonha; Norasakkunkit, Vinai; Kashima, Yoshi

    2017-01-01

    Relational self, along with individual and collective selves, is a fundamental aspect that makes up self-concept. Proposing its two aspects: self-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as the object of other people's referential awareness or intentionality) and other-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as being attuned and empathetically connected to close others), the current study explored the way the four selves affect well-being in Japan and South Korea, the East Asian cultures that have been assumed to be homogeneously collectivistic in previous psychological literature. Japanese and Korean participants rated a set of well-being and self-related scales. There were visible sample differences within culture by collection method (classroom vs. online) in relative degrees of selves and related constructs, possibly associated with generational differences. Other-focused relational self was greater in the Korean classroom sample than the Japanese counterpart, whereas no difference was found between the online samples. On the other hand, it was consistent between cultures that the two types of relational self showed different associations with social anxiety and self-esteem as expected, and that they predicted well-being in different ways. We discuss implications for the generational differences and their interactions with culture and the importance of separating the two aspects of relational self in the study of self and culture. PMID:28928699

  1. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Self-Construal and Well-Being between Japan and South Korea: The Role of Self-Focused and Other-Focused Relational Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonha Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Relational self, along with individual and collective selves, is a fundamental aspect that makes up self-concept. Proposing its two aspects: self-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as the object of other people's referential awareness or intentionality and other-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as being attuned and empathetically connected to close others, the current study explored the way the four selves affect well-being in Japan and South Korea, the East Asian cultures that have been assumed to be homogeneously collectivistic in previous psychological literature. Japanese and Korean participants rated a set of well-being and self-related scales. There were visible sample differences within culture by collection method (classroom vs. online in relative degrees of selves and related constructs, possibly associated with generational differences. Other-focused relational self was greater in the Korean classroom sample than the Japanese counterpart, whereas no difference was found between the online samples. On the other hand, it was consistent between cultures that the two types of relational self showed different associations with social anxiety and self-esteem as expected, and that they predicted well-being in different ways. We discuss implications for the generational differences and their interactions with culture and the importance of separating the two aspects of relational self in the study of self and culture.

  2. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Self-Construal and Well-Being between Japan and South Korea: The Role of Self-Focused and Other-Focused Relational Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonha; Norasakkunkit, Vinai; Kashima, Yoshi

    2017-01-01

    Relational self, along with individual and collective selves, is a fundamental aspect that makes up self-concept. Proposing its two aspects: self-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as the object of other people's referential awareness or intentionality) and other-focused relational self (i.e., perceiving the self as being attuned and empathetically connected to close others), the current study explored the way the four selves affect well-being in Japan and South Korea, the East Asian cultures that have been assumed to be homogeneously collectivistic in previous psychological literature. Japanese and Korean participants rated a set of well-being and self-related scales. There were visible sample differences within culture by collection method (classroom vs. online) in relative degrees of selves and related constructs, possibly associated with generational differences. Other-focused relational self was greater in the Korean classroom sample than the Japanese counterpart, whereas no difference was found between the online samples. On the other hand, it was consistent between cultures that the two types of relational self showed different associations with social anxiety and self-esteem as expected, and that they predicted well-being in different ways. We discuss implications for the generational differences and their interactions with culture and the importance of separating the two aspects of relational self in the study of self and culture.

  3. High-Density Genetic Map Construction and Stem Total Polysaccharide Content-Related QTL Exploration for Chinese Endemic Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiangjie; Liu, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Mei, Ziwei; Shi, Yujun; Liu, Pengli; He, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaotong; Meng, Yijun; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2018-01-01

    Plants of the Dendrobium genus are orchids with not only ornamental value but also high medicinal value. To understand the genetic basis of variations in active ingredients of the stem total polysaccharide contents (STPCs) among different Dendrobium species, it is of paramount importance to understand the mechanism of STPC formation and identify genes affecting its process at the whole genome level. Here, we report the first high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) integrated genetic map with a good genome coverage of Dendrobium. The specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology led to identification of 7,013,400 SNPs from 1,503,626 high-quality SLAF markers from two parents (Dendrobium moniliforme ♀ × Dendrobium officinale ♂) and their interspecific F1 hybrid population. The final genetic map contained 8, 573 SLAF markers, covering 19 linkage groups (LGs). This genetic map spanned a length of 2,737.49 cM, where the average distance between markers is 0.32 cM. In total, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to STPC were identified, 3 of which have candidate genes within the confidence intervals of these stable QTLs based on the D. officinale genome sequence. This study will build a foundation up for the mapping of other medicinal-related traits and provide an important reference for the molecular breeding of these Chinese herb. PMID:29636767

  4. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: improved methods for aquifer vulnerability assessments and protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for Aquifer Vulnerability Assessments and Protocols (AVAP) for producing vulnerability maps, taking into account information on soils Groundwater resources are increas- ingly threatened by pollution. The AVAP project was initiated to develop improved... characteristics. Both intrinsic and specific vulnerability are taken into account. The approach used to determine the vulnerability of the in- termediate zone involved the descrip- tion and quantification of the factors that influence vulnerability (unsatu...

  5. Mapping and Quantifying Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Related to Terrestrial Vertebrates: A National Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  6. MAP3K1-related gonadal dysgenesis: Six new cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Andrea; Alaniz, Veronica I; Mohnach, Lauren; Barseghyan, Hayk; Vilain, Eric; Ostrer, Harry; Quint, Elisabeth H; Chen, Ming; Keegan, Catherine E

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of disorders of sex development (DSD) has resulted in the discovery of multiple sex-determining genes. MAP3K1 encodes a signal transduction regulator in the sex determination pathway and is emerging as one of the more common genes responsible for 46,XY DSD presenting as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis. Clinical assessment, endocrine evaluation, and genetic analysis were performed in six individuals from four unrelated families with 46,XY DSD. All six individuals were found to have likely pathogenic MAP3K1 variants. Three of these individuals presented with complete gonadal dysgenesis, characterized by bilateral streak gonads with typical internal and external female genitalia, while the other three presented with partial gonadal dysgenesis, characterized by incomplete testicular development, resulting in clitoral hypertrophy with otherwise typical female external genitalia. Testing for MAP3K1 variants should be considered in patients with 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis, particularly in families with multiple members affected with 46,XY DSD. Identification of a MAP3K1 variant should prompt an evaluation for DSD in female siblings of the proband. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Deriving soil function maps to assess related ecosystem services using imaging spectroscopy in the Lyss agricultural area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diek, Sanne; de Jong, Rogier; Braun, Daniela; Böhler, Jonas; Schaepman, Michael

    2014-05-01

    . We demonstrate the use of interpolated soil function maps as well as non-contiguous (but combined) vegetation and soil function maps and comment on their combined usability to assess related ecosystem services.

  8. Analysis of the intellectual structure of human space exploration research using a bibliometric approach: Focus on human related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai Sik; Lee, Yoon-Sun; Lee, Jaeho; Chang, Byung Chul

    2018-02-01

    Human space exploration (HSE) is an interdisciplinary field composed of a range of subjects that have developed dramatically over the last few decades. This paper investigates the intellectual structure of HSE research with a focus on human related factors. A bibliometric approach with quantitative analytical techniques is applied to study the development and growth of the research. This study retrieves 1921 papers on HSE related to human factors from the year 1990 to the year 2016 from Web of Science and constructs a critical citation network composed of 336 papers. Edge-betweenness-based clustering is used to classify the citation network into twelve distinct research clusters based on four research themes: "biological risks from space radiation," "health and performance during long-duration spaceflight," "program and in-situ resources for HSE missions," and "habitat and life support systems in the space environment." These research themes are also similar to the classification results of a co-occurrence analysis on keywords for a total of 1921 papers. Papers with high centrality scores are identified as important papers in terms of knowledge flow. Moreover, the intermediary role of papers in exchanging knowledge between HSE sub-areas is identified using brokerage analysis. The key-route main path highlights the theoretical development trajectories. Due to the recent dramatic increase in investment by international governments and the private sector, the theoretical development trajectories of key research themes have been expanding from furthering scientific and technical knowledge to include various social and economic issues, thus encouraging massive public participation. This study contributes to an understanding of research trends and popular issues in the field of HSE by introducing a powerful way of determining major research themes and development trajectories. This study will help researchers seek the underlying knowledge diffusion flow from multifaceted

  9. SU-E-T-245: MR Guided Focused Ultrasound Increased PARP Related Apoptosis On Prostate Cancer in Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Chen, X; Cvetkovic, D; Gupta, R; Yang, D; Ma, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated that significant tumor growth delay was observed in the mice treated with pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU). The purpose of this study is to understand the cell killing mechanisms of pHIFU. Methods: Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), were grown orthotopically in 17 nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated using pHIFU with an acoustic power of 25W, pulse width 100msec and 300 pulses in one sonication under MR guidance. Mutiple sonications were used to cover the whole tumor volume. Temperature (less than 40 degree centigrade in the focal spot) was monitored using MR thermometry. Animals were euthanized at pre-determined time points (n=2) after treatment: 0 hours; 6 hrs; 24 hrs; 48 hrs; 4 days and 7 days. Two tumorbearing mice were used as control. Three tumor-bearing mice were treated with radiation (RT, 2 Gy) using 6 MV photon beams. RT treated mice were euthanized at 0 hr, 6 hrs and 24 hrs. The tumors were processed for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PARP (a surrogate of apoptosis). A multispectral imaging analysis system was used to quantify the expression of PARP staining. Cell apoptosis was calculated based on the PARP expression level, which is the intensity of the DAB reaction. Results: Our data showed that PARP related apoptosis peaked at 48 hrs and 7 days in pHIFU treated mice, which is comparable to that for the RT group at 24 hrs. The preliminary results from this study were consistent with our previous study on tumor growth delay using pHIFU. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that non-thermal pHIFU increased apoptotic tumor cell death through the PARP related pathway. MR guided pHIFU may have a great potential as a safe, noninvasive treatment modality for cancer therapy. This treatment modality might be able to synergize with PARP inhibitors to achieve better result

  10. The sleeping brain in Parkinson's disease: A focus on REM sleep behaviour disorder and related parasomnias for practicing neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Rattanachaisit, Watchara; Truong, Daniel D

    2017-03-15

    Sleep disorders are identified as common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and recently this recognition has been expanded to include parasomnias, encompassing not only REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), but also other non-REM forms. RBD, a prototypical parasomnia in PD, exists even in the prodromal stage of the disease, and is characterized by the presence of dream enactment behaviours occurring alongside a loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep. In contrast, non-REM parasomnias are more frequently observed in the late stage PD. However, the development of these disorders often overlaps and it is not uncommon for PD patients to meet the criteria for more than one type of parasomnias, thus making a clinical distinction challenging for practicing neurologists who are not sleep specialists. Indeed, clinical recognition of the predominant form of parasomnia does not just depend on video-polysomnography, but also on an individual physician's clinical acumen in delineating pertinent clinical history to determine the most likely diagnosis and proceed accordingly. In this review article, we highlight the various forms of parasomnias that have been reported in PD, including, but not limited to, RBD, with a focus on clinical symptomatology and implications for clinical practice. In addition, we review the differences in PD-related parasomnias compared to those seen in general populations. With advances in sleep research and better technology for ambulatory home monitoring, it is likely that many unanswered questions on PD-related parasomnias will soon be resolved resulting in better management of this nocturnal challenge in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative Effects of the Dollar and Yen on East Asian Currency Values: Focusing on the Post-Crisis Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically analyzes the relative effects of the dollar and yen on the value of East Asian currencies. We focus especially on countries that have chosen to adopt floating regimes in the post-financial crisis period, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. First, we calculate a exchange rate flexibility index and carry out a regression using Frankel and Wei's (1994 methodology. The results confirm an increase in the coupling of East Asian currencies vis-a-vis the yen since the 1997 financial crisis. In addition to coupling, we calculate using a non-linear unit root test the exchange rates for four currencies vis-a-vis the yen, excluding the Philippine peso, which has a band-reverting tendency. As a second step, we examine the band-reverting tendency in more detail using the Markov-regime switching model and a three-regime threshold vector error correction model. As the results indicate, band-reverting tendencies are verifiable for all currencies, except for the Philippine peso. In particular, symmetrical band-reverting tendencies are observed whether exchange rates are beyond the upper boundary or below the lower boundary of the band. In the case of the Korean won and Taiwanese dollar, when these two currency exchange rates (measured against the yen deviate from a certain band, an adjustment process takes place in order to return toward the band.

  12. Exploring workplace related health resources from a salutogenic perspective. Results from a focus group study among healthcare workers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringsén, Asa; Andersson, H Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran; Troein, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore healthcare workers' opinions on workplace related health resources relevant to promotion of their health. 16 registered nurses and 19 assistant nurses, from a medical emergency ward at a medium sized hospital in the south of Sweden, participated in the study. Eight focus group interviews were conducted, the material was condensed and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to elicit and identify patterns in the expressed opinions of the participants. The analysis yielded four themes that were labelled the reward, the team, the mission and the context. An explanatory model was constructed consisting of concentric circles, with the reward at the core. The qualitative analysis also revealed two divergent patterns; some of the participants associated positive health with stability while others referred to flexibility. The results from this study have contributed to the body of knowledge regarding salutogenic health indicators in the field of work and health research in particular as well as in health promotion in general. The findings show that individuals can have diverse responses to any given work situation, and this should be taken into account before implementation of salutogenic health promotion programs.

  13. International Relations, New Technology, and Adaptation of the Military Innovation: Focusing on the Case of the Aircraft Carrier Innovation of the Imperial Japanese Navy During the Interwar Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    RELATIONS, NEW TECHNOLOGY , AND ADAPTATION OF THE MILITARY INNOVATION: FOCUSING ON THE CASE OF THE AIRCRAFT CARRIER INNOVATION OF THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, NEW TECHNOLOGY , AND ADAPTATION OF THE MILITARY INNOVATION: FOCUSING ON THE CASE OF THE...impacted the Japanese aircraft carrier and aircraft innovation during the interwar period. The study found that technology , international relations

  14. The good, bad, and ugly of online recruitment of parents for health-related focus groups: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Susan; Pereira, Jennifer A; Russell, Margaret L; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Crowe, Lois; Quan, Sherman D; Kwong, Jeff

    2013-11-14

    We describe our experiences with identifying and recruiting Ontario parents through the Internet, primarily, as well as other modes, for participation in focus groups about adding the influenza vaccine to school-based immunization programs. Our objectives were to assess participation rates with and without incentives and software restrictions. We also plan to examine study response patterns of unique and multiple submissions and assess efficiency of each online advertising mode. We used social media, deal forum websites, online classified ads, conventional mass media, and email lists to invite parents of school-aged children from Ontario, Canada to complete an online questionnaire to determine eligibility for focus groups. We compared responses and paradata when an incentive was provided and there were no software restrictions to the questionnaire (Period 1) to a period when only a single submission per Internet protocol (IP) address (ie, software restrictions invoked) was permitted and no incentive was provided (Period 2). We also compared the median time to complete a questionnaire, response patterns, and percentage of missing data between questionnaires classified as multiple submissions from the same Internet protocol (IP) address or email versus unique submissions. Efficiency was calculated as the total number of hours study personnel devoted to an advertising mode divided by the resultant number of unique eligible completed questionnaires . Of 1346 submitted questionnaires, 223 (16.6%) were incomplete and 34 (2.52%) did not meet the initial eligibility criteria. Of the remaining 1089 questionnaires, 246 (22.6%) were not from Ontario based on IP address and postal code, and 469 (43.1%) were submitted from the same IP address or email address (multiple submissions). In Period 2 vs Period 1, a larger proportion of questionnaires were submitted from Ontario (92.8%, 141/152 vs 75.1%, 702/937, Precruitment (0.03 hours of staff time per questionnaire), whereas those

  15. Me, Myself, and Money II: Relative Deprivation Predicts Disordered Gambling Severity via Delay Discounting, Especially Among Gamblers Who Have a Financially Focused Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabri, Nassim; Will Shead, N; Wohl, Michael J A

    2017-12-01

    In the current research, we examined whether the known link between relative deprivation and disordered gambling (via delay discounting; i.e., preferences for immediate smaller rewards relative to delayed larger rewards) is moderated by the extent to which gamblers have a financially focused self-concept. Specifically, we hypothesized that delay discounting would be a strong predictor of disordered gambling among those who base their self-worth on their financial success. To test this moderated-mediation model, a community sample of gamblers (N = 239) completed measures that assessed relative deprivation, delay discounting, financially focused self-concept, and disordered gambling severity. As predicted, people who felt more relative deprivation reported more severe symptoms of disordered gambling and this association was mediated by delay discounting. Importantly, this mediated relationship was moderated by the extent to which participants' self-concept was focused on financial success. Among participants whose self-concept was high in financial focus, greater delay discounting (stemming from relative deprivation) was a strong predictor of disordered gambling. Among people whose self-concept was low in financial focus, delay discounting (stemming from relative deprivation) was a weak predictor of disordered gambling. Thus, the magnitude of the indirect effect of relative deprivation on disordered gambling severity was larger among people with a more financially focused self-concept-an effect mediated by delay discounting. These findings suggest that targeting gamblers' financial focus in prevention and treatment interventions may be instrumental in curtailing the development and maintenance of disordered gambling.

  16. Exploring the switching of the focus of attention within working memory: A combined event-related potential and behavioral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Marius; Berti, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Working memory enables humans to maintain selected information for cognitive processes and ensures instant access to the memorized contents. Theories suggest that switching the focus of attention between items within working memory realizes the access. This is reflected in object-switching costs in response times when the item for the task processing is to be changed. Another correlate of attentional allocation in working memory is the P3a-component of the human event-related potential. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that switching of attention within working memory is a separable processing step. Participants completed a cued memory-updating task in which they were instructed to update one memory item at a time out of a memory list of four digits by applying a mathematical operation indicated by a target sign. The hypotheses predicted (1) prolonged updating times in switch (different item compared to previous trial) versus repetition trials (same item), (2) an influence of cues (valid/neutral) presented before the mathematical target on switching costs, and (3) that the P3a-component is more pronounced in the cue-target interval in the valid cue condition and more pronounced in the post-target interval in the neutral cue condition. A student's t-test verified the first hypothesis, repeated-measurement analyses of variance demonstrated that hypotheses 2 and 3 should be rejected. Results suggest that switching of attention within working memory could not be separated from further processing steps and retro-cue benefits are not due to a head start of retrieval as well as that switch costs represent internal processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Legislation relating to nutraceuticals in the European Union with a particular focus on botanical-sourced products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Om P.; Berry Ottaway, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or food ingredients that have defined physiological effects. They do not easily fall into the legal categories of food or drug and often inhabit a grey area between the two. These products in general terms cover health promotion, 'optimal nutrition' the concept of enhanced performance - both physically and mentally - and reduction of disease risk factors. In this paper the focus is mainly on legislation governing botanical-sourced nutraceuticals in the European Union (EU). Nutraceutical concept in general has been defined. Different pieces of legislation influencing botanical nutraceuticals are described. The issue of the borderline between food and drug is discussed. The regulatory status of botanical nutraceuticals as food supplement, food ingredient, functional and fortified food, novel foods and foods for particular nutritional use in the diversified, complex and ever-changing European regulatory environment is described. Botanical nutraceuticals present additional problems because of their complex nature and composition particularly with respect to the quality aspects, which in turn affect safety parameters and overall efficacy of the products. Quality issues relating to botanical sources, growth conditions, end products, their specifications and other technical criteria are highlighted. Guiding principles to be observed for conducting in vitro, in vivo studies in animals and their impact on clinical safety data are discussed. Finally, health claims, their types and criteria of substantiation in light of ongoing discussions with regard to the EU frame work of regulation on nutrition and health claims and role of process for the assessment of scientific support for claims (PASSCLAIM) initiative is discussed. The concept of grading of evidence to substantiate different claims and to establish standards, which should not be revoked or reversed by emerging science at a later stage has been considered. These issues are crucial and are being

  18. Health-related quality of life after salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, V.; Baco, E.; Dahl, A.A.; Karlsen, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Since June 2006 we have treated 61 patients consecutively by salvage HIFU. All patients were offered the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up. Scores ranged from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Clinically significant changes were defined as a minimum difference of 10 points between the baseline score and the score at follow-up. Fifty-seven patients (93%) had evaluable data at baseline, compared with 46 (75%) after treatment. The mean time lapse between HIFU treatment and questionnaire response was 17.5 months (range 6-29 months). The mean score for urinary function decreased from 79.7±12.1 prior to HIFU to 67.4±17.8 after HIFU (P<0.001). The mean score for sexual function decreased from 32.1±24.1 prior to HIFU to 17.2±17.0 after HIFU (P<0.001). There were no significant effects on bowel function. There was a significant reduction in the mean score for Physical HRQOL, but the mean score for Mental HRQOL was did not change significantly. Treatment of localized radiorecurrent PCa by salvage HIFU is associated with clinically significant reductions in urinary and sexual function domains after a mean follow-up of 17.5 months. (author)

  19. Mapping evidence on the distribution of human papillomavirus-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa: scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekoane, Bridget K M; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P; Ginindza, Themba G

    2017-11-17

    Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary search will include peer-reviewed and review articles. The list of references from included studies will also be searched. The search will be performed using EBSCOhost platform by searching the following databases within the platform: Academic search complete, health source: nursing/academic edition, CINAHL with full text, PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and World Health Organization (WHO) library databases, and gray literature. The researcher will search the articles using keywords, from the included studies; abstract and full articles will be screened by two independent reviewers. The screening will be guided by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A thematic content analysis will be used to present the narrative account of the reviews, using NVivo version 10. We anticipate finding relevant literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa. The study findings will help reveal research gaps to guide future research. PROSPERO CRD42017062403.

  20. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2003-01-01

    of house location relative to vector breeding sites for the occurrence of malaria in order to assess the usefulness of this parameter in future malaria risk maps. Such risk maps could be important tools for planning efficient malaria control measures. METHODS: In a group of seven villages in north central......BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide spray...

  1. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Horikoshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG, none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3 and FG (GCK and G6PC2. The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  2. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Mӓgi, Reedik; van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hӓgg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S; Winkler, Thomas W; Willems, Sara M; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Wiltshire, Steven; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R; Groves, Christopher J; Bennett, Amanda J; Lehtimӓki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Karssen, Lennart C; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D; Samani, Nilesh J; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Slagboom, P Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  3. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    . van der Sandt (eds. ‘Focus: Linguistic, Cognitive, and Computational Perspectives’, 213–231. Cambridge University Press.Partee, B. H. 1991. ‘Topic, focus and quantification’. In S. Moore and A.Z. Wyner (eds., Proceedings of SALT 1, Cornell University Working Papers in Linguistics.Prince, E. 1981. ‘Towards a taxonomy of given-new information’. In P. Cole (ed. ‘Radical Pragmatics’, 223–256. Academic Press.Roberts, C. 1996. ‘Information structure in discourse: towards an integrated formal theory of pragmatics’. In J. Hak Yoon & A. Kathol (eds. ‘Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 49’, 91–136. Ohio State University Press.Rochemont, M. S. 1986. Focus in Generative Grammar. John Benjamins.Rooth, M. 1985. Association with Focus. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Reproduced by the GLSA, Department of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Rooth, M. 1992. ‘A theory of focus interpretation’. Natural Language Semantics 1.1: 75–116.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02342617Rooth, M. 1996. ‘On the interface principles for intonational focus’. In T. Galloway & J. Spence (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT VI’, 202–226. Ithaca, NY: CLC.Rooth, M. 2010. ‘Second occurrence focus and relativized stress F’. In C. Féry & M. Zimmermann (eds. ‘Information Structure: Theoretical, Typological, and Experimental Perspectives’, 15–36. Oxford University Press.Schmerling, S. F. 1976. Aspects of English Sentence Stress. University of Texas Press.Schwarzschild, R. 1999. ‘GIVENness, AvoidF and other constraints on the placement of accent’. Natural Language Semantics 7.2: 141–177.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008370902407Serlkirk, E. O. 1984. Phonology and Syntax: The Relation between Sound and Structure. MIT Press.Serlkirk, E. O. 1996. ‘Sentence prosody: Intonation, stress, and phrasing’. In J. Goldsmith (ed. ‘The Handbook of Phonological Theory’, 550–569. Blackwell.Serlkirk, E. O. 2007.

  4. Urban-hazard risk analysis: mapping of heat-related risks in the elderly in major Italian cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morabito

    Full Text Available Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks.Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥ 65.A long time-series (2001-2013 of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST. LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1 the Linear Regression Model (LRM; 2 the Generalized Additive Model (GAM. Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m from the 2001 census (Eurostat source, and processed together using "Crichton's Risk Triangle" hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI.The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities.This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public health operators and facilitate coordination for heat-related

  5. Urban-hazard risk analysis: mapping of heat-related risks in the elderly in major Italian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥ 65). A long time-series (2001-2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using "Crichton's Risk Triangle" hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public health operators and facilitate coordination for heat-related

  6. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  7. Focusing on Culture-Related Episodes in a Teletandem Interaction between a Brazilian and an American Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, Maisa A.; Funo, Ludmila B. A.; Telles, João A.

    2016-01-01

    Teletandem is a telecollaborative learning context that involves pairs of native (or competent) speakers of different languages interacting through voice, text and webcam image. Using Skype, each participant plays the role of learner for half an hour, speaking and practising the language of his/her partner. This paper focuses on a teletandem…

  8. Associations between Prior Disability-Focused Training and Disability-Related Attitudes and Perceptions among University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Wren, Carol T.; Keys, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between prior disability-focused training and university faculty members' attitudes towards students with learning disabilities (LD). A survey containing items designed to measure faculty attitudes was sent to all full-time faculty at one university. Analyses of 198 responses indicated that faculty who…

  9. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working...... with a system. Sometimes potentially handful data are available as a part of user model from a system used by the student before. The usage of external user modeling information is troublesome because of differences in system architecture, knowledge representation, modeling constraints, etc. In this paper, we...... argue that the implementation of underlying knowledge models in a sharable format, as domain ontologies - along with application of automatic ontology mapping techniques for model alignment - can help to overcome the "new-user" problem and will greatly widen opportunities for student model translation...

  10. [An AIDS-related cognitive map in a sample of drug abusers in Buenos Aires City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblit, A L; Bilyk, A

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an approach to AIDS as a topic among a drug abusers sample of the city of Buenos Aires. Research was carried out on the basis of a qualitative methodology. In an attempt at surveying opinions and attitudes of such a sample as regards AIDS (i.e. subjects' cognitive map), 21 drug abusers from three different rehabilitation programs operating in the B.A. area were interviewed. On the basis of the research performed, the authors elaborate communication strategies among drug abusers that would be helpful for authorities engaged in AIDS prevention to adopt. To boost a strategy likely to break up the AIDS-drug association existing in the mind of many an abuser would be highly advisable so that a separation be settled between both representations, thus giving drug abusers a higher motivation for self-care practice.

  11. Utilizing individual fish biomass and relative abundance models to map environmental niche associations of adult and juvenile targeted fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaiduk, Ronen; Radford, Ben T; Harvey, Euan S

    2018-06-21

    Many fishes undergo ontogenetic habitat shifts to meet their energy and resource needs as they grow. Habitat resource partitioning and patterns of habitat connectivity between conspecific fishes at different life-history stages is a significant knowledge gap. Species distribution models were used to examine patterns in the relative abundance, individual biomass estimates and environmental niche associations of different life stages of three iconic West Australian fishes. Continuous predictive maps describing the spatial distribution of abundance and individual biomass of the study species were created as well predictive hotspot maps that identify possible areas for aggregation of individuals of similar life stages of multiple species (i.e. spawning grounds, fisheries refugia or nursery areas). The models and maps indicate that processes driving the abundance patterns could be different from the body size associated demographic processes throughout an individual's life cycle. Incorporating life-history in the spatially explicit management plans can ensure that critical habitat of the vulnerable stages (e.g. juvenile fish, spawning stock) is included within proposed protected areas and can enhance connectivity between various functional areas (e.g. nursery areas and adult populations) which, in turn, can improve the abundance of targeted species as well as other fish species relying on healthy ecosystem functioning.

  12. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: THE M BH-σ* RELATION FOR REVERBERATION-MAPPED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Barth, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Bentz, Misty C.; Wright, Shelley A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Martini, Paul; Canalizo, Gabriela; Gates, Elinor; Greene, Jenny; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stern, Daniel; Minezaki, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the black hole mass versus stellar velocity dispersion (M BH -σ * ) relation of active galaxies, we measured the velocity dispersions of a sample of local Seyfert 1 galaxies, for which we have recently determined black hole masses using reverberation mapping. For most objects, stellar velocity dispersions were measured from high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra centered on the Ca II triplet region (∼8500 A), obtained at the Keck, Palomar, and Lick Observatories. For two objects, in which the Ca II triplet region was contaminated by nuclear emission, the measurement was based on high-quality H-band spectra obtained with the OH-Suppressing Infrared Imaging Spectrograph at the Keck-II telescope. Combining our new measurements with data from the literature, we assemble a sample of 24 active galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions and reverberation-based black hole mass measurements in the range of black hole mass 10 6 BH /M sun 9 . We use this sample to obtain reverberation-mapping constraints on the slope and intrinsic scatter of the M BH -σ * relation of active galaxies. Assuming a constant virial coefficient f for the reverberation-mapping black hole masses, we find a slope β = 3.55 ± 0.60 and the intrinsic scatter σ int = 0.43 ± 0.08 dex in the relation log(M BH /M sun ) = α + β log(σ * /200 km s -1 ), which are consistent with those found for quiescent galaxies. We derive an updated value of the virial coefficient f by finding the value which places the reverberation masses in best agreement with the M BH -σ * relation of quiescent galaxies; using the quiescent M BH -σ * relation determined by Gueltekin et al., we find log f = 0.72 +0.09 -0.10 with an intrinsic scatter of 0.44 ± 0.07 dex. No strong correlations between f and parameters connected to the physics of accretion (such as the Eddington ratio or line-shape measurements) are found. The uncertainty of the virial coefficient remains one of the main sources of the

  13. Biomechanics and strain mapping in bone as related to immediately-loaded dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Lee, Jihyun; Jang, Andrew; Gu, Allen; Hossaini-Zadeh, Mehran; Prevost, Richard; Curtis, Don; Ho, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    The effects of alveolar bone socket geometry and bone-implant contact on implant biomechanics, and resulting strain distributions in bone were investigated. Following extraction of lateral incisors on a cadaver mandible, immediate implants were placed and bone-implant contact area, stability and bone strain were measured. In situ biomechanical testing coupled with micro X-ray microscope (μ-XRM) illustrated less stiff bone-implant complexes (701-822 N/mm) compared with bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth complexes (791-913 N/mm). X-ray tomograms illustrated that the cause of reduced stiffness was due to reduced and limited bone-implant contact. Heterogeneous elemental composition of bone was identified by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The novel aspect of this study was the application of a new experimental mechanics method, that is, digital volume correlation, which allowed mapping of strains in volumes of alveolar bone in contact with a loaded implant. The identified surface and subsurface strain concentrations were a manifestation of load transferred to bone through bone-implant contact based on bone-implant geometry, quality of bone, implant placement, and implant design. 3D strain mapping indicated that strain concentrations are not exclusive to the bone-implant contact regions, but also extend into bone not directly in contact with the implant. The implications of the observed strain concentrations are discussed in the context of mechanobiology. Although a plausible explanation of surgical complications for immediate implant treatment is provided, extrapolation of results is only warranted by future systematic studies on more cadaver specimens and/or in vivo small scale animal models. PMID:26162549

  14. Mapping land water and energy balance relations through conditional sampling of remote sensing estimates of atmospheric forcing and surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Leila; Entekhabi, Dara; Salvucci, Guido

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop and apply a mapping estimation capability for key unknown parameters that link the surface water and energy balance equations. The method is applied to the Gourma region in West Africa. The accuracy of the estimation method at point scale was previously examined using flux tower data. In this study, the capability is scaled to be applicable with remotely sensed data products and hence allow mapping. Parameters of the system are estimated through a process that links atmospheric forcing (precipitation and incident radiation), surface states, and unknown parameters. Based on conditional averaging of land surface temperature and moisture states, respectively, a single objective function is posed that measures moisture and temperature-dependent errors solely in terms of observed forcings and surface states. This objective function is minimized with respect to parameters to identify evapotranspiration and drainage models and estimate water and energy balance flux components. The uncertainty of the estimated parameters (and associated statistical confidence limits) is obtained through the inverse of Hessian of the objective function, which is an approximation of the covariance matrix. This calibration-free method is applied to the mesoscale region of Gourma in West Africa using multiplatform remote sensing data. The retrievals are verified against tower-flux field site data and physiographic characteristics of the region. The focus is to find the functional form of the evaporative fraction dependence on soil moisture, a key closure function for surface and subsurface heat and moisture dynamics, using remote sensing data.

  15. Comparative mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 and functional characterization of resistance-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huagang; Zhu, Shanying; Jiang, Zhengning; Ji, Yaoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Renhui; Bie, Tongde

    2016-04-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 was physically and comparatively mapped by newly developed markers. Seven candidate genes were verified to be required for Pm21 -mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew. Pm21, a gene derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, has been transferred into common wheat and widely utilized in wheat resistance breeding for powdery mildew. Previously, Pm21 has been located to the bin FL0.45-0.58 of 6VS by using deletion stocks. However, its fine mapping is still a hard work. In the present study, 30 gene-derived 6VS-specific markers were obtained based on the collinearity among genomes of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza and Triticeae, and then physically and comparatively mapped in the bin FL0.45-0.58 and its nearby chromosome region. According to the maps, the bin FL0.45-0.58 carrying Pm21 was closely flanked by the markers 6VS-03 and 6VS-23, which further narrowed the orthologous regions to 1.06 Mb in Brachypodium and 1.38 Mb in rice, respectively. Among the conserved genes shared by Brachypodium and rice, four serine/threonine protein kinase genes (DvMPK1, DvMLPK, DvUPK and DvPSYR1), one protein phosphatase gene (DvPP2C) and two transcription factor genes (DvGATA and DvWHY) were confirmed to be required for Pm21-mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) and transcriptional pattern analyses. In summary, this study gives new insights into the genetic basis of the Pm21 locus and the disease resistance pathways mediated by Pm21.

  16. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  17. Mapping the metal uptake in plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Allison [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentine-tolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  18. Extensive Tonotopic Mapping across Auditory Cortex Is Recapitulated by Spectrally Directed Attention and Systematically Related to Cortical Myeloarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Frederic K; Lehet, Matt I; Callaghan, Martina F; Keller, Tim A; Sereno, Martin I; Holt, Lori L

    2017-12-13

    Auditory selective attention is vital in natural soundscapes. But it is unclear how attentional focus on the primary dimension of auditory representation-acoustic frequency-might modulate basic auditory functional topography during active listening. In contrast to visual selective attention, which is supported by motor-mediated optimization of input across saccades and pupil dilation, the primate auditory system has fewer means of differentially sampling the world. This makes spectrally-directed endogenous attention a particularly crucial aspect of auditory attention. Using a novel functional paradigm combined with quantitative MRI, we establish in male and female listeners that human frequency-band-selective attention drives activation in both myeloarchitectonically estimated auditory core, and across the majority of tonotopically mapped nonprimary auditory cortex. The attentionally driven best-frequency maps show strong concordance with sensory-driven maps in the same subjects across much of the temporal plane, with poor concordance in areas outside traditional auditory cortex. There is significantly greater activation across most of auditory cortex when best frequency is attended, versus ignored; the same regions do not show this enhancement when attending to the least-preferred frequency band. Finally, the results demonstrate that there is spatial correspondence between the degree of myelination and the strength of the tonotopic signal across a number of regions in auditory cortex. Strong frequency preferences across tonotopically mapped auditory cortex spatially correlate with R 1 -estimated myeloarchitecture, indicating shared functional and anatomical organization that may underlie intrinsic auditory regionalization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Perception is an active process, especially sensitive to attentional state. Listeners direct auditory attention to track a violin's melody within an ensemble performance, or to follow a voice in a crowded cafe. Although

  19. Mapping evidence on the distribution of human papillomavirus-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa: scoping review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget K. M. Lekoane

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary search will include peer-reviewed and review articles. The list of references from included studies will also be searched. The search will be performed using EBSCOhost platform by searching the following databases within the platform: Academic search complete, health source: nursing/academic edition, CINAHL with full text, PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and World Health Organization (WHO library databases, and gray literature. The researcher will search the articles using keywords, from the included studies; abstract and full articles will be screened by two independent reviewers. The screening will be guided by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A thematic content analysis will be used to present the narrative account of the reviews, using NVivo version 10. Discussion We anticipate finding relevant literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa. The study findings will help reveal research gaps to guide future research. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42017062403.

  20. How Does Health-Related Advertising with a Regulatory Focus and Goal Framing Affect Attitudes toward Ads and Healthy Behavior Intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen; Yeh, Wei-Ju

    2017-12-04

    The health costs of colorectal cancer have increased over the years in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and the Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan advocate that people have to change their unhealthy behaviors; however, the number of patients of colorectal cancer is increasing annually. This research discussed the effects of healthy diet advocacy advertisements (ads) on healthy diet behavior intentions as influenced by the interactions between regulatory focus theory (RFT) and message framing effects. Both regulatory focus theory and message framing effect were discussed for the relationship between advertisement and behavior change in many fields, such as health-related behavior, pro-environmental behavior, consumer choice, etc. We executed an experiment with four different types of public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (message framing: gain framing vs. loss framing) two-factor experiment was adopted, and 201 valid participants responded to the questionnaire. Results indicated that if the ad's regulatory focus is promotion focus, viewers' attitudes toward the ad and their behavior intentions are more positive when the slogan of the ad is gain framing rather than loss framing via the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), and vice versa. Respondents found the communication easier to comprehend when the ads evoked the respondents' regulatory focus and applied the appropriate message framing, thus improving the efficacy of health-related advertising. We offer suggestions regarding the future use of health-related advertising for the MOHW.

  1. Conceptual foundations of inclusive systems in and around schools for early school leaving prevention: An emotional-relational focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downes Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the EU2020 headline target of reducing early school leaving to 10% across Europe, this article examines the conceptual foundations of the understanding of inclusive systems for early school leaving prevention that has emerged in EU policy documents and research reports in recent years. Traditionally, inclusive education has referred to a focus on children with special educational needs. However, this conceptual review examines how inclusion is increasingly being examined in broader terms.This review seeks to critically reconstruct foundational understandings of systems and resilience in developmental and educational psychology. A systems focus on inclusion needs to address the neglect in psychology of system blockages and power imbalances. Resilience is typically framed as the capacity of the individual to navigate their way to environmental resources. This places the onus of accessibility onto the individual’s efforts rather than a concern with responsive systems accessible to marginalised groups. A concern with inclusive systems goes beyond not only the well-established framework of individual resilience in developmental psychology, but also beyond its expansion into resilient systems, as these omit a focus on outreach and multidisciplinary teams in systems of care for integrated services. Common principles for a framework of inclusive systems include children’s voices, equality and non-discrimination, parental involvement that is integrated holistically with family support, and lifelong learning principles for schools. Illustrative examples of these principles for reforming authoritarian teaching and discriminatory bullying, for opening schools to the local community and for targeting those with highest levels of need are highlighted.

  2. Mapping of Danish Law Related to Companies' Impact on Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Østergaard, Kim; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    for Danish law related to environment and climate change and CSR in a general sense, sources of law and jurisdiction specific issues, types of companies, shareholding structure etc. (section 1); the purpose of the company, duties and competence of the company organs, and corporate governance issues (section......This overview of Danish law related to companies’ conduct and impact on environment and climate change has been undertaken under the ‘Sustainable Companies’ project hosted at the Department of Private Law at the University of Oslo. The ‘mapping’ of national law – including in particular company law....... Environmental law has been seen under the project as essentially related to climate change. Some other issues related to sustainable development and company conduct have been addressed as well, in particular in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In the current paper, this particularly applies...

  3. Relations between perceptual and conceptual scope: how global versus local processing fits a focus on similarity versus dissimilarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Nine studies showed a bidirectional link (a) between a global processing style and generation of similarities and (b) between a local processing style and generation of dissimilarities. In Experiments 1-4, participants were primed with global versus local perception styles and then asked to work on an allegedly unrelated generation task. Across materials, participants generated more similarities than dissimilarities after global priming, whereas for participants with local priming, the opposite was true. Experiments 5-6 demonstrated a bidirectional link whereby participants who were first instructed to search for similarities attended more to the gestalt of a stimulus than to its details, whereas the reverse was true for those who were initially instructed to search for dissimilarities. Because important psychological variables are correlated with processing styles, in Experiments 7-9, temporal distance, a promotion focus, and high power were predicted and shown to enhance the search for similarities, whereas temporal proximity, a prevention focus, and low power enhanced the search for dissimilarities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The relation of electrode voltages to charge position in SLC arc and final focus beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, C.

    1989-01-01

    The position of a charged particle beam can be measured with a Beam Position Monitor (BPM) by converting the voltages induced on its array of electrodes into a position offset from the array's center. Most of the BPMs in the Arcs and Final Focus of the SLC use four stripline electrodes arranged symmetrically around the beam; normalized voltage differences are calculated as the difference divided by the sum of voltages on opposite electrode pairs. The resulting number is multiplied by a conversion factor, denoted in this paper as S b , to give the offset (in millimeters) of the charge from the center of the BPM. Prior to installation in the beam line, the BPMs were calibrated with a charge pulse on a rod. Owing to geometric effects which will be discussed later, a different conversion factor had to be used for calibration. It will be denoted here by S r . This paper gives the results of calculations and measurements of S r and S b for Arc and Final Focus BPMs. This paper also describes the relevant physical properties of the several types of BPMs and calculations of the expected scale factors, the measurement methods used, and gives the results of measurements, which are compared with the theoretical expectations. 2 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  6. Mapping domain structures in silks from insects and spiders related to protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Elisabetta; Knight, David P; Kaplan, David L

    2004-01-02

    The exceptional solubility in vivo (20-30%, w/v) of the silk proteins of insects and spiders is dictated by both the need to produce solid fibres with a high packing fraction and the high mesogen concentration required for lyotropic liquid crystalline spinning. A further design requirement for silk proteins is a strong predominance of hydrophobic amino acid residues to provide for the hydrophobic interactions, water exclusion, and beta-crystallite formation required to produce strong insoluble threads. Thus, the domain structure of silk proteins needs to enable nanoscale phase separation to achieve high solubility of hydrophobic proteins in aqueous solutions. Additionally, silk proteins need to avoid premature precipitation as beta-sheets during storage and processing. Here we use mapping of domain types, sizes and distributions in silks to identify consistent design features that have evolved to meet these requirements. We show that silk proteins consist of conspicuously hydrophilic terminal domains flanking a very long central portion constructed from hydrophobic blocks separated by hydrophilic ones, discussing the domain structure in detail. The general rules of construction for silk proteins based on our observations should give a useful guide to the way in which Nature has solved the problem of processing hydrophobic proteins in water and how this can be copied industrially. Following these rules may also help in obtaining adequate expression, soluble products and controllable conformational switches in the production of genetically engineered or chemically synthesized silk analogues. Thus these insights have implications for structural biology and relevance to fundamental and applied questions in material science and engineering.

  7. Mapping of Junior High School Students’ Social Relation Problem and the Needed Assisting Model

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin Janu Setiyowati; Marthen Pali; Bambang Budi Wiyono; Triyono

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe Junior High School students’ social relation problem and the needed assisting model. This research used descriptive design with survey method. The subjects of this research were Junior High School students in the three cities in East Java. This research used purposive sampling as well. The data was collected by using questionnaire. The data analysis was conducted descriptively. This research found that Junior High School students’ social relation problems includ...

  8. The Evolution of Scientific Trajectories in Rice: Mapping the Relation between Research and Societal Priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarli, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    How do specific technologies emerge? How is the scientific research related to technologies prioritised, in governments, firms, universities, and other actors involved in research? Related to these questions is the question of how we investigate trajectories of science and technologies, and how to model their relation. In this paper we aim to answer the initial question for a case study, rice, proposing to use new data, methods, and indicators. We discuss a number of insights on the evolution of the research trajectory on rice since the 1980’s, worldwide and for a number of countries which dominate the world rankings in rice production and/or in rice publications. Using a number of socio-economic indicators at the country level, we relate priorities on the research side (publication topics) and on the societal side finding limited relations between supply and demand of research. In the paper we also discuss the combination of scientometric and socio-economic indicators, suggesting that they may be useful for future research on the relation between societal needs and research priorities. (Author)

  9. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change - a new overview of recent ice-related landforms in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Losiak, A.; Swirad, Z. M.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.; Hauber, E.; Johnsson, A. E.; Kereszturi, A.; Orgel, C.; Platz, T.; Ramsdale, J. D.; Reiss, D.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Van Gasselt, S.

    2015-10-01

    An International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team project has been convened to study ice-related landforms in targeted areas in the northern plain of Mars: Acidalia Planitia, Arcadia Planitia, and Utopia Planitia. Here, over western Utopia Planitia, ice-related landforms were identified and recorded in a sub-grid square. The end result of the mapping is a "raster" showing the distribution of thevarious different types of landforms across the whole strip providing a digital geomorph ological map (Fig. 1).

  10. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution. Application and testing in four contrasting urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.J.; De Hoogh, C.; Elliot, P.; Gulliver, J.; Wills, J.; Kingham, S.; Smallbone, K.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model - developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project - uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO 2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO 2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO 2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO 2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r 2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to

  11. Explanation and relations. How do general practitioners deal with patients with persistent medically unexplained symptoms: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Spaendonck Karel P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent presentation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS is troublesome for general practitioners (GPs and causes pressure on the doctor-patient relationship. As a consequence, GPs face the problem of establishing an ongoing, preferably effective relationship with these patients. This study aims at exploring GPs' perceptions about explaining MUS to patients and about how relationships with these patients evolve over time in daily practice. Methods A qualitative approach, interviewing a purposive sample of twenty-two Dutch GPs within five focus groups. Data were analyzed according to the principles of constant comparative analysis. Results GPs recognise the importance of an adequate explanation of the diagnosis of MUS but often feel incapable of being able to explain it clearly to their patients. GPs therefore indicate that they try to reassure patients in non-specific ways, for example by telling patients that there is no disease, by using metaphors and by normalizing the symptoms. When patients keep returning with MUS, GPs report the importance of maintaining the doctor-patient relationship. GPs describe three different models to do this; mutual alliance characterized by ritual care (e.g. regular physical examination, regular doctor visits with approval of the patient and the doctor, ambivalent alliance characterized by ritual care without approval of the doctor and non-alliance characterized by cutting off all reasons for encounter in which symptoms are not of somatic origin. Conclusion GPs feel difficulties in explaining the symptoms. GPs report that, when patients keep presenting with MUS, they focus on maintaining the doctor-patient relationship by using ritual care. In this care they meticulously balance between maintaining a good doctor-patient relationship and the prevention of unintended consequences of unnecessary interventions.

  12. Mapping the Intangible: On Adaptivity and Relational Prototyping in Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolbroe, Cameline

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, new computing technologies in architecture have led to the possibility of designing architecture with non-static qualities, which affords the architectural designer with a whole new opportunity space to explore. At the same time, this opportunity space challenges both...... to meet the challenges of designing with adaptivity in architecture, I propose a particular method specifically tailored for adaptive architectural design. The method, relational prototyping, is founded on the idea of inhabitation as an act. Relational prototyping adapts techniques from performance...

  13. Development of a conceptual framework of health-related quality of life in pressure ulcers: a patient-focused approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, Claudia; Lamping, Donna L; Brown, Julia M; Madill, Anna; Firth, Jill; Nixon, Jane

    2010-12-01

    Evaluating outcomes such as health-related quality of life is particularly important and relevant in skin conditions such as pressure ulcers where the condition and associated interventions pose substantial burden to patients. Measures to evaluate such outcomes need to be developed by utilising patient-perspective to ensure that content and conceptualisation is relevant to patients. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework of health-related quality of life in pressure ulcers, based on patients' views about the impact of pressure ulcers and interventions on health-related quality of life to inform the development of a new patient-reported outcome measure. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We developed a working conceptual framework based on a previous review of the literature, then used semi-structured qualitative interviews with 30 adults with pressure ulcers (22-94 years) purposively sampled from hospital, community and rehabilitation care settings in England and Northern Ireland to obtain patients' views, and thematic content analysis and review by a multidisciplinary expert group to develop the final conceptual framework. Our conceptual model includes four health-related quality of life domains (symptoms, physical functioning, psychological well-being, social functioning), divided into 13 sub-domains and defined by specific descriptive components. We have identified health-related quality of life outcomes that are important to people with pressure ulcers and developed a conceptual framework using robust and systematic methods, which provides the basis for the development of a new pressure ulcer-specific measure of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urban-Hazard Risk Analysis: Mapping of Heat-Related Risks in the Elderly in Major Italian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Objectives Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥65). Methods A long time-series (2001–2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using “Crichton’s Risk Triangle” hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). Results The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. Conclusions This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public

  15. Relation between thallium-201/iodine 123-BMIPP subtraction and fluorine 18 deoxyglucose polar maps in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Hasegawa, S; Yamaguchi, H; Yoshioka, J; Uehara, T; Nishimura, T

    2000-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown discrepancies in the distribution of thallium-201 and iodine 123-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Myocardial uptake of fluorine 18 deoxyglucose (FDG) is increased in the hypertrophic area in HCM. We examined whether the distribution of a Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map correlates with that of an FDG polar map. We normalized to maximum count each Tl-201 and BMIPP bull's-eye polar map of 6 volunteers and obtained a standard Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map by subtracting a normalized BMIPP bull's-eye polar map from a normalized Tl-201 bull's-eye polar map. The Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map was then applied to 8 patients with HCM (mean age 65+/-12 years) to evaluate the discrepancy between Tl-201 and BMIPP distribution. We compared the Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map with an FDG polar map. In patients with HCM, the Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map showed a focal uptake pattern in the hypertrophic area similar to that of the FDG polar map. By quantitative analysis, the severity score of the Tl-201/BMIPP subtraction polar map was significantly correlated with the percent dose uptake of the FDG polar map. These results suggest that this new quantitative method may be an alternative to FDG positron emission tomography for the routine evaluation of HCM.

  16. Early Fatherhood: A Mapping of the Evidence Base Relating to Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D.; Brooks, F.; Bunn, F.; Graham, M.

    2009-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual…

  17. Comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci for tassel-related traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QIANG YI

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... in maize have evaluated flowering-related traits (Li et al. ... with Upadyayula et al. (2006). The measurements taken were TTL, the length (cm) of the tassel ...... M. Banziger, H. R. Mickelson and C. B. Penã–Valdivia), pp.

  18. Perceived motor problems in daily life: Focus group interviews with people with Noonan syndrome and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, E.A.; Harmsen, M.; Burgt, I. van der; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Noordam, C.; Essink, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Studies from a patient perspective on motor performance problems in Noonan syndrome in daily life are lacking. The aims of this study were to provide insight into the motor performance problems that people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives experienced, the major consequences they suffered,

  19. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Added water related diarrhoeal burden due to HIV/AIDS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to proper water, improved sanitation and hygiene, is the main risk factor attributable to diarrhoeal-related disease in the country. Of the 48 million people in South Africa, approximately 3.3 million people still lack access...

  20. Health Professionals' Attitudes towards AOD-Related Work: Moving the Traditional Focus from Education and Training to Organizational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Natalie; Roche, Ann M.; Freeman, Toby; Mckinnon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This article presents a critical review of research on health professionals' attitudes towards alcohol and other drug (AOD)-related work relevant to both researchers and practitioners. It moves beyond education and training programs to examine the relevance of organizational culture in influencing attitudes. Method: A review of research…

  1. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  2. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.; Brennan, Angela; Ebinger, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km2; range = [95–10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  3. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Cross

    Full Text Available The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2; range = [95-10237]. The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  4. Alliance-focused therapy for anorexia nervosa: integrative relational and behavioral change treatments in a single-case experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Dana A; Goodman, David M; Shingleton, Rebecca M; Porcerelli, John H; Gorman, Bernard S; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Barlow, David H; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2011-12-01

    Evidence supporting outpatient treatments for anorexia nervosa (AN) is severely lacking, due to low retention and poor outcome. One explanation for drop-out is weak treatment alliances. A single-case experimental analysis accompanied by in-depth qualitative description is presented for Ms. O, who received a novel treatment for AN called Alliance Focused Treatment (AFT) that attends to ruptures in the alliance, interpersonal difficulties and emotional avoidance. At intake Ms. O met diagnostic criteria for AN, Major Depressive Disorder, and Social Phobia. She was characterized as having symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive, Avoidant, and Depressive personality disorders. Treatment began with a Baseline followed by the experimental (AFT) and comparison treatments (Behavioral Change Treatment [BCT]) using a replicated experimental single-case phase change design. Graphs of slopes of kilocalorie and alliance change facilitated observation of treatment effects. Ms. O participated in 16 sessions of AFT and 8 sessions of BCT with specific benefits. Ratings of the treatment alliance were consistently high and she evidenced significant changes in weight, quality of life, and personality pathology. Associations between rupture/repair episodes and kilocalorie increases were observed. The utility of the treatment relationship in facilitating emotional expression was evident. At posttreatment, Ms. O endorsed cognitive AN symptoms, although these were not explicitly treated. This study provides preliminary support for the feasibility and effect of AFT and BCT, and highlights the importance of the alliance in treating adults with AN. Further research on emotion regulation in AN and its effect on the treatment relationship are needed.

  5. Global trends in research related to social media in psychology: mapping and bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Sweileh, Waleed M.; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W.

    2018-01-01

    Background Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the m...

  6. Polymorphism screening and mapping of nine meat performance-related genes in the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Stratil, Antonín; Svatoňová, Martina; Maštálková, Lucie; Patáková, Jitka; Van Poucke, M.; Bartenschlager, H.; Peelman, L. J.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2010), s. 334-335 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450801; GA ČR GA523/09/0844; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : genomics * meat performance-related genes * pig Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  7. Polymorphism screening and mapping of nine meat performance-related genes in the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Stratil, Antonín; Svatoňová, Martina; Maštálková, Lucie; Patáková, Jitka; Van Poucke, M.; Bartenschlager, H.; Peelman, L. J.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2010), s. 334-335 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450801; GA ČR GA523/09/0844; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : genomics * meat performance -related genes * pig Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  8. Transcriptome-enabled marker discovery and mapping of plastochron-related genes in Petunia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yufang; Wiegert-Rininger, Krystle E.; Vallejo, Veronica A.; Barry, Cornelius S.; Warner, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Petunia (Petunia × hybrida), derived from a hybrid between P. axillaris and P. integrifolia, is one of the most economically important bedding plant crops and Petunia spp. serve as model systems for investigating the mechanisms underlying diverse mating systems and pollination syndromes. In addition, we have previously described genetic variation and quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to petunia development rate and morphology, which represent important breeding targets for the ...

  9. Characteristics of attention-related body sensations. Temporal stability and associations with measures of body focus, affect, sustained attention, and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihanyi, Benedek T; Ferentzi, Eszter; Köteles, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability and correlates of attention-related body sensations that emerge without external stimulation during rest and due to focused attention on a body part. To assess attention-related body sensations, participants were asked to focus on a freely chosen body area with closed eyes, and had to report whether the sensation of that area had changed. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess various aspects of body focus (body awareness, body responsiveness, somatosensory amplification, subjective somatic symptoms), and positive and negative affectivity. Previous experiences in body-mind therapies were also measured. PEBL Continuous Performance Test was used to assess sustained attention. Heart rate variability scores were based on a 3-minute long resting heart rate measurement. Fifty-eight university students (22.3 ± 3.95 years; 34 females) participated in the study. The stability of attention-related body sensations was measured 8 weeks later on a randomly chosen sub-group (n = 28). Attention-related body sensations showed a mediocre temporal stability (r ρ  = 0.47, p = 0.012). People reporting attention-related body sensations showed significantly higher body awareness, somatosensory amplification, and resting heart rate; and marginally higher somatic symptoms. No relation was found with body-mind practice, body responsiveness, positive and negative affect, the vagal component of heart rate variability, and performance in the sustained attention task. Attention-related sensations are relatively stable over time. They are connected to some, but not to all of the aspects of body focus. Further studies are needed to elaborate the influencing stable and situational factors.

  10. Genomic Prediction and Association Mapping of Curd-Related Traits in Gene Bank Accessions of Cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwarth, Patrick; Yousef, Eltohamy A A; Schmid, Karl J

    2018-02-02

    Genetic resources are an important source of genetic variation for plant breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic prediction greatly facilitate the analysis and utilization of useful genetic diversity for improving complex phenotypic traits in crop plants. We explored the potential of GWAS and genomic prediction for improving curd-related traits in cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) by combining 174 randomly selected cauliflower gene bank accessions from two different gene banks. The collection was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and phenotyped for six curd-related traits at two locations and three growing seasons. A GWAS analysis based on 120,693 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified a total of 24 significant associations for curd-related traits. The potential for genomic prediction was assessed with a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and BayesB. Prediction abilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.66 for different traits and did not differ between prediction methods. Imputation of missing genotypes only slightly improved prediction ability. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and genomic prediction in combination with GBS and phenotyping of highly heritable traits can be used to identify useful quantitative trait loci and genotypes among genetically diverse gene bank material for subsequent utilization as genetic resources in cauliflower breeding. Copyright © 2018 Thorwarth et al.

  11. Genomic Prediction and Association Mapping of Curd-Related Traits in Gene Bank Accessions of Cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Thorwarth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources are an important source of genetic variation for plant breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and genomic prediction greatly facilitate the analysis and utilization of useful genetic diversity for improving complex phenotypic traits in crop plants. We explored the potential of GWAS and genomic prediction for improving curd-related traits in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis by combining 174 randomly selected cauliflower gene bank accessions from two different gene banks. The collection was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and phenotyped for six curd-related traits at two locations and three growing seasons. A GWAS analysis based on 120,693 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified a total of 24 significant associations for curd-related traits. The potential for genomic prediction was assessed with a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and BayesB. Prediction abilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.66 for different traits and did not differ between prediction methods. Imputation of missing genotypes only slightly improved prediction ability. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and genomic prediction in combination with GBS and phenotyping of highly heritable traits can be used to identify useful quantitative trait loci and genotypes among genetically diverse gene bank material for subsequent utilization as genetic resources in cauliflower breeding.

  12. High resolution linkage maps of the model organism Petunia reveal substantial synteny decay with the related genome of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Bossolini, Eligio; Klahre, Ulrich; Brandenburg, Anna; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-01-01

    Two linkage maps were constructed for the model plant Petunia. Mapping populations were obtained by crossing the wild species Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris with Petunia inflata, and Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii with Petunia exserta. Both maps cover the seven chromosomes of Petunia, and span 970 centimorgans (cM) and 700 cM of the genomes, respectively. In total, 207 markers were mapped. Of these, 28 are multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 179 are gene...

  13. Phase-based treatment versus immediate trauma-focused treatment in patients with childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Noortje I.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; van Dijk, Maarten K.; de Jongh, Ad

    2018-01-01

    Background: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused

  14. Phase-based treatment versus immediate trauma-focused treatment in patients with childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Noortje I; Huntjens, Rafaele J C; van Dijk, Maarten K; de Jongh, Ad

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused

  15. Perceived motor problems in daily life: Focus group interviews with people with Noonan syndrome and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonen, Ellen A; Harmsen, Mirjam; Van der Burgt, Ineke; Draaisma, Jos M; Noordam, Kees; Essink, Marlou; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-09-01

    Studies from a patient perspective on motor performance problems in Noonan syndrome in daily life are lacking. The aims of this study were to provide insight into the motor performance problems that people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives experienced, the major consequences they suffered, the benefits of interventions they experienced, and the experiences with healthcare professionals they mentioned. We interviewed 10 adults with Noonan syndrome (two were joined by their parent), and 23 mothers (five of whom had Noonan syndrome), nine fathers (one of whom had Noonan syndrome) and one cousin who reported on 28 children with Noonan syndrome. People with Noonan syndrome reported particular problems related to pain, decreased muscle strength, fatigue, and clumsiness, which had an evident impact on functioning in daily life. Most participants believed that problems with motor performance improved with exercise, appropriate physiotherapy guidance, and other supportive interventions. Nevertheless, people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives did not feel heard and supported and experienced no understanding of their problems by healthcare professionals. This was the first study from a patient perspective that described the motor performance problems in people with Noonan syndrome, the major consequences in daily life, the positive experiences of interventions and the miscommunication with healthcare professionals. To achieve optimal support, healthcare professionals, as well as people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives themselves, should be aware of these frequently presented problems with motor performance. Research on these different aspects is needed to better understand and support people with Noonan syndrome.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gains in QTL detection using an ultra-high density SNP map based on population sequencing relative to traditional RFLP/SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Yu

    Full Text Available Huge efforts have been invested in the last two decades to dissect the genetic bases of complex traits including yields of many crop plants, through quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses. However, almost all the studies were based on linkage maps constructed using low-throughput molecular markers, e.g. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, thus are mostly of low density and not able to provide precise and complete information about the numbers and locations of the genes or QTLs controlling the traits. In this study, we constructed an ultra-high density genetic map based on high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from low-coverage sequences of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population of rice, generated using new sequencing technology. The quality of the map was assessed by validating the positions of several cloned genes including GS3 and GW5/qSW5, two major QTLs for grain length and grain width respectively, and OsC1, a qualitative trait locus for pigmentation. In all the cases the loci could be precisely resolved to the bins where the genes are located, indicating high quality and accuracy of the map. The SNP map was used to perform QTL analysis for yield and three yield-component traits, number of tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle and grain weight, using data from field trials conducted over years, in comparison to QTL mapping based on RFLPs/SSRs. The SNP map detected more QTLs especially for grain weight, with precise map locations, demonstrating advantages in detecting power and resolution relative to the RFLP/SSR map. Thus this study provided an example for ultra-high density map construction using sequencing technology. Moreover, the results obtained are helpful for understanding the genetic bases of the yield traits and for fine mapping and cloning of QTLs.

  17. The state of the art in European research on reducing social exclusion and stigma related to mental health: a systematic mapping of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Courtin, E; Fiorillo, A; Knapp, M; Luciano, M; Park, A-L; Brunn, M; Byford, S; Chevreul, K; Forsman, A K; Gulacsi, L; Haro, J M; Kennelly, B; Knappe, S; Lai, T; Lasalvia, A; Miret, M; O'Sullivan, C; Obradors-Tarragó, C; Rüsch, N; Sartorius, N; Svab, V; van Weeghel, J; Van Audenhove, C; Wahlbeck, K; Zlati, A; McDaid, D; Thornicroft, G

    2014-08-01

    Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe-primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%). In terms of mental health characteristics, the largest proportion of studies investigated general mental health (20%), common mental disorders (16%), schizophrenia (16%) or depression (14%). There is a paucity of research looking at mechanisms to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, or at factors that might promote resilience or protect against stigma/social exclusion across the life course. Evidence is also limited in relation to evaluations of interventions. Increasing incentives for cross-country research collaborations, especially with new EU Member States and collaboration across European professional organizations and disciplines, could improve understanding of the range of underpinning social and cultural factors which promote inclusion or contribute toward lower levels of stigma, especially during times of hardship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Introduction of digital soil mapping techniques for the nationwide regionalization of soil condition in Hungary; the first results of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Takács, Katalin; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Dobos, Endre

    2014-05-01

    Due to the former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. Present soil data requirements are mainly fulfilled with these available datasets either by their direct usage or after certain specific and generally fortuitous, thematic and/or spatial inference. Due to the more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data, there might be notable imperfection as for the accuracy and reliability of the delivered products. With a recently started project (DOSoReMI.hu; Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) we would like to significantly extend the potential, how countrywide soil information requirements could be satisfied in Hungary. We started to compile digital soil related maps which fulfil optimally the national and international demands from points of view of thematic, spatial and temporal accuracy. The spatial resolution of the targeted countrywide, digital, thematic maps is at least 1:50.000 (approx. 50-100 meter raster resolution). DOSoReMI.hu results are also planned to contribute to the European part of GSM.net products. In addition to the auxiliary, spatial data themes related to soil forming factors and/or to indicative environmental elements we heavily lean on the various national soil databases. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques is gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. In our paper we will present the first results. - Regression kriging (RK) has been used for the spatial inference of certain quantitative data, like particle size distribution components, rootable depth and organic matter content. In the course of RK-based mapping spatially segmented categorical information provided by the SMUs of Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) has been also used in the form of indicator variables. - Classification and regression trees (CART) were

  19. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  20. Health professionals perceive teamwork with relatives as an obstacle in their daily work - a focus group interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Broholm, Malene; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health professionals must often balance between different rationalities within the hospital organisation. Having adequate time with patients, shorter waiting time and the ability to greater professional autonomy have been shown to help provide a higher quality of care. Empathy...... and sympathy appear to be crucial components for the health professionals and their relationship to patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of relatives to critically ill patients in order to identify aspects that may facilitate a better understanding...

  1. Online maps with APIs and webservices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    With the Internet now the primary method of accessing maps, this volume examines developments in the world of online map delivery, focusing in particular on application programmer interfaces such as the Google Maps API, and their utility in thematic mapping.

  2. Classification of passive auditory event-related potentials using discriminant analysis and self-organizing feature maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönweiler, R; Wübbelt, P; Tolloczko, R; Rose, C; Ptok, M

    2000-01-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) and self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) were used to classify passively evoked auditory event-related potentials (ERP) P(1), N(1), P(2) and N(2). Responses from 16 children with severe behavioral auditory perception deficits, 16 children with marked behavioral auditory perception deficits, and 14 controls were examined. Eighteen ERP amplitude parameters were selected for examination of statistical differences between the groups. Different DA methods and SOFM configurations were trained to the values. SOFM had better classification results than DA methods. Subsequently, measures on another 37 subjects that were unknown for the trained SOFM were used to test the reliability of the system. With 10-dimensional vectors, reliable classifications were obtained that matched behavioral auditory perception deficits in 96%, implying central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The results also support the assumption that CAPD includes a 'non-peripheral' auditory processing deficit. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Six-Dimensional Modeling of Coherent Bunch Instabilities and Related Feedback Systems using Power-Series Maps for the Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, D.

    2003-07-07

    The authors have developed 6-dimensional phase-space code that tracks macroparticles for the study of coherent bunch instabilities and related feedback systems. The model is based on power-series maps to represent the lattice, and allows for straightforward inclusion of effects such as amplitude dependent tune shift, chromaticity, synchrotron oscillations, and synchrotron radiation. It simulates long range wake fields such as resistive-wall effects as well as the higher order modes in cavities. The model has served to study the dynamics relevant to the transverse feedback system currently being commissioned for the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Current work integrates earlier versions into a modular system that includes models for transverse and longitudinal feedback systems. It is designed to provide a modular approach to the dynamics and diagnostics, allowing a user to modify the model of a storage ring at run-time without recompilation.

  4. Database for the geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Andrew D.; Ramsey, David W.; Smith, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This geospatial database for a geologic map of the Cascades Range in Washington state is one of a series of maps that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of lithostratigraphic units. Geologic maps of the Eocene to Holocene Cascade Range in California and Oregon complete the series, providing a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanantion. The complete series will be useful for regional studies of volcanic hazards, volcanology, and tectonics.

  5. How Does Health-Related Advertising with a Regulatory Focus and Goal Framing Affect Attitudes toward Ads and Healthy Behavior Intentions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The health costs of colorectal cancer have increased over the years in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and the Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan advocate that people have to change their unhealthy behaviors; however, the number of patients of colorectal cancer is increasing annually. This research discussed the effects of healthy diet advocacy advertisements (ads on healthy diet behavior intentions as influenced by the interactions between regulatory focus theory (RFT and message framing effects. Both regulatory focus theory and message framing effect were discussed for the relationship between advertisement and behavior change in many fields, such as health-related behavior, pro-environmental behavior, consumer choice, etc. We executed an experiment with four different types of public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (message framing: gain framing vs. loss framing two-factor experiment was adopted, and 201 valid participants responded to the questionnaire. Results indicated that if the ad’s regulatory focus is promotion focus, viewers’ attitudes toward the ad and their behavior intentions are more positive when the slogan of the ad is gain framing rather than loss framing via the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA, and vice versa. Respondents found the communication easier to comprehend when the ads evoked the respondents’ regulatory focus and applied the appropriate message framing, thus improving the efficacy of health-related advertising. We offer suggestions regarding the future use of health-related advertising for the MOHW.

  6. Mapping of ApoE4 related white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Hwang, Darryl H.; Kriger, Stephen; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Weiner, Michael; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    ApoliopoproteinE Ɛ4 (ApoE-Ɛ4) polymorphism is the most well known genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimers Disease. The exact mechanism through which ApoE 4 increases AD risk is not fully known, but may be related to decreased clearance and increased oligomerization of Aβ. By making measurements of white matter integrity via diffusion MR and correlating the metrics in a voxel-based statistical analysis with ApoE-Ɛ4 genotype (whilst controlling for vascular risk factor, gender, cognitive status and age) we are able to identify changes in white matter associated with carrying an ApoE Ɛ4 allele. We found potentially significant regions (Puncorrected cognitive decline via a pathway in dependent of normal aging and acute insults that can be measured by CDR and Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS).

  7. Elementary student self efficacy scale development and validation focused on student learning, peer relations, and resisting drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertman, Carl I; Primack, Brian A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item self efficacy scale and social support and social skills instruments. The results provide evidence for a valid and reliable 3-factor self efficacy scale. Subscale internal consistency reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.75, 0.83, 0.91). Construct validity was supported by correlations between each subscale and social skills, social support, and demographic data. The scale has potential as a tool to measure self efficacy in children related to learning, peer interactions, and resisting peer pressure to use drugs and to help shape drug education programs.

  8. The relation of innate and adaptive immunity with viral-induced acute asthma attacks: Focusing on IP-10 and cathelicidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikoglu, T; Akyilmaz, E; Yildirim, D D; Batmaz, S B; Ulger, S T; Aslan, G; Kuyucu, S

    Despite growing evidence suggesting potential association between innate and adaptive immunity in viral-induced acute asthma, there is paucity of data in this area. This study aimed to investigate the association of innate and adaptive immunity with acute asthma attacks by analysing the role of IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D and cytokines. This prospective study included 33 patients with viral-induced acute asthma and 30 children with controlled asthma. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected for virus identification and asthma attack scores assessed in acute asthma group. Blood sampling for IP-10, TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D levels, and spirometric indices were employed. Serum IP-10 and cathelicidin levels of acute asthma group were significantly higher and vitamin D levels were lower than controlled asthma group (IP-10; p=0.006, cathelicidin; p=0.002, vitamin D; pasthma attack severity (p=0.03) in acute asthma group. Higher cathelicidin values showed significant positive relation to IP-10 (beta coefficient: 33, p=0.02). Serum IP-10 levels higher than 38.9pg/ml (sensitivity: 85%, specificity: 47%, p=0.002) were predictive of virus-induced asthma. Serum IP-10 and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly related to viral-asthma attacks (IP-10; aOR: 8.93, p=0.03 and vitamin D; aOR: 0.82, p=0.001). Innate immunity biomarkers such as serum IP-10 and cathelicidin can be used to predict viral-induced acute asthma. These biomarkers may provide potential new treatment targets for acute asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Yeasts from Scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber): A focus on monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of Candida famata and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Maia Junior, José Erisvaldo; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora Souza Collares Maia; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pereira Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify yeasts from the gastrointestinal tract of scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber) and from plant material collected from the environment where they live. Then, the isolates phenotypically identified as Candida famata were submitted to molecular identification of their closely related species and evaluated for their antifungal susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms to antifungal drugs. Cloacal swabs from 20 scarlet ibises kept in captivity at Mangal das Garças Park (Brazil), pooled stool samples (n = 20) and samples of trunks and hollow of trees (n = 20) obtained from their enclosures were collected. The samples were seeded on Sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol. The 48 recovered isolates were phenotypically identified as 15 Candida famata, 13 Candida catenulata, 2 Candida intermedia, 1 Candida lusitaniae, 2 Candida guilliermondii, 1 Candida kefyr, 1 Candida amapae, 1 Candida krusei, 8 Trichosporon spp., and 4 Rhodotorula spp. The C. famata isolates were further identified as 3 C. famata, 8 Debaryomyces nepalensis, and 4 C. palmioleophila. All C. famata and C. palmioleophila were susceptible to caspofungin and itraconazole, while one D. nepalensis was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. This same isolate and another D. nepalensis had lower amphotericin B susceptibility. The azole resistant strain had an increased efflux of rhodamine 6G and an alteration in the membrane sterol content, demonstrating multifactorial resistance mechanism. Finally, this research shows that scarlet ibises and their environment harbor C. famata and closely related species, including antifungal resistant isolates, emphasizing the need of monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of these yeast species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Predictors of health-related quality of life in neurosurgical brain tumor patients: focus on patient-centered perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Radziunas, Andrius; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2014-02-01

    In brain tumor (BT) patients, the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological characteristics remains largely unknown. We evaluated the association of personality traits, clinical factors, psychological distress symptoms, and cognitive state with HRQoL in BT patients. On admission for BT surgery, 200 patients (69 % women; age 55.8 ± 14.5 years) were evaluated for HRQoL (SF-36 scale), Big-Five personality traits (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), psychological distress symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or HADS), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination or MMSE) and clinical characteristics, including functional status (Barthel index or BI). The most common BT diagnoses were meningioma (39 %) and high-grade glioma (18 %). Only factors significantly associated with SF-36 domains in univariable regression analyses were included in their respective multivariable models and predicted from 6 %-49 % of the total variance of SF-36 scores. Greater TIPI emotional stability score was independently associated with greater SF-36 emotional well-being (β = 0.23, p emotional well-being score (β = 0.13, p = 0.02). HADS-anxiety and HADS-depression scores were the strongest independent determinants of all, except physical functioning, SF-36 scores (β-values range from 0.14 to 0.56; p values ≤ 0.03). BI score was the strongest independent determinant of SF-36 physical functioning score (β = 0.36, p emotional well-being and social functioning SF-36 scores. Consciousness and emotional stability should be considered important personality-related determinants of HRQoL in BT patients. Psychological distress, functional disability, and cognitive impairment are also important predictors of HRQoL.

  11. Monitoring of services with non-relational databases and map-reduce framework

    CERN Document Server

    Babik, M; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    Service Availability Monitoring (SAM) is a well-established monitoring framework that performs regular measurements of the core site services and reports the corresponding availability and reliability of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure. One of the existing extensions of SAM is Site Wide Area Testing (SWAT), which gathers monitoring information from the worker nodes via instrumented jobs. This generates quite a lot of monitoring data to process, as there are several data points for every job and several million jobs are executed every day. The recent uptake of non-relational databases opens a new paradigm in the large-scale storage and distributed processing of systems with heavy read-write workloads. For SAM this brings new possibilities to improve its model, from performing aggregation of measurements to storing raw data and subsequent re-processing. Both SAM and SWAT are currently tuned to run at top performance, reaching some of the limits in storage and processing power of their exi...

  12. Mapping drought risk in Indonesia related to El-Niño hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supari, Muharsyah, R.; Sopaheluwakan, A.

    2016-05-01

    This work is aimed to identify areas in the country that are at high propensity to the impact of global climate phenomenon i.e. El-Nino. An affected area is recognized when rainfall decreases up to below normal condition which frequently leads drought event. For this purpose, two packages of gridded rainfall data at monthly basis with 0.5 spatial resolutions for 1950 2010 period were used, e.g. GPCC Full Data Reanalysis V.6 (product of Global Precipitation Climatology Centre) and CRU TS3.22 (product of Climatic Research Unit). El-Nino years were labelled based on Oceanic Nino Index, ONI. We applied frequency analysis to quantify the chance of El-Nino impact. GPCC data was found more accurate in representing rainfall observation than CRU data based on correlation test against station data. The results indicate the strong spatial and temporal dependencies of El-Nino impact. During peak of rainy and first transitional season (DJF and MAM), the probability to be affected by El-Nino is mostly less than 20% over whole country In contrast, July-October are months where areas with high and very high risk were observed over many regions such as Southern part of Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua. Further investigation at province level found that the timing of El-Nino impact starts in June. These results are potential to improve national capacity in risk management related to weather-climate hazards.

  13. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  14. The Science of Salt: A focused review on salt-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Briar; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Trieu, Kathy; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Johnson, Claire; Arcand, JoAnne; Webster, Jacqui; McLean, Rachael

    2018-05-02

    The aim of the current review was to examine the scope of studies published in the Science of Salt Weekly that contained a measure of self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) concerning salt. Specific objectives were to examine how KAB measures are used to evaluate salt reduction intervention studies, the questionnaires used, and whether any gender differences exist in self-reported KAB. Studies were reviewed from the commencement of Science of Salt Weekly, June 2013 to the end of August 2017. Seventy-five studies had relevant measures of KAB and were included in this review, 13 of these were salt-reduction intervention-evaluation studies, with the remainder (62) being descriptive KAB studies. The KAB questionnaires used were specific to the populations studied, without evidence of a best practice measure. 40% of studies used KAB alone as the primary outcome measure; the remaining studies used more quantitative measures of salt intake such as 24-hour urine. Only half of the descriptive studies showed KAB outcomes disaggregated by gender, and of those, 73% showed women had more favorable KAB related to salt. None of the salt intervention-evaluation studies showed disaggregated KAB data. Therefore, it is likely important that evaluation studies disaggregate, and are appropriately powered to disaggregate all outcomes by gender to address potential disparities. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Competitiveness of Colombian Cotton in Relation to the Main Producing Countries Through the Focus of Production Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Martínez Reina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the competitiveness of cotton production in Colombia through a comparative analysis of the patterns of production costs in the producing regions of Colombia in relation to the main producers of cotton fiber. The basic information for this study is based on statistics taken mostly from Conalgodón, producer organizations and the textile industry. Economic statistics and estimates measurement techniques by the method of ordinary least squares (OLS were used, especially for estimating the functions of supply and demand. For the analysis of competitiveness, the unit production cost of Colombia was compared against other countries producing cotton fiber. The results show, on the one hand, that the production of short fiber in Colombia is likely to increase and to dedicate more areas to such type of crops given the growing trend of demand from the industry, which exceeds right now the spinning rings or long-fiber; and on the other hand, the results show that under the current conditions the country is not producing cotton in a competitive way and therefore the component of imported cotton is growing over time.

  16. Scaling relation and regime map of explosive gas–liquid flow of binary Lennard-Jones particle system

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime

    2012-02-01

    We study explosive gasliquid flows caused by rapid depressurization using a molecular dynamics model of Lennard-Jones particle systems. A unique feature of our model is that it consists of two types of particles: liquid particles, which tend to form liquid droplets, and gas particles, which remain supercritical gaseous states under the depressurization realized by simulations. The system has a pipe-like structure similar to the model of a shock tube. We observed physical quantities and flow regimes in systems with various combinations of initial particle number densities and initial temperatures. It is observed that a physical quantity Q, such as pressure, at position z measured along a pipe-like system at time t follows a scaling relation Q(z,t)=Q(zt) with a scaling function Q(ζ). A similar scaling relation holds for time evolution of flow regimes in a system. These scaling relations lead to a regime map of explosive flows in parameter spaces of local physical quantities. The validity of the scaling relations of physical quantities means that physics of equilibrium systems, such as an equation of state, is applicable to explosive flows in our simulations, though the explosive flows involve highly nonequilibrium processes. In other words, if the breaking of the scaling relations is observed, it means that the explosive flows cannot be fully described by physics of equilibrium systems. We show the possibility of breaking of the scaling relations and discuss its implications in the last section. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A smoking-related background helps moderate smokers to focus: An event-related potential study using a Go-NoGo task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost justification of clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team: focus on diagnosis-related group cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, K E; Hatoum, H T; Willett, M S; Witte, K W

    1988-11-01

    We used a novel approach to cost-justify clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team in nine diagnosis-related group cases. The clinical pharmacist monitored nine patients longitudinally on a general surgery team from admission to discharge and intervened in their therapeutic management. Each recommendation was analyzed for rationale, acceptance, perceived impact on quality and/or cost of patient care, whether self-initiated or solicited, and impact on patient outcome. Types of recommendations and outcomes were categorized by process and outcome measurement criteria. Total cost avoidance per patient was calculated using costs of drug therapy, laboratory tests, and length of stay. Accounting for cost of clinical pharmacy services, net cost avoidance per patient was calculated. The clinical pharmacist made 101 recommendations on nine patients. Physicians accepted 82 percent of the recommendations; 77 percent of the recommendations were self-initiated and 23 percent were solicited. Recommendations had a perceived impact on cost, quality, or both at 13, 31, and 56 percent, respectively. Most recommendations (79 percent) brought patient therapy to a level of conformance with current standards of practice as documented in the medical literature. Recommendations that potentially preserved a major organ function by preventing drug-induced toxicity or the exacerbation of existing problems constituted 16 percent of the total. None of the accepted recommendations adversely affected patient outcome and 23 percent directly resulted in a measurable positive outcome in patient care. A total of four hospital days was potentially saved for two cases. Based on objective outcome criteria, a 1.9-day increase in therapeutic control was documented per patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  20. Understanding climatological, instantaneous and reference VTEC maps, its variability, its relation to STEC and its assimilation by VTEC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orus, R.; Prieto-Cerdeira, R.

    2012-12-01

    As the next Solar Maximum peak is approaching, forecasted for the late 2013, it is a good opportunity to study the ionospheric behaviour in such conditions and how this behaviour can be estimated and corrected by existing climatological models - e.g.. NeQuick, International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)- , as well as, GNSS driven models, such as Klobuchar, NeQuick Galileo, SBAS MOPS (EGNOS and WAAS corrections) and Near Real Time Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) or regional Maps computed by different institutions. In this framework, technology advances allow to increase the computational and radio frequency channels capabilities of low-cost receivers embedded in handheld devices (such mobile phones, pads, trekking clocks, photo-cameras, etc). This may enable the active use of received ionospheric data or correction parameters from different data sources. The study is centred in understanding the ionosphere but focusing on its impact on the position error for low-cost single-frequency receivers. This study tests optimal ways to take advantage of a big amount of Real or Near Real Time ionospheric information and the way to combine various corrections in order to reach a better navigation solution. In this context, the use of real time estimation vTEC data coming from EGNOS or WAAS or near real time GIMs are used to feed the standard GPS single-frequency ionospheric correction models (Klobuchar) and get enhanced Ionospheric corrections with minor changes on the navigation software. This is done by using a Taylor expansion over the 8 coefficients send by GPS. Moreover, the same datasets are used to assimilate it in NeQuick, for broadcast coefficients, as well as, for grid assimilation. As a side product, electron density profiles in Near Real Time could be estimated with data assimilated from different ionospheric sources. Finally, the ionospheric delay estimation for multi-constellation receivers could take benefit from a common and more accurate ionospheric model being

  1. Dutch Adolescents' Motives, Perceptions, and Reflections Toward Sex-Related Internet Use: Results of a Web-Based Focus-Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; den Boer, Fedde; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van Nijnatten, Carol H C J; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2017-10-01

    The Internet offers adolescents unique opportunities to actively shape their own sexual media environment. The aim of this study was to gain in-depth insight into Dutch adolescents' motives, perceptions, and reflections toward Internet use for (a) finding information or advice related to romance and sexuality; (b) searching for and viewing pornographic or erotic material; and (c) romantic and sexual communication (i.e., cybersex/sexting). Data were collected through 12 Web-based focus groups (36 adolescents aged 16 to 19 years, 72.2% girls) and analyzed through three stages of open, axial, and selective coding. The themes that emerged from the focus-group discussions suggest that sex-related Internet use is a complex and ambivalent experience for adolescents. Sex-related Internet use seems an increasingly normalized and common phenomenon. Participants perceived the Internet as a useful source of sexual information, stimulation, inspiration, and communication. Yet they discussed a range of negative consequences and risks related to sex-related online behaviors, particularly concerning pornography's potential to create unrealistic expectations about sex and sexual attractiveness. Participants generally believed they had the necessary skills to navigate through the online sexual landscape in a responsible way, although they believed other young people could be influenced inadvertently and adversely by sex-related online content.

  2. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span

    OpenAIRE

    Beula M. Magimairaj; James W. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general...

  3. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  4. Comparison of Antidepressant Efficacy-related SNPs Among Taiwanese and Four Populations in the HapMap Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hung Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on antidepressant efficacy has been previously demonstrated. To evaluate whether there are ethnic differences, we compared the allele frequencies of antidepressant efficacy-related SNPs between the Taiwanese population and four other populations in the HapMap database. We recruited 198 Taiwanese major depression patients and 106 Taiwanese controls. A panel of possible relevant SNPs (in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, interleukin 1 beta, and G-protein beta 3 subunit genes was selected for comparisons of allele frequencies using the χ2 test. Our results suggested no difference between Taiwanese patients and controls, but there were significant differences among Taiwanese controls and the other four ethnic groups in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, interleukin 1 beta and G-protein beta 3 subunit genes. We conclude that there are ethnic differences in the allele frequencies of antidepressant efficacy-related SNPs, and that the degree of variations is consistent with geographic distances. Further investigation is required to verify the attribution of genetic differences to ethnic-specific antidepressant responses.

  5. Diagrams and Relational Maps: The Use of Graphic Elicitation Techniques with Interviewing for Data Collection, Analysis, and Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Copeland PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic elicitation techniques, which ask research participants to provide visual data representing personal understandings of concepts, experiences, beliefs, or behaviors, can be especially useful in helping participants to express complex or abstract ideas or opinions. The benefits and drawbacks of using graphic elicitation techniques for data collection, data analysis, and data display in qualitative research studies are analyzed using examples from a research study that employed data matrices and relational maps in conjunction with semi-structured interviews. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the use of these combined techniques for data collection facilitates triangulation and helps to establish internal consistency of data, thereby increasing the trustworthiness of the interpretation of that data and lending support to validity and reliability claims. Findings support the notion that graphic elicitation techniques can be highly useful in qualitative research studies at the data collection, the data analysis, and the data reporting stages. For example, this study found that graphic elicitation techniques are especially useful for eliciting data related to emotions and emotional experiences.

  6. Integrating Vegetation Classification, Mapping, and Strategic Inventory for Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. K. Brewer; R. Bush; D. Berglund; J. A. Barber; S. R. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Many of the analyses needed to address multiple resource issues are focused on vegetation pattern and process relationships and most rely on the data models produced from vegetation classification, mapping, and/or inventory. The Northern Region Vegetation Mapping Project (R1-VMP) data models are based on these three integrally related, yet separate processes. This...

  7. eHealth, Participatory Medicine, and Ethical Care: A Focus Group Study of Patients' and Health Care Providers' Use of Health-Related Internet Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Anne; Leese, Jenny; Adam, Paul; McDonald, Michael; Li, Linda C; Kerr, Sheila; Backman, Catherine L

    2015-06-22

    The rapid explosion in online digital health resources is seen as transformational, accelerating the shift from traditionally passive patients to patients as partners and altering the patient-health care professional (HCP) relationship. Patients with chronic conditions are increasingly engaged, enabled, and empowered to be partners in their care and encouraged to take responsibility for managing their conditions with HCP support. In this paper, we focus on patients' and HCPs' use of health-related Internet information and how it influences the patient-HCP relationship. In particular, we examine the challenges emerging in medical encounters as roles and relationships shift and apply a conceptual framework of relational ethics to examine explicit and nuanced ethical dimensions emerging in patient-HCP interactions as both parties make increased use of health-related Internet information. We purposively sampled patients and HCPs in British Columbia, Canada, to participate in focus groups. To be eligible, patients self-reported a diagnosis of arthritis and at least one other chronic health condition; HCPs reported a caseload with >25% of patients with arthritis and multimorbidity. We used a semistructured, but flexible, discussion guide. All discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Elements of grounded theory guided our constant comparison thematic analytic approach. Analysis was iterative. A relational ethics conceptual lens was applied to the data. We recruited 32 participants (18 patients, 14 HCPs). They attended seven focus groups: four with patients and three with rehabilitation professionals and physicians. Predominant themes to emerge were how use of health-related Internet information fostered (1) changing roles, (2) patient-HCP partnerships, and (3) tensions and burdens for patients and HCPs. Relational aspects such as mutual trust, uncertainty, and vulnerability are illuminated in patient-HCP interactions around health-related Internet information

  8. Two types of physical inconsistency to avoid with quantile mapping: a case study with relative humidity over North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, P.

    2017-12-01

    Statistical post-processing techniques aim at generating plausible climate scenarios from climate simulations and observation-based reference products. These techniques are generally not physically-based, and consequently they remedy the problem of simulation biases at the risk of generating physical inconsistency (PI). Although this concern is often emphasized, it is rarely addressed quantitatively. Here, PI generated by quantile mapping (QM), a technique widely used in climatological and hydrological applications, is investigated using relative humidity (RH) and its parent variables, namely specific humidity (SH), temperature and pressure. PI is classified into two types: 1) inadequate value for an individual variable (e.g. RH > 100 %), and 2) breaking of an inter-variable relationship. Scenarios built for this study correspond to twelve sites representing a variety of climate types over North America. Data used are an ensemble of ten 3-hourly global (CMIP5) and regional (CORDEX-NAM) simulations, as well as the CFSR reanalysis. PI of type 1 is discussed in terms of frequency of occurrence and amplitude of unphysical cases for RH and SH variables. PI of type 2 is investigated with heuristic proxies designed to directly compare the physical inconsistency problem with the initial bias problem. Finally, recommendations are provided for an appropriate use of QM given the potential to generate physical inconsistency of types 1 and 2.

  9. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  10. A method for age-matched OCT angiography deviation mapping in the assessment of disease- related changes to the radial peripapillary capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Alexander; Linderman, Rachel; Mo, Shelley; Krawitz, Brian D; Geyman, Lawrence S; Carroll, Joseph; Rosen, Richard B; Chui, Toco Y

    2018-01-01

    To present a method for age-matched deviation mapping in the assessment of disease-related changes to the radial peripapillary capillaries (RPCs). We reviewed 4.5x4.5mm en face peripapillary OCT-A scans of 133 healthy control eyes (133 subjects, mean 41.5 yrs, range 11-82 yrs) and 4 eyes with distinct retinal pathologies, obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of age on RPC perfusion densities. RPC density group mean and standard deviation maps were generated for each decade of life. Deviation maps were created for the diseased eyes based on these maps. Large peripapillary vessel (LPV; noncapillary vessel) perfusion density was also studied for impact of age. Average healthy RPC density was 42.5±1.47%. ANOVA and pairwise Tukey-Kramer tests showed that RPC density in the ≥60yr group was significantly lower compared to RPC density in all younger decades of life (pDeviation mapping enabled us to quantitatively and visually elucidate the significance of RPC density changes in disease. It is important to consider changes that occur with aging when analyzing RPC and LPV density changes in disease. RPC density, coupled with age-matched deviation mapping techniques, represents a potentially clinically useful method in detecting changes to peripapillary perfusion in disease.

  11. Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism(FSRAP markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lingbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism (FSRAP markers were developed based on the SRAP molecular marker. Then, the FSRAP markers were used to construct the genetic map of a wheat (Triticum aestivumL. recombinant inbred line population derived from a Chuanmai 42×Chuannong 16 cross. Reproducibility and polymorphism tests indicated that the FSRAP markers have repeatability and better reflect the polymorphism of wheat varieties compared with SRAP markers. A total of 430 polymorphic loci between Chuanmai 42 and Chuannong 16 were detected with 189 FSRAP primer combinations. A total of 281 FSARP markers and 39 SSR markers re classified into 20 linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2499.3cM with an average distance of 7.81cM between markers. A total of 201 markers were mapped on the B genome and covered a distance of 1013cM. On the A genome, 84 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 849.6cM. On the D genome, however, only 35 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 636.7cM. No FSRAP markers were distributed on the 7D chromosome. The results of the present study revealed that the novel FSRAP markers can be used to generate dense, uniform genetic maps of wheat.

  12. When is success not satisfying? Integrating regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories to explain the relation between core self-evaluation and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, D Lance; Johnson, Russell E; Rosen, Christopher C; Djurdjevic, Emilija; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Tan, James A

    2013-03-01

    Integrating implications from regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories, we present a framework wherein motivational orientations toward positive (approach motivation orientation) or negative (avoidance motivation orientation) stimuli interact with workplace success to mediate the relation of core self-evaluation (CSE) with job satisfaction. Using data collected from supervisor-subordinate dyads (Sample 1) and time-lagged data (Sample 2), we found that the results from two studies indicated that the interaction of workplace success and avoidance motivation orientation mediated relations of CSE with job satisfaction. Although approach motivation orientation did not interact with workplace success, it did mediate the CSE-job satisfaction relation on its own. Implications for the CSE and approach/avoidance literatures are discussed.

  13. Age-Related Interference between the Selection of Input-Output Modality Mappings and Postural Control—a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzel, Christine; Schauenburg, Gesche; Rapp, Michael A.; Heinzel, Stephan; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Age-related decline in executive functions and postural control due to degenerative processes in the central nervous system have been related to increased fall-risk in old age. Many studies have shown cognitive-postural dual-task interference in old adults, but research on the role of specific executive functions in this context has just begun. In this study, we addressed the question whether postural control is impaired depending on the coordination of concurrent response-selection processes related to the compatibility of input and output modality mappings as compared to impairments related to working-memory load in the comparison of cognitive dual and single tasks. Specifically, we measured total center of pressure (CoP) displacements in healthy female participants aged 19–30 and 66–84 years while they performed different versions of a spatial one-back working memory task during semi-tandem stance on an unstable surface (i.e., balance pad) while standing on a force plate. The specific working-memory tasks comprised: (i) modality compatible single tasks (i.e., visual-manual or auditory-vocal tasks), (ii) modality compatible dual tasks (i.e., visual-manual and auditory-vocal tasks), (iii) modality incompatible single tasks (i.e., visual-vocal or auditory-manual tasks), and (iv) modality incompatible dual tasks (i.e., visual-vocal and auditory-manual tasks). In addition, participants performed the same tasks while sitting. As expected from previous research, old adults showed generally impaired performance under high working-memory load (i.e., dual vs. single one-back task). In addition, modality compatibility affected one-back performance in dual-task but not in single-task conditions with strikingly pronounced impairments in old adults. Notably, the modality incompatible dual task also resulted in a selective increase in total CoP displacements compared to the modality compatible dual task in the old but not in the young participants. These results suggest

  14. Fine mapping of the latency-related gene of herpes simplex virus type 1: alternative splicing produces distinct latency-related RNAs containing open reading frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, S.L.; Nesburn, A.B.; Watson, R.; Slanina, S.M.; Ghiasi, H.

    1988-01-01

    The latency-related (LR) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is transcriptionally active during HSV-1 latency, producing at least two LR-RNAs. The LR gene partially overlaps the immediate-early gene ICP0 and is transcribed in the opposite direction from ICP0, producing LR-RNAs that are complementary (antisense) to ICP0 mRNA. The LR gene is thought to be involved in HSV-1 latency. The authors report here the time mapping and partial sequence analysis of this HSV-1 LR gene. 32 P-labeled genomic DNA restriction fragments and synthetic oligonucleotides were used as probes for in situ hybridizations and Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations of RNA from trigeminal ganglia of rabbits latently infected with HSV-1. The two most abundant LR-RNAs appeared to share their 5' and 3' ends and to be produced by alternative splicing. These LR-RNAs were approximately 2 and 1.3 to 1.5 kilobases in length and were designated LR-RNA 1 and LF-RNA 2, respectively. LR-RNA 1 appeared to have at least one intron removed, while LR-RNA 2 appeared to have at least two introns removed. The LR-RNAs contained two potential long open reading frames, suggesting the possibility that one or more of the LR-RNAs may be a functional mRNA

  15. Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping with Automatic Zero Reference (QSM0) and Myelin Water Fraction Imaging to Quantify Iron-Related Myelin Damage in Chronic Active MS Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y; Nguyen, T D; Pandya, S; Zhang, Y; Hurtado Rúa, S; Kovanlikaya, I; Kuceyeski, A; Liu, Z; Wang, Y; Gauthier, S A

    2018-02-01

    A hyperintense rim on susceptibility in chronic MS lesions is consistent with iron deposition, and the purpose of this study was to quantify iron-related myelin damage within these lesions as compared with those without rim. Forty-six patients had 2 longitudinal quantitative susceptibility mapping with automatic zero reference scans with a mean interval of 28.9 ± 11.4 months. Myelin water fraction mapping by using fast acquisition with spiral trajectory and T2 prep was obtained at the second time point to measure myelin damage. Mixed-effects models were used to assess lesion quantitative susceptibility mapping and myelin water fraction values. Quantitative susceptibility mapping scans were on average 6.8 parts per billion higher in 116 rim-positive lesions compared with 441 rim-negative lesions ( P quantitative susceptibility mapping values of both the rim and core regions ( P Quantitative susceptibility mapping scans and myelin water fraction in rim-positive lesions decreased from rim to core, which is consistent with rim iron deposition. Whole lesion myelin water fractions for rim-positive and rim-negative lesions were 0.055 ± 0.07 and 0.066 ± 0.04, respectively. In the mixed-effects model, rim-positive lesions had on average 0.01 lower myelin water fraction compared with rim-negative lesions ( P quantitative susceptibility mapping scan was negatively associated with follow-up myelin water fraction ( P Quantitative susceptibility mapping rim-positive lesions maintained a hyperintense rim, increased in susceptibility, and had more myelin damage compared with rim-negative lesions. Our results are consistent with the identification of chronic active MS lesions and may provide a target for therapeutic interventions to reduce myelin damage. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.

    2011-12-01

    Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=134). The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last

  17. QTL Mapping of Kernel Number-Related Traits and Validation of One Major QTL for Ear Length in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dongao; Ning, Qiang; Shen, Xiaomeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Zuxin

    2016-01-01

    The kernel number is a grain yield component and an important maize breeding goal. Ear length, kernel number per row and ear row number are highly correlated with the kernel number per ear, which eventually determines the ear weight and grain yield. In this study, two sets of F2:3 families developed from two bi-parental crosses sharing one inbred line were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four kernel number-related traits: ear length, kernel number per row, ear row number and ear weight. A total of 39 QTLs for the four traits were identified in the two populations. The phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 0.4% to 29.5%. Additionally, 14 overlapping QTLs formed 5 QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. Intriguingly, six QTLs for ear length and kernel number per row overlapped in a region on chromosome 1. This region was designated qEL1.10 and was validated as being simultaneously responsible for ear length, kernel number per row and ear weight in a near isogenic line-derived population, suggesting that qEL1.10 was a pleiotropic QTL with large effects. Furthermore, the performance of hybrids generated by crossing 6 elite inbred lines with two near isogenic lines at qEL1.10 showed the breeding value of qEL1.10 for the improvement of the kernel number and grain yield of maize hybrids. This study provides a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker-aided breeding and functional studies of kernel number-related traits in maize.

  18. The relevance of spirituality, religion and personal beliefs to health-related quality of life: themes from focus groups in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathryn A; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2005-09-01

    Generic health-related quality of life (QoL) instruments have not routinely assessed spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs (SRPB) in their measurement. This research addresses the perceived importance of 18 facets (dimensions) of SRPB, for example, inner peace, to QoL that are not specific to a religion, but address the experience of having this belief, in relation to health. Adult focus groups were structured according to beliefs from UK surveys. Quotas targeted gender and health status. Nine focus groups (N = 55, age 51, 47% male) contained sick and well people who were religious, Christians, Buddhists, Quakers (50.1%), agnostic (27.4%), or atheist (21.8%) participants. Qualitative and quantitative analysis showed considerable variability in the importance attributed to some concepts, although spiritual strength, meaning in life and inner peace were relevant to all groups. Spiritual strength (4.42), the meaning of life (4.09), wholeness/integration (4.06), and inner peace (4.02) were most important. Divine love, freedom to practice beliefs, and attachment/detachment were less relevant, conceptually confusing or had religious bias; atheists rated them as unimportant and as less important (p religious people. SRPB is relevant to health-related QoL and consensually important facets should be included in generic health care assessments. Their inclusion permits a more holistic assessment and improves the case for a biopsychosociospiritual model of health.

  19. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  20. Examining the Relative Contribution of Memory Updating, Attention Focus Switching, and Sustained Attention to Children’s Verbal Working Memory Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beula M. Magimairaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas considerable developmental memory research has examined the contributions of short-term memory, processing efficiency, retention duration, and scope of attention to complex memory span, little is known about the influence of controlled attention. The present study investigated the relative influence of three understudied attention mechanisms on the verbal working memory span of school-age children: memory updating; attention focus switching; and sustained attention. Results of general linear modeling revealed that, after controlling for age, only updating accuracy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal working memory span. Memory updating speed (that subsumed attention focus switching speed also contributed but was mediated by age. The results extend the developmental memory literature by implicating the mechanism of memory updating and developmental improvement in speed of attention focus switching and updating as critical contributors to children’s verbal working memory. Theoretically, the results provide substantively new information about the role of domain-general executive attention in children’s verbal working memory.

  1. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  2. Aggregated journal–journal citation relations in scopus and web of science matched and compared in terms of networks, maps, and interactive overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; de Moya-Anegón, F.; de Nooy, W.

    We compare the network of aggregated journal–journal citation relations provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) with similar data based on Scopus 2012. First, global and overlay maps were developed for the 2

  3. The state of the art in European research on reducing social exclusion and stigma related to mental health : A systematic mapping of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Courtin, E.; Fiorillo, A.; Knapp, M.; Luciano, M.; Park, A. -L.; Brunn, M.; Byford, S.; Chevreul, K.; Forsman, A. K.; Gulacsi, L.; Haro, J. M.; Kennelly, B.; Knappe, S.; Lai, T.; Lasalvia, A.; Miret, M.; O'Sullivan, C.; Obradors-Tarrago, C.; Ruesch, N.; Sartorius, N.; Svab, V.; van Weeghel, J.; Van Audenhove, C.; Wahlbeck, K.; Zlati, A.; McDaid, D.; Thornicroft, G.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe.

  4. Identification of QTLs for grain yield and grain-related traits of maize (Zea mays L.) using an AFLP-map, different testers, and cofactor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajimone Marsan, P.; Gorni, C.; Chitto, A.; Redaelli, R.; Vijk, van R.; Stam, P.; Motto, M.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We exploited the AFLP?1(AFLP? is a registered trademark of Keygene, N.V.) technique to map and characterise quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and two grain-related traits of a maize segregating population. Two maize elite inbred lines were crossed to produce 229 F2 individuals

  5. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  6. Mapping of the Pim-1 oncogene in mouse t-haplotypes and its use to define the relative map positions of the tcl loci t0(t6) and tw12 and the marker tf (tufted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ark, B; Gummere, G; Bennett, D; Artzt, K

    1991-06-01

    Pim-1 is an oncogene activated in mouse T-cell lymphomas induced by Moloney and AKR mink cell focus (MCF) viruses. Pim-1 was previously mapped to chromosome 17 by somatic cell hybrids, and subsequently to the region between the hemoglobin alpha-chain pseudogene 4 (Hba-4ps) and the alpha-crystalline gene (Crya-1) by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from panels of recombinant inbred strains. We have now mapped Pim-1 more accurately in t-haplotypes by analysis of recombinant t-chromosomes. The recombinants were derived from Tts6tf/t12 parents backcrossed to + tf/ + tf, and scored for recombination between the loci of T and tf. For simplicity all t-complex lethal genes properly named tcl-tx are shortened to tx. The Pim-1 gene was localized 0.6 cM proximal to the tw12 lethal gene, thus placing the Pim-1 gene 5.2 cM distal to the H-2 region in t-haplotypes. Once mapped, the Pim-1 gene was used as a marker for further genetic analysis of t-haplotypes. tw12 is so close to tf that even with a large number of recombinants it was not possible to determine whether it is proximal or distal to tf. Southern blot analysis of DNA from T-tf recombinants with a separation of tw12 and tf indicated that tw12 is proximal to tf. The mapping of two allelic t-lethals, t0 and t6 with respect to tw12 and tf has also been a problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Developing scholarly thinking using mind maps in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcherlakota, Suhasini; Zimmerman, Lani; Berger, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Two broad issues that beginning graduate nursing students face are identifying a research focus and learning how to organize complex information. Developing a mind map is 1 strategy to help students clarify their thinking and lay the foundation for in-depth expertise related to their research focus, review of the literature, and conceptual framework. The authors discuss their use of mind mapping combined with feedback using a fishbowl technique.

  8. Self-management by family caregivers to manage changes in the behavior and mood of their relative with dementia: an online focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis In Het Veld, Judith; Verkaik, Renate; van Meijel, Berno; Verkade, Paul-Jeroen; Werkman, Wendy; Hertogh, Cees; Francke, Anneke

    2016-05-03

    Self-management is important for family caregivers of people with dementia, especially when they face changes in their relative's behavior and mood, such as depression, apathy, anxiety, agitation and aggression. The aim of this study is to give insight into why these changes in behavior and mood are stressful for family caregivers, what self-management strategies family caregivers use when managing these changes and the stress they experience. A qualitative study was conducted using four online focus groups with 32 family caregivers of people with dementia living in the Netherlands. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were analyzed using principles of thematic analysis. Managing changes in the behavior and mood of their relative with dementia is stressful for family caregivers because of constantly having to switch, continuously having to keep the person with dementia occupied and distracted, the fact that others see a different side to the relative, and the fact that caregivers know what to do, but are often not able to put this into practice. Caregivers use calming down and stimulation as self-management strategies for influencing the changes in the behavior and mood of their relative. Furthermore, caregivers describe three self-management strategies that let them manage their own stress and keep up the care for their loved ones: looking for distractions, getting rest, and discussing their feelings and experiences. Behavior and mood changes of a person with dementia are stressful for family caregivers. They use several self-management strategies to positively affect the mood and behavior changes, and also to manage their own stress.

  9. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Desmond H; Wilkerson, Richard C; Birney, Ian; Harrison, Stanley; Christensen, Jamie; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2010-02-18

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  10. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  11. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  12. Characterizing the potential for fault reactivation related to CO2 injection through subsurface structural mapping and stress field analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, D.; Bidgoli, T.; Taylor, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    South-central Kansas has experienced an unprecedented increase in seismic activity since 2013. The spatial and temporal relationship of the seismicity with brine disposal operations has renewed interest in the role of fluids in fault reactivation. This study focuses on determining the suitability of CO2 injection into a Cambro-Ordovician reservoir for long-term storage and a Mississippian reservoir for enhanced oil recovery in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. Our approach for determining the potential for induced seismicity has been to (1) map subsurface faults and estimate in-situ stresses, (2) perform slip and dilation tendency analysis to identify optimally-oriented faults relative to the estimated stress field, and (3) monitor surface deformation through cGPS data and InSAR imaging. Through the use of 3D seismic reflection data, 60 near vertical, NNE-striking faults have been identified. The faults range in length from 140-410 m and have vertical separations of 3-32m. A number of faults appear to be restricted to shallow intervals, while others clearly cut the top basement reflector. Drilling-induced tensile fractures (N=78) identified from image logs and inversion of earthquake focal mechanism solutions (N=54) are consistent with the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) oriented ~E-W. Both strike-slip and normal-slip fault plane solutions for earthquakes near the study area suggest that SHmax and Sv may be similar in magnitude. Estimates of stress magnitudes using step rate tests (Shmin = 2666 psi), density logs (Sv = 5308 psi), and calculations from wells with drilling induced tensile fractures (SHmax = 4547-6655 psi) are determined at the gauge depth of 4869ft. Preliminary slip and dilation tendency analysis indicates that faults striking 0°-20° are stable, whereas faults striking 26°-44° may have a moderate risk for reactivation with increasing pore-fluid pressure.

  13. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  14. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP) and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  15. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  16. "I am a scientist": How setting conditions that enhance focused concentration positively relate to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Robin B.

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to

  17. A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map for the hermaphroditic bay scallop (Argopecten irradians and its application in size-related QTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    Full Text Available Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs, which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13:1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL, shell height (SH, shell width (SW and total weight (TW were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in bay scallop.

  18. A High Density Genetic Map Derived from RAD Sequencing and Its Application in QTL Analysis of Yield-Related Traits in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is an annual legume of economic importance and widely grown in the semi-arid tropics. However, high-density genetic maps of cowpea are still lacking. Here, we identified 34,868 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that were distributed in the cowpea genome based on the RAD sequencing (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing technique using a population of 170 individuals (two cowpea parents and 168 F2:3 progenies. Of these, 17,996 reliable SNPs were allotted to 11 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The length of the genetic map was 1,194.25 cM in total with a mean distance of 0.066 cM/SNP marker locus. Using this map and the F2:3 population, combined with the CIM (composite interval mapping method, eleven quantitative trait loci (QTL of yield-related trait were detected on seven LGs (LG4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 in cowpea. These QTL explained 0.05–17.32% of the total phenotypic variation. Among these, four QTL were for pod length, four QTL for thousand-grain weight (TGW, two QTL for grain number per pod, and one QTL for carpopodium length. Our results will provide a foundation for understanding genes related to grain yield in the cowpea and genus Vigna.

  19. Using feminist, emotion-focused, and developmental approaches to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N

    2008-06-01

    A body of research indicates the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault in adulthood. The generalizability of these treatments to women who present with trauma symptoms associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has yet to be shown, however. A number of characteristics and dynamics of CSA that make it unique from sexual assault in adulthood are described, specifically its disruption of normal childhood development, its impact on attachment style and interpersonal relationships, its inescapability, and the stigma attached to it. Then, drawing on the developmental, emotion-focused, and feminist literatures, a number of considerations that would enhance the application of cognitive- behavioral trauma therapies to the treatment of women with PTSD related to CSA are delineated. These considerations relate to providing clients with corrective interpersonal experiences, creating new relationship events, enhancing affect regulation skills before initiating exposure therapy, considering the time elapsed since the abuse, addressing themes of power, betrayal, self-blame, stigma, and sex-related cognitions and emotions, and helping clients develop a feminist consciousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Sex-related differences in foot shape of adult Caucasians--a follow-up study focusing on long and short feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Langbein, C; Horstmann, T; Grau, S

    2011-03-01

    The study's purpose was to substantiate findings on sex-related differences in foot morphology focusing on fringe sizes. Altogether, 287 Caucasian adults with long or short feet were scanned. Data were analysed together with data from 847 subjects from a previous study with comparable inclusion criteria and anthropometric data by: (1)comparing absolute measures within 237-277 mm foot length (FL); (2) comparing averaged measures across sizes in % of foot length for 203-323 mm FL; (3) reclassifying the additional subjects into a previously defined foot type classification. Male feet were wider and higher for the same FL. Averaged across sizes, no relevant differences between sexes were found for widths and heights. Slender or flat-pointed foot types were more common in longer feet, shorter feet tended to be bigger. Definitions for 'long' and 'short' are sex-related with an offset of three shoe sizes (EU). Results of this follow-up study on long and short feet can substantiate previous findings mainly described for the most common sizes. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Improper footwear can cause pain and injury and proper fit is a major criterion for shoe buyers. Knowledge about sex-related differences in foot shape is important for shoe design. This study supplements the field of knowledge for very small and large feet.

  1. LC-MS/MS analysis of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue proteomes in young goats with focus on innate immunity and inflammation related proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restelli, Laura; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Savoini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    and visceral adipose tissues of goat, focusing on proteins involved in immune and inflammatory response. A 2-D LC-MS/MS approach followed by cluster analysis shows a clear distinction between subcutaneous and visceral fat tissue proteomes, and qualitative RT-PCR based analysis of 30 potential adipokines...... further confirmed the individual expression patterns of 26 of these, including 7 whose mRNA expression was observed for the first time in adipose tissues. This study provides a first description of adipose tissue proteomes in goat, and presents observations on novel proteins related to metabolic...... inflammation, detoxification and coagulation pathways, as well as regulation of body fat mobilization in dairy animals. These findings are of particular interest in farm animals where health and production traits are important for animal welfare and for economic gains. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  2. NO2 and SO2 dispersion modeling and relative roles of emission sources over Map Ta Phut industrial area, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusai, Chatinai; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Thepanondh, Sarawut

    2012-08-01

    Map Ta Phut industrial area (MA) is the largest industrial complex in Thailand. There has been concern about many air pollutants over this area. Air quality management for the area is known to be difficult, due to lack of understanding of how emissions from different sources or sectors (e.g., industrial, power plant, transportation, and residential) contribute to air quality degradation in the area. In this study, a dispersion study of NO2 and SO2 was conducted using the AERMOD model. The area-specific emission inventories of NOx and SO2 were prepared, including both stack and nonstack sources, and divided into 11 emission groups. Annual simulations were performed for the year 2006. Modeled concentrations were evaluated with observations. Underestimation of both pollutants was Jbund, and stack emission estimates were scaled to improve the modeled results before quantifying relative roles of individual emission groups to ambient concentration overfour selected impacted areas (two are residential and the others are highly industrialized). Two concentration measures (i.e., annual average area-wide concentration or AC, and area-wide robust highest concentration or AR) were used to aggregately represent mean and high-end concentrations Jbfor each individual area, respectively. For AC-NO2, on-road mobile emissions were found to be the largest contributor in the two residential areas (36-38% of total AC-NO2), while petrochemical-industry emissions play the most important role in the two industrialized areas (34-51%). For AR-NO2, biomass burning has the most influence in all impacted areas (>90%) exceptJor one residential area where on-road mobile is the largest (75%). For AC-SO2, the petrochemical industry contributes most in all impacted areas (38-56%). For AR-SO2, the results vary. Since the petrochemical industry was often identified as the major contributor despite not being the largest emitter, air quality workers should pay special attention to this emission group

  3. Cerebral blood flow and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients by SPECT imaging and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Yan; Shi Hongcheng; Liu Wenguan; Chen Xuefen; Gu Yushen; Chen Shuguang; Yu Haojun; Yu Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) perfusion patterns and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients. Methods: Twenty-five patients with hyperthyroidism and twenty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex, education were enrolled. 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT CBF perfusion imaging was performed at rest. Statistical parametric mapping 5.0 software (SPM5) was used and a statistical threshold of P 3 , FT 4 ), thyroid autoimmune antibodies: sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) by Pearson analysis, with disease duration by Spearman analysis. Results: rCBF was decreased significantly in limbic system and frontal lobe, including parahippocampal gyrus, uncus (posterior entorhinal cortex, posterior parolfactory cortex, parahippocampal cortex, anterior cingulate, right inferior temporal gyrus), left hypothalamus and caudate nucleus (P 3 (r=-0.468, -0.417, both P 4 (r=-0.4M, -0.418, -0.415, -0.459, all P 4 (r=0.419, 0.412, both P<0.05). rCBF in left insula was negatively correlated with concentration of sTSH, and right auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with concentration of sTSH (r=-0.504, 0.429, both P<0.05). rCBF in left middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TRAb while that in right thalamus, right hypothalamus, left anterior nucleus,left ventralis nucleus was negatively correlated with concentration of TRAb (r=0.750, 0.862, -0.691, -0.835, -0.713, -0.759, all P<0.05). rCBF in right anterior cingulate, right cuneus, right rectus gyrus, right superior marginal gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TPOAb (r=0.696, 0.581, 0.779, 0.683, all P<0.05). rCBF in postcentral gyrus, temporal gyrus, left superior marginal gyrus and auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with disease duration (r=0.502, 0.457, 0.524, 0.440, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Hypoperfusions in

  4. Attempt at mapping acidic atmospheric pollution in the north of France in relation to the toxic sensitivity of epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehu, J M; Bon, M; Delzenne, C; Rose, F

    1973-01-29

    The authors present, for the first time in France, a map of acidic atmospheric pollution (for the departments of Nord, Pas-de-calais and Somme) based on the study of the epiphytic lichen flora and its distribution in ten zones of toxic sensitivity, using the Hawksworth and Rose scale.

  5. Leveraging text messaging and mobile technology to support pediatric obesity-related behavior change: a qualitative study using parent focus groups and interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Mona; Dryden, Eileen M; Horan, Christine M; Price, Sarah; Marshall, Richard; Hacker, Karen; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-12-06

    Text messaging (short message service, SMS) is a widely accessible and potentially cost-effective medium for encouraging behavior change. Few studies have examined text messaging interventions to influence child health behaviors or explored parental perceptions of mobile technologies to support behavior change among children. Our aim was to examine parental acceptability and preferences for text messaging to support pediatric obesity-related behavior change. We conducted focus groups and follow-up interviews with parents of overweight and obese children, aged 6-12 years, seen for "well-child" care in eastern Massachusetts. A professional moderator used a semistructured discussion guide and sample text messages to catalyze group discussions. Seven participants then received 3 weeks of text messages before a follow-up one-on-one telephone interview. All focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a framework analysis approach, we systematically coded and analyzed group and interview data to identify salient and convergent themes. We reached thematic saturation after five focus groups and seven follow-up interviews with a total of 31 parents of diverse race/ethnicity and education levels. Parents were generally enthusiastic about receiving text messages to support healthy behaviors for their children and preferred them to paper or email communication because they are brief and difficult to ignore. Participants anticipated high responsiveness to messaging endorsed by their child's doctor and indicated they would appreciate messages 2-3 times/week or more as long as content remains relevant. Suggestions for maintaining message relevance included providing specific strategies for implementation and personalizing information. Most felt the negative features of text messaging (eg, limited message size) could be overcome by providing links within messages to other media including email or websites. Text messaging is a promising medium for

  6. Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Christopher LR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafarers play an important role in the transmission of communicable diseases. The aim of the present study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS with focus on communicable diseases. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions about occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Descriptive analysis of the data was conducted by the use of Epi Info software: EU MS were categorized in four priority groups (A, B, C, D based on: number of passenger ships visits, volume of passengers, and number of ports in each country. Moreover, EU MS were categorized to old and new, based on the date of entry in the EU. Results All 21 countries with relevant competent authorities responded to the questionnaire. The existence of specific national legislation/regulation/guidelines related to vaccination of seafarers was reported by three out of the 21 (14% responding authorities. Surveillance data of communicable diseases related to seafarers are collected and analyzed by 4 (19% authorities. Five out of 21 of the responding countries (24% reported that tuberculin test result is required for the issuance of seafarer's medical certificate while a great variety of medical examination is required for the issuance of this certificate among countries. Gaps on occupational health services focused on communicable diseases related to maritime occupation have been reported by 33% of the responding countries. Responding authorities from Group A and B had the highest percentage of reported gaps followed by groups C and D. Old MS reported a higher frequency regarding gaps on occupational health services in comparison to new MS. Conclusion Our results revealed heterogeneity

  7. Elaboration of a framework for the compilation of countrywide, digital maps for the satisfaction of recent demands on spatial, soil related information in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Dobos, Endre; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Laborczi, Annamária

    2013-04-01

    There is a heap of evidences that demands on soil related information have been significant worldwide and it is still increasing. Soil maps were typically used for long time to satisfy these demands. By the spread of GI technology, spatial soil information systems (SSIS) and digital soil mapping (DSM) took the role of traditional soil maps. Due to the relatively high costs of data collection, new conventional soil surveys and inventories are getting less and less frequent, which fact valorises legacy soil information and the systems which are serving the their digitally processed version. The existing data contain a wealth of information that can be exploited by proper methodology. Not only the degree of current needs for soil information has changed but also its nature. Traditionally the agricultural functions of soils were focussed on, which was also reflected in the methodology of data collection and mapping. Recently the multifunctionality of soils is getting to gain more and more ground; consequently information related to additional functions of soils becomes identically important. The new types of information requirements however cannot be fulfilled generally with new data collections at least not on such a level as it was done in the frame of traditional soil surveys. Soil monitoring systems have been established for the collection of recent information on the various elements of the DPSIR (Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) framework, but the primary goal of these systems has not been mapping by all means. And definitely this is the case concerning the two recently working Hungarian soil monitoring systems. In Hungary, presently soil data requirements are fulfilled with the recently available datasets either by their direct usage or after certain specific and generally fortuitous, thematic and/or spatial inference. Due to the more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data, there might be notable

  8. Impurity heterogeneity in natural pyrite and its relation to internal electric fields mapped using remote laser beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, Jamie S., E-mail: csirojamie@gmail.com [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia); Large, Ross [Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ryan, Chris G. [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Regions of band-bending in naturally occurring semiconducting sulfides are thought to drive electrochemical reactions with passing fluids. Metal bearing fluids within the right pH range interact with the electric fields at the surface resulting in precious metal ore genesis, even in under-saturated solutions. Metal reduction at the surface occurs via field assisted electron transfer from the semiconductor bulk to the ion in solution via surface states. Better understanding the role these regions and their texturing play on nucleating ore growth requires imaging of electric field distributions near the sulfide surface and correlation with underlying elemental heterogeneity. In this paper we discuss PIXE measurements made on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe and correlate elemental maps with laser beam induced current maps of the electric field distribution.

  9. Examining Challenges Related to the Production of Actionable Climate Knowledge for Adaptation Decision-Making: A Focus on Climate Knowledge System Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, K.; Preston, B. L.; Tenggren, S.; Klein, R.; Gerger-Swartling, Å.

    2017-12-01

    Many challenges to adaptation decision-making and action have been identified across peer-reviewed and gray literature. These challenges have primarily focused on the use of climate knowledge for adaptation decision-making, the process of adaptation decision-making, and the needs of the decision-maker. Studies on climate change knowledge systems often discuss the imperative role of climate knowledge producers in adaptation decision-making processes and stress the need for producers to engage in knowledge co-production activities and to more effectively meet decision-maker needs. While the influence of climate knowledge producers on the co-production of science for adaptation decision-making is well-recognized, hardly any research has taken a direct approach to analyzing the challenges that climate knowledge producers face when undertaking science co-production. Those challenges can influence the process of knowledge production and may hinder the creation, utilization, and dissemination of actionable knowledge for adaptation decision-making. This study involves semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and participant observations to analyze, identify, and contextualize the challenges that climate knowledge producers in Sweden face as they endeavor to create effective climate knowledge systems for multiple contexts, scales, and levels across the European Union. Preliminary findings identify complex challenges related to education, training, and support; motivation, willingness, and culture; varying levels of prioritization; professional roles and responsibilities; the type and amount of resources available; and professional incentive structures. These challenges exist at varying scales and levels across individuals, organizations, networks, institutions, and disciplines. This study suggests that the creation of actionable knowledge for adaptation decision-making is not supported across scales and levels in the climate knowledge production landscape. Additionally

  10. Improving the Accuracy of Direct Geo-referencing of Smartphone-Based Mobile Mapping Systems Using Relative Orientation and Scene Geometric Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif M. Alsubaie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new method which facilitate the use of smartphones as a handheld low-cost mobile mapping system (MMS. Smartphones are becoming more sophisticated and smarter and are quickly closing the gap between computers and portable tablet devices. The current generation of smartphones are equipped with low-cost GPS receivers, high-resolution digital cameras, and micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS-based navigation sensors (e.g., accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetic compasses, and barometers. These sensors are in fact the essential components for a MMS. However, smartphone navigation sensors suffer from the poor accuracy of global navigation satellite System (GNSS, accumulated drift, and high signal noise. These issues affect the accuracy of the initial Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs that are inputted into the bundle adjustment algorithm, which then produces inaccurate 3D mapping solutions. This paper proposes new methodologies for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referencing of smartphones using relative orientation and smartphone motion sensor measurements as well as integrating geometric scene constraints into free network bundle adjustment. The new methodologies incorporate fusing the relative orientations of the captured images and their corresponding motion sensor measurements to improve the initial EOPs. Then, the geometric features (e.g., horizontal and vertical linear lines visible in each image are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure which correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution.

  11. [Incidence and causes of early end in awake surgery for language mapping not directly related to eloquence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Gloria; Pacreu, Susana; Fernández-Candil, Juan Luis; León, Alba; Serrano, Laura; Conesa, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and causes that may lead to an early end (unfinished cortical/subcortical mapping) of awake surgery for language mapping are little known. A study was conducted on 41 patients with brain glioma located in the language area that had awake surgery under conscious sedation. Surgery was ended early in 6 patients. The causes were: tonic-clonic seizure (1), lack of cooperation due to fatigue/sleep (4), whether or not word articulation was involved, a decreased level of consciousness for ammonia encephalopathy that required endotracheal intubation (1). There are causes that could be expected and in some cases avoided. Tumour size, preoperative aphasia, valproate treatment, and type of anaesthesia used are variables to consider to avoid failure in awake surgery for language mapping. With these results, the following measures are proposed: l) If the tumour is large, perform surgery in two times to avoid fatigue, 2) if patient has a preoperative aphasia, do not use sedation during surgery to ensure that sleepiness does not cause worse word articulation, 3) if the patient is on valproate treatment, it is necessary to rule out the pre-operative symptoms that are not due to ammonia encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The

  13. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP. Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1 legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2 flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1 standing water depths following the flood, (2 the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3 pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating

  14. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Adam; Sanders, Brett F.; Goodrich, Kristen A.; Feldman, David L.; Boudreau, Danielle; Eguiarte, Ana; Serrano, Kimberly; Reyes, Abigail; Schubert, Jochen E.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Basolo, Victoria; Matthew, Richard A.

    2018-04-01

    Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US) is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM) such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1) legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2) flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1) standing water depths following the flood, (2) the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3) pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating pluvial flood hazards

  15. Relative performances of artificial neural network and regression mapping tools in evaluation of spinal loads and muscle forces during static lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, N; Ekrami, O; Shirazi-Adl, A; Plamondon, A; Parnianpour, M

    2013-05-31

    Two artificial neural networks (ANNs) are constructed, trained, and tested to map inputs of a complex trunk finite element (FE) model to its outputs for spinal loads and muscle forces. Five input variables (thorax flexion angle, load magnitude, its anterior and lateral positions, load handling technique, i.e., one- or two-handed static lifting) and four model outputs (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) for spinal loads and 76 model outputs (forces in individual trunk muscles) are considered. Moreover, full quadratic regression equations mapping input-outputs of the model developed here for muscle forces and previously for spine loads are used to compare the relative accuracy of these two mapping tools (ANN and regression equations). Results indicate that the ANNs are more accurate in mapping input-output relationships of the FE model (RMSE= 20.7 N for spinal loads and RMSE= 4.7 N for muscle forces) as compared to regression equations (RMSE= 120.4 N for spinal loads and RMSE=43.2 N for muscle forces). Quadratic regression equations map up to second order variations of outputs with inputs while ANNs capture higher order variations too. Despite satisfactory achievement in estimating overall muscle forces by the ANN, some inadequacies are noted including assigning force to antagonistic muscles with no activity in the optimization algorithm of the FE model or predicting slightly different forces in bilateral pair muscles in symmetric lifting activities. Using these user-friendly tools spine loads and trunk muscle forces during symmetric and asymmetric static lifts can be easily estimated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Domains of health-related quality of life important and relevant to multiethnic English-speaking Asian systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Yen Ling Mandy; Thumboo, Julian; Cella, David; Cheung, Yin Bun; Yong Fong, Kok; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2011-06-01

    To identify health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains of importance to multiethnic Asian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, to identify content gaps in existing SLE-specific HRQOL measures, and to determine whether the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) item banks could serve as a core set of questions for HRQOL assessment among SLE patients. English-speaking patients with physician-diagnosed SLE from a specialist clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore and a patient support group were recruited. Thematic analysis was performed to distill themes from transcripts through open coding by 2 independent coders and axial coding for refinement of categories. Items from 3 existing SLE-specific measures and PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks were compared with identified subthemes. Twenty-seven female and 2 male participants (21 Chinese, 4 Malay, 3 Indian, 1 other) ages 23-62 years participated in 6 focus groups and 2 individual interviews, respectively. Twenty-one domains and 92 subthemes were identified. Domains of family, relationships, stigma and discrimination, and freedom were unaddressed by existing SLE-specific measures. Forty subthemes from 14 domains were addressed by the PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks (Physical Function, Pain, Fatigue, Sleep Disturbance, Sleep-Related Impairment, Anger, Anxiety, and Depression banks). Family and stigma and discrimination (identified as content gaps) may be accentuated in the Asian sociocultural context. PROMIS item banks have tremendous potential to serve as a core set of items for HRQOL assessment in SLE patients. Additional items may be written to fill the gaps in existing PROMIS item banks. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  18. Multi-environment analysis and improved mapping of a yield-related QTL on chromosome 3B of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Julien; Taylor, Julian; Parent, Boris; Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Feuillet, Catherine; Langridge, Peter; Mather, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Improved mapping, multi-environment quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and dissection of allelic effects were used to define a QTL associated with grain yield, thousand grain weight and early vigour on chromosome 3BL of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under abiotic stresses. The QTL had pleiotropic effects and showed QTL x environment interactions across 21 diverse environments in Australia and Mexico. The occurrence and the severity of water deficit combined with high temperatures during the growing season affected the responsiveness of this QTL, resulting in a reversal in the direction of allelic effects. The influence of this QTL can be substantial, with the allele from one parent (RAC875) increasing grain yield by up to 12.5 % (particularly in environments where both heat and drought stress occurred) and the allele from the other parent (Kukri) increasing grain yield by up to 9 % in favourable environments. With the application of additional markers and the genotyping of additional recombinant inbred lines, the genetic map in the QTL region was refined to provide a basis for future positional cloning.

  19. T1ρ and T2 mapping of the proximal tibiofibular joint in relation to aging and cartilage degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Eiichi; Oniki, Yasunari; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of aging and cartilage degeneration of the proximal tibiofibular- and femorotibial joint (PTFJ, FTJ) on the cartilage of the PTFJ using T 1 ρ and T 2 mapping. Materials and methods: We performed sagittal T 1 ρ and T 2 mapping of the PTFJ and FTJ on 55 subjects with knee disorders. We placed 3 regions of interest (ROIs) on images of the cartilage in the PTFJ, medial femoral condyle (MFC), and medial tibia plateau (MTP). Correlation analysis was performed for the T 1 ρ and T 2 values of each ROI and the patient age and the osteoarthritic grade of the PTFJ and FTJ. Results: The T 1 ρ and T 2 values of the PTFJ were affected neither by aging nor the osteoarthritic grade of the FTJ. Values of the FTJ normalized to PTFJ values were correlated with the osteoarthritic grade of the FTJ in the MFC (r = 0.851 and 0.779, respectively) and the MTP (r = 0.635 and 0.762, respectively). There was a significant difference in the T 1 ρ but not the T 2 value of the PTFJ and MFC between normal and mildly osteoarthritic cartilage of each joint. Conclusion: We document that the T 1 ρ and T 2 values of PTFJ cartilage were not affected by aging or cartilage degeneration in the FTJ. The T 1 ρ value of the PTFJ may represent a useful internal standard reference for evaluating early degeneration of the FTJ

  20. Mapping of odor-related neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb by high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancet, D.; Greer, C.A.; Kauer, J.S.; Shepherd, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The spatial distribution of odor-induced neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station of the olfactory pathway, is believed to reflect important aspects of chemosensory coding. We report here the application of high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to the mapping of spatial patterns of metabolic activity at the level of single neurons in the olfactory bulb. It was found that glomeruli, which are synaptic complexes containing the first synaptic relay, tend to be uniformly active or inactive during odor exposure. Differential 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also observed in the somata of projection neurons (mitral cells) and interneurons (periglomerular and granule cells). This confirms and extends our previous studies in which odor-specific laminar and focal uptake patterns were revealed by the conventional x-ray film 2-deoxyglucose method due to Sokoloff and colleagues [Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C., DesRosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O. and Shinohara, M. (1977) J. Neurochem. 28, 897-916]. Based on results obtained by the two methods, it is suggested that the glomerulus as a whole serves as a functional unit of activity. The high-resolution results are interpreted in terms of the well-characterized synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb and also serve to illustrate the capability of the 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to map metabolic activity in single neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system

  1. Improved resolution in the position of drought-related QTLs in a single mapping population of rice by meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtois Brigitte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis of QTLs combines the results of several QTL detection studies and provides narrow confidence intervals for meta-QTLs, permitting easier positional candidate gene identification. It is usually applied to multiple mapping populations, but can be applied to one. Here, a meta-analysis of drought related QTLs in the Bala × Azucena mapping population compiles data from 13 experiments and 25 independent screens providing 1,650 individual QTLs separated into 5 trait categories; drought avoidance, plant height, plant biomass, leaf morphology and root traits. A heat map of the overlapping 1 LOD confidence intervals provides an overview of the distribution of QTLs. The programme BioMercator is then used to conduct a formal meta-analysis at example QTL clusters to illustrate the value of meta-analysis of QTLs in this population. Results The heat map graphically illustrates the genetic complexity of drought related traits in rice. QTLs can be linked to their physical position on the rice genome using Additional file 1 provided. Formal meta-analysis on chromosome 1, where clusters of QTLs for all trait categories appear close, established that the sd1 semi-dwarfing gene coincided with a plant height meta-QTL, that the drought avoidance meta-QTL was not likely to be associated with this gene, and that this meta-QTL was not pleiotropic with close meta-QTLs for leaf morphology and root traits. On chromosome 5, evidence suggests that a drought avoidance meta-QTL was pleiotropic with leaf morphology and plant biomass meta-QTLs, but not with meta-QTLs for root traits and plant height 10 cM lower down. A region of dense root QTL activity graphically visible on chromosome 9 was dissected into three meta-QTLs within a space of 35 cM. The confidence intervals for meta-QTLs obtained ranged from 5.1 to 14.5 cM with an average of 9.4 cM, which is approximately 180 genes in rice. Additional file 1 Alignment of markers on the Bala

  2. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  3. Star Maps History, Artistry, and Cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Star Maps captures the beauty and awe of the heavens through celestial prints and star atlases. It traces the history of celestial cartography and relates this history to the changing ideas of humanity's place in the universe. The text of this Second Edition is enriched with 263 photographs, 91 in color, showing images from actual antiquarian celestial books and atlases, each one with an explanation of its astronomical and cartographic features. This new edition of Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography includes: - over 50 new pages of text and 44 new images (16 in color) - completely new sections on celestial frontispieces, deep-sky objects, playing card maps, additional cartographers, and modern computerized star maps - updated figures and text about celestial globes, volvelles, telescopes, and planets and asteroids - revised and updated text and illustrations throughout. The book focuses on the development of celestial cartography from ancient to modern times and describes the relationships between ...

  4. Relative shortening and functional tethering of spinal cord in adolescent scoliosis - Result of asynchronous neuro-osseous growth, summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Winnie Cw; Lam, Wynnie Mw; Ng, Bobby Kw; Tze-Ping, Lam; Lee, Kwong-Man; Guo, Xia; Cheng, Jack Cy; Burwell, R Geoffrey; Dangerfield, Peter H; Jaspan, Tim

    2008-06-27

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The Statement for this debate was written by Dr WCW Chu and colleagues who examine the spinal cord to vertebral growth interaction during adolescence in scoliosis. Using the multi-planar reconstruction technique of magnetic resonance imaging they investigated the relative length of spinal cord to vertebral column including ratios in 28 girls with AIS (mainly thoracic or double major curves) and 14 age-matched normal girls. Also evaluated were cerebellar tonsillar position, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), and clinical neurological examination. In severe AIS compared with normal controls, the vertebral column is significantly longer without detectable spinal cord lengthening. They speculate that anterior spinal column overgrowth relative to a normal length spinal cord exerts a stretching tethering force between the two ends, cranially and caudally leading to the initiation and progression of thoracic AIS. They support and develop the Roth-Porter concept of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in the pathogenesis of AIS which now they prefer to term 'asynchronous neuro-osseous growth'. Morphological evidence about the curve apex suggests that the spinal cord is also affected, and a 'double pathology' is suggested. AIS is viewed as a disorder with a wide spectrum and a common neuroanatomical abnormality namely, a spinal cord of normal length but short relative to an abnormally lengthened anterior vertebral column. Neuroanatomical changes and/or abnormal neural function may be expressed only in severe cases. This asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is regarded as

  5. Lateralized delay period activity marks the focus of spatial attention in working memory: evidence from somatosensory event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-04-29

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356689-07$15.00/0.

  6. Economic gains fromtargeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The pur...

  7. Brain-mapping projects using the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Mitra, Partha

    2015-04-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in brain-mapping projects, including the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative project in the USA, the Human Brain Project (HBP) in Europe, and the Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS) project in Japan. These projects aim to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain. Brain/MINDS is focused on structural and functional mapping of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) brain. This non-human primate has numerous advantages for brain mapping, including a well-developed frontal cortex and a compact brain size, as well as the availability of transgenic technologies. In the present review article, we discuss strategies for structural and functional mapping of the marmoset brain and the relation of the common marmoset to other animals models. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Maps between Grassmann manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in Indian Academy of Sciences Platinum Jubilee Meeting Hyderabad

    2009-07-02

    Jul 2, 2009 ... Classification of all manifolds (or maps between them) is an impossible task. The coarser, homotopical classification, is relatively easier–but only relatively! Homotopy is, roughly speaking, the study of properties of spaces and maps invariant under continuous deformations. Denote by [X, Y ] the set of all ...

  9. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michelle; Krenz, Jennifer; Palmández, Pablo; Negrete, Maria; Perla, Martha; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Spector, June T

    2013-10-24

    Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers' HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion strategies at individual, workplace

  10. Trellises and Trellis-Based Decoding Algorithms for Linear Block Codes. Part 3; The Map and Related Decoding Algirithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1998-01-01

    In a coded communication system with equiprobable signaling, MLD minimizes the word error probability and delivers the most likely codeword associated with the corresponding received sequence. This decoding has two drawbacks. First, minimization of the word error probability is not equivalent to minimization of the bit error probability. Therefore, MLD becomes suboptimum with respect to the bit error probability. Second, MLD delivers a hard-decision estimate of the received sequence, so that information is lost between the input and output of the ML decoder. This information is important in coded schemes where the decoded sequence is further processed, such as concatenated coding schemes, multi-stage and iterative decoding schemes. In this chapter, we first present a decoding algorithm which both minimizes bit error probability, and provides the corresponding soft information at the output of the decoder. This algorithm is referred to as the MAP (maximum aposteriori probability) decoding algorithm.

  11. A New Multi-Step Iterative Algorithm for Approximating Common Fixed Points of a Finite Family of Multi-Valued Bregman Relatively Nonexpansive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyada Kumam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new multi-step iteration for approximating a common fixed point of a finite class of multi-valued Bregman relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of reflexive Banach spaces. We prove a strong convergence theorem for the proposed iterative algorithm under certain hypotheses. Additionally, we also use our results for the solution of variational inequality problems and to find the zero points of maximal monotone operators. The theorems furnished in this work are new and well-established and generalize many well-known recent research works in this field.

  12. Molecular Mapping of QTLs for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara (IRGC81848 Backcross Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. MALLIKARJUNA SWAMY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify QTLs for seven yield and yield-related traits in a BC2F2 population from the cross between a popular Oryza sativa cv Swarna and O. nivara IRGC81848. Transgressive segregants with more than 15% increased effect over Swarna were observed for all the traits except days to heading and days to 50% flowering. Thirty QTLs were detected for seven yield and yield-related traits using interval and composite interval mapping. Enhancing alleles at 13 (45% of these QTLs were derived from O. nivara, and enhancing alleles at all the QTLs for stem diameter and rachis diameter were derived from O. nivara. Three stem diameter QTLs, two rachis diameter QTLs and one number of secondary branches QTL identified by both Interval and composite interval mapping contributed more than 15% of the total phenotypic variance. The QTL epistasis was significant for stem diameter and plot yield. The most significant QTLs qSD7.2, qSD8.1 and qSD9.1 for stem diameter, qRD9.1 for rachis diameter and qNSB1.1 for number of secondary branches are good targets to evaluate their use in marker-assisted selection. O. nivara is a good source of novel alleles for yield related traits and reveals major effect QTLs suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  13. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 4 - Analysis of opportunity costs and issues related to regional energy resilience. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Based on the outputs from the first three tasks, a suite of coherent pathways towards the overall target of 75% residential local energy consumption was created, and the costs and benefits for the region were calculated. This was undertaken via a scenario analysis which also highlighted the risks and robustness of the different options within the pathways. In addition to a direct economic comparison between the different pathways, more qualitative issues were described, including potential local employment, environmental benefits and disadvantages, etc. The main tool utilised in this analysis was a tailor made Excel energy model that includes mechanisms for analysing improvements in the CVRD energy system down to an area level, for example renewable energy in residential buildings, renewable energy generation, and the effects of energy efficiency improvements. For the industrial, commercial, and transport sectors, simple and generic forecasts and input possibilities were included in the model. The Excel 'technology cost' and 'energy' models are accompanied with a user manual so that planners within the CVRD can become well

  14. Early trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy to prevent chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and related symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkehei Ingvild

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (TFCBT holds promise as a preventive intervention for people at risk of developing chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The aim of this review was to provide an updated evaluation of the effectiveness of early TFCBT on the prevention of PTSD in high risk populations. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in international electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, ISI and PILOTS and included randomised controlled trials comparing TFCBT delivered within 3 months of trauma, to alternative interventions. All included studies were critically appraised using a standardised checklist. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion and assessed study quality. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer and controlled by another. Where appropriate, we entered study results into meta-analyses. Results Seven articles reporting the results of five RCTs were included. All compared TFCBT to supportive counselling (SC. The study population was patients with acute stress disorder (ASD in four trials, and with a PTSD diagnosis disregarding the duration criterion in the fifth trial. The overall relative risk (RR for a PTSD diagnosis was 0.56 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.76, 1.09 (95% CI 0.46 to 2.61 and 0.73 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.04 at 3–6 months, 9 months and 3–4 years post treatment, respectively. A subgroup analysis of the four ASD studies only resulted in RR = 0.36 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.78 for PTSD at 3–6 months. Anxiety and depression scores were generally lower in the TFCBT groups than in the SC groups. Conclusion There is evidence for the effectiveness of TFCBT compared to SC in preventing chronic PTSD in patients with an initial ASD diagnosis. As this evidence originates from one research team replications are necessary to assess generalisability. The evidence about the effectiveness of TFCBT in traumatised populations without an ASD

  15. Mapping for the management of diffuse pollution risks related to agricultural plant protection practices: case of the Etang de l'Or catchment area in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mghirbi, Oussama; Bord, Jean-Paul; Le Grusse, Philippe; Mandart, Elisabeth; Fabre, Jacques

    2018-03-08

    Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France. Risk mapping represents a support-decision tool that enables the different field actors to identify and locate vulnerable areas, so as to determine action plans and agri-environmental measures depending on the context of the natural environment. This work shows that mapping is helpful for managing risks related to the use of pesticides in agriculture by employing indicators of pressure (TFI) and risk on the applicator's health (IRSA) and on the environment (IRTE). These indicators were designed to assess the impact of plant protection practices at various spatial scales (field, farm, etc.). The cartographic analysis of risks related to plant protection practices shows that diffuse pollution is unequally located in the North (known for its abundant garrigues and vineyards) and in the South of the Etang de l'Or catchment area (the Mauguio-Lunel agricultural plain known for its diversified cropping systems). This spatial inequity is essentially related to land use and agricultural production system. Indeed, the agricultural lands cover about 60% of the total catchment area. Consequently, this cartographic analysis helps the territorial actors with the implementation of strategies for managing risks of diffuse pollution related to pesticides use in agriculture, based on environmental and

  16. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2016-09-02

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Gene Expression Profiling Soybean Stem Tissue Early Response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and In Silico Mapping in Relation to Resistance Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Calla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available White mold, caused by (Lib. de Bary, can be a serious disease of crops grown under cool, moist environments. In many plants, such as soybean [ (L. Merr.], complete genetic resistance does not exist. To identify possible genes involved in defense against this pathogen, and to determine possible physiological changes that occur during infection, a microarray screen was conducted using stem tissue to evaluate changes in gene expression between partially resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes at 8 and 14 hours post inoculation. RNA from 15 day-old inoculated plants was labeled and hybridized to soybean cDNA microarrays. ANOVA identified 1270 significant genes from the comparison between time points and 105 genes from the comparison between genotypes. Selected genes were classified into functional categories. The analyses identified changes in cell-wall composition and signaling pathways, as well as suggesting a role for anthocyanin and anthocyanidin synthesis in the defense against . In-silico mapping of both the differentially expressed transcripts and of public markers associated with partial resistance to white mold, provided evidence of several differentially expressed genes being closely positioned to white mold resistance markers, with the two most promising genes encoding a PR-5 and anthocyanidin synthase.

  18. Mapping Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research...... project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, which forms the framework for this working paper, are: * To provide a basis from which to discuss the concept of public space in a contemporary architectural and urban context - specifically relating to theory and method * To broaden the discussion of the concept...

  19. A Study of Factors Related to Dissertation Progress among Doctoral Candidates: Focus on Students' Research Self-Efficacy as a Result of Their Research Training and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna

    This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…

  20. Protocol for systematic reviews of determinants/correlates of obesity-related dietary and physical activity behaviors in young children (preschool 0 to 6 years): evidence mapping and syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Mazarello Paes, Veena; Hesketh, Kathryn; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen; Ong, Ken; Griffin, Simon; van Sluijs, Esther; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2013-05-10

    The aim of these reviews is to inform the design and content of interventions to reduce obesity in young children. The behaviors that are associated with obesity/overweight have been studied extensively; however, the factors associated with these behaviors in young children (0 to 6 years) have not been systematically reviewed. Over the past few years the focus of obesity prevention has shifted to preschool children because of the high prevalence of obesity at school entry and recognition that habits formed in early life could track into adulthood. In order to develop effective interventions and change behavior, it is important to understand the factors that are associated with those behaviors. For example, we need to understand whether it would be more important to target the family, childcare settings or the wider environment and identify the most effective way of changing these energy balance related behaviors. Quantitative (intervention and observational) and qualitative literature on determinants/correlates of fruit and vegetable intake, sugar sweetened beverage and other unhealthy diet intake, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors in young children will be systematically identified, mapped and reviewed. A common search strategy (no language or period restrictions) will be used to identify papers from eight electronic databases and this will be supplemented by hand-searching. Next, studies in developed countries that examine the factors associated with these behaviors in children aged 0 to 6 years (at baseline) will be screened and mapped descriptively followed by in-depth data extraction, quality assessment and synthesis. Data from quantitative studies will be summarized using either forest plots or harvest plots and narrative synthesis, and qualitative studies using thematic analysis. Qualitative evidence will be integrated with the quantitative evidence, using a parallel synthesis approach, to provide a deeper understanding of effective strategies to

  1. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  2. Try This: Collaborative Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this "Try This" article, students learn about collaborative mind mapping. A mind map is a type of graphic organizer that allows for short ideas to be written and linked to related ideas on a "map." A central idea is placed in the middle of the paper with related ideas connected to the central idea as well as to other ideas.…

  3. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems. © 2011 IEEE

  4. A data-mining framework for exploring the multi-relation between fish species and water quality through self-organizing map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Huang, Shih-Pin; Cheng, Su-Ting; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-02-01

    The steep slopes of rivers can easily lead to large variations in river water quality during typhoon seasons in Taiwan, which may poses significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. This study aims to investigate the relationship between fish communities and water quality by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comprehending the upstream eco-hydrological system in northern Taiwan. We collected a total of 276 heterogeneous datasets with 8 water quality parameters and 25 fish species from 10 sampling sites. The self-organizing feature map (SOM) was used to cluster, analyze and visualize the heterogeneous datasets. Furthermore, the structuring index (SI) was adopted to determine the relative importance of each input variable of the SOM and identify the indicator factors. The clustering results showed that the SOM could suitably reflect the spatial characteristics of fishery sampling sites. Besides, the patterns of water quality parameters and fish species could be distinguishably (visually) classified into three eco-water quality groups: 1) typical upstream freshwater fishes that depended the most on dissolved oxygen (DO); 2) typical middle-lower reach riverine freshwater fishes that depended the most on total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia nitrogen; and 3) low lands or pond (reservoirs) freshwater fishes that depended the most on water temperature, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand. According to the results of the SI, the representative indicators of water quality parameters and fish species consisted of DO, TP and Onychostoma barbatulum. This grouping result suggested that the methodology can be used as a guiding reference to comprehensively relate ecology to water quality. Our methods offer a cost-effective alternative to more traditional methods for identifying key water quality factors relating to fish species. In addition, visualizing the constructed topological maps of the SOM could produce detailed inter-relation between water

  5. A second tyrosinase-related protein, TRP-2, maps to and is mutated at the mouse slaty locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, I J; Chambers, D M; Tsukamoto, K; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Hearing, V

    1992-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced mouse cDNAs corresponding to a third member of a family of melanocyte-specific mRNAs, which encode tyrosinase and related proteins. This new member, tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2), has approximately 40% amino acid identity with the two other proteins in the family and has the same structural features including two copper binding sites, two cysteine-rich regions, a signal peptide and a transmembrane domain. We now show that one of the cysteine-rich regions in...

  6. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  7. Mapping the Strategic Thinking of Public Relations Managers in a Crisis Situation: An Illustrative Example Using Conjoint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronn, Peggy Simcic; Olson, Erik L.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the operationalization of the conjoint analysis multivariate technique for the study of the public relations function within strategic decision making in a crisis situation. Finds that what the theory describes as the strategic way of handling a crisis is also the way each of the managers who were evaluated would prefer to conduct…

  8. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  9. Ethnic Maps: Between Reality and Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Klemenčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic maps provide insight into the ethnically complex populations of certain areas. They are a cartographic way of portraying a part of geographic reality. Southeastern Europe appears as an ideal area for ethnic maps drawers: there is a variety of different ethnic groups living in a relatively small area. Moreover, political boundaries often do not correspond with so-called ethnic borders, i.e. divisions between majority areas of different nations and/or ethnic groups. The history of South-Eastern Europe offers a number of examples of ethnic maps drawing and their use in political context. The paper focused on ethnic maps drawn and published in the context of the break-up of Yugoslav federation during the first half of the 1990’s. The maps were produced mainly by scientific institutions or under the supervision of such institutions or experts, but always with the specific goal to back and justify political standpoints of their respective country's governments during a turbulent period of geopolitical change and transition. Generally, figures and statistics were presented professionally and correctly. Map authors and compilers did not try to falsify figures. The degree of intent in mapmaking is registered primarily through the choice of cartographic technique, including certain elements of the map design (choice of colours. In that regard, one can identify a technique favoured by Croatian sources (pie charts and another one often used by Serbian mapmakers (choropleth maps. Maps were understood to be powerful media tools and influential visual images that could be used to create a particular perception.

  10. Web Based Research Mapping and Analysis: ICT-AGRI's Meta Knowledge Base Centralizes ICT and Robotics Development in Agriculture and Related Environmental Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen C. Mertens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample research is conducted on ICT, automation and robotics in agriculture and related environmental issues. ICT and Robotics innovations are rapidly emerging and have the ability to revolutionize future farming through their major impacts on productivity and profitability. Unfortunately human and financial resources and efforts are fragmented and limited. This led to the creation of the ICT-AGRI ERA-NET that provides a central structured framework. Its main objective is to strengthen and coordinate European research regarding ICT and robotics in agriculture. Besides the creation of the Meta Knowledge Base (MKB, a common European research agenda will be developed and common research calls are launched. The Meta Knowledge Base (http://db-ictagri.eu is attempting to map all relevant research and development within the selected research area. To accomplish the mapping, two types of information are collected: research profiles and research postings. To organize the postings, a three-dimensional task-technology oriented framework was designed. The results indicated that the three axes: task, technology and scope seemed insufficient to describe the whole research area. Therefore, an improved framework was developed. By extending the task-technology oriented framework with a process-control–information system, a useful framework was designed.

  11. Assessing liver function in patients with HBV-related HCC: a comparison of T{sub 1} mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging with DWI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ying; Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Chen, Caizhong; Li, Renchen; Zeng, Meng-Su [Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, 180 Fenglin Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-01

    To compare the potential of T{sub 1} mapping on gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for assessing liver function in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). One hundred consecutive patients with known HBV-related HCCs were included. T{sub 1} relaxation time and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the liver were measured, and the reduction rate of T{sub 1} relaxation time (∇%) was calculated. T{sub 1} relaxation time measurements were compared with ADC values according to the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Hepatobiliary phase (HBP) and ∇% of T{sub 1} relaxation time measurements showed significant correlations with MELD score (rho = 0.571, p < 0.0001; rho = -0.573, p < 0.0001, respectively). HBP and ∇% of T{sub 1} relaxation time were significantly different between good (MELD ≤8) and poor liver function (MELD ≥9) (p < 0.0001 for both). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of T{sub 1} relaxation time for HBP (AUC 0.84) and ∇% (AUC 0.82) were significantly better than for ADC (AUC 0.53; p < 0.0001). T{sub 1} mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI showed promise for evaluating liver function in patients with HBV-related HCC, while DWI was not reliable. HBP T{sub 1} relaxation time measurement was equally accurate as ∇% measurement. (orig.)

  12. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  13. Reducing abortion-related mortality in South Asia: a review of constraints and a road map for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2002-01-01

    South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) is home to 28% of the world's people and accounts for about a third (30%) of the world's maternal deaths. Thirteen percent of all maternal deaths in South Asia are attributed to complications of unsafe abortion and are almost entirely preventable. This article reviews the legal, health system, and sociocultural barriers to safe abortion and suggests strategies to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Restrictive laws hamper safe abortion in most of the region, but even where laws are more liberal, limited awareness of the law has been a barrier to access. Such health system barriers as an insufficient number of trained providers, inequitable distribution of services, and excessive costs have contributed to death from unsafe abortion. Sociocultural attitudes, including the right of male relatives to make reproductive decisions, the emphasis on male heirs, and the strong social stigma against extramarital pregnancy also put women at risk. Government and other institutions must strive to prevent abortion-related death and disability by making safe abortion services accessible to the fullest extent of the law. Health systems need to provide emergency care for complications and postabortion contraceptive counseling, use appropriate technology, and allow nonphysician providers to deliver care. Safe abortion care programs need to address the needs of the local community, particularly the needs of socially and economically vulnerable subgroups, such as the unmarried and adolescents.

  14. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  15. Mutual information spectrum for selection of event-related spatial components. Application to eloquent motor cortex mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei eOssadtchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial component analysis is often used to explore multidimensional time series data whose sources cannot be measured directly. Several methods may be used to decompose the data into a set of spatial components with temporal loadings. Component selection is of crucial importance, and should be supported by objective criteria. In some applications, the use of a well defined component selection criterion may provide for automation of the analysis.In this paper we describe a novel approach for ranking of spatial components calculated from the EEG or MEG data recorded within evoked response paradigm. Our method is called Mutual Information Spectrum and is based on gauging the amount of mutual information of spatial component temporal loadings with a synthetically created reference signal. We also describe the appropriate randomization based statistical assessment scheme that can be used for selection of components with statistically significant amount of mutual information. Using simulated data with realistic trial to trial variations and SNR corresponding to the real recordings we demonstrate the superior performance characteristics of the described mutual information based measure as compared to a more conventionally used power driven gauge. We also demonstrate the application of the Mutual Information Spectrum for the selection of task-related independent components from real MEG data. We show that the Mutual Information spectrum allows to identify task-related components reliably in a consistent fashion, yielding stable results even from a small number of trials. We conclude that the proposed method fits naturally the information driven nature of ICA and can be used for routine and automatic ranking of independent components calculated from the functional neuroimaging data collected within event-related paradigms.

  16. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  17. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  18. Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

  19. Using an effective dimensionality to map the force-extension relation for a semi-flexible polymer in a nanoslit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hendrick

    2015-03-01

    The force-extension relation for a semi-flexible polymer is well described by the Marko-Siggia equation in both two and three dimensions. However, while of interest for experimental systems such as DNA in nanopits, the behaviour between these limiting dimensionalities is less understood. I will present results from simulations of a polymer subject to a stretching force F confined in nanoslits of varying heights h. Going from the 3D case to the 2D case, both the coefficients of the equation and the relevant persistence length are shown to change. This observation leads to the definition of an effective dimensionality, deff, to characterize the system. At low F, using deff in a generalized form of the Marko-Siggia relation provides good agreement with the simulation curves. However, at high F, deff drifts back towards d = 3 . 0 . The reason behind this F dependence is discussed. Semi-empirical forms for strong and weak confinement regimes will be presented and shown to give good agreement across all slit heights and stretching forces. deff is thus dependent on h and F and provides a cohesive physical picture for all regimes.

  20. Six-dimensional modeling of coherent bunch instabilities and related freedback systems in storage rings with power-series maps for the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Briggs, D.; Meddahi, M.

    1994-06-01

    The authors have developed 6-dimensional phase-space code that tracks macroparticles for the study of coherent bunch instabilities and related feedback systems. The model is based on power-series maps to represent the lattice, and allows for straightforward inclusion of effects such as amplitude dependent tune shift, chromaticity, synchrotron oscillations, and synchrotron radiation. It simulates long range wake fields such as resistive-wall effects as well as the higher order modes in cavities. The model has served to study the dynamics relevant to the transverse feedback system currently being commissioned for the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Current work integrates earlier versions into a modular system that includes models for transverse and longitudinal feedback systems. It is designed to provide a modular approach to the dynamics and diagnostics, allowing a user to modify the model of a storage ring at run-time without recompilation

  1. On the relative merits of invasive and non-invasive pre-surgical brain mapping: New tools in ablative epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Narayana, Shalini; Choudhri, Asim F; Abbas-Babajani-Feremi; Boop, Frederick A; Wheless, James W

    2018-05-01

    Cortical Stimulation Mapping (CSM) and the Wada procedure have long been considered the gold standard for localizing motor and language-related cortical areas and for determining the language and memory-dominant hemisphere, respectively. In recent years, however, non-invasive methods such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have emerged as promising alternatives to the aforementioned procedures, particularly in cases where the invasive localization of eloquent cortex has proven to be challenging. To illustrate this point, we will first introduce the evidence of the compatibility of invasive and non-invasive methods and subsequently outline the rationale and the conditions where the latter methods are applicable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reciprocal Benefits of Mass-Univariate and Multivariate Modeling in Brain Mapping: Applications to Event-Related Functional MRI, H215O-, and FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Moeller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In brain mapping studies of sensory, cognitive, and motor operations, specific waveforms of dynamic neural activity are predicted based on theoretical models of human information processing. For example in event-related functional MRI (fMRI, the general linear model (GLM is employed in mass-univariate analyses to identify the regions whose dynamic activity closely matches the expected waveforms. By comparison multivariate analyses based on PCA or ICA provide greater flexibility in detecting spatiotemporal properties of experimental data that may strongly support alternative neuroscientific explanations. We investigated conjoint multivariate and mass-univariate analyses that combine the capabilities to (1 verify activation of neural machinery we already understand and (2 discover reliable signatures of new neural machinery. We examined combinations of GLM and PCA that recover latent neural signals (waveforms and footprints with greater accuracy than either method alone. Comparative results are illustrated with analyses of real fMRI data, adding to Monte Carlo simulation support.

  3. The toxicity of very prolonged courses of PEGasparaginase or Erwinia asparaginase in relation to asparaginase activity, with a special focus on dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Tong (Wing); R. Pieters (Rob); H.A. de Groot-Kruseman (Hester A.); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J. Boos (Joachim); W.J.E. Tissing (Wim); I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe prospectively studied the incidence and clinical course of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia during very prolonged use of asparaginase in relation to levels of asparaginase activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also evaluated the incidence of

  4. The toxicity of very prolonged courses of PEGasparaginase or Erwinia asparaginase in relation to asparaginase activity, with a special focus on dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, Wing H.; Pieters, Rob; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Hop, Wim C. J.; Boos, Joachim; Tissing, Wim J. E.; van der Sluis, Inge M.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively studied the incidence and clinical course of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia during very prolonged use of asparaginase in relation to levels of asparaginase activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also evaluated the incidence of pancreatitis,

  5. Further mapping of 10q26 supports strong association of HTRA1 polymorphisms with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel; Yang, Zhenglin; Constantine, Ryan; Ma, Xiang; Camp, Nicola J; Yang, Xian; Chen, Hayou; Jorgenson, Adam; Hau, Vincent; Dewan, Andrew; Zeng, Jiexi; Harmon, Jennifer; Buehler, Jeanette; Brand, John M; Hoh, Josephine; Cameron, D Joshua; Dixit, Manjusha; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhang, Kang

    2008-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental influences. The genetic influences affecting AMD are not well understood and few genes have been consistently implicated and replicated for this disease. A polymorphism (rs11200638) in a transcription factor binding site of the HTRA1 gene has been described, in previous reports, as being most significantly associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigate haplotype association and individual polymorphic association by genotyping additional variants in the AMD risk-associated region of chromosome 10q26. We demonstrate that rs11200638 in the promoter region and rs2293870 in exon 1 of HTRA1, are among the most significantly associated variants for advanced forms of AMD.

  6. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  7. Factors in secondary prevention subsequent to distal radius fracture : Focus on physical function, co-morbidity, bone mineral density and health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Nordvall, Helena

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden approximately 25000 distal radius fractures occur annually, which is 37 % of all fractures related to osteoporosis. In this thesis, risk factors for osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD) and health-related quality of life (the SF-36) were compared in patients who suffered a distal radius fracture after low energy trauma with a control group matched on the basis of age, gender, and municipality of residence. The aim was also to analyse, among these patients, whether a risk factor ...

  8. Analysis of the genetic basis of plant height-related traits in response to ethylene by QTL mapping in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqiang; Li, Zhi; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Mingcai; Duan, Liusheng

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group. Sixty QTLs for the three traits were identified. Twenty-two QTLs were simultaneously detected under both ET treatment and untreated control, and five QTLs were detected at two geographic locations under ET treatment only. Individual QTL can be explained 3.87-17.71% of the phenotypic variance. One QTL (q2PH9-1, q1PH9, q1EH9/q1ILAU9-1, q2ILAU9, and q2EH9) for the measured traits (PH, EH, ILAU) was consistent across both populations. Two QTLs (q2PH2-5, q2ILAU2-2, q1PH2-2, and q1ILAU2-2; q1PH8-1, q1EH8-1, q2PH8-1) were identified for up to two traits in both locations and populations under both ET treatment and untreated control. These consistent and stable regions are important QTLs of potential hot spots for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) response to ET in maize; therefore, QTL fine-mapping and putative candidate genes validation should enable the cloning of PH, EH, and ILAU related genes to ET response. These results will be valuable for further fine-mapping and quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) determination, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ET responses in maize.

  9. Analysis of the genetic basis of plant height-related traits in response to ethylene by QTL mapping in maize (Zea mays L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Ethylene (ET is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH, and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU in two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK group. Sixty QTLs for the three traits were identified. Twenty-two QTLs were simultaneously detected under both ET treatment and untreated control, and five QTLs were detected at two geographic locations under ET treatment only. Individual QTL can be explained 3.87-17.71% of the phenotypic variance. One QTL (q2PH9-1, q1PH9, q1EH9/q1ILAU9-1, q2ILAU9, and q2EH9 for the measured traits (PH, EH, ILAU was consistent across both populations. Two QTLs (q2PH2-5, q2ILAU2-2, q1PH2-2, and q1ILAU2-2; q1PH8-1, q1EH8-1, q2PH8-1 were identified for up to two traits in both locations and populations under both ET treatment and untreated control. These consistent and stable regions are important QTLs of potential hot spots for PH, ear height (EH, and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU response to ET in maize; therefore, QTL fine-mapping and putative candidate genes validation should enable the cloning of PH, EH, and ILAU related genes to ET response. These results will be valuable for further fine-mapping and quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs determination, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ET responses in maize.

  10. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds per silique (SS, seed weight (SW, and silique length (SL are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses (B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus × B. napus. In present study, a doubled haploid (DH population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0–34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs (cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09, and cqSL.C09 were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique-related

  11. Analysis of the genetic basis of plant height-related traits in response to ethylene by QTL mapping in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Mingcai; Duan, Liusheng

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group. Sixty QTLs for the three traits were identified. Twenty-two QTLs were simultaneously detected under both ET treatment and untreated control, and five QTLs were detected at two geographic locations under ET treatment only. Individual QTL can be explained 3.87–17.71% of the phenotypic variance. One QTL (q2PH9-1, q1PH9, q1EH9/q1ILAU9-1, q2ILAU9, and q2EH9) for the measured traits (PH, EH, ILAU) was consistent across both populations. Two QTLs (q2PH2-5, q2ILAU2-2, q1PH2-2, and q1ILAU2-2; q1PH8-1, q1EH8-1, q2PH8-1) were identified for up to two traits in both locations and populations under both ET treatment and untreated control. These consistent and stable regions are important QTLs of potential hot spots for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) response to ET in maize; therefore, QTL fine-mapping and putative candidate genes validation should enable the cloning of PH, EH, and ILAU related genes to ET response. These results will be valuable for further fine-mapping and quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) determination, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ET responses in maize. PMID:29466465

  12. Mapping near-surface air temperature, pressure, relative humidity and wind speed over Mainland China with high spatiotemporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Xiaogu; Dai, Yongjiu; Yang, Chi; Chen, Zhuoqi; Zhang, Shupeng; Wu, Guocan; Wang, Zhonglei; Huang, Chengcheng; Shen, Yan; Liao, Rongwei

    2014-09-01

    As part of a joint effort to construct an atmospheric forcing dataset for mainland China with high spatiotemporal resolution, a new approach is proposed to construct gridded near-surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and surface pressure with a resolution of 1 km×1 km. The approach comprises two steps: (1) fit a partial thin-plate smoothing spline with orography and reanalysis data as explanatory variables to ground-based observations for estimating a trend surface; (2) apply a simple kriging procedure to the residual for trend surface correction. The proposed approach is applied to observations collected at approximately 700 stations over mainland China. The generated forcing fields are compared with the corresponding components of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis dataset and the Princeton meteorological forcing dataset. The comparison shows that, both within the station network and within the resolutions of the two gridded datasets, the interpolation errors of the proposed approach are markedly smaller than the two gridded datasets.

  13. MRI ``road-map`` of normal age-related bone marrow. Pt. 1. Cranial bone and spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Oddone, M. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Occhi, M. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Dell`Acqua, A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Ciccone, M.A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 733 cranial and 250 spinal T1-weighted MR images of patients younger than 24 years to evaluate the bone marrow changes. The signal intensity of the bone marrow on short-TR/TE images was compared with that of fat and normal muscles in the contiguous region and graded. The signal intensity of all anatomic segments was as low as that of muscle, or inferior, in all patients younger than 3 months because of hematopoietic tissue and probably greater amounts of trabecular bone. The first anatomic segments of cranial bone to become hyperintense were the zygomatic bone and mandibular symphysis, followed by the presphenoid bone, basisphenoid, basiocciput, calvaria, and the petrous apex. After 3 years of age, most patients demonstrated pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. We describe the most interesting changes in the developing spine, which occur in the first 2 years of life. The morphology of the vertebral bodies was evaluated. The variability of the signal and the morphology of the disks were also evaluated. Regional patterns of bone marrow signal intensity and age-related differences should not be misinterpreted as a pathologic condition. (orig.). With 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. MRI ''road-map'' of normal age-related bone marrow. Pt. 1. Cranial bone and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccone, A.; Oddone, M.; Occhi, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Ciccone, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 733 cranial and 250 spinal T1-weighted MR images of patients younger than 24 years to evaluate the bone marrow changes. The signal intensity of the bone marrow on short-TR/TE images was compared with that of fat and normal muscles in the contiguous region and graded. The signal intensity of all anatomic segments was as low as that of muscle, or inferior, in all patients younger than 3 months because of hematopoietic tissue and probably greater amounts of trabecular bone. The first anatomic segments of cranial bone to become hyperintense were the zygomatic bone and mandibular symphysis, followed by the presphenoid bone, basisphenoid, basiocciput, calvaria, and the petrous apex. After 3 years of age, most patients demonstrated pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. We describe the most interesting changes in the developing spine, which occur in the first 2 years of life. The morphology of the vertebral bodies was evaluated. The variability of the signal and the morphology of the disks were also evaluated. Regional patterns of bone marrow signal intensity and age-related differences should not be misinterpreted as a pathologic condition. (orig.). With 14 figs., 2 tabs

  15. ‘Place’ as conceptual centre: a methodological focus on the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age in kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hognestad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how attention on ‘place’ can be productive in methodology concerning the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age who are enrolled in kindergarten. While research that has adopted a hermeneutic and phenomenological approach has contributed to important knowledge concerning young children, we propose re-thinking methodology that takes children’s bodily relations, movements and expressions into concern. Using ‘place’ as a lens, we show how power relations are interrupted and allow for alternative ways for the researcher to relate to data. Inspired by Somerville (2010, elements of place are situated at the centre of the research analysis. The three key elements of place that are put to work are as follows: our relationship to place is constituted in stories and other representations; place learning is local and embodied; and place is a contact zone for cultural contact. The paper is part of a research project which explores how place can be more explicit in educational practices to strengthen kindergarten as a learning arena. We seek to explore how place relations work and what they have the possibility of producing in the analyzing process.

  16. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  17. Model Estimates Of Gross Domestic Product In Relation to Export And Import Of Fuels, Focused on the Elasticity and Determination Of Directly and Indirectly Associated Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on several interrogative assumptions related to the positive impact of the crises and the recession on determinations in the econometric models of Romania’s GDP as a variable dependent in relation to the export and import of fuels. After a short introductory section, which details, in a relative manner, the overall goal and the objectives of the paper, a first section makes use of elasticity and the modern solutions of building the coefficient of elasticity, proposing an original alternative to existing variants, and afterwards the next section builds on these statistical tools in the econometric modeling of Romania’s GDP, starting from the ratios and value indicators and offering a few original models where the export and import of fuels are the key initial explanatory factors. The final remarks reinterpret the role of the energy resources, as well as that of the related flows, in enhancing statistical connections, and especially the role of crises and recessions in validating econometric models, by raising their degree of predictability.

  18. Implementing new strategies of operations in the intersections of academia and SMEs - with special focus on human beings as "differences" acting on relations towards meaningfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of relating towards meaningfulness in an innovation process. The empirical data is based upon a research project taking its point of entry in testing and trying to implement the Blue Ocean Strategy with the aim to find new business models together with 12 SMEs...

  19. Dutch adolescents' motives, perceptions and reflections toward sex-related Internet use : Results of a web-based focus-group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, S.M.; den Boer, Fedde; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Internet offers adolescents unique opportunities to actively shape their own sexual media environment. The aim of this study was to gain in-depth insight into Dutch adolescents’ motives, perceptions, and reflections toward Internet use for (a) finding information or advice related to romance and

  20. Photogrammetry and Digital Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Technical tour to Lithuania, Poland and Estonia for 13 technical staff and managers of State Land Service, HQ, Latvia. Focus on technical aspects and management of geographical data for map production and administration. Visits to state and local government organisations and newly established...

  1. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of present European interest for mapping urban noise, it seems increasingly relevant to investigate the multiple ways in which sound intersects with the everyday experiences of urban citizens. Focusing on the polluting effects of infrastructural noise, the EU-initiated project of asse...

  2. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  3. Assessing the Molecular Genetics of the Development of Executive Attention in Children: Focus on Genetic Pathways Related to the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Karin; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Guise, Kevin G.; Fan, Jin; Fossella, John A.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that children show gradual and protracted improvement in an array of behaviors involved in the conscious control of thought and emotion. Non-invasive neuroimaging in developing populations has revealed many neural correlates of behavior, particularly in the developing cingulate cortex and fronto-striatal circuits. These brain regions, themselves, undergo protracted molecular and cellular change in the first two decades of human development and, as such, are ideal regions of interest for cognitive- and imaging-genetic studies that seek to link processes at the biochemical and synaptic levels to brain activity and behavior. We review our research to-date that employs both adult and child-friendly versions of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an effort to begin to describe the role of specific genes in the assembly of a functional attention system. Presently, we constrain our predictions for genetic association studies by focusing on the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of dopamine in the development of executive attention. PMID:19344637

  4. Longitudinal profiling of the tissue-specific expression of genes related with insulin sensitivity in dairy cows during lactation focusing on different fat depots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Saremi

    Full Text Available In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c. AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each were biopsied covering week -3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation.

  5. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  6. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbińska

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed.147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications.IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort.We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury.

  7. What influences the impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life? A qualitative patient-focused exploration of contributory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, C; Nixon, J; Madill, A; Firth, J; Brown, J M

    2012-02-01

    With the recognition of health-related quality of life (HRQL) as an important and relevant outcome in pressure ulceration, it is important to gain better understanding of the complex relationship among the various factors that affect it. A problem with existing literature in this area is that the impact of having a pressure ulcer on HRQL is combined conceptually with contributory factors which may influence outcome. This study identified contributory factors affecting pressure ulcer-related HRQL and explored interrelationships between factors based on views of adults with pressure ulcers. We obtained patient-reported qualitative data through semi-structured interviews with 30 patients with pressure ulcers recruited from hospital and community settings around England and Northern Ireland. Patients described how pressure ulcers affected their lives by recounting specific relevant events. Events (patient-reported issues) were sorted into categories and data framework analysed to produce a taxonomy of contributory factors. Inter-rater reliability established the extent of agreement between two independent raters. We identified 16 contributory factors, into two theme taxonomy: experience-of-care and individual-patient factors, defined by descriptive components. Our taxonomy is a comprehensive theoretical model of factors that contribute to pressure ulcer-related HRQL. We have also identified further research priorities to inform clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. VNTR internal structure mapping at the {alpha}-globin 3{prime}HVR locus reveals a hierachy of related lineages in oceania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, J.J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Analysis of the {alpha}-globin gene complex in Oceania has revealed many different rearrangements which remove one of the adult globin genes. Frequencies of these deletion chromosomes are elevated by malarial resistance conferred by the resulting {alpha}-thalassaemia. One particular deletion chromosome, designated -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III, is found at high levels in Melanesia and Polynesia: RFLP haplotype analysis shows that this deletion is always found on chromosomes bearing the IIIa haplotype and is likely to be the product of one single rearrangement event. A subset of the -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III chromosomes carries a more recent mutation which generates the haemoglobin variant HbJ{sup Tongariki}. We have characterized the allelic variation at the 3{prime}HVR VNTR locus located 6 kb from the globin genes in each of these groups of chromosomes. We have determined the internal structure of these alleles by RFLP mapping of PCR-amplified DNA: within each group, the allelic diversity results from the insertion and/or deletion of small {open_quotes}motifs{close_quotes} of up to 6 adjacent repeats. Mapping of 3{prime}HVR alleles associated with other haplotypes reveals that these are composed of repeat arrays that are substantially different to those derived from IIIa chromosomes, indicating that interchromosomal recombination between heterologous haplotypes does not account for any of the diversity seen to date. We have recently shown that allelic size variation at the two VNTR loci flanking the {alpha}-globin complex is very closely linked to the haplotypes known to be present at this locus. Here we show that, within a haplotype, VNTR alleles are very closely related to each other on the basis of internal structure and demonstrate that intrachromosomal mutation processes involving small numbers of tandem repeats are the main cause of variation at this locus.

  9. Toward magnetic resonance-guided electroanatomical voltage mapping for catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia: a comparison of registration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Milles, Julien; VAN Huls VAN Taxis, Carine; Lamb, Hildo J; Reiber, Johan H C; Zeppenfeld, Katja; VAN DER Geest, Rob J

    2012-01-01

    Integration of preprocedural delayed enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) with electroanatomical voltage mapping (EAVM) may provide additional high-resolution substrate information for catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardias (VT). Accurate and fast image integration of DE-MRI with EAVM is desirable for MR-guided ablation. Twenty-six VT patients with large transmural scar underwent catheter ablation and preprocedural DE-MRI. With different registration models and EAVM input, 3 image integration methods were evaluated and compared to the commercial registration module CartoMerge. The performance was evaluated both in terms of distance measure that describes surface matching, and correlation measure that describes actual scar correspondence. Compared to CartoMerge, the method that uses the translation-and-rotation model and high-density EAVM input resulted in a registration error of 4.32±0.69 mm as compared to 4.84 ± 1.07 (P <0.05); the method that uses the translation model and high-density EAVM input resulted in a registration error of 4.60 ± 0.65 mm (P = NS); and the method that uses the translation model and a single anatomical landmark input resulted in a registration error of 6.58 ± 1.63 mm (P < 0.05). No significant difference in scar correlation was observed between all 3 methods and CartoMerge (P = NS). During VT ablation procedures, accurate integration of EAVM and DE-MRI can be achieved using a translation registration model and a single anatomical landmark. This model allows for image integration in minimal mapping time and is likely to reduce fluoroscopy time and increase procedure efficacy. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy.

  11. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fermion to boson mappings revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Johnson, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    We briefly review various mappings of fermion pairs to bosons, including those based on mapping operators, such as Belyaev-Zelevinskii, and those on mapping states, such as Marumori; in particular we consider the work of Otsuka-Arima-Iachello, aimed at deriving the Interacting Boson Model. We then give a rigorous and unified description of state-mapping procedures which allows one to systematically go beyond Otsuka-Arima-Iachello and related approaches, along with several exact results. (orig.)

  13. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  14. Work-focused cognitive behavioral intervention for psychological complaints in patients on sick leave due to work-related stress: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Willert, Morten Vejs; Carstensen, Ole; Glasscock, David John

    2017-08-22

    Work-related stress is a global problem with negative implications for individuals and society. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a stress management intervention for patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints using a three-armed randomized controlled design. Participants were patients referred from three municipalities to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were: 1) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints, 2) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder or reactions to severe stress (ICD 10 code: F43,2 - F 43,9 not PTSD) or mild depressive episode (F 32.0). Through a double randomization procedure patients (n = 163) were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 58), a 'control group A' receiving a clinical examination (n = 56), or 'control group B' (n = 49) receiving no offers at the department. The intervention comprised six sessions of individual cognitive behavioral therapy and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaire data were analyzed with multivariate repeated measurements analysis. Primary outcomes assessed were perceived stress and general mental health. Secondary outcomes were sleep quality and cognitive failures. Follow-up was at four and 10 months after baseline. Complaints were significantly reduced in all groups over time. No group effects were observed between the intervention group and control group A that was clinically assessed. Significant group effects were found for perceived stress and memory when comparing the intervention group to group B, but most likely not due to an intervention effect. Psychological complaints improved substantially over time in all groups, but there was no significant treatment effect on any outcomes when the intervention group was compared to control group A that received a clinical assessment. ISRCTN ISRCTN91404229. Registered 03 August 2012 (retrospectively registered).

  15. FACTORS RELATED TO SELF-EDUCATIONAL POWER IN NURSING STUDENTS : With the Focus on the Level of Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    酒井, 明子

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how the level of self-esteem affects the ability to educate oneself. We researched the 89 students in a nursing school. The results were as follows; 1. Self-education IV was significantly related to self-esteem, which was an important concept as the psychological foundation of self-educational power. 2. Students with high levels of self-esteem tended to be highly capable of educating themselves, whereas students with lower of self-esteem tende...

  16. Inhibitions and implications associated with celebrity participation in health-related social marketing: an exploratory research focused on HIV prevention in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Beatriz; Proença, João F

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses motivations and inhibitions among celebrities to participate in health-related social marketing. The research identifies the implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. Results from in-depth interviews with 27 Portuguese celebrities show that they expect a fee for endorsements of commercial and government social marketing, despite the positive image they may gain from endorsing public health. The results demonstrate an absence of celebrity prejudice against HIV because of its serious nature and the social stigma attached to AIDS. This research suggests there is a positive bias and presents helpful information for negotiations between institutions and celebrities.

  17. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Older Patients: Practical Examples and Guidance With a Focus on Cerebral Age-Related TDP-43 With Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Powell, Suzanne Z; Schulz, Paul E; Takei, Hidehiro; Rivera, Andreana L; Jackson, Robert E; Roman, Gustavo; Jicha, Gregory A; Nelson, Peter T

    2017-08-01

    - Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the "oldest-old" (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (∼20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context. Recent discoveries have prompted a conceptual expansion of hippocampal sclerosis of aging because (1) cellular inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are frequent; (2) TDP-43 pathology may be found outside hippocampus; and (3) brain arteriolosclerosis is a common, possibly pathogenic, component. - To aid pathologists with recent recommendations for diagnoses of common neuropathologies in older persons, particularly hippocampal sclerosis, and highlight the recent shift in diagnostic terminology from HS-aging to cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). - Peer-reviewed literature and 5 autopsy examples that illustrate common age-related neuropathologies, including CARTS, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing CARTS from late-onset frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology and from advanced Alzheimer disease with TDP-43 pathology. - In advanced old age, the substrates of cognitive impairment are often multifactorial. This article demonstrates common and frequently comorbid neuropathologic substrates of cognitive impairment in the older population, including CARTS, to aid those practicing in this area of pathology.

  18. Assessment of the Eutrophication-Related Environmental Parameters in Two Mediterranean Lakes by Integrating Statistical Techniques and Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjisolomou, Ekaterini; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Papatheodorou, George; Papastergiadou, Evanthia

    2018-03-19

    During the last decades, Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems, especially lakes, have been under severe pressure due to increasing eutrophication and water quality deterioration. In this article, we compared the effectiveness of different data analysis methods by assessing the contribution of environmental parameters to eutrophication processes. For this purpose, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and a self-organizing map (SOM) were applied, using water quality data from two transboundary lakes of North Greece. SOM is considered as an advanced and powerful data analysis tool because of its ability to represent complex and nonlinear relationships among multivariate data sets. The results of PCA and cluster analysis agreed with the SOM results, although the latter provided more information because of the visualization abilities regarding the parameters' relationships. Besides nutrients that were found to be a key factor for controlling chlorophyll-a (Chl - a), water temperature was related positively with algal production, while the Secchi disk depth parameter was found to be highly important and negatively related toeutrophic conditions. In general, the SOM results were more specific and allowed direct associations between the water quality variables. Our work showed that SOMs can be used effectively in limnological studies to produce robust and interpretable results, aiding scientists and managers to cope with environmental problems such as eutrophication.

  19. Assessment of the Eutrophication-Related Environmental Parameters in Two Mediterranean Lakes by Integrating Statistical Techniques and Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Hadjisolomou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems, especially lakes, have been under severe pressure due to increasing eutrophication and water quality deterioration. In this article, we compared the effectiveness of different data analysis methods by assessing the contribution of environmental parameters to eutrophication processes. For this purpose, principal components analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, and a self-organizing map (SOM were applied, using water quality data from two transboundary lakes of North Greece. SOM is considered as an advanced and powerful data analysis tool because of its ability to represent complex and nonlinear relationships among multivariate data sets. The results of PCA and cluster analysis agreed with the SOM results, although the latter provided more information because of the visualization abilities regarding the parameters’ relationships. Besides nutrients that were found to be a key factor for controlling chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, water temperature was related positively with algal production, while the Secchi disk depth parameter was found to be highly important and negatively related toeutrophic conditions. In general, the SOM results were more specific and allowed direct associations between the water quality variables. Our work showed that SOMs can be used effectively in limnological studies to produce robust and interpretable results, aiding scientists and managers to cope with environmental problems such as eutrophication.

  20. Qualitative analysis and conceptual mapping of patient experiences in home health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Lisa M; Anderson, Wayne L; Blackmon, Brian D; Pronier, Cristalle R; Allen, Rachael W; Kenyon, Anne E

    2018-01-01

    This study explored patient experiences in home health care through a literature review, focus groups, and interviews. Our goal was to develop a conceptual map of home health care patient experience domains. The conceptual map identifies technical and personal spheres of care, relating prior studies to new focus group and interview findings and identifying the most important domains of care. Study participants (n = 35) most frequently reported the most important domain as staff who are caring, supportive, patient, empathetic, respectful, and considerate (endorsed by 29% of participants). The conceptual map includes 114 discrete domains.

  1. Screening and triage of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in general population and high risk pregnancies: a systematic review with a focus on reduction of IUGR related stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Saad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Early detection and management of IUGR can lead to reduce related morbidity and mortality. In this paper we have reviewed effectiveness of fetal movement monitoring and Doppler velocimetry for the detection and surveillance of high risk pregnancies and the effect of this on prevention of stillbirths. We have also reviewed effect of maternal body mass index (BMI screening, symphysial-fundal height measurement and targeted ultrasound in detection and triage of IUGR in the community. Methods We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies related to our interventions. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and all World Health Organization Regional Databases and included publications in any language. Quality of available evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Group. Given the paucity of evidence related to the effect of detection and management of IUGR on stillbirths, we undertook Delphi based evaluation from experts in the field. Results There was insufficient evidence to recommend against or in favor of routine use of fetal movement monitoring for fetal well being. (1 Detection and triage of IUGR with the help of (1a maternal BMI screening, (1b symphysial-fundal height measurement and (1c targeted ultrasound can be an effective method of reducing IUGR related perinatal morbidity and mortality. Pooled results from sixteen studies shows that Doppler velocimetry of umbilical and fetal arteries in ‘high risk’ pregnancies, coupled with the appropriate intervention, can reduce perinatal mortality by 29 % [RR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.52-0.98]. Pooled results for impact on stillbirth showed a reduction of 35 % [RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.41-1.04]; however, the results did not reach the conventional limits of statistical

  2. Concept mapping and network analysis: an analytic approach to measure ties among constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alyssa W; Kane, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Group concept mapping is a mixed-methods approach that helps a group visually represent its ideas on a topic of interest through a series of related maps. The maps and additional graphics are useful for planning, evaluation and theory development. Group concept maps are typically described, interpreted and utilized through points, clusters and distances, and the implications of these features in understanding how constructs relate to one another. This paper focuses on the application of network analysis to group concept mapping to quantify the strength and directionality of relationships among clusters. The authors outline the steps of this analysis, and illustrate its practical use through an organizational strategic planning example. Additional benefits of this analysis to evaluation projects are also discussed, supporting the overall utility of this supplemental technique to the standard concept mapping methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change - a new overview of the recent ice-related landforms in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Francois; Sejourne, Antoine; Losiak, Ania; Swirad, Zusanna; Balm, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman; van-Gassel, Stephan; Hauber, Ernst; Johnsson, Andreas; Kereszturi, Akos; Platz, Thomas; Ramsdale, Jason; Reiss, Dennis; Skinner, James

    2015-04-01

    An ISSI (International Space Science Institute) international team has been convened to study the Northern Plain of Mars. The northern plains of Mars are extensive, geologically young, low-lying areas that contrast in age and relief to Mars' older, heavily cratered, southern highlands. Mars' northern plains are characterised by a wealth of landforms and landscapes that have been inferred to be related to the presence of ice or ice-rich material. Such landforms include 'scalloped' pits and depressions, polygonally-patterned grounds, and viscous flow features similar in form to terrestrial glacial or ice-sheet landforms. Furthermore, new (within the last few years) impact craters have exposed ice in the northern plains, and spectral data from orbiting instruments have revealed the presence of tens of percent by weight of water within the upper most ~50 cm of the martian surface at high latitudes. The western Utopia Planitia contains numerous relatively young ice-related landforms (Utopia Planitia along a long strip from ~30N to ~80N latitude and about 250km wide. The goals are to: (i) map the geographical distribution of the ice-related landforms; (ii) identify their association with subtly-expressed geological units and; (iii) discuss the climatic modifications of the ice-rich permafrost in UP. Our work combines a study with CTX (5-6 m/pixel) and HRSC (~12.5-50 m/pixel) images, supported by higher resolution HiRISE (25 cm/pixel) and MOC (~2 m/pixel) and a comparison with analogous landforms on Earth.

  4. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  5. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-04-06

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  6. Impact of Mental Health First Aid on Confidence Related to Mental Health Literacy: A National Study With a Focus on Race-Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, Annette S; Luo, Li; McFaul, Mimi; Silverblatt, Helene; Pyeatt, Clinton

    2016-03-01

    Low mental health literacy (MHL) is widespread in the general population and even more so among racial and ethnic minority groups. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to improve MHL. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of MHFA on perceptions of confidence about MHL in a large national sample and by racial and ethnic subgroup. The self-perceived impact of MHFA on 36,263 people who completed the 12-hour training and a feedback form was examined. A multiple regression analysis showed that MHFA resulted in high ratings of confidence in being able to apply various skills and knowledge related to MHL. Perceived impact of MHFA training differed among some racial and ethnic groups, but the differences were small to trivial. Future research on MHFA should examine changes in MHL pre-post training and the extent to which perceived increases in MHL confidence among trainees translate into action.

  7. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  8. Generalized Smooth Transition Map Between Tent and Logistic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Wafaa S.; Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Rezk, Ahmed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.

    There is a continuous demand on novel chaotic generators to be employed in various modeling and pseudo-random number generation applications. This paper proposes a new chaotic map which is a general form for one-dimensional discrete-time maps employing the power function with the tent and logistic maps as special cases. The proposed map uses extra parameters to provide responses that fit multiple applications for which conventional maps were not enough. The proposed generalization covers also maps whose iterative relations are not based on polynomials, i.e. with fractional powers. We introduce a framework for analyzing the proposed map mathematically and predicting its behavior for various combinations of its parameters. In addition, we present and explain the transition map which results in intermediate responses as the parameters vary from their values corresponding to tent map to those corresponding to logistic map case. We study the properties of the proposed map including graph of the map equation, general bifurcation diagram and its key-points, output sequences, and maximum Lyapunov exponent. We present further explorations such as effects of scaling, system response with respect to the new parameters, and operating ranges other than transition region. Finally, a stream cipher system based on the generalized transition map validates its utility for image encryption applications. The system allows the construction of more efficient encryption keys which enhances its sensitivity and other cryptographic properties.

  9. TU-FG-209-05: Demonstration of the Line Focus Principle Using the Generalized Measured-Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) Metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M; Shankar, A; Lau, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Demonstrate and quantify the augmented resolution due to focalspot size decrease in images acquired on the anode side of the field, for both small and medium (0.3 and 0.6mm) focal-spot sizes using the experimental task-based GM-ROD metric. Theoretical calculations have shown that a medium focal-spot can achieve the resolution of a small focal-spot if acquired with a tilted anode, effectively providing a higher-output small focal-spot. Methods: The MAF-CMOS (micro-angiographic fluoroscopic complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor) detector (75µm pixel pitch) imaged two copper wire segments of different diameter and a pipeline stent at the central axis and on the anode side of the beam, achieved by tilting the x-ray C-arm (Toshiba Infinix) to 6° and realigning the detector with the perpendicular ray to correct for x-ray obliquity. The relative gain in resolution was determined using the GM-ROD metric, which compares images on the basis of the Fourier transform of the image and the measured NNPS. To emphasize the geometric unsharpness, images were acquired at a magnification of two. Results: Images acquired on the anode side were compared to those acquired on the central axis with the same target-area focal-spot to consider the effect of an angled tube, and for all three objects the advantage of the smaller effective focal-spot was clear, showing a maximum improvement of 36% in GM-ROD. The images obtained with the small focal-spot at the central axis were compared to those of the medium focal-spot at the anode side and, for all objects, the relative performance was comparable. Conclusion: For three objects, the GM-ROD demonstrated the advantage of the anode side focal-spot. The comparable performance of the medium focal-spot on the anode side will allow for a high-output small focal-spot; a necessity in endovascular image-guided interventions. Partial support from an NIH grant R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  10. TU-FG-209-05: Demonstration of the Line Focus Principle Using the Generalized Measured-Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) Metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, M; Shankar, A; Lau, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Demonstrate and quantify the augmented resolution due to focalspot size decrease in images acquired on the anode side of the field, for both small and medium (0.3 and 0.6mm) focal-spot sizes using the experimental task-based GM-ROD metric. Theoretical calculations have shown that a medium focal-spot can achieve the resolution of a small focal-spot if acquired with a tilted anode, effectively providing a higher-output small focal-spot. Methods: The MAF-CMOS (micro-angiographic fluoroscopic complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor) detector (75µm pixel pitch) imaged two copper wire segments of different diameter and a pipeline stent at the central axis and on the anode side of the beam, achieved by tilting the x-ray C-arm (Toshiba Infinix) to 6° and realigning the detector with the perpendicular ray to correct for x-ray obliquity. The relative gain in resolution was determined using the GM-ROD metric, which compares images on the basis of the Fourier transform of the image and the measured NNPS. To emphasize the geometric unsharpness, images were acquired at a magnification of two. Results: Images acquired on the anode side were compared to those acquired on the central axis with the same target-area focal-spot to consider the effect of an angled tube, and for all three objects the advantage of the smaller effective focal-spot was clear, showing a maximum improvement of 36% in GM-ROD. The images obtained with the small focal-spot at the central axis were compared to those of the medium focal-spot at the anode side and, for all objects, the relative performance was comparable. Conclusion: For three objects, the GM-ROD demonstrated the advantage of the anode side focal-spot. The comparable performance of the medium focal-spot on the anode side will allow for a high-output small focal-spot; a necessity in endovascular image-guided interventions. Partial support from an NIH grant R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  11. Structural relations of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Focusing on singles in metropolitan area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Joo, Nami

    2014-10-01

    Although the issues of singles' dietary style and quality of life are becoming important due to the increasing number of singles with economic power, little research has been conducted to date on singles' use of convenience food and quality of life in relation to their dietary style. Thus, the present study intends to provide basic data to improve the quality of life by determining the current status of the use of convenience food and explicating its relationship with quality of life through analyzing the dietary lifestyles of the singles. The targets of this study were singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis of 208 surveys from Seoul, respectively, was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The convenience-oriented was shown to have a significant positive effect on convenience food satisfaction. HMR satisfaction was found to have a significant effect on positive psychological satisfaction and the convenience-oriented was found to have a significant negative effect on all aspects of quality of life satisfaction. There must be persistent development of food industries considering the distinctive characteristics of the lives of singles in order to satisfy their needs and improve the quality of their lives.

  12. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. The relationship of seizure focus with depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraegle, William A; Titus, Jeffrey B

    2017-03-01

    For youth with epilepsy, comorbid psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety, require further examination as they carry increased risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current study assessed whether rates of depression, anxiety, and withdrawal behaviors differed based on seizure location. Data included parental ratings on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 132 children and adolescents (mean age=11.34, SD=3.95) with generalized or partial (i.e., frontal [FLE] or temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE]) epilepsy. Our results identified clinically significant internalizing psychopathology in nearly half of our sample (41%). Although rates of internalizing behavior were similar between generalized and partial groups, children and adolescents with TLE demonstrated higher rates of depression compared to youth with FLE. No effects of laterality on internalizing behaviors were identified between TLE and FLE groups. Finally, for youth with TLE, parental depression ratings along with current number of antiepileptic medications (AEDs) were found to be significant barriers to HRQOL above and beyond anxiety, withdrawal, and epilepsy-specific variables. Temporal lobe epilepsy was associated with a two-fold risk of clinically significant depression ratings. These findings highlight the high prevalence of internalizing psychopathology features in pediatric epilepsy and offer further support for the relationship between depression and TLE in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Middle-School Students' Map Construction: Understanding Complex Spatial Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Leinhardt, Gaea

    1998-01-01

    Examines the map-making process of middle-school students to determine which actions influence their accuracy, how prior knowledge helps their map construction, and what lessons can be learned from map making. Indicates that instruction that focuses on recognition of interconnections between map elements can promote map reasoning skills. (DSK)

  15. Bridging international law and rights-based litigation: mapping health-related rights through the development of the Global Health and Human Rights Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Cabrera, Oscar A; Ayala, Ana; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2012-06-15

    The O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, the World Health Organization, and the Lawyers Collective have come together to develop a searchable Global Health and Human Rights Database that maps the intersection of health and human rights in judgments, international and regional instruments, and national constitutions. Where states long remained unaccountable for violations of health-related human rights, litigation has arisen as a central mechanism in an expanding movement to create rights-based accountability. Facilitated by the incorporation of international human rights standards in national law, this judicial enforcement has supported the implementation of rights-based claims, giving meaning to states' longstanding obligations to realize the highest attainable standard of health. Yet despite these advancements, there has been insufficient awareness of the international and domestic legal instruments enshrining health-related rights and little understanding of the scope and content of litigation upholding these rights. As this accountability movement evolves, the Global Health and Human Rights Database seeks to chart this burgeoning landscape of international instruments, national constitutions, and judgments for health-related rights. Employing international legal research to document and catalogue these three interconnected aspects of human rights for the public's health, the Database's categorization by human rights, health topics, and regional scope provides a comprehensive means of understanding health and human rights law. Through these categorizations, the Global Health and Human Rights Database serves as a basis for analogous legal reasoning across states to serve as precedents for future cases, for comparative legal analysis of similar health claims in different country contexts, and for empirical research to clarify the impact of human rights judgments on public health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Meier, Nygren

  16. Genetic mapping reveals a dominant awn-inhibiting gene related to differentiation of the variety anathera in the wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Ryo; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Takumi, Shigeo

    2018-02-01

    Aegilops tauschii, a wild wheat relative, is the D-genome donor of common wheat. Subspecies and varieties of Ae. tauschii are traditionally classified based on differences in their inflorescence architecture. However, the genetic information for their diversification has been quite limited in the wild wheat relatives. The variety anathera has no awn on the lemma, but the genetic basis for this diagnostic character is unknown. Wide variations in awn length traits at the top and middle spikes were found in the Ae. tauschii core collection, and the awn length at the middle spike was significantly smaller in the eastward-dispersed sublineage than in those in other sublineages. To clarify loci controlling the awnless phenotype of var. anathera, we measured awn length of an intervariety F 2 mapping population, and found that the F 2 individuals could be divided into two groups mainly based on the awn length at the middle of spike, namely short and long awn groups, significantly fitting a 3:1 segregation ratio, which indicated that a single locus controls the awnless phenotype. The awnless locus, Anathera (Antr), was assigned to the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 5D. Quantitative trait locus analysis using the awn length data of each F 2 individual showed that only one major locus was at the same chromosomal position as Antr. These results suggest that a single dominant allele determines the awnless diagnostic character in the variety anathera. The Antr dominant allele is a novel gene inhibiting awn elongation in wheat and its relatives.

  17. Oral health-related quality of life in young Cambodian children: a validation study with a focus on children with cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoun, Tola; Malden, Penelope E; Turton, Bathsheba J

    2018-05-01

    Oral Health-Related Quality-of-Life (OHRQoL) measures have been developed and cross-culturally validated for use in many populations in recent years. Their use in children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP), however, is not as well established. This study aimed to validate two OHRQoL instruments for use with Cambodian children and to describe the OHRQoL of a sample of Cambodian children with CLP, compared with other children in the same cohort. A convenience sample of 133 children aged 2-8 years and their families was recruited from two NGO health services in urban and rural areas of Cambodia. Children were assigned into clinical groups of cleft, malocclusion, severe caries (PUFA ≥ 1), and dentine caries. OHRQoL was measured using the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ-16) and Family Impact Scale (FIS-8). The validity of the instruments was acceptable with an expected gradient in both scale scores being evident across self-reported oral health ratings. Children with CLP and their families experienced significantly greater impacts on OHRQoL, and the pattern of these impacts differed among the clinical groups. This study has confirmed the validity of the P-CPQ-16 and FIS-8 for use with young Cambodian children. The results impart advocacy for needed improvements in the care of children with CLP and provide a foundation for future epidemiological research of oral health in Cambodia. © 2018 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol-EE2) at 1, 10 and 50μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I-10μM EE2 and 50μM ICI; Mix II-1μM EE2 and 10μM ICI and Mix III-1μM EE2 and 50μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A-VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase-Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4-17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α-Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα mRNA increased after all EE2 treatments, while ERβ-1 had an inverse pattern. The EE2 action was reversed by ICI 182,780 in a concentration-dependent manner, for VtgA, ERα and Uox. Overall, our data show the great value of primary brown trout hepatocytes to study the effects of estrogenic/anti-estrogenic inputs in peroxisome kinetics and in ER and PPARα signaling, backing the still open hypothesis of crosstalk interactions between these pathways and calling for more mechanistic

  19. Comparative evaluation of the potential impact of rotavirus versus hpv vaccination in GAVI-eligible countries: A preliminary analysis focused on the relative disease burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joshua

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization policymakers at global and local levels need to establish priorities among new vaccines competing for limited resources. However, comparison of the potential impact of single vaccination programs is challenging, primarily due to the limited number of vaccine analyses as well as their differing analytic approaches and reporting formats. The purpose of this study is to provide early insight into how the comparative impact of different new vaccines could be assessed in resource-poor settings with respect to affordability, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity. Methods We compared the health, economic, and financial consequences of introducing the two vaccines in 72 GAVI-eligible countries using a number of different outcome measures to evaluate affordability, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity. We use simple static models to standardize the analytic framework and improve comparability between the two new vaccines. These simple models were validated by leveraging previously developed, more complex models for rotavirus and human papillomavirus (HPV. Results With 70% coverage of a single-age cohort of infants and pre-adolescent girls, the lives saved with rotavirus (~274,000 and HPV vaccines (~286,000 are similar, although the timing of averted mortality differs; rotavirus-attributable deaths occur in close proximity to infection, while HPV-related cancer deaths occur largely after age 30. Deaths averted per 1000 vaccinated are 5.2 (rotavirus and 12.6 (HPV. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted were ~7.15 million (rotavirus and ~1.30 million (HPV, reflecting the greater influence of discounting on the latter, given the lagtime between vaccination and averted cancer. In most countries (68 for rotavirus and 66 for HPV, at the cost of I$25 per vaccinated individual the incremental cost per DALY averted was lower than each country's GDP per capita. Financial resources required for vaccination

  20. Comparative evaluation of the potential impact of rotavirus versus HPV vaccination in GAVI-eligible countries: a preliminary analysis focused on the relative disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Sweet, Steven; Chang, Joshua; Goldie, Sue J

    2011-06-16

    Immunization policymakers at global and local levels need to establish priorities among new vaccines competing for limited resources. However, comparison of the potential impact of single vaccination programs is challenging, primarily due to the limited number of vaccine analyses as well as their differing analytic approaches and reporting formats. The purpose of this study is to provide early insight into how the comparative impact of different new vaccines could be assessed in resource-poor settings with respect to affordability, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity. We compared the health, economic, and financial consequences of introducing the two vaccines in 72 GAVI-eligible countries using a number of different outcome measures to evaluate affordability, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity. We use simple static models to standardize the analytic framework and improve comparability between the two new vaccines. These simple models were validated by leveraging previously developed, more complex models for rotavirus and human papillomavirus (HPV). With 70% coverage of a single-age cohort of infants and pre-adolescent girls, the lives saved with rotavirus (~274,000) and HPV vaccines (~286,000) are similar, although the timing of averted mortality differs; rotavirus-attributable deaths occur in close proximity to infection, while HPV-related cancer deaths occur largely after age 30. Deaths averted per 1000 vaccinated are 5.2 (rotavirus) and 12.6 (HPV). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted were ~7.15 million (rotavirus) and ~1.30 million (HPV), reflecting the greater influence of discounting on the latter, given the lagtime between vaccination and averted cancer. In most countries (68 for rotavirus and 66 for HPV, at the cost of I$25 per vaccinated individual) the incremental cost per DALY averted was lower than each country's GDP per capita. Financial resources required for vaccination with rotavirus are higher than with HPV since both

  1. Maps for the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D’Alessandro-Scarpari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographers’ relations with maps have a long story of attraction and repulsion. The map has always fascinated Geographers (even before the institutionalization of the discipline as a powerful tool, able to demarcate territories, to produce different visions of them and to transform them by the actions they may cause or influence. Sometimes for strategic reasons Geographers have also denigrated cartography as a secondary and technical form of knowledge, a tool merely for understanding and ...

  2. Polycrystal model of the mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC30vol.% metal–ceramic composite using a three-dimensional microstructure map obtained by dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cédat, D.; Fandeur, O.; Rey, C.; Raabe, D.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC 30vol.% ceramic–metal composite was investigated over a wide temperature range (25–700 °C). High-energy X-ray tomography was used to reveal percolation of the hard titanium carbide phase through the composite. Using a polycrystal approach for a two-phase material, finite-element simulations were performed on a real three-dimensional (3-D) aggregate of the material. The 3-D microstructure, used as the starting configuration for the predictions, was obtained by serial sectioning in a dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscope coupled to an electron backscattered diffraction system. The 3-D aggregate consists of a molybdenum matrix and a percolating TiC skeleton. As for most body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, the molybdenum matrix phase is characterized by a change in plasticity mechanism with temperature. We used a polycrystal model for bcc materials which was extended to two phases (TiC and Mo). The model parameters of the matrix were determined from experiments on pure molydenum. For all temperatures investigated the TiC particles were considered to be brittle. Gradual damage to the TiC particles was treated, based on an accumulative failure law that is approximated by evolution of the apparent particle elastic stiffness. The model enabled us to determine the evolution of the local mechanical fields with deformation and temperature. We showed that a 3-D aggregate representing the actual microstructure of the composite is required to understand the local and global mechanical properties of the composite studied.

  3. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  4. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Rocha, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  5. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira, E-mail: tvmadureira@icbas.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Urbatzka, Ralph [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C. [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Sciences (FCUP), U.Porto—University of Porto, Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, P 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  6. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  7. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  8. Single feature polymorphism (SFP-based selective sweep identification and association mapping of growth-related metabolic traits in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stitt Mark

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana are characterized by a high level of phenotypic variation that can be used to investigate the extent and mode of selection on the primary metabolic traits. A collection of 54 A. thaliana natural accession-derived lines were subjected to deep genotyping through Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP detection via genomic DNA hybridization to Arabidopsis Tiling 1.0 Arrays for the detection of selective sweeps, and identification of associations between sweep regions and growth-related metabolic traits. Results A total of 1,072,557 high-quality SFPs were detected and indications for 3,943 deletions and 1,007 duplications were obtained. A significantly lower than expected SFP frequency was observed in protein-, rRNA-, and tRNA-coding regions and in non-repetitive intergenic regions, while pseudogenes, transposons, and non-coding RNA genes are enriched with SFPs. Gene families involved in plant defence or in signalling were identified as highly polymorphic, while several other families including transcription factors are depleted of SFPs. 198 significant associations between metabolic genes and 9 metabolic and growth-related phenotypic traits were detected with annotation hinting at the nature of the relationship. Five significant selective sweep regions were also detected of which one associated significantly with a metabolic trait. Conclusions We generated a high density polymorphism map for 54 A. thaliana accessions that highlights the variability of resistance genes across geographic ranges and used it to identify selective sweeps and associations between metabolic genes and metabolic phenotypes. Several associations show a clear biological relationship, while many remain requiring further investigation.

  9. HEMA in the map of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Mátyás

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to place HEMA on the map of science. To be able to start this work I have to find an appropriate definition on science and on discipline (field of science. After describing main characters of a discipline I investigate HEMA if it shows this characteristic or can be recognised as an interdisciplinary field. The second question I focus on is the place of this field between disciplines and interdisciplinary topics. For this investigation I review methods of bibliometrics and scientometrics and choose a fitting method to be able to get an answer. I also choose a relevant sample of publications the chosen method can be performed on. After mapping HEMA and having result of the chosen method I try to give a picture on the development of in-field usage of HEMA-related works (how often relevant articles are cited by other HEMA-related articles.

  10. Planetary maps - Passports for the mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The various types of planetary maps are reviewed. Included are basic descriptions of planimetric, topographic, geologic, and digital maps. It is noted that planimetric maps are pictorial representations of a planet's round surface flattened into a plane, such as controlled photomosaic maps and shaded relief maps. Topographic maps, those usually made with data from altimeters and stereoscopic images, have contour lines indicating the shapes and elevations of landforms. Geologic maps carry additional information about landforms, such as rock types, the processes that formed them, and their relative ages. The International Astronomical Union nomenclature system is briefly discussed, pointing out that the Union often assigns themes to areas to be mapped

  11. Cognitive maps and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive map theory suggested that exploring an environment and attending to a stimulus should lead to its integration into an allocentric environmental representation. We here report that directed attention in the form of exploration serves to gather information needed to determine an optimal spatial strategy, given task demands and characteristics of the environment. Attended environmental features may integrate into spatial representations if they meet the requirements of the optimal spatial strategy: when learning involves a cognitive mapping strategy, cues with high codability (e.g., concrete objects) will be incorporated into a map, but cues with low codability (e.g., abstract paintings) will not. However, instructions encouraging map learning can lead to the incorporation of cues with low codability. On the other hand, if spatial learning is not map-based, abstract cues can and will be used to encode locations. Since exploration appears to determine what strategy to apply and whether or not to encode a cue, recognition memory for environmental features is independent of whether or not a cue is part of a spatial representation. In fact, when abstract cues were used in a way that was not map-based, or when they were not used for spatial navigation at all, they were nevertheless recognized as familiar. Thus, the relation between exploratory activity on the one hand and spatial strategy and memory on the other appears more complex than initially suggested by cognitive map theory.

  12. Imbuing medical professionalism in relation to safety: a study protocol for a mixed-methods intervention focused on trialling an embedded learning approach that centres on the use of a custom designed board game.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Marie

    2017-07-17

    Healthcare organisations have a responsibility for ensuring that the governance of workplace settings creates a culture that supports good professional practice. Encouraging such a culture needs to start from an understanding of the factors that make it difficult for health professionals to raise issues of concern in relation to patient safety. The focus of this study is to determine whether a customised education intervention, developed as part of the study, with interns and senior house officers (SHOs) can imbue a culture of medical professionalism in relation to patient safety and support junior doctors to raise issues of concern, while shaping a culture of responsiveness and learning.

  13. Genome-wide linkage mapping of yield-related traits in three Chinese bread wheat populations using high-density SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Faji; Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Cao, Shuanghe; Geng, Hongwei; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Pingzhi; Wan, Yingxiu; Xia, Xianchun

    2018-06-01

    We identified 21 new and stable QTL, and 11 QTL clusters for yield-related traits in three bread wheat populations using the wheat 90 K SNP assay. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield-related traits and closely linked molecular markers is important in order to identify gene/QTL for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. The objectives of the present study were to identify QTL for yield-related traits and dissect the relationships among different traits in three wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses Doumai × Shi 4185 (D × S), Gaocheng 8901 × Zhoumai 16 (G × Z) and Linmai 2 × Zhong 892 (L × Z). Using the available high-density linkage maps previously constructed with the wheat 90 K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, 65, 46 and 53 QTL for 12 traits were identified in the three RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 34, 23 and 27 were likely to be new QTL. Eighteen common QTL were detected across two or three populations. Eleven QTL clusters harboring multiple QTL were detected in different populations, and the interval 15.5-32.3 cM around the Rht-B1 locus on chromosome 4BS harboring 20 QTL is an important region determining grain yield (GY). Thousand-kernel weight (TKW) is significantly affected by kernel width and plant height (PH), whereas flag leaf width can be used to select lines with large kernel number per spike. Eleven candidate genes were identified, including eight cloned genes for kernel, heading date (HD) and PH-related traits as well as predicted genes for TKW, spike length and HD. The closest SNP markers of stable QTL or QTL clusters can be used for MAS in wheat breeding using kompetitive allele-specific PCR or semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR assays for improvement of GY.

  14. Effects of attentional focus on walking stability in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L A; Stins, John F; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Beek, Peter J; Loram, Ian D

    2017-06-01

    Balance performance in the elderly is related to psychological factors such as attentional focus. We investigated the effects of internal vs. external focus of attention and fall history on walking stability in healthy older adults. Walking stability of twenty-eight healthy older adults was assessed by applying random unilateral decelerations on a split-belt treadmill and analysing the resulting balance recovery movements. The internal focus instruction was: concentrate on the movement of your legs, whereas the external focus instruction was: concentrate on the movement of the treadmill. In both conditions participants were asked to look ahead at a screen. Outcome measures were coefficient of variation of step length and step width, and characteristics of the centre of mass velocity time-series as analysed using statistical parametric mapping. Fall history was assessed using a questionnaire. After each perturbation participants required two to three strides to regain a normal gait pattern, as determined by the centre of mass velocity response. No effects were found of internal and external focus of attention instructions and fall history on any of the outcome measures. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus of attention instruction, external focus to the walking surface does not lead to improved balance recovery responses to gait perturbations in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Service Academy 2007 Gender Relations Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    harassed because she didn’t like that guy.” (Male) – “We have flags hanging out on Fridays [at lunch]. They have like porn star girls on one side and...maybe some things don’t bother you. But maybe if you’re, like, an only child with sisters and a feminist mom or something, someone could say

  16. Service Academy 2009 Gender Relations Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    have to go anywhere. There’s some Web site that you can say ‘Hey, I want to talk to somebody’ and they could send you an e-mail that says ‘Hey, come...Male) – “I was going to say a preoccupation with sex or with a certain person, whether it’s severe porn addiction, whether it is that they’re...the number of posters, Web site notices, and other communications. – “Like from Bartlett Hall to the barracks, everywhere inside there are posters

  17. 2011 Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    quid pro quo situation, that physical force isn’t there, but I consider if she didn’t want to do that and got forced in that situation.” (Male) – “I...18 Sexual Harassment and Sexist Behavior ..................................................................................21 Sexual Harassment ...26 Perceptions of Leadership Response to Sexual Harassment ..............................................28 Recommendations for

  18. On Quadrirational Yang-Baxter Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Papageorgiou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the classification of the quadrirational maps given by Adler, Bobenko and Suris to describe when such maps satisfy the Yang-Baxter relation. We show that the corresponding maps can be characterized by certain singularity invariance condition. This leads to some new families of Yang-Baxter maps corresponding to the geometric symmetries of pencils of quadrics.

  19. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Orgiazzi, Alberto; Gardi, Ciro

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map of Europe. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use...

  20. The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Lee

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, including short vegetative phase-like (CpSVPL, the chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A-like (CpCAF1AL, and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (CpSERK, which contained eight sex-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the different sex types of C. papaya L., were genotyped using high-resolution melting (HRM. The three loci were examined regarding the profiles of the third whorl, as described below. CpSVPL, which had one SNP associated with the three sex genotypes, was highly expressed in the male and female sterile flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers that lacked the fourth whorl structure. CpCAF1AL, which had three SNPs associated with the male genotype, was highly expressed in male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, and had no AS-seqs, whereas it exhibited low expression and an AS-seqs in intron 11 in abnormal hermaphrodite flowers. Conversely, carpellate flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers showed low expression of CpSVPL and AS-seqs in introns 5, 6, and 7 of CpSERK, which contained four SNPs associated with the female genotype. Specifically, the CpSERK and CpCAF1AL loci exhibited no AS-seq expression in the third whorl of the male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, respectively, and variance in the AS-seq expression of all other types of flowers. Functional mapping of the third whorl of normal hermaphrodites indicated no AS-seq expression in CpSERK, low CpSVPL expression, and, for CpCAF1AL, high expression and no AS

  1. The Mapping of Predicted Triplex DNA:RNA in the Drosophila Genome Reveals a Prominent Location in Development- and Morphogenesis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Pasquier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Double-stranded DNA is able to form triple-helical structures by accommodating a third nucleotide strand. A nucleic acid triplex occurs according to Hoogsteen rules that predict the stability and affinity of the third strand bound to the Watson–Crick duplex. The “triplex-forming oligonucleotide” (TFO can be a short sequence of RNA that binds to the major groove