WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative fluorescence units

  1. Correlated quadratures of resonance fluorescence and the generalized uncertainty relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldus, Henk F.; George, Thomas F.; Gross, Rolf W. F.

    1994-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence from a two-state atom has been predicted to exhibit quadrature squeezing below the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, provided that the optical parameters (Rabi frequency, detuning, laser linewidth, etc.) are chosen carefully. When the correlation between two quadratures of the radiation field does not vanish, however, the Heisenberg limit for quantum fluctuations might be an unrealistic lower bound. A generalized uncertainty relation, due to Schroedinger, takes into account the possible correlation between the quadrature components of the radiation, and it suggests a modified definition of squeezing. We show that the coherence between the two levels of a laser-driven atom is responsible for the correlation between the quadrature components of the emitted fluorescence, and that the Schrodinger uncertainty limit increases monotonically with the coherence. On the other hand, the fluctuations in the quadrature field diminish with an increasing coherence, and can disappear completely when the coherence reaches 1/2, provided that certain phase relations hold.

  2. Variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence according to stand age-related processes in a managed loblolly pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Roberto; Celesti, Marco; Bianchi, Remo; Campbell, Petya K E; Cogliati, Sergio; Cook, Bruce D; Corp, Lawrence A; Damm, Alexander; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guanter, Luis; Julitta, Tommaso; Middleton, Elizabeth M; Noormets, Asko; Panigada, Cinzia; Pinto, Francisco; Rascher, Uwe; Rossini, Micol; Schickling, Anke

    2018-02-20

    Leaf fluorescence can be used to track plant development and stress, and is considered the most direct measurement of photosynthetic activity available from remote sensing techniques. Red and far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) maps were generated from high spatial resolution images collected with the HyPlant airborne spectrometer over even-aged loblolly pine plantations in North Carolina (United States). Canopy fluorescence yield (i.e., the fluorescence flux normalized by the light absorbed) in the red and far-red peaks was computed. This quantifies the fluorescence emission efficiencies that are more directly linked to canopy function compared to SIF radiances. Fluorescence fluxes and yields were investigated in relation to tree age to infer new insights on the potential of those measurements in better describing ecosystem processes. The results showed that red fluorescence yield varies with stand age. Young stands exhibited a nearly twofold higher red fluorescence yield than mature forest plantations, while the far-red fluorescence yield remained constant. We interpreted this finding in a context of photosynthetic stomatal limitation in aging loblolly pine stands. Current and future satellite missions provide global datasets of SIF at coarse spatial resolution, resulting in intrapixel mixture effects, which could be a confounding factor for fluorescence signal interpretation. To mitigate this effect, we propose a surrogate of the fluorescence yield, namely the Canopy Cover Fluorescence Index (CCFI) that accounts for the spatial variability in canopy structure by exploiting the vegetation fractional cover. It was found that spatial aggregation tended to mask the effective relationships, while the CCFI was still able to maintain this link. This study is a first attempt in interpreting the fluorescence variability in aging forest stands and it may open new perspectives in understanding long-term forest dynamics in response to future climatic

  3. Intrinsic fluorescence of protein in turbid media using empirical relation based on Monte Carlo lookup table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Gnanatheepam; Udayakumar, Kanniyappan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence of Protein has been widely used in diagnostic oncology for characterizing cellular metabolism. However, the intensity of fluorescence emission is affected due to the absorbers and scatterers in tissue, which may lead to error in estimating exact protein content in tissue. Extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from measured fluorescence has been achieved by different methods. Among them, Monte Carlo based method yields the highest accuracy for extracting intrinsic fluorescence. In this work, we have attempted to generate a lookup table for Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence emission by protein. Furthermore, we fitted the generated lookup table using an empirical relation. The empirical relation between measured and intrinsic fluorescence is validated using tissue phantom experiments. The proposed relation can be used for estimating intrinsic fluorescence of protein for real-time diagnostic applications and thereby improving the clinical interpretation of fluorescence spectroscopic data.

  4. Eosin-related fluorescence of acidophil pituitary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, H.; Friedman, I.V.C.; Mello, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The examination of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of normal and neoplastic pituitary glands under ultraviolet light illumination discloses fluorescence of acidophil cells. The distinction between prolactin and growth hormone-producing cells is not possible. Such fluorescence depends on previous eosin staining.

  5. Fluorescent Oligonucleotides Containing a 2-Ethynylfluorene-or 2-Ethynylfluorenone-labeled 2'-Deoxyguanosine Unit: Fluorescence Changes upon Duplex Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ji; Hwang, Gil Tae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Two new DNA probes bearing a fluorescent deoxyguanosine unit labeled with 2-ethynylfluorene (G{sup FL} )or 2-ethynylfluorenone (G{sup FO}) were synthesized and examined for their efficiency as quencher-free linear beacon probes. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing a G{sup FL} or G{sup FO} unit exhibit low thermal selectivity and few distinctive fluorescence changes upon duplex formation due to the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. An exciplex emission was observed when the G{sup FL} unit of ODNs bearing adenine flanking bases was positioned opposite to the adenine nucleobases.

  6. DAF-fluorescence without NO: elicitor treated tobacco cells produce fluorescing DAF-derivatives not related to DAF-2 triazol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rümer, Stefan; Krischke, Markus; Fekete, Agnes; Mueller, Martin J; Kaiser, Werner M

    2012-08-15

    Diaminofluorescein-dyes (DAFs) are widely used for visualizing NO· production in biological systems. Here it was examined whether DAF-fluorescence could be evoked by other means than nitrosation. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells treated with the fungal elicitor cryptogein released compound(s) which gave a fluorescence increase in the cell-free filtrate after addition of DAF-2 or DAF-FM or DAR-4M. DAF-reactive compounds were relatively stable and identified as reaction products of H(2)O(2) plus apoplastic peroxidase (PO). CPTIO prevented formation of these products. Horseradish-peroxidase (HR-PO) plus H(2)O(2) also generated DAF-fluorescence in vitro. Using RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection, DAF derivatives were further analyzed. In filtrates from cryptogein-treated cells, fluorescence originated from two novel DAF-derivatives also obtained in vitro with DAF-2+HR-PO+H(2)O(2). DAF-2T was only detected when an NO donor (DEA-NO) was present. Using high resolution mass spectrometry, the two above-described novel DAF-reaction products were tentatively identified as dimers. In cells preloaded with DAF-2 DA and incubated with or without cryptogein, DAF-fluorescence originated from a complex pattern of multiple products different from those obtained in vitro. One specific peak was responsive to exogenous H(2)O(2), and another, minor peak eluted at or close to DAF-2T. Thus, in contrast to the prevailing opinion, DAF-2 can be enzymatically converted into a variety of highly fluorescing derivatives, both inside and outside cells, of which none (outside) or only a minor part (inside) appeared NO· dependent. Accordingly, DAF-fluorescence and its prevention by cPTIO do not necessarily indicate NO· production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The anisotropy of fluorescence in ring units III: Tangential versus radial dipole arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Zapletal, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, University of Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: david.zapletal@upce.cz; Barvik, I. [Institute of Physics of Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2008-05-15

    The time dependence of the anisotropy of fluorescence can indicate the coherent exciton transfer regime in molecular rings. We are comparing time development of this quantity after an impulsive excitation obtained for the ring models of bacterial antenna complexes with tangential and radial optical transition dipole moments arrangement as in nonameric LH2 and octameric LH4 units. We use non-correlated static Gaussian disorder in the local exciton energies. We take into account simultaneously dynamic disorder using a Markovian treatment of the interaction with the bath. We show that the influence of dynamic disorder on difference of the anisotropy of fluorescence is more important then the influence of static disorder in consequence of different band width.

  8. The anisotropy of fluorescence in ring units III: Tangential versus radial dipole arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, P.; Zapletal, D.; Barvik, I.

    2008-01-01

    The time dependence of the anisotropy of fluorescence can indicate the coherent exciton transfer regime in molecular rings. We are comparing time development of this quantity after an impulsive excitation obtained for the ring models of bacterial antenna complexes with tangential and radial optical transition dipole moments arrangement as in nonameric LH2 and octameric LH4 units. We use non-correlated static Gaussian disorder in the local exciton energies. We take into account simultaneously dynamic disorder using a Markovian treatment of the interaction with the bath. We show that the influence of dynamic disorder on difference of the anisotropy of fluorescence is more important then the influence of static disorder in consequence of different band width

  9. Device for X-ray fluorescence logging with PRK-1-36 controlled remote unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volfshtejn, P.M.; Kireev, V.A.; Peskov, V.N.

    1981-01-01

    To conduct studies in the long-wave energy range, a well logging device with a remote detection unit controlled with the help of DPM-30 electric motor has been developed. A current circuit of signal pick-up from a proportional counter is used. The circuit allows to decrease the length of the outside unit to 180 mm, sag being 130 mm long. It is shown that under conditions intensive cavernity of ore intervals and technically complicated well logs the application of PRK-1-36 units instead of SKR-300 devices permits to obtain more representative results, decrease the accident rate and increase the efficiency of investigations where X-ray fluorescence logging is used [ru

  10. Device for X-ray fluorescence logging with PRK-1-36 controlled remote unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volfshtejn, P M; Kireev, V A; Peskov, V N [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij i Proektno-Konstruktorskij Inst. Geofizicheskikh Issledovanij Geologorazvedochnykh Skvazhin, Oktyabr' skij (USSR)

    1981-01-01

    To conduct studies in the long-wave energy range, a well logging device with a remote detection unit controlled with the help of DPM-30 electric motor has been developed. A current circuit of signal pick-up from a proportional counter is used. The circuit allows to decrease the length of the outside unit to 180 mm, sag being 130 mm long. It is shown that under conditions intensive cavernity of ore intervals and technically complicated well logs the application of PRK-1-36 units instead of SKR-300 devices permits to obtain more representative results, decrease the accident rate and increase the efficiency of investigations where X-ray fluorescence logging is used.

  11. Synthesis and properties of fluorescent hybrid nanocomposites based on copolyacrylates with dansyl semicarbazide units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buruiana, Emil C.; Chibac, Andreea L.; Buruiana, Tinca; Musteata, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Our study examined a series of hybrid composites containing copolyacrylate with semicarbazide-dansyl groups prepared by conventional radical polymerization of monomers in the organic montmorillonite modified with alkyl chains of variable length or using the sol-gel technique. The structure and the chemical composition of the copolymers N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl-5- (dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-methyl metahacrylate (DnsSA-co-MMA) and N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl -5-(dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-dodecylacrylamide (DnsSA-co-DA) as well as their nanocomposites (HC-P1, HC-P2, HC-P3, HC-P4) were confirmed by spectral analysis ( 1 H NMR, FTIR, UV/vis), thermal methods and atomic force microscopy. To quantify the effect of the inorganic component compared to pure photopolymers we evaluated the properties of hybrid composites, including dielectric characterization. Additionally, these materials have been tested in experiments of fluorescence quenching by acids (HCl, p-toluenesulfonic acid, 1-S-camphorsulfonic acid), metallic cation (Cu 2+ ) and nitrobenzene. The results suggest that such nanocomposites could find applications as fluorescence-based chemosensors in homogeneous organic solutions or thin films. - Highlights: → Dansylated hybrid composites were prepared by polymerization of monomers in organo-MMT or by sol-gel. → Quenching effects by acids, Cu 2+ and nitrobenzene in solution/film were evidenced. → A fluorescence dequenching was observed for the composite with silsesquixane units. → A reversible process occurs in the composite film exposed to nitrobenzene vapors.

  12. Synthesis and properties of fluorescent hybrid nanocomposites based on copolyacrylates with dansyl semicarbazide units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruiana, Emil C., E-mail: emilbur@icmpp.r [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Chibac, Andreea L.; Buruiana, Tinca; Musteata, Valentina [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2011-07-15

    Our study examined a series of hybrid composites containing copolyacrylate with semicarbazide-dansyl groups prepared by conventional radical polymerization of monomers in the organic montmorillonite modified with alkyl chains of variable length or using the sol-gel technique. The structure and the chemical composition of the copolymers N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl-5- (dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-methyl metahacrylate (DnsSA-co-MMA) and N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl -5-(dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-dodecylacrylamide (DnsSA-co-DA) as well as their nanocomposites (HC-P1, HC-P2, HC-P3, HC-P4) were confirmed by spectral analysis ({sup 1}H NMR, FTIR, UV/vis), thermal methods and atomic force microscopy. To quantify the effect of the inorganic component compared to pure photopolymers we evaluated the properties of hybrid composites, including dielectric characterization. Additionally, these materials have been tested in experiments of fluorescence quenching by acids (HCl, p-toluenesulfonic acid, 1-S-camphorsulfonic acid), metallic cation (Cu{sup 2+}) and nitrobenzene. The results suggest that such nanocomposites could find applications as fluorescence-based chemosensors in homogeneous organic solutions or thin films. - Highlights: {yields} Dansylated hybrid composites were prepared by polymerization of monomers in organo-MMT or by sol-gel. {yields} Quenching effects by acids, Cu{sup 2+} and nitrobenzene in solution/film were evidenced. {yields} A fluorescence dequenching was observed for the composite with silsesquixane units. {yields} A reversible process occurs in the composite film exposed to nitrobenzene vapors.

  13. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Margui, Eva

    2013-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a well-established analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a wide variety of routine quality control and research samples. Among its many desirable features, it delivers true multi-element character analysis, acceptable speed and economy, easy of automation, and the capacity to analyze solid samples. This remarkable contribution to this field provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of basic principles, recent developments, instrumentation, sample preparation procedures, and applications of XRF analysis. If you are a professional in materials science, analytic chemistry, or physics, you will benefit from not only the review of basics, but also the newly developed technologies with XRF. Those recent technological advances, including the design of low-power micro- focus tubes and novel X-ray optics and detectors, have made it possible to extend XRF to the analysis of low-Z elements and to obtain 2D or 3D information on a microme...

  14. Relative probabilities of the uranium isotopes for thorium x-ray emission and fluorescence of uranium x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Both thorium x-rays from decaying uranium isotopes and self-fluoresced uranium x-rays are prominent in high-resolution gamma-ray spectra of uranium-bearing materials. Useful application of the information carried by those x-rays has been curtailed because the probabilities of the uranium isotopes for thorium x-ray emission and for uranium x-ray fluorescence have not been known. By analyzing enrichment-meter geometry spectra from uranium oxide standards whose enrichments ranged from 0.7% to 91%, relative values, primarily, have been obtained for the probabilities of both processes. Thorium x-ray emission is very heavily dominated by 235 U. In all ordinarily occurring uranium isotopic distributions, thorium x-rays may be used as a valid 235 U signature. The probability for a thorium K α1 x-ray to be emitted in the decay of a 235 U atom is 0.048 ±0.002. In infinitely thick uranium oxide materials, the relative ratios of effectiveness for self-fluorescence, on a per unit mass basis, are approximately 234 U : 235 U : 236 U : 238 U = 1.13 : 1.00 : 0.52 : 0.028. on a per decay basis, the approximate ratios are 0.00039 : 1.00 : 0.017 : 0.18. These results imply that, contrary to what has often been stated, gamma rays are far more important than alpha particles in the self-fluorescence of uranium. Because of the importance of gamma-ray self-fluorescence, the uranium x-ray yield will be somewhat influenced by the size, shape, and composition of the materials. 4 refs., 1 fig

  15. Fluorescent Polymer Incorporating Triazolyl Coumarin Units for Cu2+ Detection via Planarization of Ict-Based Fluorophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngororabanga, Jean Marie Vianney; Du Plessis, Jacolien; Mama, Neliswa

    2017-01-01

    A novel fluorescent polymer with pendant triazolyl coumarin units was synthesized through radical polymerization. The polymer showed reasonable sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu2+ in acetonitrile in comparison to other tested metal ions with a significant quenching effect on fluorescence and blue shifting in the range of 20 nm. The blue shift was assigned to the conformation changes of the diethylamino group from the coumarin moiety which led to planarization of the triazolyl coumarin units. The possible binding modes for Cu2+ towards the polymer were determined through the comparison of the emission responses of the polymer, starting vinyl monomer and reference compound, and the triazole ring was identified as one of the possible binding sites for Cu2+. The detection limits of the polymer and vinyl monomer towards Cu2+ were determined from fluorescence titration experiments and a higher sensitivity (35 times) was observed for the polymer compared with its starting monomer. PMID:28867764

  16. Fluorescent Polymer Incorporating Triazolyl Coumarin Units for Cu2+ Detection via Planarization of Ict-Based Fluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngororabanga, Jean Marie Vianney; Du Plessis, Jacolien; Mama, Neliswa

    2017-08-30

    A novel fluorescent polymer with pendant triazolyl coumarin units was synthesized through radical polymerization. The polymer showed reasonable sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu 2+ in acetonitrile in comparison to other tested metal ions with a significant quenching effect on fluorescence and blue shifting in the range of 20 nm. The blue shift was assigned to the conformation changes of the diethylamino group from the coumarin moiety which led to planarization of the triazolyl coumarin units. The possible binding modes for Cu 2+ towards the polymer were determined through the comparison of the emission responses of the polymer, starting vinyl monomer and reference compound, and the triazole ring was identified as one of the possible binding sites for Cu 2+ . The detection limits of the polymer and vinyl monomer towards Cu 2+ were determined from fluorescence titration experiments and a higher sensitivity (35 times) was observed for the polymer compared with its starting monomer.

  17. Monitoring i-motif transitions through the exciplex emission of a fluorescent probe incorporating two (Py)A units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Joon; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2012-02-18

    Pairs of pyrene-modified deoxyadenosine ((Py)A) units induce a stable interstrand i-motif structure, which can be characterized by a change in the fluorescence λ(max), with an exciplex emission that is not observable in its single-strand structure. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence properties of fluorone dyes in bio-related films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tyagi, A.; Slyusareva, E.; Sizykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The spectral and temporal phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence behaviour of five fluorescein dyes in gelatine, starch, and chitosan is studied and basic parameters are determined. Research highlights: → Phosphorescence quantum yields of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → Delayed fluorescence quantum yields of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → Phosphorescence lifetimes of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → Delayed fluorescence lifetimes of fluorone dyes in bio-related films are measured at room temperature. → General theory of short-pulse excited phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence is presented and relevant parameters are extracted. - Abstract: The phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence behaviour of the fluorone dyes disodium fluorescein (FL, uranine), 4,5-dibromofluorescein (DBF), eosin Y (EO), erythrosine B (ER), and rose bengal (RB) in bio-films of gelatine, starch, and chitosan at room temperature is studied. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes were measured. The singlet-triplet dynamics is described and applied to the fluorone dyes for parameter extraction. For uranine films at room temperature no phosphorescence could be resolved. The efficiency of singlet-triplet intersystem crossing increased in the order φ ISC (DBF) ISC (EO) ISC (ER) ISC (RB) due to the heavy atom effect on spin-orbit coupling. The phosphorescence quantum yields increased in the order φ P (DBF) P (EO) P (RB) P (ER). The phosphorescence lifetimes followed the order τ P (DBF) > τ P (EO) > τ P (ER) > τ P (RB).

  19. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  20. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... Peru. Venezuela. Mexico. New Zealand. Virgin Island. Europe. Germany. France. Italy. Netherlands. Portugal. Spain. Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan. Singapore. India. Indonesia. Korea. Taiwan. China. Thailand. 321,797.8. 12,782.7. 309,015.1. 56,421.7. 2,413.7. 44,448.1.

  1. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for probing the relative abundance of cyclin-dependent kinases in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Kurzawa

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependant kinases play a central role in coordinating cell growth and division, and in sustaining proliferation of cancer cells, thereby constituting attractive pharmacological targets. However, there are no direct means of assessing their relative abundance in living cells, current approaches being limited to antigenic and proteomic analysis of fixed cells. In order to probe the relative abundance of these kinases directly in living cells, we have developed a fluorescent peptide biosensor with biligand affinity for CDKs and cyclins in vitro, that retains endogenous CDK/cyclin complexes from cell extracts, and that bears an environmentally-sensitive probe, whose fluorescence increases in a sensitive fashion upon recognition of its targets. CDKSENS was introduced into living cells, through complexation with the cell-penetrating carrier CADY2 and applied to assess the relative abundance of CDK/Cyclins through fluorescence imaging and ratiometric quantification. This peptide biosensor technology affords direct and sensitive readout of CDK/cyclin complex levels, and reports on differences in complex formation when tampering with a single CDK or cyclin. CDKSENS further allows for detection of differences between different healthy and cancer cell lines, thereby enabling to distinguish cells that express high levels of these heterodimeric kinases, from cells that present decreased or defective assemblies. This fluorescent biosensor technology provides information on the overall status of CDK/Cyclin complexes which cannot be obtained through antigenic detection of individual subunits, in a non-invasive fashion which does not require cell fixation or extraction procedures. As such it provides promising perspectives for monitoring the response to therapeutics that affect CDK/Cyclin abundance, for cell-based drug discovery strategies and fluorescence-based cancer diagnostics.

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  3. Abstracts of the 8th Conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The 8. conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods held from 25.9 to 29.9.2000 contains 79 abstracts about x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) as a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is also a tool used for chemical analysis in medicine, industry and research. (E.B.)

  4. Estimation on separation efficiency of aluminum from base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp in hammer crusher unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-09-01

    In order to separate aluminum from the base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp (SFL), the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit is estimated by introducing a binary separation theory. The base-cap of SFL is composed by glass fragment, binder, ferrous metal, copper and aluminum. The hammer crusher unit to recover aluminum from the base-cap consists of 3stages of hammer crusher, magnetic separator and vibrating screen. The optimal conditions of rotating speed and operating time in the hammer crusher unit are decided at each stage. At the optimal conditions, the aluminum yield and the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit are estimated by applying a sequential binary separation theory at each stage. And the separation efficiency between hammer crusher unit and roll crush system is compared to show the performance of aluminum recovery from the base-cap of SFL. Since the separation efficiency can be increased to 99% at stage 3, from the experimental results, it is found that aluminum from the base-cap can be sufficiently recovered by the hammer crusher unit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. United States - Japanese nuclear relations: implications for the pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of a new approach to non-proliferation policy by the United States in 1977 was the most upsetting development in the history of US-Japanese nuclear relations. The policy has seemingly altered Japanese views of its own nuclear future very little, yet it has altered the tone of the nuclear relationship with the United States. Recent Japanese nuclear power developments, both technical and administrative, are outlined and the prospects for the future of the United States-Japanese nuclear relationship and for Pacific regional cooperation assessed. Issues of importance in the relationship include reprocessing - enrichment, plutonium management, spent fuel and waste management and uranium supplies

  6. The anisotropy of fluorescence in ring units II: transfer integral fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Pavel; Barvik, Ivan; Reiter, Michal

    2005-01-01

    The time dependence of the anisotropy of fluorescence after an impulsive excitation in the molecular ring (resembling the B850 ring of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) is calculated. Fast fluctuations of the environment are simulated by dynamic disorder and slow fluctuations by static disorder. Without dynamic disorder, modest degrees of static disorder are sufficient to cause the experimentally found initial drop of the anisotropy on a sub-100 fs time scale. In the present investigation we are comparing results for the time-dependent optical anisotropy of the molecular ring for three models of the static disorder: Gaussian disorder in the local energies (Model A), Gaussian disorder in the transfer integrals (Model B) and Gaussian disorder in radial positions of molecules (Model C). Both types of disorder-static and dynamic-are taken into account simultaneously

  7. Relating Trp-Glu dipeptide fluorescence to molecular conformation: the role of the discrete Chi 1 and Chi 2 angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Azaria Solomon; Juszczak, Laura J

    2013-07-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD), coupled with fluorescence data for charged dipeptides of tryptophanyl glutamic acid (Trp-Glu), reveal a detailed picture of how specific conformation affects fluorescence. Fluorescence emission spectra and time-resolved emission measurements have been collected for all four charged species. MD simulations 20 to 30 ns in length have also been carried out for the Trp-Glu species, as simulation provides aqueous phase conformational data that can be correlated with the fluorescence data. The calculations show that each dipeptide species is characterized by a similar set of six, discrete Chi 1, Chi 2 dihedral angle pairs. The preferred Chi 1 angles--60°, 180°, and 300°--play the significant role in positioning the terminal amine relative to the indole ring. A Chi 1 angle of 60° results in the arching of the backbone over the indole ring and no interaction of the ring with the terminal amine. Chi 1 values of 180° and 300° result in an extension of the backbone away from the indole ring and a NH3 cation-π interaction with indole. This interaction is believed responsible for charge transfer quenching. Two fluorescence lifetimes and their corresponding amplitudes correlate with the Chi 1 angle probability distribution for all four charged Trp-Glu dipeptides. Fluorescence emission band maxima are also consistent with the proposed pattern of terminal amine cation quenching of fluorescence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Investigation of relations between skin cancer lesions' images and their fluorescent spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.; Petkova, El.; Troyanova, P.

    2010-03-01

    This investigation is based on images obtained from healthy tissue and skin cancer lesions and their fluorescent spectra of cutaneous lesions derived after optical stimulation. Our analyses show that the lesions’ spectra of are different of those, obtained from normal tissue and the differences depend on the type of cancer. We use a comparison between these “healthy” and “unhealthy” spectra to define forms of variations and corresponding diseases. However, the value of the emitted light varies not only between the patients, but also depending on the position of the tested area inside of one lesion. These variations could be result from two reasons: different degree of damaging and different thickness of the suspicious lesion area. Regarded to the visible image of the lesion, it could be connected with the chroma of colour of the tested area and the lesion homogeneity that corresponds to particular disease. For our investigation, images and spectra of three non-melanoma cutanous malignant tumors are investigated, namely—basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and keratoacanthoma. The images were processed obtaining the chroma by elimination of the background—healthy tissue, and applying it as a basic signal for transformation from RGB to Lab colorimetric model. The chroma of the areas of emission is compared with the relative value of fluorescence spectra. Specific spectral features are used to develop hybrid diagnostic algorithm (including image and spectral features) for differentiation of these three kinds of malignant cutaneous pathologies.

  9. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtelot, H A

    1979-12-11

    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes.

  10. Higher Education Relations: Iranian and the United States Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review examined the views of 35 higher education professionals in order to explore the history of higher education relations between Iran and the United States particularly before and after the revolution in Iran. The study used interviews with participants, correspondence, and published material from journals, monographs, and newspapers. All…

  11. The effects of unit morale and interpersonal relations on conflict in the nursing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K B

    2001-07-01

    Health care organizations face major changes, and these changes are likely to increase conflict in organizations. Although numerous studies have focused on conflict management, few have considered causes and effect of conflict in nursing units. The investigation tested a structural equation that examined the relationships among individual and contextual variables and intragroup conflict, job satisfaction, team performance effectiveness, and anticipated turnover. The nonrandom sample consisted of 141 nurses employed on 13 inpatient units at a state-supported, 597-bed academic medical centre in a southeastern city. Intragroup conflict was higher on smaller units with a higher ratio of RNs to total staff. Intragroup conflict was not associated with satisfaction with pay or anticipated turnover. In the final model, the unit morale and interpersonal relations dimension of team performance effectiveness was negatively associated with intragroup conflict and anticipated turnover, and positively associated with satisfaction with pay. High perceptions of unit morale and interpersonal relations buffered the effect of unit size and skill mix on intragroup conflict. Goodness of fit statistics indicated a good fit of the model to data. The findings have implications for nursing educators and administrators, and provide direction for future research.

  12. Tryptophan fluorescence in the Bacillus subtilis phototropin-related protein YtvA as a marker of interdomain interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losi, Aba; Ternelli, Elena; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis protein YtvA, related to plant phototropins (phot), binds flavin mononucleotide (FMN) within the N-terminal light, oxygen and voltage (LOV) domain. The blue light-triggered photocycle of YtvA and phot involves the reversible formation of a covalent photoadduct between FMN and a cysteine (cys) residue. YtvA contains a single tryptophan, W103, localized on the LOV domain and conserved in all phot-LOV domains. In this study, we show that the fluorescence parameters of W103 in YtvA-LOV are markedly different from those observed in the full-length YtvA. The fluorescence quantum yields are ca 0.03 and 0.08, respectively. In YtvA-LOV, the maximum is redshifted (ca 345 vs 335 nm) and the average fluorescence lifetime shorter (2.7 vs 4.7 ns). These data indicate that W103 is located in a site of tight contact between the two domains of YtvA. In the FMN-cys adduct, selective excitation of W103 at 295 nm results in minimal changes of the fluorescence parameters with respect to the dark state. On 280 nm excitation, however, there is a detectable decrease in the fluorescence emitted from tyrosines, with concomitant increase in W103 fluorescence. This effect is reversible in the dark and might arise from a light-regulated energy transfer process from a yet unidentified tyrosine to W103.

  13. Age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Kumar, Dinesh; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies exist on the use of surface electromyogram (EMG) signal features to detect age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior. Motor unit remodeling leads to declined muscle strength and force steadiness during submaximal contractions which are factors for risk of falls in the elderly. This study investigated the remodeling phenomena in the Tibialis Anterior using sample entropy and higher order statistics. Eighteen young (26.1 ± 2.9 years) and twelve elderly (68.7 ± 9.0 years) participants performed isometric dorsiflexion of the ankle at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and their Tibialis Anterior (TA) EMG was recorded. Sample entropy, Gaussianity and Linearity Test statistics were calculated from the recorded EMG for each MVC. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine normality, and either a two-tail student t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to determine significant difference in the EMG features between the young and old cohorts. Results show age-related motor unit remodeling to be depicted by decreased sample entropy (p <; 0.1), increased non-Gaussianity (p <; 0.05) and lesser degree of linearity in the elderly. This is due to the increased sparsity of the MUAPs as a result of the denervation-reinnervation process, and the decrease in total number of motor units.

  14. The united fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A. V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The United Fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues was created in Russian-Belarusian Information Center on the Problems of the Consequences of the Catastrophe at Chernobyl NPP branch RSRUE 'Institute of Radiology' Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus. It contains accumulated during the post-Chernobyl period systematized maps, scientific and practical, educational, documentary, journalistic, artistic, photographic and other information. (authors)

  15. Attributed relational graphs for cell nucleus segmentation in fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Salim; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2013-06-01

    More rapid and accurate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research has become possible with the development of automated microscopy imaging, for which cell nucleus segmentation commonly constitutes the core step. Although several promising methods exist for segmenting the nuclei of monolayer isolated and less-confluent cells, it still remains an open problem to segment the nuclei of more-confluent cells, which tend to grow in overlayers. To address this problem, we propose a new model-based nucleus segmentation algorithm. This algorithm models how a human locates a nucleus by identifying the nucleus boundaries and piecing them together. In this algorithm, we define four types of primitives to represent nucleus boundaries at different orientations and construct an attributed relational graph on the primitives to represent their spatial relations. Then, we reduce the nucleus identification problem to finding predefined structural patterns in the constructed graph and also use the primitives in region growing to delineate the nucleus borders. Working with fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm identifies nuclei better than previous nucleus segmentation algorithms.

  16. Fluorescent nanodiamond tracking reveals intraneuronal transport abnormalities induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziza, Simon; Mohan, Nitin; Loe-Mie, Yann; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Massou, Sophie; Adam, Marie-Pierre; Le, Xuan Loc; Viard, Julia; Plancon, Christine; Daudin, Rachel; Koebel, Pascale; Dorard, Emilie; Rose, Christiane; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Wu, Chih-Che; Potier, Brigitte; Herault, Yann; Sala, Carlo; Corvin, Aiden; Allinquant, Bernadette; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Treussart, François; Simonneau, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Brain diseases such as autism and Alzheimer's disease (each inflicting >1% of the world population) involve a large network of genes displaying subtle changes in their expression. Abnormalities in intraneuronal transport have been linked to genetic risk factors found in patients, suggesting the relevance of measuring this key biological process. However, current techniques are not sensitive enough to detect minor abnormalities. Here we report a sensitive method to measure the changes in intraneuronal transport induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors using fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs). We show that the high brightness, photostability and absence of cytotoxicity allow FNDs to be tracked inside the branches of dissociated neurons with a spatial resolution of 12 nm and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. As proof of principle, we applied the FND tracking assay on two transgenic mouse lines that mimic the slight changes in protein concentration (∼30%) found in the brains of patients. In both cases, we show that the FND assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect these changes.

  17. Real-time autocorrelator for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy based on graphical-processor-unit architecture: method, implementation, and comparative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracuente, Nicholas; Grossman, Carl

    2013-03-01

    We developed an algorithm and software to calculate autocorrelation functions from real-time photon-counting data using the fast, parallel capabilities of graphical processor units (GPUs). Recent developments in hardware and software have allowed for general purpose computing with inexpensive GPU hardware. These devices are more suited for emulating hardware autocorrelators than traditional CPU-based software applications by emphasizing parallel throughput over sequential speed. Incoming data are binned in a standard multi-tau scheme with configurable points-per-bin size and are mapped into a GPU memory pattern to reduce time-expensive memory access. Applications include dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments. We ran the software on a 64-core graphics pci card in a 3.2 GHz Intel i5 CPU based computer running Linux. FCS measurements were made on Alexa-546 and Texas Red dyes in a standard buffer (PBS). Software correlations were compared to hardware correlator measurements on the same signals. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College

  18. Determination of poorly fluorescent carbamate pesticides in water, bendiocarb and promecarb, using cyclodextrin nanocavities and related media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacioni, Natalia L.; Veglia, Alicia V.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of native cyclodextrins (α, β, or γCD with six, seven and eight glucose units, respectively), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), chitosan (CHT) and glucose in water solution or water with n-propylamine (PA) as co-solvent upon the UV-vis and fluorescence properties of poorly fluorescent N-methyl carbamates pesticides (C) as bendiocarb (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxol-4-ol methylcarbamate, BC) and promecarb (3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)phenol methylcarbame, PC) was examined. Fluorescent enhancement was found for both substrates with all CDs in water or PA-water except from PC with αCD. The addition of CHT increases the fluorescence of BC but decreases the fluorescence of PC, and glucose addition gives in both cases no spectral changes. Host-guest interaction was clearly determined by fluorescence enhancement with βCD and HPCD with a 1:1 stoichiometry for the complexes (C:CD). The values obtained for the association constants (K A , M -1 ) were (6 ± 2) x 10 2 and (2.3 ± 0.3) x 10 2 for BC:βCD and BC:HPCD complexes, respectively. For PC:βCD and PC:HPCD the values of K A were (19 ± 2) x 10 2 and (21 ± 2) x 10 2 , respectively. The ratio of the fluorescence quantum yields for the bound and free substrates (φ CCD /φ C ) was in the range 1.74-3.8. The limits of detection (L D , μg mL -1 ) for the best conditions were (0.57 ± 0.02) for BC with HPCD and (0.091 ± 0.002) for PC with βCD in water. Application to the analysis in pesticide spiked samples of tap water and fruit yields satisfactory apparent recoveries (84-114%), and for the extraction procedure in fruits and a commercial formulation, recoveries were of 81-98% and 104%, respectively. The method is rapid, simple, direct, sensitive and useful for pesticide analysis

  19. Determination of poorly fluorescent carbamate pesticides in water, bendiocarb and promecarb, using cyclodextrin nanocavities and related media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacioni, Natalia L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Veglia, Alicia V. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: aveglia@mail.fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2007-01-30

    The effect of native cyclodextrins ({alpha}, {beta}, or {gamma}CD with six, seven and eight glucose units, respectively), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), chitosan (CHT) and glucose in water solution or water with n-propylamine (PA) as co-solvent upon the UV-vis and fluorescence properties of poorly fluorescent N-methyl carbamates pesticides (C) as bendiocarb (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxol-4-ol methylcarbamate, BC) and promecarb (3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)phenol methylcarbame, PC) was examined. Fluorescent enhancement was found for both substrates with all CDs in water or PA-water except from PC with {alpha}CD. The addition of CHT increases the fluorescence of BC but decreases the fluorescence of PC, and glucose addition gives in both cases no spectral changes. Host-guest interaction was clearly determined by fluorescence enhancement with {beta}CD and HPCD with a 1:1 stoichiometry for the complexes (C:CD). The values obtained for the association constants (K {sub A}, M{sup -1}) were (6 {+-} 2) x 10{sup 2} and (2.3 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 2} for BC:{beta}CD and BC:HPCD complexes, respectively. For PC:{beta}CD and PC:HPCD the values of K {sub A} were (19 {+-} 2) x 10{sup 2} and (21 {+-} 2) x 10{sup 2}, respectively. The ratio of the fluorescence quantum yields for the bound and free substrates ({phi} {sup CCD}/{phi} {sup C}) was in the range 1.74-3.8. The limits of detection (L {sub D}, {mu}g mL{sup -1}) for the best conditions were (0.57 {+-} 0.02) for BC with HPCD and (0.091 {+-} 0.002) for PC with {beta}CD in water. Application to the analysis in pesticide spiked samples of tap water and fruit yields satisfactory apparent recoveries (84-114%), and for the extraction procedure in fruits and a commercial formulation, recoveries were of 81-98% and 104%, respectively. The method is rapid, simple, direct, sensitive and useful for pesticide analysis.

  20. Urinary catheter related nosocomial infections in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. The objective was to determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms responsible for urinary catheter related infections (UCRI. Colonization and/or bacteriuria was labelled as urinary catheter related infection (UCRI. Forty-four patients with 51 urinary catheters were studied. Incidence of UCRI was 47.06%. Age, female sex and immunocompromised status did not increase the risk of UCRI. Duration of catheter in-situ and duration of stay in the PICU were associated with higher risk of UCRI. The mortality was not increased by UCRI. Commonest organism isolated in UCRI was E. coli, which had maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin.

  1. The university sociocultural work related to teaching units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Cutiño-Jiménez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching units are very important when you want to integrate university and society, to pre- degree and post- degree teaching process, and during research, becoming a huge educative place to develop these activities. This research is related to a diagnose the author made to particular workers and Tributary Administrations National Office functionaries from Santiago of Cuba related to the information level contributors have about tributary subjects, to be sure there are insufficiencies in the local and national media when it comes to tributary information. Based on the results, the author contributes with some actions to improve teachers, communication, integrating university and tributary offices. This actions are also directed to students, functionaries and leaders from both institutions, in order to be more efficients in the contributors, knowledge so they can understand the importance of tributes and therefore, to improve the low collection indicator the Tributary Administrations are facing right now.

  2. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  3. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  4. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  5. Research in the United States relative to geochemistry and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, W.L.; Cannon, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the effects of the geochemical environment on health in the United States has fostered research studies in a number of universities and government agencies. The necessity to evaluate the effects of natural and man-made elemental excesses in the environment on health requires the establishment of requirements and tolerance limits for the various elements in water and crops. Maps of the geographic distribution of these elements in rocks, surficial materials and ground and surface waters are also essential for comparison with the occurrence of disease. Funding support for research projects that relate to various parameters of these problems emanates largely from a few federal agencies, and much of the work is conducted at government, university and private facilities. An example of the latter is the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, which has several components that are addressing a variety of comparative studies of the geochemical environment related to health; studies involve specific trace elements (like selenium and magnesium), diseases (like cancer, urolithiasis and cardiovascular disease), other health factors (like aging and nutrition) and links with timely major problems (like the health effects of greatly increasing the use of coal). ?? 1979.

  6. Reviews in fluorescence 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    ""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc

  7. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Analysis of Explosive-Related Materials and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    instrument uses a 50 W X-ray tube with a Pd target and has a sample chamber with a six- sample turret. The maximum sample size is 44 mm in diameter by...absorbance of X-rays by the elements present, and the X-ray fluorescence following excitation from other X-rays produced by the sample . Qualitative data...CAN2 Big Approximately 7.6 g of weathered CAN, enough to fill a sample cup To investigate possible errors associated with small sample size

  8. Photostable bipolar fluorescent probe for video tracking plasma membranes related cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinfu; Wang, Chao; Jin, Liji; Han, Zhuo; Xiao, Yi

    2014-08-13

    Plasma membranes can sense the stimulations and transmit the signals from extracellular environment and then make further responses through changes in locations, shapes or morphologies. Common fluorescent membrane markers are not well suited for long time tracking due to their shorter retention time inside plasma membranes and/or their lower photostability. To this end, we develop a new bipolar marker, Mem-SQAC, which can stably insert into plasma membranes of different cells and exhibits a long retention time over 30 min. Mem-SQAC also inherits excellent photostability from the BODIPY dye family. Large two-photon absorption cross sections and long wavelength fluorescence emissions further enhance the competitiveness of Mem-SQAC as a membrane marker. By using Mem-SQAC, significant morphological changes of plasma membranes have been monitored during heavy metal poisoning and drug induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells; the change tendencies are so distinctly different from each other that they can be used as indicators to distinguish different cell injuries. Further on, the complete processes of endocytosis toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by RAW 264.7 cells have been dynamically tracked. It is discovered that plasma membranes take quite different actions in response to the two bacteria, information unavailable in previous research reports.

  9. A relational leadership perspective on unit-level safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debra N; Hoffman, Leslie A; Sereika, Susan M; Lorenz, Holly L; Wolf, Gail A; Burns, Helen K; Minnier, Tamra E; Ramanujam, Rangaraj

    2011-11-01

    This study compared nursing staff perceptions of safety climate in clinical units characterized by high and low ratings of leader-member exchange (LMX) and explored characteristics that might account for differences. Frontline nursing leaders' actions are critical to ensure patient safety. Specific leadership behaviors to achieve this goal are underexamined. The LMX perspective has shown promise in nonhealthcare settings as a means to explain safety climate perceptions. Cross-sectional survey of staff (n = 711) and unit directors from 34 inpatient units in an academic medical center was conducted. Significant differences were found between high and low LMX scoring units on supervisor safety expectations, organizational learning-continuous improvement, total communication, feedback and communication about errors, and nonpunitive response to errors. The LMX perspective can be used to identify differences in perceptions of safety climate among nursing staff. Future studies are needed to identify strategies to improve staff safety attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  10. A laser-spectroscopy complex for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of age-related macula degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, S. A.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Budzinskaya, M. V.; Ermakova, N. A.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2004-06-01

    A laser-spectroscopy complex was developed for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of age related macula degeneration using the Russian photosensitizer Photosense. The complex is based on slit lamp which was additionally equipped with an optical adapter, and the video adapter allows to combine the procedure of photodynamic therapy and the control of its carrying in the frame work of one procedure. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of the complex were investigated using a special test object. The availability of the developed complex and Photosense itself was examined on experimental animals.

  11. The relative-intensity method of X-ray fluorescence analysis and its application to soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, C.W.; Furkert, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative-intensity X-ray fluorescence method of analysis of rock and soil samples has been investigated and compared with the net-intensity method. Strong, coherently scattered radiation originating from the X-ray tube is shown to be preferable to background radiation as an internal standard, and scattered radiation measured at one wavelength can usefully be applied in the determination of several elements. When the concentrations of an element in two soil samples of different composition (for example concretions and the soil adjacent to them) are compared, the ratio of the relative intensities may be different from the ratio of net intensities by a factor of about two. The concentrations of manganese in thirteen standard rock samples determined by the relative-intensity method are within or very close to the ranges of values reported previously

  12. Present and Future of the United States-Bolivia Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Bolivariana para las Americas (Spanish for Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas) ALC Acuerdo de Libre Comercio (Spanish for Free Trade Agreement) ATPA...Challenge Account) DEA Drug Enforcement Agency FELCN Fuerza Especial de Lucha Contra el Narcotráfico (Spanish for Special Force to Combat Drug...Organizacion de Estados Americanos (Spanish for Organization of American States) PNUD United Nations Program for Development) TCP Tratado de Comercio de

  13. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  14. Rapid-prenatal diagnosis through fluorescence in situ hybridization for preventing aneuploidy related birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzdar, Ashish; Chowdhry, Mohit; Makroo, R N; Mishra, Manoj; Srivastava, Priyanka; Tyagi, Richa; Bhadauria, Preeti; Kaul, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Women with high-risk pregnancies are offered prenatal diagnosis through amniocentesis for cytogenetic analysis of fetal cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for detecting numerical aberrations of chromosomes 13, 21, 18, X and Y in high-risk pregnancies in an Indian scenario. A total of 163 samples were received for a FISH and/or a full karyotype for prenatal diagnosis from high-risk pregnancies. In 116 samples both conventional culture techniques for getting karyotype through G-banding techniques were applied in conjunction to FISH test using the AneuVysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Inc.), following standard recommended protocol to compare the both the techniques in our setup. Out of 116 patients, we got 96 normal for the five major chromosome abnormality and seven patients were found to be abnormal (04 trisomy 21, 02 monosomy X, and 01 trisomy 13) and all the FISH results correlated with conventional cytogenetics. To summarize the results of total 163 patients for the major chromosomal abnormalities analyzed by both/or cytogenetics and FISH there were 140 (86%) normal, 9 (6%) cases were abnormal and another 4 (2.5%) cases were suspicious mosaic and 10 (6%) cases of culture failure. The diagnostic detection rate with FISH in 116 patients was 97.5%. There were no false-positive and false-negative autosomal or sex chromosomal results, within our established criteria for reporting FISH signals. Rapid FISH is a reliable and prompt method for detecting numerical chromosomal aberrations and has now been implemented as a routine diagnostic procedure for detection of fetal aneuploidy in India.

  15. A Relational Approach to the Study of Religious Survival Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The article departs from the finding that religious texts and actors relate to other religions as for instance The Old Testament relates to Canaanites, the New Testament to Jews, Pagans etc. A consequence of this inter-relatedness of religion is that religion can be studied as a relational......, a religion can be defined and studied as the result of complex set of dynamic relations, where a central tenet of a religion is that it relates to the significant religious other. As such religion is not a stable phenomenon but embedded in a dynamic historical process, which can explain the difficulties...

  16. Still a Special Relationship? The Significance of United States-United Kingdom Relations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Anglo - Saxon ally over Nasser and the canal.55 In 2010, in a speech at Chatham House, Liberal Democrat Nick Clegg suggested that “what...strategic culture, and as an expression of shared values and institutions the character of which is vital for those charged with service in an Anglo ...American context as well as NATO. 14. SUBJECT TERMS United Kingdom, United States, Special Relationship, Anglo - American Relations, Iraq, Afghanistan

  17. Non-Relative Value Unit-Generating Activities Represent One-Fifth of Academic Neuroradiologist Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Zeineh, M; Zaharchuk, G; Srivastava, A; Fischbein, N

    2016-07-01

    A neuroradiologist's activity includes many tasks beyond interpreting relative value unit-generating imaging studies. Our aim was to test a simple method to record and quantify the non-relative value unit-generating clinical activity represented by consults and clinical conferences, including tumor boards. Four full-time neuroradiologists, working an average of 50% clinical and 50% academic activity, systematically recorded all the non-relative value unit-generating consults and conferences in which they were involved during 3 months by using a simple, Web-based, computer-based application accessible from smartphones, tablets, or computers. The number and type of imaging studies they interpreted during the same period and the associated relative value units were extracted from our billing system. During 3 months, the 4 neuroradiologists working an average of 50% clinical activity interpreted 4241 relative value unit-generating imaging studies, representing 8152 work relative value units. During the same period, they recorded 792 non-relative value unit-generating study reviews as part of consults and conferences (not including reading room consults), representing 19% of the interpreted relative value unit-generating imaging studies. We propose a simple Web-based smartphone app to record and quantify non-relative value unit-generating activities including consults, clinical conferences, and tumor boards. The quantification of non-relative value unit-generating activities is paramount in this time of a paradigm shift from volume to value. It also represents an important tool for determining staffing levels, which cannot be performed on the basis of relative value unit only, considering the importance of time spent by radiologists on non-relative value unit-generating activities. It may also influence payment models from medical centers to radiology departments or practices. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2006-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  19. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2008-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  20. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2007-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  1. Introduction: Issues Related to Dose Units and Damage Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, Roger E.

    2012-01-01

    The observable effects of irradiation on material properties are complex and each such property changed depends sensitively on a range of irradiation and material parameters. This works against development of a universal exposure parameter. The irradiation dose to the material (both ionizing and displacement dose) can be calculated with good accuracy as long as the relevant reaction cross sections are known and implemented in the codes used. This suggests that a focus on dose calculations is warranted. When assessing damage correlation parameters, it is important to determine the appropriate dose parameter first. Then a clear distinction between damage formation and damage accumulation needs to be kept in mind. The dose unit is most helpful for estimating the primary damage generation, e.g. how damage energy is used to estimate atomic displacements. However, damage accumulation requires longer times and involves kinetic and thermodynamic processes that cannot be accounted for in a dose or primary damage unit. The adequacy of the primary damage formulations can be assessed through their use in mean field reaction rate theory or kinetic Monte Carlo microstructural evolution models to predict damage accumulation. The results of these models can be directly compared with experimental observations. (author)

  2. Improvements in or relating to pulsed X-ray units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichenkov, E.I.; Klypin, V.V.; Palchikov, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed X-ray unit comprises a pulsed X-ray tube connected to a discharge capacitor. The discharge capacitor comprises two coaxially arranged cylinders. One cylinder of the discharge capacitor is connected to the X-ray tube and to the high-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a truncated cone, and is arranged internally of this winding coaxially therewith. The other cylinder of the discharge capacitor is also connected to the X-ray tube and to the low-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer, and is arranged intermediate this winding and the primary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a hollow cylinder, and connected to the charging device. The cylinders of the discharge capacitor have ports made therein for the passage therethrough of the magnetic flux produced by the windings of the pulsed transformer. (author)

  3. An Inventory of Crop Wild Relatives of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Greene, S.; Wiersema, J.; Maxted, N.; Jarvis, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of crop wild relatives (CWRs) in breeding is likely to continue to intensify as utilization techniques improve and crop adaptation to climate change becomes more pressing. Signifi cant gaps remain in the conservation of these genetic resources. As a fi rst step toward a national strategy for

  4. A hybrid segmentation approach for geographic atrophy in fundus auto-fluorescence images for diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Noah; Laine, Andrew F; Smith, R Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) images with hypo-fluorescence indicate geographic atrophy (GA) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Manual quantification of GA is time consuming and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automatic quantification is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. In this paper we describe a hybrid segmentation method for GA quantification by identifying hypo-fluorescent GA regions from other interfering retinal vessel structures. First, we employ background illumination correction exploiting a non-linear adaptive smoothing operator. Then, we use the level set framework to perform segmentation of hypo-fluorescent areas. Finally, we present an energy function combining morphological scale-space analysis with a geometric model-based approach to perform segmentation refinement of false positive hypo- fluorescent areas due to interfering retinal structures. The clinically apparent areas of hypo-fluorescence were drawn by an expert grader and compared on a pixel by pixel basis to our segmentation results. The mean sensitivity and specificity of the ROC analysis were 0.89 and 0.98%.

  5. Intraoperative efficiency of fluorescence imaging by Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope (VELscope) in patients with bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Alexandre T; Zrnc, Tomislav A; Riecke, Björn; Wikner, Johannes; Zustin, Jozef; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Heiland, Max; Smeets, Ralf; Gröbe, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of tissue fluorescence imaging by using Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope (VELscope) for the detection of osteonecrosis of the jaw induced by bisphosphonates (BRONJ). We investigated 20 patients (11 females and 9 males; mean age 74 years, standard deviation ± 6.4 years), over a period of 18 month with the diagnosis of BRONJ in this prospective cohort study. All patients received doxycycline as a fluorescending marker for osseous structures. VELscope has been used intraoperatively using the loss of fluorescence to detect presence of osteonecrosis. Osseous biopsies were taken to confirm definite histopathological diagnosis of BRONJ in each case. Diagnosis of BRONJ was confirmed for every patient. In all patients except one, VELscope was sufficient to differentiate between healthy and necrotic bone by visual fluorescence retention (VFR) and visual fluorescence loss (VFL). 19 cases out of a total of 20 showed no signs of recurrence of BRONJ during follow-up (mean 12 months, range 4-18 months). VELscope examination is a suitable tool to visualize necrotic areas of the bone in patients with bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Loss of fluorescence in necrotic bone areas is useful intraoperatively as a tool for fluorescence-guided bone resection with relevant clinical interpretation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...... given credit for and may be responsible for some reverse kinematics reported in shear zones....... or wakes, elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones or wakes. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators usually display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either side of the shear zone or wake reported here show reverse...... kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit shear zones with opposed senses of movement across their center-lines or -planes.We have used field observations and results from analytical and numerical models to suggest that examples of wakes are the transit paths that develop where denser blocks sink within salt...

  7. Device for fluorescent control and photodynamic therapy of age-related macula degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Budzinskaya, M. V.; Ermakova, N. A.; Shevchik, S. A.; Kharnas, Sergey S.

    2004-07-01

    Age-related macula degeneration (AMD) is a wide spread disease the appearance of which leads to poor eyesight and blindness. A method of treatment is not determined until today. Traditional methods, such as laser coagulation and surgical operations are rather traumatic for eye and often bring to complications. That's why recently a photodynamic method of AMD treatment is studied. Based on photodynamic occlusion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with minimal injury to overlying neurosensory retina what increases the efficiency.

  8. Golf-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brittany A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates unintentional non-fatal golf-related injuries in the US using a nationally representative database. This study analyzed golf-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 2011 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Injury rates were calculated using golf participation data. During 1990 through 2011, an estimated 663,471 (95% CI: 496,370-830,573) individuals ≥7years old were treated in US emergency departments for golf-related injuries, averaging 30,158 annually or 12.3 individuals per 10,000 golf participants. Patients 18-54years old accounted for 42.2% of injuries, but injury rates per 10,000 golf participants were highest among individuals 7-17years old (22.1) and ≥55years old (21.8) compared with 18-54years old (7.6). Patients ≥55years old had a hospital admission rate that was 5.01 (95% CI: 4.12-6.09) times higher than that of younger patients. Injured by a golf club (23.4%) or struck by a golf ball (16.0%) were the most common specified mechanisms of injury. The head/neck was the most frequently injured body region (36.2%), and sprain/strain (30.6%) was the most common type of injury. Most patients were treated and released (93.7%) and 5.9% required hospitalization. Although golf is a source of injury among all age groups, the frequency and rate of injury were higher at the two ends of the age spectrum. Given the higher injury and hospital admission rates of patients ≥55years, this age group merits the special attention of additional research and injury prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  10. Public relation aspects of site selection in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, T.

    1996-01-01

    Following a recent review, the UK Government has confirmed that it continues to favour a policy of deep disposal of intermediate low-level waste. The Government's continuing policy stems from the recommendations of the 1976 Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (the 'Flowers'Report) and White Papers issued in 1977 and 1982 and 1982. The paper outlines the search for a disposal site in the UK. Nirex (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) was set up in 1982 to research and develop disposal facilities for intermediate low-level waste and low-level waste. At that time disposal facilities were envisaged as an engineered near-surface facility for LLW and short-lived ILW, and a modified mine or purpose built cavity at greater depth for long-lived ILW. Investigation of various sites followed and is discussed in the paper. The paper reviews the lessons learned in the field of public relations and public consultation, notably that public acceptance is a key factor in site selection and development, and that transparency is essential. For example, when it was announced that Sellafield was the preferred site for the repository, local councils became involved in discussions and planning, and Nirex is becoming more and more integrated into the local community. (author)

  11. A Reduced Stimulation Unit: Effects on Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated special unit for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. Results showed in the unit, in which reduced stimulation was emphasized, patient weight loss was curtailed, patient agitation was diminished, restraint use was reduced, and wandering was no longer a concern. Found family members to be satisfied with care.…

  12. Changes in time and frequency related aspects of motor unit action potentials during fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Bouwens, Jeroen S.; Baten, Christian T.M.

    1996-01-01

    During fatigue the shape of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) change. Characteristics of the MUAPs described before concern several time related aspects. No attention has been given to the frequency spectrum changes of MUAPS. The median frequency of MUAPS has now been determined for motor units

  13. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  14. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.

  15. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, I.G.; Evdokimenko, V.M.; Lapkovskij, M.P.; Petrov, P.T.; Gulis, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in γ-irradiated aqueous of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(β)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(β)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, lowmolecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centres. A relation between fluorescence and α-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out

  16. Green fluorescent protein labeling of Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for safety-related studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    Full Text Available Many food safety-related studies require tracking of introduced foodborne pathogens to monitor their fate in complex environments. The green fluorescent protein (GFP gene (gfp provides an easily detectable phenotype so has been used to label many microorganisms for ecological studies. The objectives of this study were to label major foodborne pathogens and related bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, with GFP and characterize the labeled strains for stability of the GFP plasmid and the plasmid's effect on bacterial growth. GFP plasmids were introduced into these strains by a CaCl(2 procedure, conjugation or electroporation. Stability of the label was determined through sequential propagation of labeled strains in the absence of selective pressure, and rates of plasmid-loss were calculated. Stability of the GFP plasmid varied among the labeled species and strains, with the most stable GFP label observed in E. coli O157:H7. When grown in nonselective media for two consecutive subcultures (ca. 20 generations, the rates of plasmid loss among labeled E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains ranged from 0%-30%, 15.8%-99.9% and 8.1%-93.4%, respectively. Complete loss (>99.99% of the plasmid occurred in some labeled strains after five consecutive subcultures in the absence of selective pressure, whereas it remained stable in others. The GFP plasmid had an insignificant effect on growth of most labeled strains. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains can be effectively labeled with the GFP plasmid which can be stable in some isolates for many generations without adversely affecting growth rates.

  17. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  18. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Moharram, Mohammed A.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.

    2012-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: ► Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. ► Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. ► The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. ► The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  19. Relative Roles of Gap Junction Channels and Cytoplasm in Cell-to-Cell Diffusion of Fluorescent Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranyos, Richard G. A.; Caveney, Stanley; Miller, James G.; Petersen, Nils O.

    1987-04-01

    Intercellular (tissue) diffusion of molecules requires cytoplasmic diffusion and diffusion through gap junctional (or cell-to-cell) channels. The rates of tissue and cytoplasmic diffusion of fluorescent tracers, expressed as an effective diffusion coefficient, De, and a cytoplasmic diffusion coefficient, Dcyt, have been measured among the developing epidermal cells of a larval beetle, Tenebrio molitor L., to determine the contribution of the junctional channels to intercellular diffusion. Tracer diffusion was measured by injecting fluorescent tracers into cells and quantitating the rate of subsequent spread into adjacent cells. Cytoplasmic diffusion was determined by fluorescence photobleaching. These experiments show that gap junctional channels constitute approximately 70-80% of the total cell-to-cell resistance to the diffusion of organic tracers at high concentrations in this tissue. At low concentrations, however, the binding of tracer to cytoplasm slows down the cytoplasmic diffusion, which may limit intercellular diffusion.

  20. Using Fluorescence Intensity of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein to Quantify Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Wilson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A variety of direct and indirect methods have been used to quantify planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells. Direct counting methods to determine the total number of cells include plate counts, microscopic cell counts, Coulter cell counting, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy. However, indirect methods are often used to supplement direct cell counting, as they are often more convenient, less time-consuming, and require less material, while providing a number that can be related to the direct cell count. Herein, an indirect method is presented that uses fluorescence emission intensity as a proxy marker for studying bacterial accumulation. A clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was genetically modified to express a green fluorescent protein (PA14/EGFP. The fluorescence intensity of EGFP in live cells was used as an indirect measure of live cell density, and was compared with the traditional cell counting methods of optical density (OD600 and plate counting (colony-forming units (CFUs. While both OD600 and CFUs are well-established methods, the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify bacteria is less common. This study demonstrates that EGFP intensity is a convenient reporter for bacterial quantification. In addition, we demonstrate the potential for fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to measure the quantity of PA14/EGFP biofilms, which have important human health implications due to their antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy could serve as an alternative or complementary quick assay to quantify bacteria in planktonic cultures and biofilms.

  1. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  2. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  3. The Uniting of a Profession: The History of Public Relations Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Kathleen S.

    A chronological history of major public relations organizations in the United States is presented in this paper. Following an overview of the public relations profession, the paper traces the development of several sporatically formed organizations, starting with the Financial Advertising Association in 1915, and leading to the largest…

  4. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-09-01

    To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors.

  5. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  6. Aerosol container-related eye injuries in the United States: 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Carly J; Linakis, James G; Mello, Michael J; Greenberg, Paul B

    2011-06-01

    To quantify and characterize eye injuries related to aerosol container consumer products treated in United States hospital emergency departments (EDs) from 1997 through 2009. Retrospective study. Descriptive analysis of aerosol container-related eye injury data derived from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a stratified probability sample of hospital-affiliated United States EDs. Data collected included demographic variables (gender and age), locale, diagnoses, and hospital disposition associated with aerosol container-related eye injuries treated in United States EDs from 1997 through 2009. Products associated with injury and mechanisms of injury also were extracted and analyzed. There were an estimated 10 765 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9842 to 11 688) visits to United States EDs for aerosol container-related eye injuries during the study period; 6756 (95% CI, 5771 to 7742; 63%) patients were male; 5927 (95% CI, 4956 to 6897; 55%) injuries occurred in children (age container-related eye injuries in the United States occur in men and children and that self-inflicted spray to the eye is the most common mechanism of injury. Further research is needed to devise effective prevention strategies for these types of injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Water relation, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging of soybean leaves infected with Colletotrichum truncatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Carla Silva; Araujo, Leonardo; Alves Chaves, Joicy Aparecida; DaMatta, Fábio M; Rodrigues, Fabrício A

    2018-06-01

    Considering the potential of anthracnose to decrease soybean yield and the need to gain more information regarding its effect on soybean physiology, the present study performed an in-depth analysis of the photosynthetic performance of soybean leaflets challenged with Colletotrichum truncatum by combining chlorophyll a fluorescence images with gas-exchange measurements and photosynthetic pigment pools. There were no significant differences between non-inoculated and inoculated plants in leaf water potential, apparent hydraulic conductance, net CO 2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance to water vapor and transpiration rate. For internal CO 2 concentration, significant difference between non-inoculated and inoculated plants occurred only at 36 h after inoculation. Reductions in the values of the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters [initial fluorescence (F 0 ), maximal fluorescence (F m ), maximal photosystem II quantum yield (F v /F m ), quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ))] and increases in effective PS II quantum yield (Y(II)), quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation Y(NO) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P ) were noticed on the necrotic vein tissue in contrast to the surrounding leaf tissue. It appears that the impact of the infection by C. truncatum on the photosynthetic performance of the leaflets was minimal considering the preference of the fungus to colonize the veins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A new disease of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in California caused by a fluorescent pseudomonad related to Pseudomonas viridiflava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2008 fluorescent bacteria were isolated from bacterial leaf spot symptoms on Italian parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in Ceres, California. These isolates were different from the known bacterial pathogens of parsley in California. To determine the etiology of this disease pathogenicity was evaluate...

  9. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Walter C. Shortle; Michel Chalot; François Beaujard; Hakan Grudd; Don A. Vroblesky; Joel G. Burken

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to...

  10. Who's who in fluorescence 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    The Journal of Fluorescence's third Who's Who directory publishes the names, contact details, specialty keywords, photographs, and a brief description of scientists employing fluorescence methodology and instrumentation in their working livesThe directory provides company contact details with a brief list of fluorescence-related products.

  11. Reviews in fluorescence 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Lakowicz, Joseph R; Geddes, Chris D

    2009-01-01

    This fourth volume in the Springer series summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough for professional researchers, yet also appealing to a wider audience of scientists in related fields.

  12. Wide-field fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent imaging flow cytometry on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-11

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However these devices are in general relatively bulky and costly, making them less effective in the resource limited settings. To potentially address these limitations, we have recently demonstrated the integration of wide-field fluorescent microscopy and imaging flow cytometry tools on cell-phones using compact, light-weight, and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments. In our flow cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are flushed through a microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing cell-phone camera unit. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the side of this microfluidic chip, which effectively acts as a multi-mode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to uniformly excite the fluorescent targets. The cell-phone camera records a time lapse movie of the fluorescent cells flowing through the microfluidic channel, where the digital frames of this movie are processed to count the number of the labeled cells within the target solution of interest. Using a similar opto-fluidic design, we can also image these fluorescently labeled cells in static mode by e.g. sandwiching the fluorescent particles between two glass slides and capturing their fluorescent images using the cell-phone camera, which can achieve a spatial resolution of e.g. - 10 μm over a very large field-of-view of - 81 mm(2). This cell-phone based fluorescent imaging flow cytometry and microscopy platform might be useful especially in resource limited settings, for e.g. counting of CD4+ T cells toward monitoring of HIV+ patients or for detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water.

  13. Relative evaluation of neutron activation, X-ray fluorescence and spark source mass spectrometry for multielement analysis of geothermal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blommaert, W.; Vandelannoote, R.; Van't Dack, L.; Gijbels, R.; Van Grieken, R.

    1980-01-01

    To sulfide geothermal waters from the French Pyrenees region and bicarbonate and chloride waters from the French Vosges area, all of the following analysis techniques were applied in order to compose a broad inventory of trace elements: (1) for the dissolved metarial: neutron activation analysis after a freeze-drying step using a very short cycle, short cycle or long cycle, neutron activation after co-crystallization on 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) using a short cycle or long cycle, X-ray fluorescence after co-crystallization on PAN and spark source mass spectrometry after evaporation on graphite or preconcentration on PAN, and, (2) for the filtered or suspended material: neutron activation using a very short, short or long cycle and X-ray fluorescence. Altogether, on the average some 30 elements could be determined above the detection limit in solution and 15 in suspension. (author)

  14. Insights into Insulin Fibril Assembly at Physiological and Acidic pH and Related Amyloid Intrinsic Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iannuzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human insulin is a widely used model protein for the study of amyloid formation as both associated to insulin injection amyloidosis in type II diabetes and highly prone to form amyloid fibrils in vitro. In this study, we aim to gain new structural insights into insulin fibril formation under two different aggregating conditions at neutral and acidic pH, using a combination of fluorescence, circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron miscroscopy. We reveal that fibrils formed at neutral pH are morphologically different from those obtained at lower pH. Moreover, differences in FTIR spectra were also detected. In addition, only insulin fibrils formed at neutral pH showed the characteristic blue-green fluorescence generally associated to amyloid fibrils. So far, the molecular origin of this fluorescence phenomenon has not been clarified and different hypotheses have been proposed. In this respect, our data provide experimental evidence that allow identifying the molecular origin of such intrinsic property.

  15. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.; Flint, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections

  16. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Yucca Mountain Project, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  17. Conservation priorities for tree crop wild relatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin K. Khoury; Stephanie L. Greene; Karen A. Williams; Chrystian C. Sosa; Chris. Richards

    2017-01-01

    Crop wild relatives native to the United States have proved useful as genetic resources in breeding more productive, nutritious, and resilient crops. Their utilization is expected to increase with better information about the species and improving breeding tools. But this utilization may be constrained by their limited representation in genebanks and the ongoing loss...

  18. Problems and Issues in Higher Education: Perspectives on Iran-United States Educational Relations and Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review evaluates the writings and opinions of Americans and Iranians on relations and influences between institutions of higher education in Iran and the United States before and after the 1979 revolution. The review explores the arrival of modern western education in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey where a traditional education system had prevailed…

  19. Key Issues in the United States-Iranian Relations 1980 – 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the views of Palmer and Perkins, (2007) “these are times that try men's souls”. The statement corroborates the America relations with Iran since the mid-1980s, when the United States, Israel and other Western Powers started accusing Iran of Uranium enrichment toward pursuing a nuclear weapons capability, a situation ...

  20. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  1. The Challenges of International Education: Developing a Public Relations Unit for the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kate; Surma, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Murdoch University's public relations program attracts a significant number of international students. Up to 60% of students in some units come from Singapore and Malaysia. While many spend at least one year in Australia as part of the three year degree, students in both countries may complete the entire degree offshore from 2007. The authors…

  2. Relating adaptive genetic traits to climate for Sandberg bluegrass from the intermountain western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Johnson; Matthew E. Horning; Erin Espeland; Ken Vance-Borland

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation for potentially adaptive traits of the key restoration species Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl) was assessed over the intermountain western United States in relation to source population climate. Common gardens were established at two intermountain west sites with progeny from two maternal parents from each of 130 wild populations. Data were...

  3. Management, restructuring and industrial relations : organizational change within the United Kingdom broadcasting industry, 1979-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade researchers began to remedy a literature deficit in the study of broadcasting institutions – addressing in particular the issues of labour process, restructuring and industrial relations. This thesis which considers management change, industrial relations and restructuring within the United Kingdom (‘UK’) broadcasting industry employs a case study format with a view to highlighting the variations of industry (macro) and firm (micro) based restructuring. Organizational chang...

  4. Computer Use and Vision-Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate

    OpenAIRE

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology we...

  5. THE UNITED RESCUE SYSTEM IN BULGARIA. CURRENT RESOURCE RELATED ISSUES AND PROSPECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Baleva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems related to securing the Bulgarian system for disaster management with the necessary resources for its proper functioning. The main challenges for the united rescue system in the country are analyzed, including those related to ensuring the system with the necessary material, financial and human resources. Some possibilities for solving these problems with the use of funds from the European Union are presented.

  6. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs

  7. Clinical Competence and Its Related Factors of Nurses in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Mirlashari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical competence of nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units together with advancements in medical science and technology increased the survival rate of newborns that need specialized care. To ensure the quality of care and provide the safety of patients, evaluating the clinical competence of nurses seems necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical competence of nurses in the neonatal intensive care units. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 117 nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by census method. The research tool was Development of Competency Inventory for Registered Nurses questionnaire which completed by self-assessment. The mean clinical competence scores of participants categorized into 3 levels: weak: 273. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using the Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The highest levels of competence were related to critical thinking and research attitude and interpersonal relationships, and the lowest level was related to training and mentoring. There was a direct statistically significant relationship between marital status, employment status, level of interest in working in the neonatal intensive-care units and the clinical competence of nurses. Conclusion: Since the clinical competence of nurses in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units is vital, some variables such as interest in the nursing profession, employment status, the neonatal intensive theoretical and practical training courses and the amount of overtime working hours should be taken into consideration.

  8. [Chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics with relation to fluorescence in typical macrophyte, algae lake zones of Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-lin; Qin, Bo-qiang; Ma, Rong-hua; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Wei-min

    2005-03-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents one of the primary light-absorbing species in natural waters and plays a critical in determining the aquatic light field. CDOM shows a featureless absorption spectrum that increases exponentially with decreasing wavelength, which limits the penetration of biologically damaging UV-B radiation (wavelength from 280 to 320 nm) in the water column, thus shielding aquatic organisms. CDOM absorption measurements and their relationship with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and fluorescence are presented in typical macrophyte and algae lake zone of Lake Taihu based on a field investigation in April in 2004 and lab analysis. Absorption spectral of CDOM was measured from 240 to 800 nm using a Shimadzu UV-2401PC UV-Vis recording spectrophotometer. Fluorescence with an excitation wavelength of 355 nm, an emission wavelength of 450 nm is measured using a Shimadzu 5301 spectrofluorometer. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 6.3 to 17.2 mg/L with an average of 9.08 +/- 2.66 mg/L. CDOM absorption coefficients at 280 nm and 355 nm were in the range of 11.2 - 32.6 m(-1) (average 17.46m(-1) +/- 5.75 m(-1) and 2.4 - 8.3 m(-1) (average 4.17m(-1) +/- 1.47 m(-l)), respectively. The values of the DOC-specific absorption coefficient at 355 nm ranged from 0.31 to 0.64 L x (mg x m)-1. Fluorescence emission at 450 nm, excited at 355 nm, had a mean value of 1.32nm(-1) +/- 0.84 nm(-1). A significant lake zone difference is found in DOC concentration, CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence, but not in DOC-specific absorption coefficient and spectral slope coefficient. This regional distribution pattern is in agreement with the location of sources of yellow substance: highest concentrations close to river mouth under the influence of river inflow, lower values in East Lake Taihu. The values of algae lake zone are obvious larger than those of macrophyte lake zone. In Meiliang Bay, CDOM absorption, DOC concentration and fluorescence tend to

  9. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  10. Development of a 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization probe for quantification of the ammonia-oxidizer Nitrosotalea devanaterra and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Ortiz, C X; Merbt, S N; Barrero-Canossa, J; Fuchs, B M; Casamayor, E O

    2018-04-28

    The Thaumarchaeota SAGMCG-1 group and, in particular, members of the genus Nitrosotalea have high occurrence in acidic soils, the rhizosphere, groundwater and oligotrophic lakes, and play a potential role in nitrogen cycling. In this study, the specific oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization probe SAG357 was designed for this Thaumarchaeota group based on the available 16S rRNA gene sequences in databases, and included the ammonia-oxidizing species Nitrosotalea devanaterra. Cell permeabilization for catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ detection and the hybridization conditions were optimized on enrichment cultures of the target species N. devanaterra, as well as the non-target ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. Probe specificity was improved with a competitor oligonucleotide, and fluorescence intensity and cell visualization were enhanced by the design and application of two adjacent helpers. Probe performance was tested in soil samples along a pH gradient, and counting results matched the expected in situ distributions. Probe SAG357 and the CARD-FISH protocol developed in the present study will help to improve the current understanding of the ecology and physiology of N. devanaterra and its relatives in natural environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  12. Fluorescence and Spectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph S. DaCosta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Early identification of dysplasia remains a critical goal for diagnostic endoscopy since early discovery directly improves patient survival because it allows endoscopic or surgical intervention with disease localized without lymph node involvement. Clinical studies have successfully used tissue autofluorescence with conventional white light endoscopy and biopsy for detecting adenomatous colonic polyps, differentiating benign hyperplastic from adenomas with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. In Barrett's esophagus, the detection of dysplasia remains problematic because of background inflammation, whereas in the squamous esophagus, autofluorescence imaging appears to be more dependable. Point fluorescence spectroscopy, although playing a crucial role in the pioneering mechanistic development of fluorescence endoscopic imaging, does not seem to have a current function in endoscopy because of its nontargeted sampling and suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Other point spectroscopic modalities, such as Raman spectroscopy and elastic light scattering, continue to be evaluated in clinical studies, but still suffer the significant disadvantages of being random and nonimaging. A recent addition to the fluorescence endoscopic imaging arsenal is the use of confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy, which provides real-time optical biopsy for the first time. To improve detection of dysplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, a new and exciting development has been the use of exogenous fluorescence contrast probes that specifically target a variety of disease-related cellular biomarkers using conventional fluorescent dyes and novel potent fluorescent nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots. This is an area of great promise, but still in its infancy, and preclinical studies are currently under way.

  13. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  14. Chair-side detection of Prevotella Intermedia in mature dental plaque by its fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiaki; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Sogabe, Kaoru; Okada, Ayako; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens is one of the well-known pathogens causing periodontal diseases, and the red florescence excited by the visible blue light caused by the protoporphyrin IX in the bacterial cells could be useful for the chair-side detection. The aim of this study was to evaluated levels of periodontal pathogen, especially P. intermedia in clinical samples of red fluorescent dental plaque. Thirty two supra gingival plaque samples from six individuals were measured its fluorescence at 640nm wavelength excited by 409nm. Periodontopathic bacteria were counted by the Invader PLUS PCR assay. Co-relations the fluorescence intensity and bacterial counts were analyzed by Person's correlation coefficient and simple and multiple regression analysis. Positive and negative predictive values of the fluorescence intensities for with or without P. intermedia in supragingival plaque was calculated. When relative fluorescence unit (RFU) were logarithmic transformed, statistically significant linear relations between RFU and bacterial counts were obtained for P. intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. By the multiple regression analysis, only P. intermedia had statistically significant co-relation with fluorescence intensities. All of the fluorescent dental plaque contained P. intermedia m. In contrast, 28% of non-fluorescent plaques contained P. intermedia. To check the fluorescence dental plaque in the oral cavity could be the simple chair-side screening of the mature dental plaque before examining the periodontal pathogens especially P. intermedia by the PCR method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 28 CFR 0.109 - Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and Spain. 0.109 Section 0.109 Judicial... Service § 0.109 Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States... States within the meaning of Article XXIV of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the...

  16. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  17. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  18. Nutritional supplements modulate fluorescent protein-bound advanced glycation endproducts and digestive enzymes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Emily R; Deo, Permal

    2016-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia enhances the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to diabetic complications. Thus, controlling blood glucose levels, inhibiting the formation of AGEs and reducing ROS are key therapeutic targets in early stage type 2 diabetes. The inhibitory effects of seven commercial liquid nutritional supplements against carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, was determined by dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside solution, respectively. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of fluorescent protein-bound AGEs. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant properties (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl antioxidant activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) were determined for correlation among these components and inhibitory activities. Samoan noni juice showed the greatest inhibitory effects against α-amylase, whereas chlorophyll extracts showed the greatest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase. Inhibition of α-glucosidase correlated with TFC (r(2) = 0.766; p 1) and FRAP (r(2) = 0.750; p 1) whereas no correlation was observed for α-amylase inhibition. All supplements inhibited fluorescent protein-bound AGEs, with the greatest effect exerted by Olive Leaf Extract, Blood Sugar Support (IC50 = 0.5 mg/ml). The IC50 values negatively correlated with TPC (r(2) = -0.707; p 1) and DPPH scavenging activities (r(2) = 0.515; p nutritional supplements in managing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Injuries to children in the United States related to trampolines, 1990-1995: a national epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A

    1998-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of trampoline-related injuries among children in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data for children 18 years old and younger from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1990 through 1995. There were an estimated 249 400 trampoline-related injuries [95% confidence interval (CI), 166 300-332 500] to children 18 years old and younger treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States during the 6-year study period. The number of injuries increased by 98% from 29 600 in 1990 to 58 400 in 1995, with an average of 41 600 (95% CI, 27 700-55 500) injuries per year, or 59.4 injuries per 100 000 United States children per year (95% CI, 39.6-79.3). The median age of injured children was 10 years, and 50% were males. Ninety-three percent of injuries occurred at home. Injuries to the extremities predominated among children of all ages and accounted for more than 70% of all injuries. This study identified several age-specific injury patterns. There was an inverse relationship between age versus the relative frequency of upper extremity injuries, and fractures and dislocations; and there was a direct relationship between age versus lower extremity injuries and soft tissue injury. There was also an inverse relationship between age versus facial injuries, head and neck injuries, and lacerations. Annually, an estimated 1400 children (95% CI, 800-2000), or 2.0 per 100 000 United States children (95% CI, 1. 1-2.9), required hospital admission or interhospital transfer because of a trampoline-related injury. This represented 3.3% of all children with a trampoline-associated injury. Fractures or dislocations accounted for 83% of injuries among admitted or transferred children, and children with a fracture or dislocation were more likely to be admitted or transferred to another hospital (8.4%) than children with other types of injury (relative risk, 10.80; 95% CI

  20. Association of medication errors with drug classifications, clinical units, and consequence of errors: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Maki; Shen, Jay J; Angosta, Alona

    2017-02-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play an important role in safe medication administration and patient safety. This study examined a total of 1276 medication error (ME) incident reports made by RNs in hospital inpatient settings in the southwestern region of the United States. The most common drug class associated with MEs was cardiovascular drugs (24.7%). Among this class, anticoagulants had the most errors (11.3%). The antimicrobials was the second most common drug class associated with errors (19.1%) and vancomycin was the most common antimicrobial that caused errors in this category (6.1%). MEs occurred more frequently in the medical-surgical and intensive care units than any other hospital units. Ten percent of MEs reached the patients with harm and 11% reached the patients with increased monitoring. Understanding the contributing factors related to MEs, addressing and eliminating risk of errors across hospital units, and providing education and resources for nurses may help reduce MEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of a progenitor cell population destined to form fracture fibrocartilage callus in Dickkopf-related protein 3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yu; Adams, Douglas; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ryu; Kamimura, Masayuki; Itoi, Eiji; Rowe, David W

    2016-11-01

    Fracture healing is a complex biological process involving the proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells, and chondrogenic, osteogenic, and angiogenic differentiation. The mechanisms underlying the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk3) expression in periosteal cells using Dkk3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice. We found that proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells began in the periosteum, involving Dkk3-positive cell proliferation near the fracture site. In addition, Dkk3 was expressed in fibrocartilage cells together with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 in the early phase of fracture healing as a cell marker of fibrocartilage cells. Dkk3 was not expressed in mature chondrogenic cells or osteogenic cells. Transient expression of Dkk3 disappeared in the late phase of fracture healing, except in the superficial periosteal area of fracture callus. The Dkk3 expression pattern differed in newly formed type IV collagen positive blood vessels and the related avascular tissue. This is the first report that shows Dkk3 expression in the periosteum at a resting state and in fibrocartilage cells during the fracture healing process, which was associated with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells. These fluorescent mesenchymal lineage cells may be useful for future studies to better understand fracture healing.

  2. Epidemiology, trends, assessment and management of sport-related concussion in United States high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Proctor, Mark R; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P

    2012-12-01

    Sport-related concussion affects athletes at every level of participation. The short and long-term effects of concussions that occur during childhood and adolescence are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to describe the current burden of disease, current practice patterns and current recommendations for the assessment and management of sport-related concussions sustained by United States high school athletes. Millions of high school students participate in organized sports in the United States. Current estimates suggest that, across all sports, approximately 2.5 concussions occur for every 10 000 athletic exposures, in which an athletic exposure is defined as one athlete participating in one game or practice. At schools that employ at least one athletic trainer, most high school athletes who sustain sport-related concussions will be cared for by athletic trainers and primary care physicians. Approximately 40% will undergo computerized neurocognitive assessment. The number of high school athletes being diagnosed with sport-related concussions is rising. American football has the highest number of concussions in high school with girls' soccer having the second highest total number. Fortunately, coaches are becoming increasingly aware of these injuries and return-to-play guidelines are being implemented.

  3. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... and scale effects. Moreover, some results from the Crescent City Prototype Dolosse study are presented and related to results from small-de model tests. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse ir presented as well....

  4. Fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary, and three-component (ternary combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although

  6. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  7. Acting with dedication and expertise: Relatives' experience of nurses' provision of care in a palliative unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøthe, Å; Biong, Stian; Grov, E K

    2015-12-01

    Admission of a cancer patient to a palliative unit when near the final stage of their disease trajectory undoubtedly impacts their relatives. The aim of our study was to illuminate and interpret relatives' lived experiences of health personnel's provision of care in a palliative ward. A phenomenological/hermeneutic approach was employed that was inspired by the philosophical tradition of Heidegger and Ricoeur and further developed by Lindseth and Nordberg. The perspectives of the narrator and the text were interpreted by highlighting relatives' views on a situation in which they have to face existential challenges. The analysis was undertaken in three steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive understanding, including the authors' professional experiences and theoretical background. Six subthemes appeared: the dying person, the bubble, the sight, the cover, the provision for children's needs, and the availability of immediate help. These components were further constructed into three themes: the meaning of relating, the meaning of action, and the meaning of resources. Our comprehensive understanding of the results suggests that the most important theme is "acting with dedication and expertise." The following aspects are crucial for relatives of cancer patients hospitalized in a palliative ward: time and existence, family dynamics, and care adjusted to the situation. Our study results led to reflections on the impact of how nurses behave when providing care to patients during the palliative phase, and how they interact with relatives in this situation. We found that cancer patients in a palliative unit most appreciate nurses who act with dedication and expertise.

  8. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  9. In vivo imaging of the airway wall in asthma: fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy in relation to histology and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bel Elisabeth H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma including fragmentation of elastic fibres observed in the superficial elastin network of the airway wall. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM is a new and non-invasive imaging technique performed during bronchoscopy that may visualize elastic fibres, as shown by in vitro spectral analysis of elastin powder. We hypothesized that FCFM images capture in vivo elastic fibre patterns within the airway wall and that such patterns correspond with airway histology. We aimed to establish the concordance between the bronchial elastic fibre pattern in histology and FCFM. Second, we examined whether elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM were different between asthmatic subjects and healthy controls. Finally, the association between these patterns and lung function parameters was investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional study comprising 16 subjects (8 atopic asthmatic patients with controlled disease and 8 healthy controls spirometry and bronchoscopy were performed, with recording of FCFM images followed by endobronchial biopsy at the airway main carina. Elastic fibre patterns in histological sections and FCFM images were scored semi-quantitatively. Agreement between histology and FCFM was analysed using linearly weighted kappa κw. Results The patterns observed in histological sections and FCFM images could be divided into 3 distinct groups. There was good agreement between elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM patterns (κw 0.744. The semi-quantitative pattern scores were not different between asthmatic patients and controls. Notably, there was a significant difference in post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted between the different patterns by histology (p = 0.001 and FCFM (p = 0.048, regardless of asthma or atopy. Conclusion FCFM captures the elastic fibre pattern within the airway wall in humans in vivo. The association between post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted and

  10. The communication between patient relatives and physicians in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicekci, Faruk; Duran, Numan; Ayhan, Bunyamin; Arican, Sule; Ilban, Omur; Kara, Iskender; Turkoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Fatma; Hasirci, Ismail; Karaibrahimoglu, Adnan; Kara, Inci

    2017-07-17

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians. The questionnaire included three sub-dimensions: informing, empathy and trust. The study included 181 patient relatives and 103 ICU physicians from three different cities and six hospitals. Based on the results of the questionnaire, identification of the mutual expectations and substance of the messages involved in the communication process between the ICU patients' relatives and physicians was made. The gender and various disciplines of the physicians and the time of the conversation with the patients' relatives were found to affect the communication attitude towards the patient. Moreover, the age of the patient's relatives, the level of education, the physician's perception, and the contact frequency with the patient when he/she was healthy were also proven to have an impact on the communication attitude of the physician. This study demonstrates the mutual expectations and substance of messages in the informing, empathy and trust sub-dimensions of the communication process between patient relatives and physicians in the ICU. The communication between patient relatives and physicians can be strengthened through a variety of training programs to improve communication skills.

  11. Uncertainties of exposure-related quantities in mammographic x-ray unit quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Pattison, John E.; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Breast screening programs operate in many countries with mammographic x-ray units subject to stringent quality control tests. These tests include the evaluation of quantities based on exposure measurements, such as half value layer, automatic exposure control reproducibility, average glandular dose, and radiation output rate. There are numerous error sources that contribute to the uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, some of which are unique to the low energy x-ray spectrum produced by mammographic x-ray units. For each of these exposure-related quantities, the applicable error sources and their magnitudes vary, depending on the test equipment used to make the measurement, and whether or not relevant corrections have been applied. This study has identified and quantified a range of error sources that may be used to estimate the combined uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, given the test equipment used and corrections applied. The uncertainty analysis uses methods described by the International Standards Organization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Examples of how these error sources combine to give the uncertainty of the exposure-related quantities are presented. Using the best test equipment evaluated in this study, uncertainties of the four exposure-related quantities at the 95% confidence interval were found to be ±1.6% (half value layer), ±0.0008 (automatic exposure control reproducibility), ±2.3% (average glandular dose), and ±2.1% (radiation output rate). In some cases, using less precise test equipment or failing to apply corrections, resulted in uncertainties more than double in magnitude

  12. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  13. The meaning and importance of vigilant attendance for the relatives of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Sotirios; Taket, Ann; Cant, Bob; Fouka, Georgia; Vardaki, Zambia

    2014-09-01

    To explore the meaning of vigilant attendance for relatives of critically ill patients in Greece. A plethora of international research has identified proximity to the patient to be a major concern for relatives of critically ill patients. Greece however follows a strict visiting policy in intensive care units (ICUs) so Greek relatives spend great amounts of time just outside the ICUs. This qualitative study adopted the social constructionist version of grounded theory. Data were collected from three ICUs in Athens through in depth interviews with 25 informants and approximately 10 h of observations outside the ICUs on 159 relatives. Vigilant attendance was one of the main coping mechanisms identified for relatives. Four subcategories were found to comprise vigilant attendance: (1) being as close as possible to feel relief, (2) being there to find out what is going on, (3) monitoring changes in the loved one and making own diagnosis and (4) interacting with the ICU professionals. Vigilant attendance describes the way in which relatives in Greece stayed outside the ICUs. Relatives felt satisfaction from being close as the best alternative for not actually being inside the ICU and they tried to learn what was going on by alternative methods. By seeing the patients, relatives were also able to make their own diagnoses and could therefore avoid relying solely on information given to them. However, a prerequisite for successful vigilant attendance was to get on well with doctors and nurses. Changes in visiting policies in Greece are needed to meet the needs of relatives adequately. Recommendations for changes with minimal investment of time and funding are made. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  14. Structure-function relations in oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex. Fluorescence and infrared approaches to monitor oxomalonate and Na(+ binding effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Granjon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OAD is a member of the Na(+ transport decarboxylase enzyme family found exclusively in anaerobic bacteria. OAD of Vibrio cholerae catalyses a key step in citrate fermentation, converting the chemical energy of the decarboxylation reaction into an electrochemical gradient of Na(+ ions across the membrane, which drives endergonic membrane reactions such as ATP synthesis, transport and motility. OAD is a membrane-bound enzyme composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The alpha subunit contains the carboxyltransferase catalytic site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, spectroscopic techniques were used to probe oxomalonate (a competitive inhibitor of OAD with respect to oxaloacetate and Na(+ effects on the enzyme tryptophan environment and on the secondary structure of the OAD complex, as well as the importance of each subunit in the catalytic mechanism. An intrinsic fluorescence approach, Red Edge Excitation Shift (REES, indicated that solvent molecule mobility in the vicinity of OAD tryptophans was more restricted in the presence of oxomalonate. It also demonstrated that, although the structure of OAD is sensitive to the presence of NaCl, oxomalonate was able to bind to the enzyme even in the absence of Na(+. REES changes due to oxomalonate binding were also observed with the alphagamma and alpha subunits. Infrared spectra showed that OAD, alphagamma and alpha subunits have a main component band centered between 1655 and 1650 cm(-1 characteristic of a high content of alpha helix structures. Addition of oxomalonate induced a shift of the amide-I band of OAD toward higher wavenumbers, interpreted as a slight decrease of beta sheet structures and a concomitant increase of alpha helix structures. Oxomalonate binding to alphagamma and alpha subunits also provoked secondary structure variations, but these effects were negligible compared to OAD complex. CONCLUSION: Oxomalonate binding affects the

  15. Marketing Cyprus as a tourism destination for the United States: theory, marketing and public relations strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yiannakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a framework for segmenting Cyprus as a tourism destination and discusses ways for reaching various target markets in the United States. Prior research using multi-dimensional scaling demonstrates (Yiannakis & Gibson, 1988, 1992, 2002; Gibson 1994; Foo, McGuiggan & Yiannakis, 2004 that when tourists go on vacation they seek a balance among three fundamental or core push factors: familiarity-strangeness, structure-independence and stimulation tranquility. When the above are matched with various product categories (pull factors that represent what Cyprus has to offer (e.g., heritage/cultural tourism, escapist tourism, sport tourism, eco-tourism and the like, we are able to develop a targeted framework that can help us market Cyprus as a tourism destination to various markets in the United States. The authors also discuss some of the major selling points that make Cyprus attractive as a tourism destination and suggest how these may be employed in an overall strategy for reaching the relatively untapped markets of the United States. The authors make a number of recommendations involving new market exploration and discuss strategies for increasing the island's exposure through both marketing, as well as public relations activities. In closing, the authors recommend that in addition to economic impact studies Cyprus needs to assess the socio-cultural and environmental impacts of tourism on the island and its people. Such findings may help the tourism industry and the people of Cyprus determine the kind of tourism product they want, and the type of tourist they would prefer to attract to the island.

  16. Work Related Psychosocial and Organizational Factors for Neck Pain in Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340

  17. Elevator-related injuries to children in the United States, 1990 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory K; Huisingh, Carrie; Smith, Gary A

    2007-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of elevator-related injuries among children in the United States from 1990 to 2004. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Reported cases were used to project national estimates. An estimated 29 030 elevator-related injuries occurred among children in the United States during 1990 to 2004. The mean age was 8.1 years (SD, 6.1 years), with 53.3% of injuries among boys. The overall injury rate was 2.5 injuries per 100,000 population. The injury rate for children aged 0-4 years was 4.2 per 100,000 population, and for children aged 5-19 years the injury rate was 1.9 per 100,000 population. The most frequent cause of injury was the elevator door closing on a body part, the most frequently injured body region was the upper extremity, and soft-tissue injuries were the most frequent type of injury. Children should be closely supervised on or near elevators to reduce the risk of injury.

  18. The relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site within ecological landform units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, R.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; Hall, D.B.; Ostler, W.K.

    1998-09-01

    Sign-survey transects were sampled in 1996 to better determine the relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These transects were sampled within ecological land-form units (ELUs), which are small, ecologically homogeneous units of land. Two-hundred and six ELUs were sampled by walking 332 transects totaling 889 kilometers (km). These ELUs covered 528 km 2 . Two-hundred and eight-one sign were counted. An average of 0.32 sign was found per km walked. Seventy percent of the area sampled had a very low abundance of tortoises, 29% had a low abundance, and 1% had a moderate abundance. A revised map of the relative abundance of desert tortoise on the NTS is presented. Within the 1,330 km 2 of desert tortoise habitat on the NTS, 49% is classified as having no tortoises or a very low abundance, 18% has a low or moderate abundance, 12% is unclassified land being used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, and the remaining 21% still has an unknown abundance of desert tortoises. Based on the results of this work, the amount of tortoise habitat previously classified as having an unknown or low-moderate abundance, and on which clearance surveys and on-site monitoring was required, has been reduced by 20%

  19. Extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Devon D; Dudek, Jonathan A; Potterat, John J; Muth, Stephen Q; Roberts, John M; Woodhouse, Donald E

    2006-09-01

    Prostitute women have the highest homicide victimization rate of any set of women ever studied. We analyzed nine diverse homicide data sets to examine the extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States. Most data sources substantially under-ascertained prostitute homicides. As estimated from a conservative capture-recapture analysis, 2.7% of female homicide victims in the United States between 1982 and 2000 were prostitutes. Frequencies of recorded prostitute and client homicides increased substantially in the late 1980s and early 1990s; nearly all of the few observed pimp homicides occurred before the late 1980s. These trends may be linked to the rise of crack cocaine use. Prostitutes were killed primarily by clients, clients were killed mainly by prostitutes, and pimps were killed predominantly by pimps. Another conservative estimate suggests that serial killers accounted for 35% of prostitute homicides. Proactive surveillance of, and evidence collection from, clients and prostitutes might enhance the investigation of prostitution-related homicide.

  20. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  1. Barbara's story: a thematic analysis of a relative's reflection of being in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Probst, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this reflective account is to provide a view of the intensive care unit (ICU) relative's experiences of supporting and being supported in the ICU. Understanding the relatives' experiences of ICU is important especially because a recent work has identified the potential for this group to develop post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition that is normally equated with the ICU survivor. A thematic analysis was used in identifying emerging themes that would be significant in an ICU nursing context. The incident took place in two 8-bedded ICUs (Private and National Health Service) in October. Two emergent themes were identified from the reflective story - fear of the technological environment and feeling hopeless and helpless. The use of relative stories as an insight into the live experiences of ICU relatives may give a deeper understanding of their life-world. The loneliness, anguish and pain of the ICU relative extends beyond the walls of the ICU, and this is often negated as the focus of the ICU team is the patient. Developing strategies to support relatives might include the use of relative diaries used concurrently with patient diaries to support this groups recovery or at the very least a gaining a sense of understanding for their ICU experience. Relative follow-up clinics designed specifically to meet their needs where support and advice can be given by the ICU team, in addition to making timely and appropriate referrals to counselling services and perhaps involving spiritual leaders where appropriate. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  2. Health-Related Behaviors and Academic Achievement Among High School Students - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Tiu, Georgianne F; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Lee, Sarah M; Bohm, Michele K; Annor, Francis; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2017-09-08

    Studies have shown links between educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, or other measures of academic achievement, and health-related behaviors (1-4). However, as reported in a 2013 systematic review, many of these studies have used samples that are not nationally representative, and quite a few studies are now at least 2 decades old (1). To update the relevant data, CDC analyzed results from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial, cross-sectional, school-based survey measuring health-related behaviors among U.S. students in grades 9-12. Analyses assessed relationships between academic achievement (i.e., self-reported letter grades in school) and 30 health-related behaviors (categorized as dietary behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, violence-related behaviors, and suicide-related behaviors) that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the United States (5). Logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school found that students who earned mostly A's, mostly B's, or mostly C's had statistically significantly higher prevalence estimates for most protective health-related behaviors and significantly lower prevalence estimates for most health-related risk behaviors than did students with mostly D's/F's. These findings highlight the link between health-related behaviors and education outcomes, suggesting that education and public health professionals can find their respective education and health improvement goals to be mutually beneficial. Education and public health professionals might benefit from collaborating to achieve both improved education and health outcomes for youths.

  3. Quantitative x-ray fluorescent analysis using fundamental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A monochromatic source of x-rays for sample excitation permits the use of pure elemental standards and relatively simple calculations to convert the measured fluorescent intensities to an absolute basis of weight per unit weight of sample. Only the mass absorption coefficients of the sample for the exciting and the fluorescent radiation need be determined. Besides the direct measurement of these absorption coefficients in the sample, other techniques are considered which require fewer sample manipulations and measurements. These fundamental parameters methods permit quantitative analysis without recourse to the time-consuming process of preparing nearly identical standards

  4. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  5. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to

  6. The Attachment Imperative: Parental Experiences of Relation-making in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navne, Laura E; Svendsen, Mette N; Gammeltoft, Tine M

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we explore how parents establish relations with extremely premature infants whose lives and futures are uncertain. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), we engage recent discussions of the limits of conventional anthropological thinking on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment. Such "cuts" in parent-infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as "maybe-lives" by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for "maybe-parents." © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  7. Gasoline-related injuries and fatalities in the United States, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Dorothy A

    2018-02-12

    This descriptive study examines twenty years of gasoline-related fatalities and emergency department treated injuries in the United States, based on data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Thermal burns consistently accounted for the majority (56%) of gasoline-related injuries and for most (82%) gasoline-related deaths, and were commonly (57-71%) associated with the use of gasoline as an accelerant. Poisoning accounted for 13% of injuries and 17% of deaths. The primary poisoning injury pattern was ingestion; the primary fatality pattern was inhalation, with about half of those associated with deliberate abuse. The estimated number of ingestions decreased from 60 to 23% of poisoning-related injuries, while injuries associated with inhalation abuse increased from 6 to 23%. Chemical burns and dermatitis were less represented in the injury data and were primarily associated with gasoline spills or splashes. Gasoline cans reportedly ignited or exploded in about 5% of thermal burn injuries and fatalities. While mandatory requirements for child resistant closures on gasoline cans (a primary intervention) have potentially impacted poisonings, the use of flame mitigation devices to address thermal injuries, if successful, would be a secondary intervention, and could address only a small percentage (about 5%) of injuries and deaths.

  8. Mountain biking-related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1994-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicolas G; McKenzie, Lara B

    2011-02-01

    Injury research on mountain biking has been mostly limited to examining professional riders and off-road biking. Mountain bikes represent the largest segment of bike sales in the United States. Recreational mountain bike use is popular and understudied. To describe the scope, distribution, and trends of mountain bike-related injuries treated in US emergency departments. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A retrospective analysis was conducted with data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for patients aged ≥ 8 years from 1994 through 2007. Sample weights provided by the system were used to calculate national estimates of mountain bike-related injuries based on 4624 cases. Bivariate comparisons between categorical variables were assessed with injury proportion ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Nationwide, an estimated 217 433 patients were treated for mountain bike-related injuries in US emergency departments from 1994 to 2007, an average of 15 531 injuries per year. The annual number of injuries decreased 56%, from a high of 23 177 in 1995 to 10 267 in 2007 (P bike-related injuries decreased from 1994 to 2007. Upper extremity fractures were the most common injury. Girls and women may be more likely than boys and men to sustain more severe injuries requiring hospitalization. Despite the decline over the past decade, more can be done to improve safety and reduce injuries in this popular recreational activity.

  9. Pediatric sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared with FIC events (mean increase

  10. Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Satomi; Takeda, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi; Carrara, Fernanda Souza Angotti; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; Zanei, Suely Sueko Viski; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium. Of the total 149 patients in the sample, 69 (46.3%) presented delirium during ICU stay, whose mean age, severity of illness and length of ICU stay were statistically higher. The factors related to delirium were: age, midazolam, morphine and propofol. Results showed high incidence of ICU delirium associated with older age, use of sedatives and analgesics, emphasizing the need for relevant nursing care to prevent and identify early, patients presenting these characteristics. Identificar a incidência de delirium, comparar as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes com e sem delirium e verificar os fatores relacionados ao delirium em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Coorte prospectiva, cuja amostra foi constituída de pacientes internados em UTI de um hospital universitário. Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e da avaliação com o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit para identificação de delirium foram processadas para análise univariada, e regressão logística para identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência do delirium. Do total de 149 pacientes da amostra, 69 (46,3%) apresentaram delirium durante a internação na UTI, observando-se que a média da idade, o índice de gravidade e o tempo de permanência nas UTI foram estatisticamente maiores. Os fatores relacionados ao delirium foram: idade, midazolam, morfina e propofol. Os

  11. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Iran of any goods, technology, or services, except to the extent that such exportation or... States Government and the granting of such a license by that agency would be prohibited by law; (3) Financial transactions related to the resolution of disputes at tribunals, including transactions related to...

  12. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  13. Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-16

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain

  14. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  15. SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS FOR MEASURING AND FORECASTING THE CASH GENERATING UNIT FLOWS RELATED TO INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica R GROSU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the difficulties encountered in assessing the value of the CGU (Cash Generating Unit and of the cash flows associated with goodwill or other intangible assets of a company and after performing the impairment test as provided by the IAS 36-Intangibile Asset and the forecasts related to it, the aim of this paper is to identify and suggest software instruments that would assist in the measurement and forecasting of these elements. The employment of the SPSS and the NeuroShell programmes in analyzing and forecasting the changes in CGU and CGU flows has helped compare the results and the ensuing error margins, thus giving the business entity the possibility to select the best software option, depending on certain variables identified on a micro or a macroeconomic level that may affect the depreciation or the increases in value of the underlying assets for CGU or CGU flows.

  16. Associations Between Relative Value Units and Patient-Reported Back Pain and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Gold PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe associations between health care utilization measures and patient-reported outcomes (PROs. Method: Primary data were collected from patients ≥65 years with low back pain visits from 2011 to 2013. Six PROs of pain and functionality were collected 12 and 24 months after the index visits and total and spine-specific relative value units (RVUs from electronic health records were tabulated over 1 year. We calculated correlation coefficients between RVUs and 12- and 24-month PROs and conducted linear regressions with each 12- and 24-month PRO as the outcome variables and RVUs as predictors of interest. Results: We observed very weak correlations between worse PROs at 12 and 24 months and greater 12-month utilization. In regression analyses, we observed slight associations between greater utilization and worse 12- and 24-month PROs. Discussion: We found that 12-month health care utilization is not strongly associated with PROs at 12 or 24 months.

  17. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P recruitment behaviour were organised into localised MU task groups. MUs with different task specificity in seven examined tasks were observed. The RMS EMG values obtained from the different recording sites were also significantly (P recruitment was significantly (P recruited MUs and the RMS EMG values decreased significantly (P recruitment behaviour in discrete subvolumes of the masseter in response to small changes in vertical jaw relations. These fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nonfatal, unintentional, non--fire-related carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. CO poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States; it was responsible for approximately 450 deaths each year during 1999-2004 and an estimated 15,200 emergency department (ED) visits each year during 2001-2003. Health effects of CO exposure can range from viral-like symptoms (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, headache, confusion, and nausea) to more severe conditions (e.g., disorientation, unconsciousness, long-term neurologic disabilities, coma, cardiorespiratory failure, and death). CO poisoning often is misdiagnosed and underdetected because of the nonspecific nature of symptoms. To update a previously published report and provide national estimates of CO-related ED visits during 2004-2006, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database. During 2004-2006, an estimated average of 20,636 ED visits for nonfatal, unintentional, non-fire-related CO exposures occurred each year. Approximately 73% of these exposures occurred in homes, and 41% occurred during winter months (December-February). Prevention efforts targeting residential and seasonal CO exposures can substantially reduce CO-related morbidity.

  19. Open intensive care units: a global challenge for patients, relatives, and critical care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Elena; Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Milanesio, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the current status of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours policies internationally and to explore the influence of ICUs' open visiting policies on patients', visitors', and staff perceptions, as well as on patients' outcomes. A review of the literature was done through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. The following keywords were searched: "visiting," "hours," "ICU," "policy," and "intensive care unit." Inclusion criteria for the review were original research paper, adult ICU, articles published in the last 10 years, English or Italian language, and available abstract. Twenty-nine original articles, mainly descriptive studies, were selected and retrieved. In international literature, there is a wide variability about open visiting policies in ICUs. The highest percentage of open ICUs is reported in Sweden (70%), whereas in Italy there is the lowest rate (1%). Visiting hours policies and number of allowed relatives are variable, from limits of short precise segments to 24 hours and usually 2 visitors. Open ICUs policy/guidelines acknowledge concerns with visitor hand washing to prevent the risk of infection transmission to patients. Patients, visitors, and staff seem to be inclined to support open ICU programs, although physicians are more inclined to the enhancement of visiting hours than nurses. The percentages of open ICUs are very different among countries. It can be due to local factors, cultural differences, and lack of legislation or hospital policy. There is a need for more studies about the impact of open ICUs programs on patients' mortality, length of stay, infections' risk, and the mental health of patients and their relatives.

  20. Chapter F: Preliminary Bibliography of Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits in the Western United States and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Karen S.; Wallace, Alan R.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Bliss, James D.; Orris, Greta J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction As part of the assessment of lacustrine diatomite resources in the Western United States (fig. 1), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project members conducted a review of literature relating to the formation, location, and nature of deposits in the study area. This preliminary bibliography consists of selected publications to identify, locate, and describe the deposits to be studied, to characterize common geologic factors about the deposits, and to better understand the factors that control their formation, preservation, or destruction. The bibliography also serves as a resource for other workers to research the topic. References included in the preliminary bibliography were gathered by searching existing bibliographic data bases and library collections. Project researchers also contributed references that they found during the course of their work. This bibliography should be considered a working document that will grow as research and literature searches continue. Clearly, many significant publications may be missing from this preliminary list; therefore, USGS staff members intend to issue a revised bibliography as project work progresses. To assure completeness, input from other researchers and industry is welcome. Although the focus of this bibliography is lacustrine diatomite deposits of the Western United States, additional references that provide a foundation of knowledge for the study of diatomites, diatoms, and diatom-related processes (ecology, geology, geochemistry) and for the uses and behavior of diatomite have also been included. An index of keywords has been added to this bibliography, designed to help the user locate reports by topic or by geographic location. The letter 'A' following a number indicates that the report referenced is an abstract.

  1. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  2. Fluorescent angiography and optical coherence tomography with angiography of the ocular fundus in patients with "the wet" form of an age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virsta A.M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the informative value of fluorescent angiography (FA and optical coherence tomography with fundus angiography (angio-OCT in the diagnosis of "wet" form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Material and methods. The present study included 20 patients (20 eyes diagnosed with degeneration of macula and posterior pole of the eye, the "wet" form (late stage age-related macular degeneration, AREDS category 4. The study used machines: optical coherence tomography, Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engeneering, Germany, optical со- herence tomography-angiography CIRRUS HD-OCT MODEL 5000 (Carl Zeiss, Germany. Results. When conducting the FA, in 11 patients found the ill-defined zone of small leakage of dye in 7 patients revealed a clearly defined area of hyperfluorescence in the early phase, and marked leakage of dye in the late phase, 2 patients — uncertain indices. In connection with the received data questionable PHAGE in 11 patients, all were held angio-OCT, to clarify the localization of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. When performing angio-OCT in 11 patients revealed that "wet" form of AMD with occult choroidal neovascularization. In 7 patients there had been discovered classic CNV in 2 patients combined. Conclusion. Angio-OCT gives a clearer picture about the presence of a choroidal neovascular membrane that plays a significant role in determining the course of treatment of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration.

  3. The epidemiology of firework-related injuries in the United States: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of firework-related injuries among an emergency department (ED) nationally representative population of the United States for the years 2000-2010, including whether the type of firework causing the injury is differential by patient demographics and whether the severity of injury is associated with the firework type. The data analysed in this study was collected from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC's) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). A total of 2812 injuries represented an estimated 97,562 firework-related injuries treated in emergency departments within the United States from 2000 to 2010. The incidence generally decreased over time. With respect to age, the rate was higher for children, with the highest rates being observed for 10-19 year olds (7.28 per 100,000 persons) and 0-9 year olds (5.45 per 100,000 persons). The injury rate was nearly three times higher for males compared to the female counterparts (4.48 vs. 1.57 per 100,000 persons). Females were less likely than males to severely injure themselves with all types of fireworks besides sparklers/novelty devices (OR 1.08, CI 0.26-4.38). The results from this suggest that firework-related injuries have decreased by nearly 30% over the 11-year period between 2000 and 2010. Moreover, there has been a decreasing trend in the type of firework causing injury for every firework type excluding the unspecified firework type. However, adolescents of 10-19 years old had the highest rate of injury for fireworks over the 11-year period. In addition odds of injury are differential by firework type. Understanding the specific types of fireworks may lead to better preventative methods and regulations. Moreover, preventative methods should be taken to reduce the rate of firework-related injuries among U.S. youths [1], and possibly more regulations and enforcement of laws geared towards prohibiting novice use of fireworks. Published

  4. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and Relations With the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    .... The United States is working with President Saca to combat narco-trafficking, to resolve immigration issues, and to promote free trade, possibly through the proposed United States- Dominican Republic...

  5. Lens fluorescence in relation to glucose tolerance and genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed Theil, Pernille; Kessel, Line; Hansen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescence of the lens has the characteristics of a life-long cumulative index of glycemia, and it is elevated in patients with diabetes in proportion to the duration of diabetes and the level of glycemia. Consequently, lens fluorometry should be capable of providing an estimate of prediagn...... fluorescence values....

  6. Vision-Related Functional Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy Across Severity Levels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jeffrey R; Doan, Quan V; Gleeson, Michelle; Haskova, Zdenka; Ramulu, Pradeep; Morse, Lawrence; Cantrell, Ronald A

    2017-09-01

    Among adults with diabetes in the United States, severe forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are significantly associated with a greater vision-related functional burden. To assess the functional burden of DR across severity levels in the United States. This cross-sectional study was based on 1004 participants 40 years or older with diabetes and valid ocular and sociodemographic outcomes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (2005-2006 and 2007-2008). Diabetic retinopathy was based on fundus photograph grading, using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. The analysis was performed from October 15, 2016, to June 15, 2017. Functional difficulties secondary to vision were assessed during a household questionnaire in which participants self-reported difficulty with reading, visuospatial tasks (ie, close-up work or finding things on a crowded shelf), mobility (ie, walking down steps, stairs, or curbs), and driving. The main outcome measure was vision-related functional burden, which was defined as present for individuals reporting moderate or greater difficulty in any of the aforementioned tasks. Of the 1004 persons with diabetes analyzed for this study (mean age, 65.7 years [95% CI, 64.0-67.3 years]; 51.1% male [95% CI, 47.1-55.2] and 48.9% female [95% CI, 44.8-52.9]), the prevalence was 72.3% for no retinopathy, 25.4% for mild and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 2.3% for severe NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The prevalence of vision-related functional burden was 20.2% (95% CI, 16.3%-24.1%) for those with no retinopathy, 20.4% (95% CI, 15.3%-27.8%) for those with mild and moderate NPDR, and 48.5% (95% CI, 25.6%-71.5%) for those with severe NPDR or PDR (P = .02). In multivariable analysis, the odds of vision-related functional burden were significantly greater among those with severe NPDR or PDR relative to those with no retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.59; 95

  7. Computer use and vision-related problems among university students in ajman, United arab emirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm - OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.065-3.368). High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness among students and corrective measures need to be implemented to reduce the impact of computer related vision problems.

  8. Racial/ethnic variations in substance-related disorders among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E; Yang, Chongming; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G

    2011-11-01

    While young racial/ethnic groups are the fastest growing population in the United States, data about substance-related disorders among adolescents of various racial/ethnic backgrounds are lacking. To examine the magnitude of past-year DSM-IV substance-related disorders (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, analgesic opioids, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers) among adolescents of white, Hispanic, African American, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander, and multiple race/ethnicity. The 2005 to 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Academic research. Noninstitutionalized household adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Substance-related disorders were assessed by standardized survey questions administered using the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method. Of 72 561 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, 37.0% used alcohol or drugs in the past year; 7.9% met criteria for a substance-related disorder, with Native Americans having the highest prevalence of use (47.5%) and disorder (15.0%). Analgesic opioids were the second most commonly used illegal drugs, following marijuana, in all racial/ethnic groups; analgesic opioid use was comparatively prevalent among adolescents of Native American (9.7%) and multiple race/ethnicity (8.8%). Among 27 705 past-year alcohol or drug users, Native Americans (31.5%), adolescents of multiple race/ethnicity (25.2%), adolescents of white race/ethnicity (22.9%), and Hispanics (21.0%) had the highest rates of substance-related disorders. Adolescents used marijuana more frequently than alcohol or other drugs, and 25.9% of marijuana users met criteria for marijuana abuse or dependence. After controlling for adolescents' age, socioeconomic variables, population density of residence, self-rated health, and survey year, adjusted analyses of adolescent substance users indicated elevated odds of substance-related disorders among Native Americans, adolescents of multiple race/ethnicity, adolescents of

  9. China’s Trade Relations with the United States in Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s trade relations with the United States over the past four decades is a topic that has not been fully dealt with in scholarly works. This paper charts the course of US-China economic relations since 1971, explains the principal forces stimulating growth and encouraging change and, finally, discusses how these two economic giants fit into an interlocking Asian and world economy. In reaction to the post-2008 financial downturn, advocates for a new world economic order have suggested a rebalancing of global demand, which will arguably become a major, politically charged issue in the US and in China in the years to come. Growing economic interdependence has quickly presented new challenges and opportunities, with issues such as human rights, Most-Favoured-Nation status, the Taiwan and Tibet question, and the huge American trade deficit threatening to cloud the relationship at times. With China’s emergence as a major power and America’s hegemonic ambitions tested in successive wars, the contradiction between a booming commercial relationship and conflict associated with geopolitical and ideological differences will continue to constitute a serious challenge. The long-term goal for each side will be to forge economic ties strong enough to create a stable political relationship, rather than to be held hostage by geopolitical constraints.

  10. Differential declines in syphilis-related mortality in the United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Moschetti, Kristin; Smith, Lisa V; Sorvillo, Frank; Kuo, Tony

    2017-04-01

    After reaching an all time low in 2000, the rate of syphilis in the United States has been steadily increasing. Parallel benchmarking of the disease's mortality burden has not been undertaken. Using ICD-10 classification, all syphilis-related deaths in the national Multiple Cause of Death dataset were examined for the period 2000-2014. Descriptive statistics and age-adjusted mortality rates were generated. Poisson regression was performed to analyze trends over time. A matched case-control analysis was conducted to assess the associations between syphilis-related deaths and comorbid conditions listed in the death records. A total of 1,829 deaths were attributed to syphilis; 32% (n = 593) identified syphilis as the underlying cause of death. Most decedents were men (60%) and either black (48%) or white (39%). Decedents aged ≥85 years had the highest average mortality rate (0.47 per 100,000 population; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.52). For the sampled period, the average annual decline in mortality was -2.90% (95% CI, -3.93% to -1.87%). However, the average annual percent change varied across subgroups of interest. Declines in U.S. syphilis mortality suggest early detection and improved treatment access likely helped attenuate disease progression; however, increases in the disease rate since 2000 may be offsetting the impact of these advancements. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hospital Related Stress Among Patients Admitted to a Psychiatric In-patient Unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric patient’s attitudes towards hospitalization have found an association between patient perceptions of the ward atmosphere and dissatisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine the aspects of stress related to hospitalization in inpatients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Fifty in-patients of both sexes admitted consecutively to a psychiatric unit in a General Hospital were asked to rate the importance of, and their satisfaction with, 38 different aspects of in-patient care and treatment. Results showed that the major sources of stress were related to having a violent patient near to his/her bed; being away from family; having to stay in closed wards; having to eat cold and tasteless food; losing income or job due to illness, being hospitalized away from home; not able to understand the jargons used by the clinical staff and not getting medication for sleep. A well-differentiated assessment of stress and satisfaction has implications for the evaluation of the quality of psychiatric care and for the improvement of in-patient psychiatric care.

  12. Pediatric Firework-Related Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Departments, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billock, Rachael M; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2017-06-01

    This study characterizes the epidemiology of nonfatal pediatric firework-related injuries in the United States among children and adolescents by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 1990 through 2014. During this 25-year period, an estimated 136 991 (95% CI = 113 574-160 408) children firework-related injuries. The annual injury rate decreased significantly by 30.4% during this period. Most of those injured were male (75.7%), mean patient age was 10.6 years, and 7.6% required hospital admission. The hands (30.0%) were the most commonly injured body region, followed by head and neck (22.2%), and eyes (21.5%). Sixty percent of injuries were burns. Injuries were most commonly associated with firecrackers (26.2%), aerial devices (16.3%), and sparklers (14.3%). Consumer fireworks pose a serious injury risk to pediatric users and bystanders, and families should be encouraged to attend public firework displays rather than use consumer fireworks.

  13. Geographic distribution of trauma centers and injury-related mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Rosengart, Matthew R; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however, access to care is not uniform across the United States. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Level I or II trauma centers in the contiguous United States were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates per 100,000 people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNRs) were generated for each state. A NNR less than 1 indicates clustering, while a NNR greater than 1 indicates dispersion. NNRs were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNRs were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.35, p center distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ = 0.34, p = 0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared with dispersed states (56.9 [IQR, 46.5-58.9] vs. 64.9 [IQR, 52.5-77.1]; p = 0.04). Dispersed compared with clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% vs. 1.2%, p distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and require further study to investigate underlying mechanisms. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV.

  14. Survey for Life-related Species During a Planetary Surface Exploration; System Type I - UV Stimulated Fluorescent Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, L. A.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The widely accepted minimum requirements for life on Earth include the presence of water and accessible sources of carbon. We assume that the same criteria must hold for putative life on past or present Mars. The evidence for CO2 and H2O at or near the Martian surface, carbon in Martian meteorites, aqueous alteration, and probable hydrothermal activity suggest that conditions conducive to the origin and evolution of life on Mars may have existed for long periods of time and may still obtain at present. Surface exploration on Mars that enables the direct detection of water in minerals and of organic carbon (including not just organic and biogenic materials but their degradation products such as kerogen-like hydrocarbons and graphitized carbon) that might be products or residues of biologic activity, is crucial. The search for evidence of life, past or present, will nevertheless be difficult. The lack of direct evidence for organic carbon and the low amounts of water found in the soils at the Viking sites demonstrated the difficulties. Recent results of GRS experiment of Odyssey mission indicated the existence of abundant water ice beneath the Mars surface. Mineralogical evidence for the presence of carbonate, sulfates, or clay minerals, products of weathering and aqueous deposition, have not been identified unambiguously on Mars. Rocks such as shales and, more particularly, limestones, which we associate with moist and benign environments on Earth, are evidently not abundant. Presumably, then, neither were the photosynthetic organisms that might have produced them. In addition, the harsh present environment on Mars (e.g., dryness, low temperatures, large temperature cycles, high level of UV light on the surface, frequent dust storms, etc.) can both destroy carbon- and water-bearing materials and hide them. Therefore, directly detecting life-related materials on Mars was likened to seeking and examining proverbial needles in haystacks. We argue that survey type

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  16. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  17. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    probable travel-related diagnoses. Of these, 23,006 (16%) patients were evaluated in the United States, 10,032 (44%) of whom were evaluated after returning from travel outside of the United States (i.e., after-travel patients). Of the 10,032 after-travel patients, 4,977 (50%) were female, 4,856 (48%) were male, and 199 (2%) did not report sex; the median age was 34 years. Most were evaluated in outpatient settings (84%), were born in the United States (76%), and reported current U.S. residence (99%). The most common reasons for travel were tourism (38%), missionary/volunteer/research/aid work (24%), visiting friends and relatives (17%), and business (15%). The most common regions of exposure were Sub-Saharan Africa (23%), Central America (15%), and South America (12%). Fewer than half (44%) reported having had a pretravel visit with a health-care provider. Of the 13,059 diagnoses among the 10,032 after-travel patients, the most common diagnoses were acute unspecified diarrhea (8%), acute bacterial diarrhea (5%), postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (5%), giardiasis (3%), and chronic unknown diarrhea (3%). The most common diagnostic groupings were acute diarrhea (22%), nondiarrheal gastrointestinal (15%), febrile/systemic illness (14%), and dermatologic (12%). Among 1,802 patients with febrile/systemic illness diagnoses, the most common diagnosis was Plasmodium falciparum malaria (19%). The rapid communication component of the GeoSentinel network has allowed prompt responses to important health events affecting travelers; during 2010 and 2011, the notification capability of the GeoSentinel network was used in the identification and public health response to East African trypanosomiasis in Eastern Zambia and North Central Zimbabwe, P. vivax malaria in Greece, and muscular sarcocystosis on Tioman Island, Malaysia. The GeoSentinel Global Surveillance System is the largest repository of provider-based data on travel-related illness. Among ill travelers evaluated in U.S. Geo

  18. External causes of pediatric injury-related emergency department visits in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tamara D; Bublitz, Caroline; Hambidge, Simon J

    2004-10-01

    To characterize the types and external causes of pediatric injury-related visits (IRVs) to emergency departments (EDs), in particular, sports-related injuries. To compare the characteristics of children with IRVs with those with non-IRVs, specifically, differences in IRV rates by race and ethnicity and by health insurance. This was a stratified random-sample survey of EDs in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), including all IRVs for patients less than 19 years of age in 1998 (n = 2,656). National estimates of pediatric IRVs were obtained using the assigned patient visit weights in the NHAMCS databases and SUDAAN analyses. Measures of association between predictor variables (patient and health insurance characteristics) and whether a child had an IRV were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Pediatric IRVs accounted for more than 11 million ED visits annually. The most common diagnoses for IRVs were open wounds, contusions, sprains and strains, and fractures and dislocations. The leading external causes of IRVs were sports-related injuries, accidental falls, being struck by objects, and motor vehicle collisions. Children with IRVs differed from those who presented for non-IRVs in many characteristics: they were more likely to be male, to be older, to be of white race, and to have private insurance, and less likely to be of Asian or Hispanic ethnicity. Sports and recreation are the leading external causes of pediatric IRVs to EDs in the United States. There are different patterns of IRVs according to gender, age, race, ethnicity, and insurance. Identification of specific patterns of injury is necessary for the design of effective prevention strategies.

  19. Prospective study of device-related complications in intensive care unit detected by virtual autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, D; Heinemann, A; Zähler, S; Vogel, H; Höpker, W; Püschel, K; Kluge, S

    2018-06-01

    There has been increasing use of invasive techniques, such as extracorporeal organ support, in intensive care units (ICU), and declining autopsy rates. Thus, new measures are needed to maintain high-quality standards. We investigated the potential of computed tomography (CT)-based virtual autopsy to substitute for medical autopsy in this setting. We investigated the potential of virtual autopsy by post-mortem CT to identify complications associated with medical devices in a prospective study of patients who had died in the ICU. Clinical records were reviewed to determine the number and types of medical devices used, and findings from medical and virtual autopsies, related and unrelated to the medical devices, were compared. Medical and virtual autopsies could be performed in 61 patients (Group M/V), and virtual autopsy only in 101 patients (Group V). In Group M/V, 41 device-related complications and 30 device malpositions were identified, but only with a low inter-method agreement. Major findings unrelated to a device were identified in about 25% of patients with a high level of agreement between methods. In Group V, 8 device complications and 36 device malpositions were identified. Device-related complications are frequent in ICU patients. Virtual and medical autopsies showed clear differences in the detection of complications and device malpositions. Both methods should supplement each other rather than one alone for quality control of medical devices in the ICU. Further studies should focus on the identification of special patient populations in which virtual autopsy might be of particular benefit. NCT01541982. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of age related macula degeneration compared with fluorescence angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröschl, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In industrialised nations age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness and severe visual impairment. AMD is a disease of the retina characterized by the accumulation of metabolic products in the macula. In early stages drusen and pigment disorders occur, in late stages a dry form is distinguished from the exsudative form with choroidal neovascularisation. AMD causes vision disorders such as blurred vision of the central part of the visual field, leading finally to a dark spot. Several therapies are available for the exsudative form, however an exact diagnosis is partially essential. The gold standard for the diagnosis of AMD is fluorescein angiography (FA, an invasive investigation with intravenous application of a dye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a more recent non-invasive procedure. Objectives: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of OCT compared to FA. Ethical, societal and legal aspects are also considered. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 34 international databases which yielded 2324 articles. Eight publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: The number of studies investigating OCT compared to FA in patients with AMD is presently very limited and the quality of the studies is generally low. The number of investigated patients is below 35 in four publications and in only one publication it is above 100. Moreover in most of the articles very selected patient groups are studied. Economic studies concerning the efficiency of OCT compared to FA cannot be identified. DiscussionEven though the patient groups investigated and the objectives of the studies are very heterogenous, all publications uniformly show that OCT cannot replace FA. However, OCT yields additional diagnostic findings and may verify unclear findings of FA. Therefore the application of OCT in addition to FA is useful in

  1. Bridging fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    Development of new fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopes has led to new ways to study cell biology. With the emergence of specialized microscopy units at most universities and research centers, the use of these techniques is well within reach for a broad research community. A major

  2. Consumer use of health-related endorsements on food labels in the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Boaz, A; Higginson, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine how consumers use health-related food endorsements on food labels. Three endorsement programs were examined: those of the two major retailers in the United Kingdom, Tesco and Sainsbury's, and the "Pick the Tick" program of the National Heart Foundation of Australia. The main methodology used was protocol analysis. This involves the subject "thinking aloud" while performing a task--in this case, (a) shopping normally and (b) shopping "healthily" for foods on a predetermined list--to generate a protocol. Each subject was also interviewed to investigate reported use of endorsements. Subjects were a quota sample (N = 44) of shoppers representative of the U.K. and Australian populations. Information about the subjects, the protocols, and interview data were analyzed quantitatively; the protocols were also analyzed qualitatively. Sainsbury's and Australian shoppers never used the endorsements when shopping but Tesco shoppers did, albeit rarely. Tesco shoppers used the endorsement in complex ways and not just as a trigger to food selection. They sometimes used the endorsement to reject endorsed foods. Subjects claimed to use the endorsements even though the protocol analysis revealed no actual use. There are features of the Tesco endorsement program that make it more helpful to consumers than the other programs.

  3. Health-related quality of life after prolonged pediatric intensive care unit stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Niamh P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for patients requiring at least 28 days of pediatric intensive care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: A 21-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-three patients who spent 28 days or longer in the PICU between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds QL 4.0) parent-proxy version at 2 to 10 yrs after discharge. The PedsQL 4.0 is a modular measure of HRQOL, which is reliable in children aged 2 to 18 yrs. It generates a total score and physical, emotional, social, school, and psychosocial subscores. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 41 died during their PICU admission and 27 died between PICU discharge and follow-up. Quality of life questionnaires were posted to parents of 108 of the 125 survivors and 70 were returned completed. Forty children (57.1%) had scores indicating a normal quality of life, whereas 30 (42.9%) had scores indicating impaired HRQOL. Of these, 14 (20%) had scores indicating poor quality of life with ongoing disabling health problems requiring hospitalization or the equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while long PICU stay is associated with significant mortality, the long-term HRQOL is normal for the majority of surviving children.

  4. [Single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses in relation to the occlusal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Gerritsen, A E; van Spijker, A; Creugers, N H J

    2013-02-01

    Occlusion concepts based on functional aspects offer more solid ground in the diagnostic process and in the treatment of (reduced) dentitions than morphologically and mechanically oriented occlusion concepts. Nevertheless, for occlusal reconstruction morphologically oriented guidelines are necessary. These guidelines are based on the border movements and positions of the mandible in the orofacial system, and on the location and modelling of the occlusal contacts in the occlusal system. The modelling of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses must harmonize with the occlusal system. Moreover, an important feature is the relation of the anterior teeth which enables mutually protected occlusion. Characteristics of a healthy orofacial and occlusal system are: absence of pathology, perceived sufficient oral functions, variability inform and function, and adaptive capacity. When designing single- or multiunit fixed dental prostheses, a pragmatic starting point is to maintain the existing occlusion and the existing speech pattern unless arguments can be provided for alterations. The occlusal design should aim at optimizing oral functions, such as mandibular and occlusal stability.

  5. Burnout in the neonatal intensive care unit and its relation to healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, D S; Sexton, J B; Kan, P; Sharek, P J; Nisbet, C C; Rigdon, J; Lee, H C; Profit, J

    2017-03-01

    To examine burnout prevalence among California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to test the relation between burnout and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Retrospective observational study of provider perceptions of burnout from 2073 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses and respiratory therapists, using a validated four-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relation between burnout and HAI rates among VLBW (<1500 g) neonates from each NICU was evaluated using multi-level logistic regression analysis with patient-level factors as fixed effects. We found variable prevalence of burnout across the NICUs surveyed (mean 25.2±10.1%). Healthcare-associated infection rates were 8.3±5.1% during the study period. Highest burnout prevalence was found among nurses, nurse practitioners and respiratory therapists (non-physicians, 28±11% vs 17±19% physicians), day shift workers (30±3% vs 25±4% night shift) and workers with 5 or more years of service (29±2% vs 16±6% in fewer than 3 years group). Overall burnout rates showed no correlation with risk-adjusted rates of HAIs (r=-0.133). Item-level analysis showed positive association between HAIs and perceptions of working too hard (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.28). Sensitivity analysis of high-volume NICUs suggested a moderate correlation between burnout prevalence and HAIs (r=0.34). Burnout is most prevalent among non-physicians, daytime workers and experienced workers. Perceptions of working too hard associate with increased HAIs in this cohort of VLBW infants, but overall burnout prevalence is not predictive.

  6. Elevator-related injuries to older adults in the United States, 1990 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory K; O'Neil, Joseph; Huisingh, Carrie; Smith, Gary A

    2010-01-01

    Elevators remain one of the safest forms of transportation; however, they are still associated with deaths and injuries. This study describes the epidemiology of elevator-related injuries among adults aged 65 years and older in the United States between 1990 and 2006, through a retrospective analysis of data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by age group for cause of injury, injured body region, injury type, and locale. Rate ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated to determine any association between the body region injured, type of injury, and cause of injury categories. There were an estimated 44,870 elevator-related injuries in older adults. The mean age was 79.5 years, and approximately 75% were women. More than half of the injuries (51.4%) were caused from a slip, trip, or fall. Soft-tissue injuries were the most common injury type (48.0%). The upper extremities were the most commonly injured body region (26.2%). Almost 15% (14.5%) of those injured required hospital admission. Of those admitted, more than 40% were for a fractured hip. Injuries associated with passenger elevators occur fairly frequently among older adults, are often associated with slip, trip or falls, and can be severe enough to require hospital admission. Older adults should use caution when stepping on or off an elevator. Awareness of the risk and the circumstances leading to falls allows for better direction of intervention strategies.

  7. Can male vaccination reduce the burden of human papillomavirus-related disease in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Garren M I; Attiga, Yasser S; Garg, Gaurav; Schlegal, Richard; Gallicano, G Ian

    2012-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer, as well as a number of other diseases in both men and women. Both sexes play a role in transmission of the disease, but the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination differs between them. It is necessary to determine the best allocation of limited resources between these two populations to produce the most effective strategy for reducing the burden from HPV-related disease. This literature review intends to elucidate the economic and social considerations that will lead to maximum utilization of vaccination programs, which in turn will reduce the burden of HPV-related disease. Current outreach in the United States is based on vaccination against HPV as a means for combating cervical cancer in women. If we are to include males, however, new marketing strategies must focus on educating patients about the full range of the vaccine's benefits. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are also unprotected against HPV in the current system. Social considerations alone may not be enough, however, as economic prediction models suggest that the associated costs outweigh the benefits in most circumstances. Taking this into account, our review also considers alternate methods of maximizing prevention of HPV-associated disease. The most prudent programs will include physician involvement in patient education and the implementation of structured vaccination and screening programs. Unfortunately, many countries do not have the necessary resources to undertake national vaccination programs. HPV testing and cytology screening for women and MSM may be the most financially reasonable option for many countries.

  8. Epidemiology, morbidity and mortality from fall-related injuries in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a significant burden on victims, families, and societies. We aimed to study the mechanism, risk factors, and outcome of hospitalized patients with fall-related injuries in order to propose preventive measures. Methods Fall-related injured patients who were admitted to Al Ain Hospital, United Arab Emirates (UAE) for more than 24 hours or who died after arrival to the hospital, were studied over 3 years. Demography, location and time of injury, affected body regions, hospital and ICU stay, and outcome were analyzed. Results 882 patients were studied, 82% were males, and 22% were less than 19 years old. Majority were from the Indian subcontinent. The most common location for fall injuries was work. Patients injured at work were older and mainly non-UAE nationals (p < 0.0001) when compared with those injured at home. Patients falling from height, when compared with those falling from same level, were older (p = 0.017), had more males (p < 0.001), were mainly from the Indian subcontinent (p < 0.001), had higher ISS (p = 0.011) and longer total hospital stay (p < 0.001). Conclusions Falls are a major health problem in the UAE. Falls at work can be prevented by safety education tailored to different ethnic groups, and proper legislation and regulation. Environmental modification using evidence-based architectural design may prevent falls among vulnerable risk groups. PMID:25178823

  9. Combination of Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity and Relative Fluorescent Quantification of HLA Length Polymorphisms Facilitates the Detection of a Loss of Heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Witter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of heterozygosity (LOH is a common event in malignant cells. In this work we introduce a new approach to identify patients with loss of heterozygosity in the HLA region either at first diagnosis or after HLA mismatched allogeneic HSCT. Diagnosis of LOH requires a high purity of recipient target cells. FACS is time consuming and also frequently prevented by rather nonspecific or unknown immune phenotype. The approach for recipient cell enrichment is based on HLA targeted complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC. Relative fluorescent quantification (RFQ analysis of HLA intron length polymorphisms then allows analysis of HLA heterozygosity. The approach is exemplified in recent clinical cases illustrating the detection of an acquired allele loss. As illustrated in one case with DPB1, distinct HLA loci in donor and patient were sufficient for both proof of donor cell removal and evaluation of allele loss in the patient's leukemic cells. Results were confirmed using HLA-B RFQ analysis and leukemia-associated aberrant immunophenotype (LAIP based cell sort. Both results confirmed suspected loss of HLA heterozygosity. Our approach complements or substitutes for FACS-based cell enrichment; hence it may be further developed as novel routine diagnostic tool. This allows rapid recipient cell purification and testing for loss of HLA heterozygosity before and after allogeneic HSCT in easily accessible peripheral blood samples.

  10. Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism(FSRAP markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lingbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism (FSRAP markers were developed based on the SRAP molecular marker. Then, the FSRAP markers were used to construct the genetic map of a wheat (Triticum aestivumL. recombinant inbred line population derived from a Chuanmai 42×Chuannong 16 cross. Reproducibility and polymorphism tests indicated that the FSRAP markers have repeatability and better reflect the polymorphism of wheat varieties compared with SRAP markers. A total of 430 polymorphic loci between Chuanmai 42 and Chuannong 16 were detected with 189 FSRAP primer combinations. A total of 281 FSARP markers and 39 SSR markers re classified into 20 linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2499.3cM with an average distance of 7.81cM between markers. A total of 201 markers were mapped on the B genome and covered a distance of 1013cM. On the A genome, 84 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 849.6cM. On the D genome, however, only 35 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 636.7cM. No FSRAP markers were distributed on the 7D chromosome. The results of the present study revealed that the novel FSRAP markers can be used to generate dense, uniform genetic maps of wheat.

  11. Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement.

  12. Safety. Unit 8: A Core Curriculum of Related Instruction for Apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The safety education unit is presented to assist apprentices to acquire a general knowledge of procedures for insuring safety on the job. The unit consists of 10 modules: (1) the Occupational Safety and Health Act: safety and health bill of rights for workers; (2) accident prevention; (3) first aid; (4) accident reports; importance, use, and how…

  13. The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; S. L. Brown; R. Dodson; T. S Smith; H. H. Shugart

    1999-01-01

    Aim Our main goals were to develop a map of the life zones for the conterminous United States, based on the Holdridge Life Zone system, as a tool for ecosystem mapping, and to compare the map of Holdridge life zones with other global vegetation classification and mapping efforts. Location The area of interest is the forty-eight contiguous states of the United States....

  14. Tools. Unit 9: A Core Curriculum of Related Instruction for Apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The tool handling unit is presented to assist apprentices to acquire a general knowledge on the use of various basic tools. The unit consists of seven modules: (1) introduction to hand tools and small power tools; (2) measuring tools: layout and measuring tools for woodworking; (3) measuring tools: feeler gauge, micrometer, and torque wrench; (4)…

  15. Fatigue-related changes in motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles within and across legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Daffertshofer, A.; van Ditshuizen, J.C.; van den Heuvel, M.R.C.; Hofman, C.; Willigenburg, N.W.; Beek, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine effects of muscle fatigue on motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) within and between legs. We expected muscle fatigue to result in an increased common drive to different motor units of

  16. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... in labor units in 1995-2012. METHODS: Exposure information regarding the annual number of deliveries per labor unit was retrieved from the Danish National Birth Register. Outcome information was retrieved from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. Exposure was categorized in delivery volume...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D...

  17. Rate Constants of PSII Photoinhibition and its Repair, and PSII Fluorescence Parameters in Field Plants in Relation to their Growth Light Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kazunori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakaji, Masayoshi; Kanel, Dhana Raj; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The extent of photoinhibition of PSII is determined by a balance between the rate of photodamage to PSII and that of repair of the damaged PSII. It has already been indicated that the rate constants of photodamage (kpi) and repair (krec) of the leaves differ depending on their growth light environment. However, there are no studies using plants in the field. We examined these rate constants and fluorescence parameters of several field-grown plants to determine inter-relationships between these values and the growth environment. The kpi values were strongly related to the excess energy, EY, of the puddle model and non-regulated energy dissipation, Y(NO), of the lake model, both multiplied by the photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) level during the photoinhibitory treatment. In contrast, the krec values corrected against in situ air temperature were very strongly related to the daily PPFD level. The plants from the fields showed higher NPQ than the chamber-grown plants, probably because these field plants acclimated to stronger lightflecks than the averaged growth PPFD. Comparing chamber-grown plants and the field plants, we showed that kpi is determined by the incident light level and the photosynthetic capacities such as in situ rate of PSII electron transport and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) [e.g. Y(NO)×PPFD] and that krec is mostly determined by the growth light and temperature levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relative contribution of different altered motor unit control to muscle weakness in stroke: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Suresh, Nina L.; Zev Rymer, William; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach. Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level. We additionally expanded the original model to include a fatigue component, which variably decreased the output force with increasing length of contraction. Differences in the force output at both the peak and fatigued time points across different excitation levels were quantified and compared across different sets of MU parameters. Main results. Across the different simulation parameters, we found that the main driving factor of the reduced force output was due to the compressed range of MU recruitment. Recruitment compression caused a decrease in total force across all excitation levels. Additionally, a compression of the range of MU firing rates also demonstrated a decrease in the force output mainly at the higher excitation levels. Lastly, changes to the recruitment order of MUs appeared to minimally impact the force output. Significance. We found that altered control of MUs alone, as simulated in this study, can lead to a substantial reduction in muscle force generation in stroke survivors. These findings may provide valuable insight for both clinicians and researchers in prescribing and developing different types of therapies for the rehabilitation and restoration of lost strength after stroke.

  19. Tornado-related fatalities--five states, Southeastern United States, April 25-28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    During April 25-28, 2011, a massive storm system generated 351 tornadoes (including 15 registering 4 or 5 on the Enhanced Fujita [EF] scale*), killing 338 persons in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. This was the third-deadliest tornado event in the United States, surpassing an April 1974 event that resulted in 315 fatalities. This event also was historic because of the record number of fatalities that occurred despite modern advances in tornado forecasting, advanced warning times, and media coverage. Risk factors for death and injury from tornadoes are sheltering in mobile homes, proximity to an EF-4 or EF-5 tornado, being an older adult (aged ≥65 years), lack of accessibility to safe rooms (e.g., basements or reinforced shelters), and a night-time tornado impact. To describe the fatalities by demographic characteristics, type of shelter used, cause of death, and tornado severity and location, CDC reviewed data from the American Red Cross (Red Cross), death certificates, and the National Weather Service (NWS). This report summarizes the results of that review. Among the 338 decedents, median age was 55.0 years (range: 4 days-97 years); approximately one third were older adults. On tornado impact, 46.7% of decedents were in single-family homes, and 26.6% were in mobile homes. The leading cause of death was traumatic injury, including 21.9% with head injuries. Half of the deadly tornadoes were rated EF-4 or EF-5 and were responsible for 89.5% of the deaths. To prevent tornado-related deaths, health messaging should encourage the public (especially older adults and residents of mobile/manufactured homes) to pre-identify an accessible safe room, prepare the room with personal protection items (e.g., blankets and helmets), and monitor local weather.

  20. A highly sensitive and selective fluorescent sensor for detection of sulfide anion based on the steric hindrance effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanfan; Tang, Mengzhuo; Fu, Xiufang; Cheng, Fenmin; Zou, Xianghua; Wang, Jingpei; Zeng, Rongjin

    2018-01-01

    Sulfide anions are not only generated as a byproduct from industrial processes but also as a crucial kind of element in biological systems. Therefore, fluorescent probes for detecting sulfide anion with sensitive and selective characters are highly popular. In this study, we report a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent sensor M1 for detection of sulfide anion based on the steric hindrance effect, where the recognition unit, dinitrobenzenesulfonate ester group is linked to aromatic ortho-position in the porphyrin, and correspondingly the fluorescence of fluorescein is efficiently quenched. Compared with the sensors with recognition unit linked to the other aromatic positions, the fluorescent sensor M1 has a lower fluorescence background. Furthermore, the corresponding fluorescence responses (F/F0) of M1 for mercapto amino-acid GSH, Hcy and Cys, were all far lower than the relative fluorescence ratio F/F0 values for S2-. It means that M1 is sensitive and selective to detection of S2-, and has an anti-disturbance ability to the biologically-relevant thiols, GSH, Hcy and Cys, and has the prospect of application in the exact detection of sulfide anions in living organisms. This approach offers some useful insights for realizing sensitive and selective fluorescent turn-on sensing in the detection assays for other analytes.

  1. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad--to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs

  2. Relating Economic Ideology to Consumer Protection: A Suggested Unit in Consumer Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert O.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a suggested unit in consumer education designed to give students insight into the controversy about consumer protection policy and proposals, and compares the basic views of three economic belief systems: neoclassical, managerial, and liberal-Galbraithian. (MF)

  3. Linking Excessive Heat with Daily Heat-Related Mortality over the Coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981- 2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a 'heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km) much finer than that of GCMs, to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air

  4. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Supplement 26 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several licensing issues that relate to Unit 1, which have been resolved since Supplement 25 was issued

  5. Respiration-related discharge of hyoglossus muscle motor units in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gregory L; Rice, Amber; Bennett-Cross, Seres J; Fregosi, Ralph F

    2014-01-01

    Although respiratory muscle motor units have been studied during natural breathing, simultaneous measures of muscle force have never been obtained. Tongue retractor muscles, such as the hyoglossus (HG), play an important role in swallowing, licking, chewing, breathing, and, in humans, speech. The HG is phasically recruited during the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Moreover, in urethane anesthetized rats the drive to the HG waxes and wanes spontaneously, providing a unique opportunity to study motor unit firing patterns as the muscle is driven naturally by the central pattern generator for breathing. We recorded tongue retraction force, the whole HG muscle EMG and the activity of 38 HG motor units in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats under low-force and high-force conditions. Activity in all cases was confined to the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Changes in the EMG were correlated significantly with corresponding changes in force, with the change in EMG able to predict 53-68% of the force variation. Mean and peak motor unit firing rates were greater under high-force conditions, although the magnitude of discharge rate modulation varied widely across the population. Changes in mean and peak firing rates were significantly correlated with the corresponding changes in force, but the correlations were weak (r(2) = 0.27 and 0.25, respectively). These data indicate that, during spontaneous breathing, recruitment of HG motor units plays a critical role in the control of muscle force, with firing rate modulation playing an important but lesser role.

  6. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Thailand and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-09

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Thailand and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  7. The Text of the Safeguards agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Switzerland and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-04-20

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Switzerland and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 30 December 1965 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for 'the information of all Members.

  8. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to the Bilateral Agreement Between Sweden and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Sweden and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 28 July 1966, as amended, between the two Governments for co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  9. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Colombia and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Colombia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 9 December 1970.

  10. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-01-06

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  11. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Colombia and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-02-23

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Colombia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 9 December 1970.

  12. The Texts of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Israel and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-07-13

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  13. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-04-09

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement berween the two Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development or the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  14. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Thailand and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Thailand and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  15. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  16. The Texts of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Israel and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  17. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement berween the two Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development or the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Peter V. Caldwell; Erika C. Cohen; Shanlei Sun; Heather D. Aldridge; Decheng Zhou; Liangxia Zhang; Yang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relative roles of cli- matic variables in altering annual runoff in the contermi- nous United States (CONUS) in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress In- dex model, WaSSI) driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercompar- ison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)...

  19. Analyzing the Curricula of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Technology-Related Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaden, Abdullah; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze on-campus and online PhD programs in educational technology-related fields in the United States. In particular, it sought to evaluate the most common program titles; core, elective, and research courses based on program curricula. The research design was quantitative content analysis and data were collected…

  20. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  1. Associations between indoor tanning and risky health-related behaviors among high school students in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Stephanie; Ashack, Kurt; Bell, Eric; Sendelweck, Myra Ann; Dellavalle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among adolescents across the United States is incomplete. The purpose of this study is to identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning according to region. We analyzed the results from surveys of adolescents in 14 different states administered as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013. D...

  2. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  3. Towards a best practice of modeling unit of measure and related statistical metadata

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Data and metadata exchange between organizations requires a common language for describing structure and content of statistical data and metadata. The SDMX consortium develops content oriented guidelines (COG) recommending harmonized cross-domain concepts and terminology to increase the efficiency of (meta-) data exchange. A recent challenge is a recommended code list for the unit of measure. Based on examples from SDMX sponsor organizations this paper analyses the diversity of ""unit of measure"" as used in practice, including potential breakdowns and interdependencies of the respective meta-

  4. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  5. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  6. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific

  7. United States-Vietnam Relations 1945-1967. Book 8 of 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-09-20

    territories t- ken from the enemy in this war, as Might be agreed upon at a later date, end also such other territories as mi~r.it voluntarily...lag controls* In consequence tho process of Giving definition 211 . the ontot’prise * A dispassionate cvpprsisSl loach ) tho United States

  8. STATEMENT OF VIEWS RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF IN THE UNITED STATES--1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FELLENDORF, GEORGE W.

    REPRESENTATIVE OF THE VIEWS OF THE ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL ASSOCIATION FOR THE DEAF, THIS STATEMENT SETS FORTH THE PURPOSES OF THE BELL ASSOCIATION AND DISCUSSES THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ABOUT DEAF EDUCATION--(1) THEIR AMBITIONS FOR ALL DEAF CHILDREN, (2) A CRITIQUE ON THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF IN THE UNITED STATES, (3) CONCERN FOR DEAF CHILDREN WHO ARE…

  9. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  10. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  11. Climate change impacts on freshwater fish, coral reefs, and related ecosystem services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed the potential physical and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries and coral reefs in the United States, examining a reference scenario and two policy scenarios that limit global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We modeled shifts in suitable habitat ...

  12. An operational fluorescence system for crop assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Charles; Belanger, Marie-Christine; Viau, Alain A.; Chamberland, Martin; Roy, Simon

    2004-03-01

    The development of precision farming requires new tools for plant nutritional stress monitoring. An operational fluorescence system has been designed for vegetation status mapping and stress detection at plant and field scale. The instrument gives relative values of fluorescence at different wavelengths induced by the two-excitation sources. Lightinduced fluorescence has demonstrated successful crop health monitoring and plant nutritional stress detection capabilities. The spectral response of the plants has first been measured with an hyperspectral imager using laser-induced fluorescence. A tabletop imaging fluorometer based on flash lamp technology has also been designed to study the spatial distribution of fluorescence on plant leaves. For field based non-imaging system, LED technology is used as light source to induce fluorescence of the plant. The operational fluorescence system is based on ultraviolet and blue LED to induce fluorescence. Four narrow fluorescence bands centered on 440, 520, 690 and 740nm are detected. The instrument design includes a modular approach for light source and detector. It can accommodate as many as four different light sources and six bands of fluorescence detection. As part of the design for field application, the instrument is compatible with a mobile platform equipped with a GPS and data acquisition system. The current system developed by Telops/GAAP is configured for potato crops fluorescence measurement but can easily be adapted for other crops. This new instrument offers an effective and affordable solution for precision farming.

  13. DIVERSITY IN DIAK JÄRVENPÄÄ CAMPUS UNIT : Diversity and Relation among Different Institutions Located Within the Campus Premises

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Samasty; Singh, Sadin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Sadin Kumar Singh & Samasty Shakya. Diversity in Diak Järvenpää Campus Unit: Diversity and Relation among Different Institution Located within the campus premises. Järvenpää, Spring 2012. 48p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree program in Social Services (UAS) Focus on Community Development Work The primary purpose of this research was to find the biggest issue of diversity in the campus area. All three educational institutions operating from t...

  14. The text of a safeguards transfer agreement relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The document reproduces the text of a safeguards transfer agreement of 28 August 1996 relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the agreement of 25 July 1969 between the Agency, Argentina and the United States of America in light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the quadripartite safeguards agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 13 January 1997

  15. Flexibility of Enzymes Suspended in Organic Solvents Probed by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy. Evidence That Enzyme Activity and Enantioselectivity Are Directly Related to Enzyme Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, Jaap; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Verboom, Willem; Hoek, Arie van; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1995-01-01

    A time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy study on the molecular flexibility of active-site labeled anthraniloyl-α-chymotrypsin, dansylsubtilisin Carlsberg, and native subtilisin Carlsberg, suspended in organic solvents, is described. The internal rotational mobility of the fluorophore in the

  16. Fluorescent Cell Barcoding as a Tool to Assess the Age-Related Development of Intracellular Cytokine Production in Small Amounts of Blood from Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; Abdulahad, Wayel; Huitema, Minke G.; Roozendaal, Caroline; Limburg, Pieter C.; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent Cell Barcoding (FCB) is a flow cytometric technique which has been used for assessing signaling proteins. This FCB technique has the potential to be applied in other multiparameter analyses. Since data on antigen (Ag)-specific T-cell immune responses, like intracellular cytokine

  17. The quality of intensive care unit nurse handover related to end of life: a descriptive comparative international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Endacott, Ruth; Chaboyer, Wendy; Benbinishty, Julie; Ben Nun, Maureen; Ryan, Helen; Schoter, Amanda; Boulanger, Carole; Chamberlain, Wendy; Spooner, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Quality ICU end-of-life-care has been found to be related to good communication. Handover is one form of communication that can be problematic due to lost or omitted information. A first step in improving care is to measure and describe it. The objective of this study was to describe the quality of ICU nurse handover related to end-of-life care and to compare the practices of different ICUs in three different countries. This was a descriptive comparative study. The study was conducted in seven ICUs in three countries: Australia (1 unit), Israel (3 units) and the UK (3 units). A convenience sample of 157 handovers was studied. Handover quality was rated based on the ICU End-of-Life Handover tool, developed by the authors. The highest levels of handover quality were in the areas of goals of care and pain management while lowest levels were for legal issues (proxy and advanced directives) related to end of life. Significant differences were found between countries and units in the total handover score (country: F(2,154)=25.97, p=studied. The total score was higher when quality of care might be deemed at greater risk (if the nurses did not know the patient or the patient was expected to die), indicating that nurses were exercising some form of discretionary decision making around handover communication; thus validating the measurement tool. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  19. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  20. Relations between sinkhole density and anthropogenic contaminants in selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between sinkhole density and water quality was investigated in seven selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States. Sinkhole density for these aquifers was grouped into high (>25 sinkholes/100 km2), medium (1–25 sinkholes/100 km2), or low (2) categories using a geographical information system that included four independent databases covering parts of Alabama, Florida, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Field measurements and concentrations of major ions, nitrate, and selected pesticides in samples from 451 wells and 70 springs were included in the water-quality database. Data were collected as a part of the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Areas with high and medium sinkhole density had the greatest well depths and depths to water, the lowest concentrations of total dissolved solids and bicarbonate, the highest concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and the lowest partial pressure of CO2 compared to areas with low sinkhole density. These chemical indicators are consistent conceptually with a conduit-flow-dominated system in areas with a high density of sinkholes and a diffuse-flow-dominated system in areas with a low density of sinkholes. Higher cave density and spring discharge in Pennsylvania also support the concept that the high sinkhole density areas are dominated by conduit-flow systems. Concentrations of nitrate-N were significantly higher (p sinkhole density than in low sinkhole-density areas; when accounting for the variations in land use near the sampling sites, the high sinkhole-density area still had higher concentrations of nitrate-N than the low sinkhole-density area. Detection frequencies of atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, prometon, and the atrazine degradate deethylatrazine indicated a pattern similar to nitrate; highest pesticide detections were associated with high sinkhole-density areas. These patterns generally persisted when analyzing the detection frequency by land

  1. Impact of role-, job- and organizational characteristics on Nursing Unit Managers' work related stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Martens, Daisy; Van Rompaey, Bart; Timmermans, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    To study the impact of role, job- and organizational characteristics on nurse managers' work related stress and well-being such as feelings of emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various studies investigated role-, job- and organizational characteristics influencing nurse-related work environments. Research on nurse managers' related work environments define influencing factors, but, a clear understanding of the impact of nurse-managers' work-environment characteristics on their work related stress and well-being is limited. A cross-sectional design with a survey. A cross-sectional survey (N = 365) was carried out between December 2011-March 2012. The questionnaire was based on various validated measurement instruments identified by expert meetings (e.g. staff nurses, nurse managers and executives and physicians). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed using emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions as outcome variables. Study results showed one out of six nursing unit managers have high to very high feelings of emotional exhaustion and two out of three respondents have high to very high work engagement. Hierarchical regression models showed that role conflict and role meaningfulness were strong predictors of nursing unit managers' work related stress and well-being, alongside with job- and organizational characteristics. Several risk factors and stimulating factors influencing nurse unit managers' work related stress and well-being were identified. Further challenges will be to develop proper interventions and strategies to support nursing unit managers and their team in daily practice to deliver the best and safest patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document supplement 25 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, and 24 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several Unit 1 licensing items resolved since Supplement 24 was issued

  3. Accounting of costs in a service of physical health. Relative units of value in dosimetry clinic in teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font Gomez, J. A.; Gandia Martinez, A.; Jimenez Albericio, F. J.; Andres Redondon, M. M.; Mengual Gil, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A single - although laborious - start in the economic and clinical management of our units can be come to the knowledge of the time invested in the tasks functional, having to differentiate them, name them and even encrypt them. The time spent in performing the tasks multiplied by the annual number of these will indicate the resources necessary to achieve our objectives. In addition, pooling the values of times that members of the Unit provide analysed inter-workers dispersal, their causes and possible solutions. The establishment of relative units of value in any process benefits all workers involved in the process since it allows to know the dispersion of the times that each person employed in the development of the tasks. (Author)

  4. Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Inskip, Peter D.; Hoover, Robert N.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    The use of cellular telephones has grown explosively during the past two decades, and there are now more than 279 million wireless subscribers in the United States. If cellular phone use causes brain cancer, as some suggest, the potential public health implications could be considerable. One might expect the effects of such a prevalent exposure to be reflected in general population incidence rates, unless the induction period is very long or confined to very long-term users. To address this i...

  5. Federal and State Laws and Safety Considerations Relating to Fireworks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    provisions of this chap- (4) is a fugitive from justice; ter; and (5) is an unlawful user of marihuana (as (3) other than a licensee or permittee defined...1) the applicant (including in the case of ed to marihuana (as defined in Section 4761 a corporation, partnership, or association, of the Internal...materials in ing the commission of any felony which may medicines and medicinal agents in the forms be prosecuted in a court of the United prescribed by the

  6. Gender representation trends and relations at the United States Naval Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Shannon FitzPatrick.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed quantitative and qualitative methods to examine gender trends and the quality of gender interactions at the United States Naval Academy (USNA). In addition to gender, midshipmen demographics, experiences, personality types, interests, and graduation outcomes were compared within and across gender for graduation years, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2004. Representation of women has increased to the current high of around 16%. Further, the data revealed similarities and ...

  7. Fluorescence detection of esophageal neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Avramov, L.

    2008-06-01

    White-light endoscopy is well-established and wide used modality. However, despite the many technological advances that have been occurred, conventional endoscopy is suboptimal and usually detects advanced stage lesions. The limitations of standard endoscopy initiate development of spectroscopic techniques, additional to standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most sensitive approaches is fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal mucosa for neoplasia detection. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20 mg/kg weight. Excitation source has max of emission at 405 nm and light is delivered by the standard light guide of the endoscopic equipment. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to reabsorption of blood. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of 5-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  8. Low relative error in consumer-grade GPS units make them ideal for measuring small-scale animal movement patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg A. Breed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length data for the movement of small animals that introduces a median error as small as 11 cm. These small error rates were measured in controlled observations of real butterfly movement. Similar conclusions were reached using a ground-truth test track prepared with a field tape and compass and subsequently measured 20 times using the same methodology as the butterfly tracking. Median error in the ground-truth track was slightly higher than the field data, mostly between 20 and 30 cm, but even for the smallest ground-truth step (70 cm, this is still a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and for steps of 3 m or more, the ratio is greater than 10:1. Such small errors relative to the movements being measured make these inexpensive units useful for measuring insect and other small animal movements on small to intermediate scales with budgets orders of magnitude lower than survey-grade units used in past studies. As an additional advantage, these units are simpler to operate, and insect or other small animal trackways can be collected more quickly than either survey-grade units or more traditional ruler/gird approaches.

  9. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group - United States, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  10. Comparative analysis of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in age-related macular degeneration patients using automated rare cell analysis (ARCA and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Anthony T Say

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD begin with non-neovascular (NNV phenotypes usually associated with good vision. Approximately 20% of NNV-ARMD patients will convert to vision debilitating neovascular (NV ARMD, but precise timing of this event is unknown. Developing a clinical test predicting impending conversion to NV-ARMD is necessary to prevent vision loss. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as CD34(+VEGR2(+ using traditional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS, are rare cell populations known to be elevated in patients with NV-ARMD compared to NNV-ARMD. FACS has high inter-observer variability and subjectivity when measuring rare cell populations precluding development into a diagnostic test. We hypothesized that automated rare cell analysis (ARCA, a validated and FDA-approved technology for reproducible rare cell identification, can enumerate EPCs in ARMD patients more reliably. This pilot study serves as the first step in developing methods for reproducibly predicting ARMD phenotype conversion. METHODS: We obtained peripheral venous blood samples in 23 subjects with NNV-ARMD or treatment naïve NV-ARMD. Strict criteria were used to exclude subjects with known angiogenic diseases to minimize confounding results. Blood samples were analyzed in masked fashion in two separate laboratories. EPCs were independently enumerated using ARCA and FACS within 24 hours of blood sample collection, and p<0.2 was considered indicative of a trend for this proof of concept study, while statistical significance was established at 0.05. RESULTS: We measured levels of CD34(+VEGFR2(+ EPCs suggestive of a trend with higher values in patients with NV compared to NNV-ARMD (p = 0.17 using ARCA. Interestingly, CD34(+VEGR2(+ EPC analysis using FACS did not produce similar results (p = 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: CD34(+VEGR2(+ may have predictive value for EPC enumeration in future ARCA studies. EPC measurements in a small sample

  11. Comparative analysis of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in age-related macular degeneration patients using automated rare cell analysis (ARCA) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Emil Anthony T; Melamud, Alex; Esserman, Denise Ann; Povsic, Thomas J; Chavala, Sai H

    2013-01-01

    Patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) begin with non-neovascular (NNV) phenotypes usually associated with good vision. Approximately 20% of NNV-ARMD patients will convert to vision debilitating neovascular (NV) ARMD, but precise timing of this event is unknown. Developing a clinical test predicting impending conversion to NV-ARMD is necessary to prevent vision loss. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), defined as CD34(+)VEGR2(+) using traditional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), are rare cell populations known to be elevated in patients with NV-ARMD compared to NNV-ARMD. FACS has high inter-observer variability and subjectivity when measuring rare cell populations precluding development into a diagnostic test. We hypothesized that automated rare cell analysis (ARCA), a validated and FDA-approved technology for reproducible rare cell identification, can enumerate EPCs in ARMD patients more reliably. This pilot study serves as the first step in developing methods for reproducibly predicting ARMD phenotype conversion. We obtained peripheral venous blood samples in 23 subjects with NNV-ARMD or treatment naïve NV-ARMD. Strict criteria were used to exclude subjects with known angiogenic diseases to minimize confounding results. Blood samples were analyzed in masked fashion in two separate laboratories. EPCs were independently enumerated using ARCA and FACS within 24 hours of blood sample collection, and ptrend for this proof of concept study, while statistical significance was established at 0.05. We measured levels of CD34(+)VEGFR2(+) EPCs suggestive of a trend with higher values in patients with NV compared to NNV-ARMD (p = 0.17) using ARCA. Interestingly, CD34(+)VEGR2(+) EPC analysis using FACS did not produce similar results (p = 0.94). CD34(+)VEGR2(+) may have predictive value for EPC enumeration in future ARCA studies. EPC measurements in a small sample size were suggestive of a trend in ARMD using ARCA but not FACS. ARCA could be a

  12. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Tomkiv, Y.; Oughton, D.H.; Cantone, M.C.; Gallego, E.; Prezelj, I.; Byrkina, E.

    2015-01-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11 March and the 11 May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. (authors)

  14. Survival units as the point of departure for a relational social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Gabriel, Norman

    Relational social theory can be found in the works of Hegel, Marx, Simmel, Mannheim, Mead, Saussure, Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault and Bourdieu. However, one of the most consistent relational thinkers is Norbert Elias. In order to develop his figurational and relational social theory Elias...

  15. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  16. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  17. Relative Importance of Human Resource Practices on Affective Commitment and Turnover Intention in South Korea and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived HR practices on affective commitment and turnover intention. This study explored which HR practices were relatively more important in predicting affective commitment and turnover intention. A total of 302 employees from the United States and 317 from South Korea completed the same questionnaires for assessing the aforementioned relationships. The results illustrated that among perceived HR practices, internal mobility had the most significant association with turnover intention in both the United States and South Korea. While internal mobility was a stronger predictor of affective commitment for the United States sample, training was the most important variable for predicting affective commitment in South Korea. The second purpose of the study was to examine whether individuals’ positive affect influences the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention. In the United States, positive affect moderated the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention such that the relationships were stronger for individuals reporting high positive affect relative to those reporting low positive affect. However, these relationships were not significant in South Korea. We discuss the implications of these results, study limitations, and practical suggestions for future research.

  18. Nuclear safety improvement activities related to WWER-440 units in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, T.

    1998-01-01

    The systematic evaluation of the deficiencies of the original design of the WWER reactors brought to the development of a Short Term Programme for Safety Upgrading and Modernisation of Kozloduy WWER-440 units. The implementation of this Programme was completed in 1997. The strive for continuos improvement of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety level, the new requirements of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority and the public concern initiated the development of new Complex Programme for Safety Improvement (PRG'97), now in a process of implementation. (author)

  19. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  20. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  1. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to a Bilateral Agreement between Argentina and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Argentina and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 25 June 1969 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 25 July 1969.

  2. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Denmark and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-07-23

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Denmark and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Safeguards Transfer Agreement was signed and entered into force on 23 June 1965.

  3. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Denmark and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Denmark and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Safeguards Transfer Agreement was signed and entered into force on 23 June 1965

  4. The Trump Hypothesis: Testing Immigrant Populations as a Determinant of Violent and Drug-Related Crime in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Green, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To test the “Trump Hypothesis”: whether immigrants are responsible for higher levels of violent and drug-related crime in the United States, as asserted by Donald Trump in his 2015 presidential campaign announcement. This is achieved using recent crime and immigration data, thus testing the common public perception linking immigrants to crime, and providing an updated assessment of the immigrant-crime nexus. Methods: Rates of violent crime and drug arrests by state are pooled for ...

  5. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to a Bilateral Agreement between Austria and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-05-18

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Austria and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 11 July 1969 between the two Governments for cooperation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 24 January 1970.

  6. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-05-06

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Members will be informed of the entry into force of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement.

  7. Coordination chemistry of gadolinium complexes having pyridine carboxylate units in relation with the medical imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gateau, C.; Chatterton, N.; Nonat, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Pecaut, J.; Borel, A.; Merbach, A.; Heim, L.

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the influence of the coordination sphere on the properties which govern the relaxivity, ligands containing pyridine carboxylates units have been particularly studied. It has been shown that the tripodal ligand tpaa forms with gadolinium (III) a neutral complex having a relaxivity (r1p=13.3 mM -1 at 298 K and 60 MHz) which is three times superior to the contrast agents currently used in NMR Imaging. To explain this remarkably relaxivity, two new ligands analogous to the tpaa: the tpatcn and the bpeda containing pyridine carboxylate units bound to one or several aliphatic nitrogen have been studied in modulating the number of coordination sites and the symmetry degree. The study of the relaxivity of the corresponding gadolinium (III) complexes gives precious data on the understanding of the results in the case of the complex [Gd(tpaa)]. The synthesis and the properties of these gadolinium (III) complexes will be presented during this conference. (O.M.)

  8. Unit Root Properties of Seasonal Adjustment and Related Filters: Special Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell William.R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bell (2012 catalogued unit root factors contained in linear filters used in seasonal adjustment (model-based or from the X-11 method but noted that, for model-based seasonal adjustment, special cases could arise where filters could contain more unit root factors than was indicated by the general results. This article reviews some special cases that occur with canonical ARIMA model based adjustment in which, with some commonly used ARIMA models, the symmetric seasonal filters contain two extra nonseasonal differences (i.e., they include an extra (1 - B(1 - F. This increases by two the degree of polynomials in time that are annihilated by the seasonal filter and reproduced by the seasonal adjustment filter. Other results for canonical ARIMA adjustment that are reported in Bell (2012, including properties of the trend and irregular filters, and properties of the asymmetric and finite filters, are unaltered in these special cases. Special cases for seasonal adjustment with structural ARIMA component models are also briefly discussed.

  9. The New Rules of PR and Marketing: A Teaching Unit for College Public Relations Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Candice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this lesson plan is to introduce the importance of social media and the Internet on public relations and marketing. The lesson describes the new rules for public relations versus the old rules. It is a more in depth look at how, and why, to use blogging, social media, and the Internet for promoting a company and appealing to buyers.…

  10. Anesthesia-Related Maternal Mortality in the United States : 1979-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, Joy L.; Chang, Jeani; Palmer, Susan K.; Gibbs, Charles P.; Callaghan, William M.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine 12 years of anesthesia-related maternal deaths from 1991 to 2002 and compare them with data from 1979 to 1990, to estimate trends in anesthesia-related maternal mortality over time, and to compare the risks of general and regional anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:

  11. Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Penido Campos Júnior

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.

  12. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K Verma

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span.Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004-2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System.Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+, 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45-64 and 0.7% of young adults (18-44 reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%-7% from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010.Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a greater public health benefit.

  13. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a

  14. Occupationally related hydrogen sulfide deaths in the United States from 1984 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D C; Suruda, A J

    2000-09-01

    Alice Hamilton described fatal work injuries from acute hydrogen sulfide poisonings in 1925 in her book Industrial Poisons in the United States. There is no unique code for H2S poisoning in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision; therefore, these deaths cannot be identified easily from vital records. We reviewed US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigation records for the period 1984 to 1994 for mention of hazardous substance 1480 (hydrogen sulfide). There were 80 fatalities from hydrogen sulfide in 57 incidents, with 19 fatalities and 36 injuries among coworkers attempting to rescue fallen workers. Only 17% of the deaths were at workplaces covered by collective bargaining agreements. OSHA issued citations for violation of respiratory protection and confined space standards in 60% of the fatalities. The use of hydrogen sulfide detection equipment, air-supplied respirators, and confined space safety training would have prevented most of the fatalities.

  15. Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Peter D; Hoover, Robert N; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-11-01

    The use of cellular telephones has grown explosively during the past two decades, and there are now more than 279 million wireless subscribers in the United States. If cellular phone use causes brain cancer, as some suggest, the potential public health implications could be considerable. One might expect the effects of such a prevalent exposure to be reflected in general population incidence rates, unless the induction period is very long or confined to very long-term users. To address this issue, we examined temporal trends in brain cancer incidence rates in the United States, using data collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Log-linear models were used to estimate the annual percent change in rates among whites. With the exception of the 20-29-year age group, the trends for 1992-2006 were downward or flat. Among those aged 20-29 years, there was a statistically significant increasing trend between 1992 and 2006 among females but not among males. The recent trend in 20-29-year-old women was driven by a rising incidence of frontal lobe cancers. No increases were apparent for temporal or parietal lobe cancers, or cancers of the cerebellum, which involve the parts of the brain that would be more highly exposed to radiofrequency radiation from cellular phones. Frontal lobe cancer rates also rose among 20-29-year-old males, but the increase began earlier than among females and before cell phone use was highly prevalent. Overall, these incidence data do not provide support to the view that cellular phone use causes brain cancer.

  16. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    To support the development of protocols for the proposed North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes project, whose objective is to establish baselines for the geochemistry of North American soils, two continental-scale transects across the United States and Canada were sampled in 2004. The sampling employed a spatially stratified random sampling design in order to estimate the variability between 40-km linear sampling units, within them, at sample sites, and due to sample preparation and analytical chemical procedures. The 40-km scale was chosen to be consistent with the density proposed for the continental-scale project. The two transects, north–south (N–S) from northern Manitoba to the USA–Mexico border near El Paso, Texas, and east–west (E–W) from the Virginia shore north of Washington, DC, to north of San Francisco, California, closely following the 38th parallel, have been studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant systematic spatial variation occurred along the transects. Data for 38 major, minor and trace elements in A- and C-horizon soils where less than 5% of the data were below the detection limit were investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A total of 15 elements (K, Na, As, Ba, Be, Ce, La, Mn, Nb, P, Rb, Sb, Th, Tl and W) demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) variability at the between-40-km scale for both horizons along both transects. Only Cu failed to demonstrate significant variability at the between-40-km scale for both soil horizons along both transects.

  17. Metal recycling technology and related issues in the United States, a BNFL perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, P.; Dam, S.; Starke, W.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated metallic materials comprise a large part of the potential waste products which result from nuclear facility repair, refurbishment, and decommissioning. United States Government (Departments of Energy and Defense) facilities, U.S. nuclear power plants, and other commercial nuclear fuel cycle facilities have large inventories of radioactive scrap metal which could be decontaminated and recycled into useful radioactive and non-radioactive products. Residual radioactivity and recycling criteria is needed to avoid the high cost of disposal and the waste of natural resources. In the United Kingdom, BNFL has decommissioned the gaseous diffusion plant at Capenhurst and has recycled a large fraction of the metallic scrap into the metals market. Other structural materials have also been released as uncontaminated scrap. U.K. release criteria for residual radionuclide contamination have been applied to these operations. A variety of techniques were utilized to size reduce large components, to remove radioactivity, and to survey and release these materials. These methods and the application of release criteria has a direct relationship to methods which would be applicable in the U.S. and in other countries. This paper will describe the specific U.K. technology and experience in the decontamination, recycle, and release of scrap metal. It will also describe the U.S. environment for metal recycle, including the volumes and levels of contamination, and the current and proposed release criteria. Comparisons will be presented between the U.S. and U.K., both in technology and methodology for recycle and in regulatory criteria for residual radioactivity and material release and for ultimate decommissioning. The paper will then provide suggested approaches and criteria for U.S. recycling and decommissioning. (author)

  18. Reviews in fluorescence 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2010-01-01

    This volume serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence spectroscopy. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications as well as includes authoritative analytical reviews.

  19. Analysis of social relations among organizational units derived from process models and redesign of organization structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Song, M.S.; Kim, K.M.; Lee, Y-H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite surging interests in analyzing business processes, there are few scientific approaches to analysis and redesign of organizational structures which can greatly affect the performance of business processes. This paper presents a method for deriving and analyzing organizational relations from

  20. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  1. Rates of TBI-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2001 – 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In general, total combined rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths have increased over the past...

  2. Development of a taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by veterinarians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griek, Olivia H.; Clark, Malissa A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Nett, Randall J.; Moeller, Amanda N.; Stabler, Margaret E.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents’ main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved. RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians. PMID:29319445

  3. Development of a taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by veterinarians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griek, Olivia H; Clark, Malissa A; Witte, Tracy K; Nett, Randall J; Moeller, Amanda N; Stabler, Margaret E

    2018-01-15

    OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents' main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved. RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians.

  4. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  5. Differences in Heat-Related Mortality by Citizenship Status: United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ethel V; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Flanders, W Dana; Murphy, Matthew; Spencer, Merianne; Noe, Rebecca S

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether non-US citizens have a higher mortality risk of heat-related deaths than do US citizens. We used place of residence reported in mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System from 2005 to 2014 as a proxy for citizenship to examine differences in heat-related deaths between non-US and US citizens. Estimates from the US Census Bureau American Community Survey of self-reported citizenship status and place of birth provided the numbers for the study population. We calculated the standardized mortality ratio and relative risk for heat-related deaths between non-US and US citizens nationally. Heat-related deaths accounted for 2.23% (n = 999) of deaths among non-US citizens and 0.02% (n = 4196) of deaths among US citizens. The age-adjusted standardized mortality ratio for non-US citizens compared with US citizens was 3.4 (95% confidence ratio [CI] = 3.2, 3.6). This risk was higher for Hispanic non-US citizens (risk ratio [RR] = 3.6; 95% CI = 3.2, 3.9) and non-US citizens aged 18 to 24 years (RR = 20.6; 95% CI = 16.5, 25.7). We found an increased mortality risk among non-US citizens compared with US citizens for heat-related deaths, especially those younger and of Hispanic ethnicity.

  6. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  7. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  8. Effect of the clinical support nurse role on work-related stress for nurses on an inpatient pediatric oncology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ann; Kicis, Jennifer; Sangha, Gurjit

    2007-01-01

    High patient acuity, heavy workload, and patient deaths can all contribute to work-related stress for pediatric oncology nurses. A new leadership role, the clinical support nurse (CSN), was recently initiated on the oncology unit of a large Canadian pediatric hospital to support frontline staff and reduce some of the stresses related to clinical activity. The CSN assists nurses with complex patient care procedures, provides hands-on education at the bedside, and supports staff in managing challenging family situations. This study explores the effect of the CSN role on the nurses' work-related stress using the Stressor Scale for Pediatric Oncology Nurses. A total of 58 nurses participated in this study for a response rate of 86%. The results show that the intensity of work-related stress experienced by nurses in this study is significantly less (P < .001) on shifts staffed with a CSN compared with shifts without a CSN.

  9. Optimization of fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, D.S.; Goedhart, J.; Hink, M.A.; van Weeren, L.; Joosen, L.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Engelborghs, Y.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, fluorescent protein (FP) variants have been engineered to fluoresce in all different colors; to display photoswitchable, or photochromic, behavior; or to show yet other beneficial properties that enable or enhance a still growing set of new fluorescence spectroscopy and microcopy

  10. Deaths related to lead poisoning in the United States, 1979-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.B.; Staes, Catherine J.; Matte, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe trends in US lead poisoning-relate deaths between 1979 and 1998. The predictive value of relevant ICD-9 codes was also evaluated. Multiple cause-of-death files were searched for record containing relevant ICD-9 codes, and underlying causes and demographic characteristics were assessed. For 1979-1988, death certificates were reviewed; lead source information was abstracted and accuracy of coding was determined. An estimated 200 lead poisoning-related deaths occurred from 1979 to 1998. Most were among males (74%), Blacks (67%), adults of age ≥45 years (76%), and Southerners (70%). The death rate was significantly lower in more recent years. An alcohol-related code was a contributing cause for 28% of adults. Only three of nine ICD-9 codes for lead poisoning were highl predictive of lead poisoning-related deaths. In conclusion, lead poisoning-related death rates have dropped dramatically since earlier decades and are continuing to decline. However, the findings imply that moonshine ingestion remains a source of high-dose lead exposure in adults

  11. Development of Obesity and Related Diseases in African Refugees After Resettlement to United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Corinne M; Chang, Yuchiao; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Despite increases in obesity and related diseases in developing nations, initial refugee clinical visits do not address these issues. We explored the development of obesity and related diseases in a longitudinal prospective cohort of African refugees resettling in northeastern US. Using state Department of Health data, refugees were linked to a health system. Body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia status were extracted from charts. US regional controls from NAMCS/NHAMCS data were matched by age, sex, race, and visit year. African refugee BMI increased after resettlement at 1 (1.7 ± 2.9, p resettlement to prevent development of obesity and related disease in this vulnerable population.

  12. Economist intelligence unit democracy index in relation to health services accessibility: a regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary Ellen; Anonson, June; Szafron, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between political environment and health services accessibility (HSA) has not been the focus of any specific studies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between political environment and HSA. This relationship that HSA indicators (physicians, nurses and hospital beds per 10 000 people) has with political environment was analyzed with multiple least-squares regression using the components of democracy (electoral processes and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, political culture, and civil liberties). The components of democracy were represented by the 2011 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index (EIUDI) sub-scores. The EIUDI sub-scores and the HSA indicators were evaluated for significant relationships with multiple least-squares regression. While controlling for a country's geographic location and level of democracy, we found that two components of a nation's political environment: functioning of government and political participation, and their interaction had significant relationships with the three HSA indicators. These study findings are of significance to health professionals because they examine the political contexts in which citizens access health services, they come from research that is the first of its kind, and they help explain the effect political environment has on health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2017-02-01

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985). Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992). Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993). Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), and Supplement No. 15 (June 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos, 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  15. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro H. Chagas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU, which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX, ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM, peak torque (torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  16. The role of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in relation to medical radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1955, growing global concerns about ionizing radiation led the General Assembly of the United Nations to establish the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The mandate of this committee, which presently includes 21 Member States, is to assess and report on the levels and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Accordingly, UNSCEAR applies scientific judgement in undertaking comprehensive reviews and evaluations concerning radiation and maintains an independent and neutral position in drawing its conclusions. These are published in authoritative reports to the UN General Assembly, with there having been 14 such substantive reports, with technical annexes, since 1958. The information provided by UNSCEAR assists the General Assembly in making recommendations in relation, for example, to international collaboration in the field of health. Governments and organizations all over the world rely on the committee's evaluations as the scientific basis for estimating radiation risk, establishing radiation protection and safety standards, and regulating radiation sources

  17. Relation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sensitive Reflectance Ratios to Carbon FluxMeasurements ofMontanne Grassland and Norway Spruce Forest Ecosystems in the Temperate Zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander; Malenovský, Z.; Urban, Otmar; Hanuš, Jan; Zitová, Martina; Navrátil, M.; Vráblová, M.; Olejníčková, Julie; Špunda, V.; Marek, Michal V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), s. 1-13 ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * carbon flux * forest ecosystems * Norway Spruce * temperate zone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012

  18. Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities--United States, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corey R; O'Connor, Mary B; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-07-31

    Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. To update data on aviation-related wildland firefighting fatalities, identify risk factors, and make recommendations for improved safety, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed reports from multiple data sources for the period 2000-2013. Among 298 wildland firefighter fatalities identified during 2000-2013, 78 (26.2%) were aviation-related occupational fatalities that occurred during 41 separate events involving 42 aircraft. Aircraft crashes accounted for 38 events. Pilots, copilots, and flight engineers represented 53 (68%) of the aviation-related fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes were engine, structure, or component failure (24%); pilot loss of control (24%); failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects (20%); and hazardous weather (15%). To reduce fatalities from aviation-related wildland firefighting activities, stringent safety guidelines need to be followed during all phases of firefighting, including training exercises. Crew resource management techniques, which use all available resources, information, equipment, and personnel to achieve safe and efficient flight operations, can be applied to firefighting operations.

  19. Distribution and broadscale habitat relations of the wolverine in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith B. Aubry; McKelvey Kevin S.; Copeland Jeffrey P.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of the wolverine (Gulo gulo) at the southern extent of its North American range requires reliable understandings of past and present distribution patterns and broad-scale habitat relations. We compiled 820 verifiable and documented records of wolverine occurrence (specimens, DNA detections, photos, and accounts of wolverines being killed...

  20. Factors Related to Performance of Health Practices Among Asian Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.

  1. Endocrine‑related diseases in the emergency unit of a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Non‑communicable diseases are emerging as an important component of the burden of diseases in developing countries. Knowledge on admission and mortality patterns of endocrine‑related diseases will give insight into the magnitude of these conditions and provide effective tools for planning, delivery, and ...

  2. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  3. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2011-11-01

    Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Descriptive epidemiology study. All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ(2) analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P sport-related concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes.

  4. Improving fluorescence diagnosis of cancer by SLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Angelika; Dolp, Frank; Kinzler, Ingrid; Hauser, Carmen; Scalfi-Happ, Claudia

    2006-02-01

    Although during the last years, significant progress was made in cancer diagnosis, using either intrinsic or specially designed fluorophores, still problems exist, due to difficulties in spectral separation of highly overlapping probes or in lack of specificity. Many of the problems could be circumvented by focusing on time-resolved methods. In combination with spectral resolved detection (spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging, SLIM) highly sophisticated fluorescence lifetime imaging can be performed which might improve specificity of cell diagnosis. To record lifetime images (τ-mapping) with spectral resolution a setup was realized consisting of a laser scanning microscope equipped with a 16 channel array for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and a spectrograph in front of the array. A Ti:Saphir laser can be used for excitation or alternatively ps diode lasers. With this system the time- and spectral-resolved fluorescence characteristics of different fluorophores were investigated in solution and in cell culture. As an example, not only the mitochondria staining dye rhodamine 123 could be easily distinguished from DAPI, which intercalates into nucleic acids, but also different binding sites of DAPI. This was proved by the appearance of different lifetime components within different spectral channels. Another example is Photofrin, a photosensitizer which is approved for bladder cancer and for palliative lung and esophageal cancer in 20 countries, including the United States, Canada and many European countries. Photofrin is a complex mixture of different monomeric and aggregated porphyrins. The phototoxic efficiency during photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be correlated with the relative amounts of monomers and aggregates. With SLIM different lifetimes could be attributed to various, spectrally highly overlapping compounds. In addition, a detailed analysis of the autofluorescence by SLIM could explain changes of mitochondrial metabolism during

  5. Health Care Disparity and Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; Dildy, Gary A; Brown, Haywood L; Bateni, Zhoobin H; Belfort, Michael A; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Clark, Steven L

    2018-04-01

    To quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to the U.S. maternal mortality ratio. This was a retrospective observational study. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) from 2005 to 2014 that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between the maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated. We performed a maximum likelihood factor analysis with varimax rotation retaining variables that were significant (Pmulticollinearity among the existing variables. The United States has experienced an increase in maternal mortality ratio since 2005 with rates increasing from 15 per 100,00 live births in 2005 to 21-22 per 100,000 live births in 2013 and 2014. (P<.001) This increase in mortality was most pronounced in non-Hispanic black women, with ratios rising from 39 to 49 per 100,000 live births. A significant correlation between state mortality ranking and the percentage of non-Hispanic black women in the delivery population was demonstrated. Cesarean deliveries, unintended births, unmarried status, percentage of deliveries to non-Hispanic black women, and four or fewer prenatal visits were significantly (P<.05) associated with the increased maternal mortality ratio. The current U.S. maternal mortality ratio is heavily influenced by a higher rate of death among non-Hispanic black or unmarried patients with unplanned pregnancies. Racial disparities in health care availability and access or utilization by underserved populations are important issues faced by states seeking to decrease maternal mortality.

  6. Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    The pursuit of a vigorous research and development program to provide renewable and other resources to meet U. S. energy needs in the next century is an important objective of President Carter's National Energy Plan. A highly educated and motivated pool of engineers and scientists must be available for energy research and development if this objective is to be achieved. This report provides, for the first time, information about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data for the year 1975 will become part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Information is provided for employment in the following fields: mathematics; physics/astronomy; chemistry; Earth, Environment, and Marine Sciences; Engineering; Life Sciences; Psychology; Social Sciences; Arts and Humanities; and Education and Business.

  7. The Security Aspect of Turkey-United States Relations: In Search For a New Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Svistunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security cooperation has always been an important aspect of the relations between Turkey and the USA. In Cold War era Turkish-American interaction within NATO played a crucial role in this cooperation. After that period the two countries began to search for a new model of their relations. Both Turkey and the USA started to use cooperation within NATO for the purpose of strengthening their global positions. At the same time the USA aspiration to use military bases in Turkey beyond NATO obligations frequently becomes a source of disagreement and crises in the relations of the two countries as it happened during the American intervention to Iraq in 2003. At present new challenges for regional security, especially in the Middle East, demands new forms of interaction between Turkey and the USA. The beginning of "the Arab spring" was met in Ankara and Washington with overlapping interest in changing conservative regimes and promoting "Turkish model". At the same time such questions as participation of Turkey in the fight against ISIL and the USA military cooperation with the Syrian Kurds, whom Ankara considers to be connected with the PKK terrorist organization, has brought serious contradictions between the two countries. The cause of these contradiction is the difference in the perception of threats in Turkey and in the Western countries. While the search for new forms of security cooperation meets with difficulties, NATO remains important for the relations between Turkey and the USA, despite traditionally high level of anti-NATO moods in the Turkish society.

  8. School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Nansel, Tonja R

    2009-10-01

    Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, parental support, and friends were examined. Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally representative sample of grades 6-10 (N = 7,182). The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with sociodemographic variables, parental support, and number of friends as predictors. Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially, or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, whereas girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, whereas girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal, or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal, and relational forms but was not associated with cyber bullying. Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differentially with traditional and cyber bullying. Results indicate that cyber bullying is a distinct nature from that of traditional bullying.

  9. The Economic Relations of the United States and China over the Years 2005–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Furgacz, Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    The monograph provides knowledge on the complex nature of both external and internal determinants influencing foreign policies of East Asian countries. Through a range of case studies on Japan, China, Taiwan and North Korea, the authors analyze international relations in East Asia as a mosaic of intertwining processes of globalization and regionalization, interests of global and regional powers, local social and economic conditions, national institutional arrangements, and even personal facto...

  10. Sports-related genitourinary injuries presenting to United States emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, Herman S; Fisher, Patrick B; Tasian, Gregory E; Blaschko, Sarah D; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    To describe epidemiologic features of sports-related genitourinary (GU) injuries and determine patient cohorts and particular sporting activities associated with increased GU injury risk. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a data set validated to provide a probability sample of injury-related US emergency department (ED) presentations, was analyzed to characterize GU injuries between 2002 and 2010. A total of 13,851 observations were analyzed to derive national estimates. Between 2002 and 2010, an estimated 137,525 individuals (95% confidence interval, 104,490-170,620) presented to US EDs with GU injuries sustained during sporting activities. Nearly three-quarters of injuries occurred in the pediatric population. The most common product involved was a bicycle, representing approximately one-third of injuries in both adult and pediatric populations. Injuries related to team sports such as football, baseball or softball, basketball, and soccer were also common, particularly among boys where they represented a combined third of all injuries. Eighty-nine percent of all patients were evaluated and treated in the ED without inpatient admission. The large majority of injuries involved the external genitalia (60%), and significant injuries of paired GU organs (kidneys and testicles) requiring inpatient admission were rare (8.5%). Sports-related GU injuries are most commonly sustained during the use of a bicycle. However, there are other associated activities with identifiable high-risk cohorts, products, and situations. Consumers, practitioners, and injury-prevention experts can use our epidemiologic data to prioritize and develop strategies aimed at the prevention and limitation of such injuries, particularly when counseling at-risk cohorts, such as those with solitary kidneys or testicles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Assessment and Management of Sport-Related Concussions in United States High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P.; d’Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Background Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. Purpose To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Conclusion Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes. PMID:21969181

  12. Nursery Product-Related Injuries Treated in United States Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology of injuries associated with nursery products among young children treated in US emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were retrospectively analyzed for patients aged nursery product from 1991 through 2011. An estimated 1 391 844 (95% confidence interval, 1 169 489-1 614 199) nursery product-related injuries among children aged Nursery product-related injuries were most commonly associated with baby carriers (19.5%), cribs/mattresses (18.6%), strollers/carriages (16.5%), or baby walkers/jumpers/exercisers (16.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was a self-precipitated fall (80.0%), and the most frequently injured body region was the head or neck (47.1%). Although successful injury prevention efforts with baby walkers led to a decline in nursery product-related injuries from 1991 to 2003, the number and rate of these injuries have been increasing since 2003. Greater efforts are warranted to prevent injuries associated with other nursery products, especially baby carriers, cribs, and strollers. Prevention of falls and concussions/closed head injuries associated with nursery products also deserves special attention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  14. FLUORESCENT DIAGNOSTICS OF MALIGNANT SKIN TUMORS WITH CHLORIN SERIES PHOTOSENSITIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Yaroslavtseva-Isaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows possibilities in fluorescence imaging of malignant skin tumors with chlorin series photosensitizers (PS photolon and fotoditazin. The regularities of photosensitizer accumulation from the data of local fluorescence spectroscopy depending on the PS and its dose, the clinical picture and the histological form of the malignant skin neoplasm is investigated. It is shown that the level and selectivity of PS accumulation in the tumor focus depends on the PS dose. In studies on 10 patients with basal cell skin cancer after the introduction of fotoditazin at a dose less than 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast between tumor and healthy tissue varied between 1.3 and 9.5, the average was 2.8±0.3; for patients who had the administered fotoditazin dose of 1 mg/kg, fluorescent contrast was 2.9±0.4, varying from 1.4 to 5. In a study with 127 patients after the introduction of photolon in the dose of 0.7-1 mg/kg, the average value of the fluorescence intensity in relative units in the intact skin was 6.9±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.2, at a dose of 1.1 to 1.4 mg/kg – 8.0±0.3 (min 4.6, max 12.5, at a dose of 1.5-2 mg/kg – 9.9±0.7 (min 5.7, max 20.3. It is also shown that fluorescence intensity of malignant neoplasm of the skin with the same dose of the photosensitizer depends on the neoplasm’s clinical and histological forms. So, 3 hours after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg the average fluorescent contrast in the surface type of skin cancer was 2.7±0.5, in the nodal form – 2.3±0.2, in erosive-ulcerative form – 3.6±0.3. In patients with nodular form of squamous skin cancer after the introduction of photolon at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg fluorescent contrast was significantly higher (p<0.05 (average of 2.8±0.2 than in the nodular form of basal cell carcinoma after the introduction of photolon at the same dose (average of 2.1±0.2.

  15. Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

    2011-10-01

    The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective.

  16. Canada-United States oil and gas relations, 1958 to 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Tammy Lynn

    While there were overtures from each country to develop a more formal accord to govern the trade of oil and natural gas at different times since 1958, Canada rejected that option in 1974 when it decided to phase out oil exports to the U.S. The main purpose of this research is to trace the development and evolution of Canada-U.S. oil and gas relations from the beginning of the informal continental relationship in 1959, through attempts to formalize a continental oil and gas agreement in the late 1960s, to the initial reversal of continentalism by Canada in 1974. This study examines and compares the changing influence of the explanatory variables of interest groups, international forces, national security, economics, ideas, and personalities on the energy decision- and policy-making processes of Canada and the U.S. between 1958 and 1974. Four key decisions or events that can be considered turning points in the Canada-U.S. oil and gas relationship are analysed and include: Canada's exemption to the American Mandatory Oil Import Program (MOIP); Canada's National Oil Policy (NOP); the near revocation of Canada's MOIP exemption; and Canada's decision to phase out oil exports. These events and relationships are situated in the larger context of interdependence, intergovernmental and transgovernmental relations, and the altered bureaucratic structures of governments in both countries over this period of time. Although decisions concerning Canada-U.S. oil and gas relations, and the pursuit and reversal of continentalist policies, were influenced by concerns regarding the pressure of various interest groups, international forces, national security, and changing economic and ideological circumstances; in the period examined here, the personalities of and personal relationships between Presidents and Prime Ministers, and the actions of key officials, as well as their transgovernmental networks across the border, often made the difference in determining what policy or approach

  17. Turkey’s Relations with Iran and the United States: A Shift in Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    experienced a golden era during the Ataturk and Riza Shah Pahlavi period. Both states’ fates were similar against the imperial powers. The Soviet...February 21, 2009). 107 Arif Keskin, “Bütün Boyutları ile İran ve Türkiye İlişkileri”, http://www.oyrenci.com/SpecialPart/b5775632-5417-4cf3-a4fa...cetinsaya.pdf (accessed February 21, 2009). 109 Arif Keskin, “Iran-Turkey Relations: Balance, Rivalry and Mutual Dependence”, Avrasya Stratejik

  18. Fact sheets relating to use of geothermal energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    A compilation of data relating to geothermal energy in each of the 50 states is presented. The data are summarized on one page for each state. All summary data sheets use a common format. Following the summary data sheet there are additional data on the geology of each state pertaining to possible hydrothermal/geothermal resources. Also there is a list of some of the reports available pertaining to the state and state energy contacts. The intent of these documents is to present in a concise form reference data for planning by the Department of Energy.

  19. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  20. Modification and backfitting at the Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 in safety related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Leif; Nilsson, Ove; Lidh, B.

    1995-05-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Oskarshamn-2, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 3 refs

  1. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between India and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America providing for the Agency to apply safeguards in relation to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy, is reproduced in part I of this document for the information of all Members. The text of the co-operation agreement is reproduced in part II. The Safeguards Agreement entered into force on 27 January 1971

  2. China's New Leadership and Strategic Relations with the United States, Strategic Insights, v. 6, issue 9 (September 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Qingguo, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.4, issue 9 (2005) Strategic Insights, is a quarterly electronic journal produced by the Center for Contemporary Conflict at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. China’s new leadership has been in office for more than three yearsâ€â€and during this time, China’s relations with the United States have received unprecedented international attention. While all share the view that this relationship is of unp...

  3. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between India and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-09-03

    The text of the Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America providing for the Agency to apply safeguards in relation to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy, is reproduced in part I of this document for the information of all Members. The text of the co-operation agreement is reproduced in part II. The Safeguards Agreement entered into force on 27 January 1971.

  4. Recent Immigration to Canada and the United States: A Mixed Tale of Relative Selection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Lu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Using large-scale census data and adjusting for sending-country fixed effect to account for changing composition of immigrants, we study relative immigrant selection to Canada and the U.S. during 1990–2006, a period characterized by diverging immigration policies in the two countries. Results show a gradual change in selection patterns in educational attainment and host country language proficiency in favor of Canada as its post-1990 immigration policy allocated more points to the human capital of new entrants. Specifically, in 1990, new immigrants in Canada were less likely to have a B.A. degree than those in the U.S.; they were also less likely to have a high-school or lower education. By 2006, Canada surpassed the U.S. in drawing highly-educated immigrants, while continuing to attract fewer low-educated immigrants. Canada also improved its edge over the U.S. in terms of host-country language proficiency of new immigrants. Entry-level earnings, however, do not reflect the same trend: recent immigrants to Canada have experienced a wage disadvantage compared to recent immigrants to the U.S., as well as Canadian natives. One plausible explanation is that, while the Canadian points system has successfully attracted more educated immigrants, it may not be effective in capturing productivity-related traits that are not easily measurable. PMID:27642205

  5. Canada-United States oil and gas relations, 1958 to 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, T.L.

    2008-07-01

    This study examined and compared the changing influence of interest groups, international forces, national security, changing economics and ideology on the energy decision- and policy-making processes of Canada and the US between 1958 and 1974. The 4 key events that marked the turning points in the Canada-US oil and gas relationship were Canada's exemption to the American Mandatory Oil Import Program (MOIP); Canada's National Oil Policy (NOP); the near revocation of Canada's MOIP exemption; and Canada's decision to phase out oil exports. In the larger context, these events signaled interdependence, intergovernmental and transgovernmental relations, and the altered bureaucratic structures of governments in both countries over this period of time. The study showed that the policy decisions concerning Canada-US oil and gas relations often depended on the personalities of, and personal relationships between Presidents and Prime Ministers, as well as the actions of key officials and their transgovernmental networks across the border.

  6. Factors of human capital related to project success in health care work units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Marjo; Paasivaara, Leena

    2011-03-01

    To explore factors of human capital related to project success that employees expect from nurse managers. Human capital refers to those resources that managers working with projects possess, such as abilities, knowledge and qualities of character. The data were collected by open interviews (n=14) with nurses, public health nurses and nurse managers working in primary health care and a hospital. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The main factors of human capital related to project success proved to be as follows: (1) management of enthusiastic project culture, (2) management of regeneration and (3) management of emotional intelligence. Future research is needed on the kind of means nurse managers use in human capital management in projects and how they see their possibilities in managing human capital. Human capital management skills should be underlined as an important competence area when recruiting a nurse manager. The success of health care projects cannot be improved only through education or by training of nurse managers; in addition, projects need nurse managers who understand workplace spirituality and have high emotional intelligence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Multi Spectral Fluorescence Imager (MSFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Genetic transformation with in vivo reporter genes for fluorescent proteins can be performed on a variety of organisms to address fundamental biological questions. Model organisms that may utilize an ISS imager include unicellular organisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), plants (Arabidopsis thaliana), and invertebrates (Caenorhabditis elegans). The multispectral fluorescence imager (MSFI) will have the capability to accommodate 10 cm x 10 cm Petri plates, various sized multi-well culture plates, and other custom culture containers. Features will include programmable temperature and light cycles, ethylene scrubbing (less than 25 ppb), CO2 control (between 400 ppm and ISS-ambient levels in units of 100 ppm) and sufficient airflow to prevent condensation that would interfere with imaging.

  8. Electronic health records to support obesity-related patient care: Results from a survey of United States physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronder, Kayla L; Dooyema, Carrie A; Onufrak, Stephen J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity-related electronic health record functions increase the rates of measuring Body Mass Index, diagnosing obesity, and providing obesity services. This study describes the prevalence of obesity-related electronic health record functions in clinical practice and analyzes characteristics associated with increased obesity-related electronic health record sophistication. Data were analyzed from DocStyles, a web-based panel survey administered to 1507 primary care providers practicing in the United States in June, 2013. Physicians were asked if their electronic health record has specific obesity-related functions. Logistical regression analyses identified characteristics associated with improved obesity-related electronic health record sophistication. Of the 88% of providers with an electronic health record, 83% of electronic health records calculate Body Mass Index, 52% calculate pediatric Body Mass Index percentile, and 32% flag patients with abnormal Body Mass Index values. Only 36% provide obesity-related decision support and 17% suggest additional resources for obesity-related care. Characteristics associated with having a more sophisticated electronic health record include age ≤45years old, being a pediatrician or family practitioner, and practicing in a larger, outpatient practice. Few electronic health records optimally supported physician's obesity-related clinical care. The low rates of obesity-related electronic health record functions currently in practice highlight areas to improve the clinical health information technology in primary care practice. More work can be done to develop, implement, and promote the effective utilization of obesity-related electronic health record functions to improve obesity treatment and prevention efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Assessment of the relative socioeconomic effects of increased coal development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Santini, D.J.

    1979-12-01

    This report contains a description of the Social and Economic Assessment Model, which is used to analyze the social and economic effects of energy development at the regional and county levels. Using the SEAM, the effects of coal mines and coal-fired utilities projected for over 340 US counties are examined. The study utilizes a clustering algorithm to determine the assimilative capacity of a county, that is, the county's ability to sustain the effects of an influx of population and thus an increased demand on its resources. The results of the clustering algorithm are used, together with county demographic data, as well as data on projected facility location, size, timing, and type, to estimate socioeconomic effects in terms of public costs that will be imposed on the affected populations. These results are aggregated to the regional level to give a rough estimate of the relative regional effects of coal development. The results indicate that 93% of the entire long-term, adverse impact from coal will be borne by states and counties of the Rocky Mountain area, whereas only 14% of the short-term impacts will be borne by this region. About 42% of the short-term costs will occur in the Southern region and 33% in the North Central region, but only 5% of the long-term costs are estimated for these two regions. Of the four major Census regions (Northeast, South, North Central, and West) only the Northeast is expected to be relatively free of community growth problems caused by coal development.

  10. Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the 'VI Reparto Mobile', a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI≥10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers.

  11. Obese and Allergic Related Asthma Phenotypes Among Children Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mindy K; Romero, Tahmineh; Sim, Myung S; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-04-19

    Pediatric asthma is heterogeneous with phenotypes that reflect differing underlying inflammation and pathophysiology. Little is known about the national prevalence of certain obesity and allergy related asthma phenotypes or associated characteristics. We therefore assessed the national prevalence, risk factors, and parent-reported severity of four asthma phenotypes: not-allergic-not-obese, allergic-not-obese, obese-not-allergic, and allergic-and-obese. We analyzed data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) of 10-17 year-olds with parent-reported asthma. We described sociodemographic and health risk factors of each phenotype and then applied logistic and ordinal regression models to identify associated risk factors and level of severity of the phenotypes. Among 4,427 children with asthma in this NSCH cohort, the association between race and phenotype is statistically significant (p<0.0001); white children with asthma were most likely to have allergic-not-obese asthma while black and Hispanic children with asthma were most likely to have the obese-non-allergic phenotype (p<0.001). ADD/ADHD was more likely to be present in allergic-not-obese children (OR 1.50, CI 1.14-1.98, p = 0.004). The phenotype with the highest risk for more severe compared to mild asthma was the obese-and-allergic asthma phenotype (OR 3.34, CI 2.23-5.01, p<0.001). Allergic-not-obese asthma comprised half of our studied asthma phenotypes, while obesity-related asthma (with or without allergic components) comprised one-fifth of asthma phenotypes in this cohort representative of the U.S. Children with both obese and allergic asthma are most likely to have severe asthma. Future management of childhood asthma might consider more tailoring of treatment and management plans based upon different childhood asthma phenotypes.

  12. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  13. Factors relating to transmission of viral hepatitis in a United States military population stationed in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R M; Schneider, R J; Snitbhan, R; Karwacki, J J

    1981-05-01

    To determine the incidence of clinical and inapparent hepatitis in a US military population stationed in Thailand, the authors prospectively studied a cohort of 326 men during one year. Clinical hepatitis A occurred in one man (clinical attack rate = 3.1/1000 men/year), and clinical hepatitis B was found in four men (clinical attack rate = 12.3/1000 men/year). No non-A, non-B hepatitis was identified. There was no serologically identified inapparent hepatitis A but inapparent hepatitis B occurred in 17 men. The apparent/inapparent ratio for hepatitis B was 1:4.25. Serotype analysis suggested that hepatitis B virus largely originated from Thai contacts, although 23% of cases were derived from western sources. To determine the relative contribution of 16 statistically significant (out of 67 studied) behavioral variables to the transmission of HBV, a factor analysis and a multivariate correlation analysis were employed. Factor analysis indicated that social and sexual contact with the indigenous population, including prostitutes, residence within the Thai community and marijuana use were behavioral areas that were associated with the acquisition of hepatitis B. Residence in the Thai community during the first four-month period in Thailand, sexual contact with a prostitute during the third four-month period, and ever having maintained a Thai mistress were found to be significant and independent risk factors by multiple regression analysis.

  14. Geographic Distribution of Trauma Centers and Injury Related Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B.; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however access to care is not uniform across the US. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Methods Level I/II trauma centers in the contiguous US were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates/100,000people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNR) were generated for each state. A NNR1 indicates dispersion. NNR were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNR were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Results Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I=0.35, pcenter distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ=0.34, p=0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared to dispersed states (56.9 [IQR 46.5–58.9] versus 64.9 [IQR 52.5–77.1], p=0.04). Dispersed compared to clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% versus 1.2%, pdistribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and requires further study to investigate underlying mechanisms PMID:26517780

  15. Design improvements related to chemistry for the Evolutionary Power reactor (EPR) unit at Flamanville 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Christophe; Alves-Vieira, Maria; Jutel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of improvements, including for chemistry, have been made for the design of the EPR turbine hall as a result of the considerable wealth of experience and feedback drawn from the EDF fleet. To reduce issues associated with flow accelerated corrosion, as well as Steam Generator (SG) fouling or clogging, appropriate materials for the piping and the exchangers, and an adequate chemical conditioning, were chosen to ensure a 60 year lifespan of the main components of the circuit. The condenser technology was also improved to mitigate the risks of raw water ingress. A dedicated local sampling line was added at feedwater (FW) to monitor the iron concentration. EPR includes a polishing system at start-up to ensure the purification of feedwater in a short time (less than 16 hours) along with reduced discharged effluents. Comprehensive studies were carried out, taking into account costs (investment, operation, and maintenance), consumption and discharge of chemical reagents, or risks of pollutions during the process. This lead to the choice of system dedicated to start-up only, similar to the mobile system used in some French Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), instead of a condensate polishing plant. Emphasis was also placed on providing a flexible and secure injection system for the chemical reagents (SIR). Indeed, it will be possible to inject two amines and hydrazine, and to perform tailored injection in many parts of the circuit. Furthermore, the room was design to facilitate future design changes, such as if dispersant injection is required as a preventative solution for SG fouling. In addition to that, close attention was applied to mitigate chemical hazards, especially regarding the hydrazine CMR effect or explosive atmosphere. This paper describes the technical and the economical choices that lead to these improvements related to chemistry in the turbine hall design, along with a comprehensive overview of the chosen designs. (authors)

  16. Characteristics of Mexican women admitted to emergency care units: alcohol consumption and related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Martha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article describes the demographic characteristics and psychological differences in a sample of female heavy and non-heavy drinkers who attended three emergency services of the Mexican city of Pachuca, Hidalgo. Material and Methods. A sample of patients seen at emergency services (ES patients over the age of 18 was selected using ES admission forms. Twenty-five-minute, face-to-face interviews were conducted by a group of trained interviewers. Patients answered various questionnaires and scales to measure alcohol consumption and to provide information on variables that have proved to be related to female drinking. Results. Thirty-six women (5.2% out of 717 of the total number of women were found to be heavy drinkers according to the TWEAK scale. This group of women had 2.3 times the risk of becoming depressed, 2.87 times the risk of taking other drugs, 1.95 times the likelihood of having been sexually abused and 1.57 times the risk of displaying suicidal ideation. Conclusions. Data from this small analysis confirm international findings that problem drinking among females throughout the life cycle is linked to depression. As regards the screening instruments employed, it is necessary to conduct more in-depth research to enrich their contents and increase their reliability and validity when used among female populations. In this study, the TWEAK proved to be extremely useful for studies in emergency services. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  17. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  19. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  20. Sugar maple growth in relation to nutrition and stress in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert P; Horsley, Stephen B; Hallett, Richard A; Bailey, Scott W

    2009-09-01

    Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern hardwood stands in northern Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, USA, and found that sugar maple growth was positively related to foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg and stand level estimates of sugar maple crown health during a high stress period from 1987 to 1996. Foliar nutrient threshold values for Ca, Mg, and Mn were used to analyze long-term BAI trends from 1937 to 1996. Significant (P maples sampled in the 1990s had decreased growth in the 1970s, 10-20 years in advance of the 1980s and 1990s decline episode in Pennsylvania. Even apparently healthy stands that had no defoliation, but had below-threshold amounts of Ca or Mg and above-threshold Mn (from foliage samples taken in the mid 1990s), had decreasing growth by the 1970s. Co-occurring black cherry, Prunus serotina, in a subset of the Pennsylvania and New York stands, showed opposite growth responses with greater growth in stands with below-threshold Ca and Mg compared with above-threshold stands. Sugar maple growing on sites with the highest concentrations of foliar Ca and Mg show a general increase in growth from 1937 to 1996 while other stands with lower Ca and Mg concentrations show a stable or decreasing growth trend. We conclude that acid deposition induced changes in soil nutrient status that crossed a threshold necessary to sustain sugar maple growth during the 1970s on some sites. While nutrition of these elements has not been considered in forest management decisions, our research shows species specific responses to Ca and Mg that may reduce health and growth of sugar maple or change species composition, if not addressed.

  1. Health-related quality of life surveillance--United States, 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Hatice S; Kobau, Rosemarie; Moriarty, David G; Zack, Matthew M; Holt, James; Donehoo, Ralph

    2005-10-28

    Population-based surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is needed to promote the health and quality of life of U.S. residents and to monitor progress in achieving the two overall Healthy People 2010 goals: 1) increase the quality and years of healthy life and 2) eliminate health disparities. This report examines surveillance-based HRQOL data from 1993 through 2002. Survey data from a validated set of HRQOL measures (CDC HRQOL-4) were analyzed for 1993-2001 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for 2001-2002 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). These measures assessed self-rated health; physically unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which physical health, including physical illness and injury, was not good); mentally unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which mental health, including stress, depression, and problems with emotions, was not good); and days with activity limitation (i.e., number of days during the preceding 30 days that poor physical or mental health prevented normal daily activities). A summary measure of overall unhealthy days also was computed from the sum of a respondent's physically unhealthy and mentally unhealthy days, with a maximum of 30 days. During 1993-2001, the mean number of physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, overall unhealthy days, and activity limitation days was higher after 1997 than before 1997. During 1993-1997, the percentage of respondents with zero overall unhealthy days was stable (51%-53%) but declined to 48% by 2001. The percentage of respondents with >/=14 overall unhealthy days increased from 15%-16% during 1993-1997 to 18% by 2001. Adults increasingly rated their health as fair or poor and decreasingly rated it as excellent or very good. Women, American Indians/Alaska Natives, persons of "other races

  2. Chromenoquinoline-based thiol probes: a study on the quencher position for controlling fluorescent Off-On characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kand, Dnyaneshwar; Kalle, Arunasree Marasanapalli; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2013-02-13

    The design, synthesis and thiol sensing ability of chromenoquinoline-based fluorescent probes 4, 5 and 6 and are reported here. The relative position of the maleimide moiety was varied along the chromenoquinoline fluorophore to decrease the background fluorescence. Lower background fluorescence in probes 4 and 6 was rationalized by the smaller k(r)/k(nr) values compared to that of probe 5. An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism was proposed for quenching and the extent was dependent on the position of the maleimide quencher. Fluorescent Off-On characteristics were evaluated by theoretical calculations. All probes were selective only towards thiol containing amino acids. Thiol sensing by probes 4 and 6 were much better compared to 5. Probe 4 displayed a better fluorescence response for less hindered thiol (185-, 223- and 156-fold for Hcy, Cys and GSH, respectively), while for probe 6, a higher enhancement in fluorescence was observed with more hindered thiols (180-, 205- and 245-fold for Hcy, Cys and GSH, respectively). The better response to bulkier thiol, GSH by probe 6 was attributed to the steric crowding at the C-4 position and bulkiness of the GSH group which force the succinimide unit to be in a nearly orthogonal conformation. This spatial arrangement was important in reducing the fluorescence quenching ability of the succinimide moiety. The application of probes 4, 5 and 6 was demonstrated by naked eye detection thiols using a 96-well plate system as well as by live-cell imaging.

  3. New Monte Carlo model of cylindrical diffusing fibers illustrates axially heterogeneous fluorescence detection: simulation and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Timothy M; Foster, Thomas H

    2011-08-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo model of cylindrical diffusing fibers that is implemented with a graphics processing unit. Unlike previously published models that approximate the diffuser as a linear array of point sources, this model is based on the construction of these fibers. This allows for accurate determination of fluence distributions and modeling of fluorescence generation and collection. We demonstrate that our model generates fluence profiles similar to a linear array of point sources, but reveals axially heterogeneous fluorescence detection. With axially homogeneous excitation fluence, approximately 90% of detected fluorescence is collected by the proximal third of the diffuser for μ(s)'∕μ(a) = 8 in the tissue and 70 to 88% is collected in this region for μ(s)'∕μ(a) = 80. Increased fluorescence detection by the distal end of the diffuser relative to the center section is also demonstrated. Validation of these results was performed by creating phantoms consisting of layered fluorescent regions. Diffusers were inserted into these layered phantoms and fluorescence spectra were collected. Fits to these spectra show quantitative agreement between simulated fluorescence collection sensitivities and experimental results. These results will be applicable to the use of diffusers as detectors for dosimetry in interstitial photodynamic therapy.

  4. Fluorescence Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorescent Proteins: A Laboratory Experiment for a Biochemistry or Molecular Biophysics Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P.; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts…

  5. Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.S.; Montan, S.; Svanberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of a powerful multicolor imaging system for tissue fluorescence diagnostics are discussed. Four individually spectrally filtered images are formed on a matrix detector by means of a split-mirror arrangement. The four images are processed in a computer, pixel by pixel, by means of mathematical operations, leading to an optimized contrast image, which enhances a selected feature. The system is being developed primarily for medical fluorescence imaging, but has wide applications in fluorescence, reflectance, and transmission monitoring related to a wide range of industrial and environmental problems. The system operation is described for the case of linear imaging on a diode array detector. Laser-induced fluorescence is used for cancer tumor and arteriosclerotic plaque demarcation using the contrast enhancement capabilities of this imaging system. Further examples of applications include fluorescing minerals and flames

  6. Sun-induced fluorescence - a new probe of photosynthesis: First maps from the imaging spectrometer HyPlant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascher, U; Alonso, L; Burkart, A; Cilia, C; Cogliati, S; Colombo, R; Damm, A; Drusch, M; Guanter, L; Hanus, J; Hyvärinen, T; Julitta, T; Jussila, J; Kataja, K; Kokkalis, P; Kraft, S; Kraska, T; Matveeva, M; Moreno, J; Muller, O; Panigada, C; Pikl, M; Pinto, F; Prey, L; Pude, R; Rossini, M; Schickling, A; Schurr, U; Schüttemeyer, D; Verrelst, J; Zemek, F

    2015-12-01

    Variations in photosynthesis still cause substantial uncertainties in predicting photosynthetic CO2 uptake rates and monitoring plant stress. Changes in actual photosynthesis that are not related to greenness of vegetation are difficult to measure by reflectance based optical remote sensing techniques. Several activities are underway to evaluate the sun-induced fluorescence signal on the ground and on a coarse spatial scale using space-borne imaging spectrometers. Intermediate-scale observations using airborne-based imaging spectroscopy, which are critical to bridge the existing gap between small-scale field studies and global observations, are still insufficient. Here we present the first validated maps of sun-induced fluorescence in that critical, intermediate spatial resolution, employing the novel airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. HyPlant has an unprecedented spectral resolution, which allows for the first time quantifying sun-induced fluorescence fluxes in physical units according to the Fraunhofer Line Depth Principle that exploits solar and atmospheric absorption bands. Maps of sun-induced fluorescence show a large spatial variability between different vegetation types, which complement classical remote sensing approaches. Different crop types largely differ in emitting fluorescence that additionally changes within the seasonal cycle and thus may be related to the seasonal activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery. We argue that sun-induced fluorescence emission is related to two processes: (i) the total absorbed radiation by photosynthetically active chlorophyll; and (ii) the functional status of actual photosynthesis and vegetation stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhturova, N.F.; Yudelevich, I.G.

    1975-01-01

    Atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry, a comparatively new method for the analysis of trace quantities, has developed rapidly in the past ten years. Theoretical and experimental studies by many workers have shown that atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry (AFS) is capable of achieving a better limit than atomic absorption for a large number of elements. The present review examines briefly the principles of atomic-fluorescence spectrophotometry and the types of fluorescent transition. The excitation sources, flame and nonflame atomizers, used in AFS are described. The limits of detection achieved up to the present, using flame and nonflame methods of atomization are given

  8. Simulating fluorescence light-canopy interaction in support of laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosema, A.; Verhoef, W.; Schroote, J.; Snel, J.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands an operational field instrument for the measurement of laser induced fluorescence of vegetation (LEAF) is developed. In addition, plant physiological and remote sensing research is done to support this new remote sensing instrument. This paper presents a general introduction on the subject of laser-induced fluorescence, including the relation between chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis, spectral characteristics, and previous research. Also the LEAF system is briefly described. Subsequently, the development of a leaf fluorescence model (KMF) and a canopy fluorescence model (FLSAIL) are reported. With these simulation models a sensitivity study is carried out. Fluorescence of 685 nm appears to be most suitable to obtain information on photosynthesis and stress, but is also influenced by canopy structure. Separation of these two effects is studied

  9. Struggling for the Future, Burdened by the Past: Croatia’s Relations with the United Kingdom from Independence to Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaurdić Josip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart from relations with its neighbours, Croatia’s relations with the United Kingdom (UK were undoubtedly its greatest international challenge since it won its independence in the early 1990s. Relations between the two countries during this period were frequently strained partly due to Zagreb’s democratic shortcomings, but partly also due to competing visions of post-Cold War Southeast Europe and due to long-lasting biases rooted in Croatia’s and Britain’s conflicting policies during Yugoslavia’s breakup and wars. Croatia’s accession to the EU in 2013 offered an opportunity for the two countries to leave the burdens of their past behind, since Zagreb and London had similar preferences on a number of crucial EU policy fronts. However, Brexit changed everything. Croatia’s future relations with the UK are likely to be determined by the nature of Brexit negotiations and the evolution of British policy toward the pace and direction of EU integration.

  10. Seasonal variation in AF-related admissions to a coronary care unit in a "hot" climate: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiu, Andrew; Horowitz, John D; Stewart, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal variations in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related morbidity and mortality have been demonstrated in "cold" northern European climates, but there are few data describing such a phenomenon in a "hot" climate. To examine the pattern of AF-related admissions to a coronary care unit (CCU) in South Australia operating within a Mediterranean climate, and to determine potential differences according to mean daily temperatures. PATIENT COHORT AND METHODS: A total of 144 admissions to the CCU during the 30 hottest and coldest days (60 days in total) during the calendar year 2001 were analyzed in respect to the absolute number of admissions and the profile of those admitted during "hot" and "cold" days. Overall, there were significantly more admissions to the CCU on "cold" as opposed to "hot" days (90 vs 54 patients in 30 days, P < or = .001). Of the 24 patients found to be in AF on presentation to hospital, 18 (75%) were admitted on cold days (P < .05). Alternatively, during "hot" days, patients were more likely to be diagnosed with unstable angina rather than acute myocardial infarction (46% vs 30%, P = .07) with proportionately fewer patients in AF at the time (11% vs 20%, P = NS). These preliminary data suggest that the phenomenon of seasonal variations in AF-related morbidity extend beyond colder climates to hotter climates with sufficiently large relative (as opposed to absolute) changes in ambient temperatures during the year.

  11. Task value profiles across subjects and aspirations to physical and IT-related sciences in the United States and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-11-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to extend previous research by examining the associations between task value priority patterns across school subjects and aspirations toward the physical and information technology- (IT-) related sciences. Study 1 measured task values of a sample of 10th graders in the United States (N = 249) across (a) physics and chemistry, (b) math, and (c) English. Study 2 measured task values of a sample of students in the second year of high school in Finland (N = 351) across (a) math and science, (b) Finnish, and (c) the arts and physical education. In both studies, students were classified into groups according to how they ranked math and science in relation to the other subjects. Regression analyses indicated that task value group membership significantly predicted subsequent aspirations toward physical and IT-related sciences measured 1-2 years later. The task value groups who placed the highest priority on math and science were significantly more likely to aspire to physical and IT-related sciences than were the other groups. These findings provide support for the theoretical assumption regarding the predictive role of intraindividual hierarchical patterns of task values for subsequent preferences and choices suggested by the Eccles [Parsons] (1983) expectancy-value model.

  12. Xanthines Studied via Femtosecond Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Changenet-Barret

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthines represent a wide class of compounds closely related to the DNA bases adenine and guanine. Ubiquitous in the human body, they are capable of replacing natural bases in double helices and give rise to four-stranded structures. Although the use of their fluorescence for analytical purposes was proposed, their fluorescence properties have not been properly characterized so far. The present paper reports the first fluorescence study of xanthine solutions relying on femtosecond spectroscopy. Initially, we focus on 3-methylxanthine, showing that this compound exhibits non-exponential fluorescence decays with no significant dependence on the emission wavelength. The fluorescence quantum yield (3 × 10−4 and average decay time (0.9 ps are slightly larger than those found for the DNA bases. Subsequently, we compare the dynamical fluorescence properties of seven mono-, di- and tri-methylated derivatives. Both the fluorescence decays and fluorescence anisotropies vary only weakly with the site and the degree of methylation. These findings are in line with theoretical predictions suggesting the involvement of several conical intersections in the relaxation of the lowest singlet excited state.

  13. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part III: Being an Entrepreneur. Unit G: Community Relations. Research and Development Series No. 194 C-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups of vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the eight instructional units in Part III is operating a business. Unit G focuses on community relations. It…

  14. Sociocultural Constraints: The Relation between Generations in the United States, Parental Education, Income, Hispanic Origin and the Financial Aid Packages of Hispanic Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Razo, Parvati Heliana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…

  15. Application of X-ray fluorescence measurements to some problems in occupational health. Part of a coordinated programme on application of nuclear-related techniques in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, M.

    1985-04-01

    This research involved the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for occupational health studies of workers exposed to lead and various other toxic elements. Workplace monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of air filter samples using a cascade impactor to separate the aerosols according to particle size. Biological monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of blood and urine. The biological measurements were supplemented by the use of AAS and also by various biochemical tests. Preliminary work was also done to set up an in vivo X-ray fluorescence method for determining lead in the finger bone of exposed workers. The most important outcome of this work was to demonstrate that aerosol concentrations of lead in a lead battery factory were significantly elevated over normal background levels (even as compared with a welding factory). Although mostly lower than the maximum permissible concentrations for occupationally exposed people, this kind of exposure was apparently sufficient to cause significant changes in various biochemical parameters, and thus might be a cause for concern. Low correlations between blood-lead and aerosol-lead indicate that workplace monitoring is not always a reliable guide to individual exposure, and that it should therefore be supplemented by biological monitoring of high risk groups

  16. Erythrocyte fluorescence and lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K G

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples from people exposed to inorganic lead were examined by fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin. With continued lead absorption, fluorescent erythrocytes appeared in the circulation of workers handling this metal or its compounds, and they progressively increased in number and brilliance. These changes ensued if the blood lead concentration was maintained above 2-42 mumol/l (50 mug/100 ml), and preceded any material fall in the haemoglobin value. At one factory, 62-5% of 81 symptomless workers showed erythrocyte fluorescence attributable to the toxic effects of lead. Excess fluorocytes were found in blood samples from a child with pica and three of her eight siblings. These four were subsequently shown to have slightly increased blood lead concentrations (2-03 to 2-32 mumol/l). Fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin is a sensitive method for the detection of chronic lead intoxication. A relatively slight increase in the blood lead is associated with demonstrabel changes in erythrocyte porphyrin content. The procedure requires little blood, and may be performed upon stored samples collected for lead estimation. The results are not readily influenced by contamination, and provide good confirmatory evidence for the absorption of biochemically active lead. PMID:963005

  17. Interim safety evaluation report related to operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, Detroit Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the scope and results of the radiological safety review performed to date by the NRC staff with respect to the operating license phase for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2. The major effort was the review of the facility design and proposed operating procedures described in applicant's Final Safety Analysis Report. In the course of the review, several meetings were held with representatives of the applicant to discuss plant design, construction and proposed operation. Additional information was requested, which the applicant provided through Amendment 7 to the Final Safety Analysis Report. A chronology of the principal actions relating to the review of the application is attached as Appendix A to the report. The Final Safety Analysis Report and amendments thereto are available for public inspection at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room, 1717 H Street, N. W., Washington, D.C. and at Monroe County Library System, 3700 South Custer Road, Monroe, Michigan 48161

  18. Social science and the public agenda: reflections on the relation of knowledge to policy in the United States and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilensky, H L

    1997-10-01

    It is tempting to oversell the practical value of applied research. A hard look at the effects of U.S. social science on public policy in areas such as active labor market policies (training, job creation, placement, etc.), crime prevention, fiscal policy, poverty reduction, and health care reform suggests an inverse relationship between social science consensus and policy and budgetary decisions. Fragmented and decentralized political economies (e.g., the United States) foster policy segmentation and isolated, short-run single-issue research--often politicized and misleading. More corporatist democracies (such as Sweden, Norway, Austria, and Germany) evidence a tighter relation between knowledge and power in which a wider range of issues is connected, longer-range effects are sometimes considered, and research is more often actually used for planning and implementation. Even in less hospitable societies, however, social science does make its way in the long run. Favorable conditions and examples are discussed.

  19. Cocaine-related admissions to an intensive care unit: a five-year study of incidence and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, S

    2010-02-01

    Cocaine misuse is increasing and it is evidently considered a relatively safe drug of abuse in Ireland. To address this perception, we reviewed the database of an 18-bed Dublin intensive care unit, covering all admissions from 2003 to 2007. We identified cocaine-related cases, measuring hospital mortality and long-term survival in early 2009. Cocaine-related admissions increased from around one annually in 2003-05 to 10 in 2007. Their median (IQR [range]) age was 25 (21-35 [17-47]) years and 78% were male. The median (IQR [range]) APACHE II score was 16 (11-27 [5-36]) and length of intensive care stay was 5 (3-9 [1-16]) days. Ten patients died during their hospital stay. A further five had died by the time of follow-up, a median of 24 months later. One was untraceable. Cocaine toxicity necessitating intensive care is increasingly common in Dublin. Hospital mortality in this series was 52%. These findings may help to inform public attitudes to cocaine.

  20. Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2014-10-01

    We examined neonatal mortality in relation to birth settings and birth attendants in the United States from 2006 through 2009. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-linked birth and infant death dataset in the United States from 2006 through 2009 were used to assess early and total neonatal mortality for singleton, vertex, and term births without congenital malformations delivered by midwives and physicians in the hospital and midwives and others out of the hospital. Deliveries by hospital midwives served as the reference. Midwife home births had a significantly higher total neonatal mortality risk than deliveries by hospital midwives (1.26 per 1000 births; relative risk [RR], 3.87 vs 0.32 per 1000; P home births of 41 weeks or longer (1.84 per 1000; RR, 6.76 vs 0.27 per 1000; P home births of women with a first birth (2.19 per 1000; RR, 6.74 vs 0.33 per 1000; P home births, neonatal mortality for first births was twice that of subsequent births (2.19 vs 0.96 per 1000; P home births compared with midwife hospital births was 9.32 per 10,000 births, and the excess early neonatal mortality was 7.89 per 10,000 births. Our study shows a significantly increased total and early neonatal mortality for home births and even higher risks for women of 41 weeks or longer and women having a first birth. These significantly increased risks of neonatal mortality in home births must be disclosed by all obstetric practitioners to all pregnant women who express an interest in such births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrowedge-related Carboniferous units and coeval magmatism in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Santos, Joao O. S.; Dalponte, Marcelo; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neal

    2012-11-01

    to represent passive margin deposits of mostly Lower Carboniferous age (younger than 374 Ma and older than 326 Ma) that precede the onset of the accretionary prism in Chile and extend into the earliest stage of the accretion, in a retrowedge position. The Arroyo del Torreón and Huaraco formations are considered to be retrowedge basin deposits to the early frontal accretionary prism (Eastern Series) of Chile. The presence of volcanism with arc signature in the units provides evidence of a Mississippian magmatic arc that can be correlated with limited exposures of the same age in the Frontal Cordillera (Argentina). The arc would have migrated to the West (Coastal Batholith) during Pennsylvanian-Permian times (coevally with the later basal accretionary prism/Western Series). The source of a conspicuous population of Devonian detrital zircon interpreted to be of magmatic origin in the studied units is discussed in various possible geotectonic scenarios, the preferred model being a magmatic arc developed in the Chilenia block, related to a west-dipping subduction beneath Chilenia before and shortly after its collision against Cuyania/Gondwana, at around 390 Ma and not linked to the independent, Devonian-Mississippian arc, developed to the south, in Patagonia.

  2. "Retweet to Pass the Blunt": Analyzing Geographic and Content Features of Cannabis-Related Tweeting Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Lamy, Francois R; Smith, G Alan; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Sheth, Amit

    2017-11-01

    Twitter data offer new possibilities for tracking health-related communications. This study is among the first to apply advanced information processing to identify geographic and content features of cannabis-related tweeting in the United States. Tweets were collected using streaming Application Programming Interface (March-May 2016) and were processed by eDrugTrends to identify geolocation and classify content by source (personal communication, media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral). States were grouped by cannabis legalization policies into "recreational," "medical, less restrictive," "medical, more restrictive," and "illegal." Permutation tests were performed to analyze differences among four groups in adjusted percentages of all tweets, unique users, personal communications only, and positive-to-negative sentiment ratios. About 30% of all 13,233,837 cannabis-related tweets had identifiable state-level geo-information. Among geolocated tweets, 76.2% were personal communications, 21.1% media, and 2.7% retail. About 71% of personal communication tweets expressed positive sentiment toward cannabis; 16% expressed negative sentiment. States in the recreational group had significantly greater average adjusted percentage of cannabis tweets (3.01%) compared with other groups. For personal communication tweets only, the recreational group (2.47%) was significantly greater than the medical, more restrictive (1.84%) and illegal (1.85%) groups. Similarly, the recreational group had significantly greater average positive-to-negative sentiment ratio (4.64) compared with the medical, more restrictive (4.15) and illegal (4.19) groups. Average adjusted percentages of unique users showed similar differences between recreational and other groups. States with less restrictive policies displayed greater cannabis-related tweeting and conveyed more positive sentiment. The study demonstrates the potential of Twitter data to become a valuable indicator of drug-related

  3. Evidence for a weakening strength of temperature-corn yield relation in the United States during 1980–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong

    2017-12-01

    Temperature is known to be correlated with crop yields, causing reduction of crop yield with climate warming without adaptations or CO2 fertilization effects. The historical temperature-crop yield relation has often been used for informing future changes. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Results show that the strength of the relationship between the interannual variability of growing season temperature and corn yield (RGST_CY) has declined in the United States between 1980 and 2010 with a loss in the statistical significance. The regression slope which represents the anomalies in corn yield that occur in association with 1 degree temperature anomaly has decreased significantly from -6.9%/K of the first half period to -2.4%/K~-3.5%/K of the second half period. This implies that projected corn yield reduction will be overestimated by a fact of 2 in a given warming scenario, if the corn-temperature relation is derived from the earlier historical period. Changes in RGST_CY are mainly observed in Midwest Corn Belt and central High Plains, and are well reproduced by 11 process-based crop models. In Midwest rain-fed systems, the decrease of negative temperature effects coincides with an increase in water availability by precipitation. In irrigated areas where water stress is minimized, the decline of beneficial temperature effects is significantly related to the increase in extreme hot days. The results indicate that an extrapolation of historical yield response to temperature may bias the assessment of agriculture vulnerability to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts on agriculture should pay attention not only to climate change, but also to changes in climate-crop yield relations. There are some caveats that should be acknowledged as the analysis is restricted to the changes in the linear relation between growing season mean temperature and corn yield for the specific study period.

  4. Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.

  5. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Centre-containing spiral-geometric structure of the space-time and nonrelativistic relativity of the unit time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhazizyan, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of nonrelativistic dependence of unit length and unit time on the position in the space is considered on the basis of centre-containing spiral-geometric structure of the space-time. The experimental results of variation of the unit time are analyzed which well agree with the requirements of the model proposed. 13 refs.; 12 figs

  7. Non-melanoma skin cancer in relation to ionizing and ultraviolet radiation among radiologic technologists in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Hauptmann, M.; Sigurdson, A.J.; Doody, M.M.; Freedman, D.M.; Linet, M.S.; Ron, E.; Mabuchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiations are known to increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. However, the effect of chronic or protracted exposure to ionizing radiation and the modifying effect of UV exposure on skin cancer risk are not well defined. We evaluated risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin among radiologic technologists in the United States. A total of 1,355 incident cases with BCC and 270 with SCC were ascertained in 65,304 white technologists between the baseline questionnaire survey in 1983-1989 and the follow-up survey in 1994-1998. Analysis by Cox's proportional hazard model, stratified by birth cohort and adjusted for potential confounders including pigmentation characteristics (skin complexion, eye and hair color) and estimated index of residential UV exposure, indicated significantly increased relative risks for BCC, but not for SCC, among early technologists who likely had high radiation exposure. Relative risks of BCC were 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12-1.79), 2.04 (95% CI: 1.44-2.88), and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.14-4.10) among those who first worked in the 1950s, 1940s, and before 1940, respectively (p for trend: <0.01), compared with technologists who first worked after 1960. The effects of ionizing radiation on BCC were not significantly modified by UV exposure (p for effect modification: 0.31), but they were modified by eye and hair color (p=0.01 and 0.03), with light eye or hair color conferring a higher radiation-related risk. In contrast, relative risks of both BCC and SCC significantly increased with increasing residential UV exposure index, and no modifying effects of pigmentation characteristics were observed. This study provides evidence of increased BCC risk associated with chronic, occupational exposure to a low-to-moderate level of ionizing radiation, which may be modified by pigmentation characteristics

  8. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  9. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G.; Fessel, Jason N.; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed ‘heroin-related overdose’ due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black ‘tar’ heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007–12) and of users in San Francisco (1994–2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out

  10. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Fessel, Jason N; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed 'heroin-related overdose' due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black 'tar' heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and of users in San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out the

  11. Obesity-related mortality in France, Italy, and the United States: a comparison using multiple cause-of-death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Magali; Désesquelles, Aline; Egidi, Viviana; Demuru, Elena; Frova, Luisa; Meslé, France; Pappagallo, Marilena

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the reporting of obesity on death certificates in three countries (France, Italy, and the United States) with different levels of prevalence, and we examine which causes are frequently associated with obesity. We use cause-of-death data for all deaths at ages 50-89 in 2010-2011. Since obesity may not be the underlying cause (UC) of death, we compute age- and sex-standardized death rates considering all mentions of obesity (multiple causes or MC). We use cluster analyses to identify patterns of cause-of-death combinations. Obesity is selected as UC in no more than 20% of the deaths with a mention of obesity. Mortality levels, whether measured from the UC or the MC, are weakly related to levels of prevalence. Patterns of cause-of-death combinations are similar across the countries. In addition to strong links with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, we identify several less familiar associations. Considering all mentions on the deaths certificates reduces the underestimation of obesity-related mortality based on the UC only. It also enables us to describe the various mortality patterns involving obesity.

  12. Compilation of data relating to the erosive response of 608 recently-burned basins in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Joseph E.; Cannon, Susan H.; Bigio, Erica R.; Davis, Nicole K.; Parrett, Charles; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Rupert, Michael G.; Thurston, Brandon L.; Trebesch, Matthew J.; Garcia, Steve P.; Rea, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of data on the erosive response, debris-flow initiation processes, basin morphology, burn severity, event-triggering rainfall, rock type, and soils for 608 basins recently burned by 53 fires located throughout the Western United States.  The data presented here are a combination of those collected during our own field research and those reported in the literature.  In some cases, data from a Geographic Information System (GIS) and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were used to supplement the data from the primary source.  Due to gaps in the information available, not all parameters are characterized for all basins. This database provides a resource for researchers and land managers interested in examining relations between the runoff response of recently burned basins and their morphology, burn severity, soils and rock type, and triggering rainfall.  The purpose of this compilation is to provide a single resource for future studies addressing problems associated with wildfire-related erosion.  For example, data in this compilation have been used to develop a model for debris flow probability from recently burned basins using logistic multiple regression analysis (Cannon and others, 2004).  This database provides a convenient starting point for other studies.  For additional information on estimated post-fire runoff peak discharges and debris-flow volumes, see Gartner and others (2004).

  13. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  15. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude

  16. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-461

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Clinton Power Station Unit 1 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts will also be small. However, steam fog from the station's cooling lake has the potential for reducing visibility over nearby roads and bridges. A fog-monitoring program for roads and ridges near the lake has been recommended. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible. Chemical discharges to Lake Clinton and Salt Creek are expected to have no appreciable impacts on water quality under normal conditions and will be required to meet conditions of the station's NPDES permit. The hydrothermal analyses indicate that under certain meteorological conditions (1-in-50-year drought), the plant would have to be operated at reduced power levels in order to meet the thermal standards established by the Illinois Pollution Control Board Order PCB 81-82. The effects of routine operations, energy transmission, and periodic maintenance of rights-of-way and transmission line facilties should not jeopardize any populations of endangered or threatened species. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. Contentions associated with environmental issues accepted during the operating-license hearing are related to assessment of effects of low-level radiation. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of Clinton

  17. Genotype/phenotype correlations in AARS-related neuropathy in a cohort of patients from the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Antoniadi, Thalia; Burton-Jones, Sarah; Murphy, Sinead M; McHugh, John; Alexander, Michael; Wells, Richard; Davies, Joanna; Hilton-Jones, David; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick; Horvath, Rita

    2015-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy with heterogeneous clinical presentation and genetic background. The axonal form (CMT2) is characterised by decreased action potentials indicating primary axonal damage. The underlying pathology involves axonal degeneration which is supposed to be related to axonal protein dysfunction caused by various gene mutations. The overlapping clinical manifestation of CMT2 with distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) and intermediate CMT causes further diagnostic difficulties. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have been implicated in the pathomechanism of CMT2. They have an essential role in protein translation by attaching amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. To date six families have been reported worldwide with dominant missense alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) mutations leading to clinically heterogeneous axonal neuropathies. The pathomechanism of some variants could be explained by impaired amino acylation activity while other variants implicating an editing defect need to be further investigated. Here, we report a cohort of six additional families originating from the United Kingdom and Ireland with dominant AARS-related neuropathies. The phenotypic manifestation was distal lower limb predominant sensorimotor neuropathy but upper limb impairment with split hand deformity occasionally associated. Nerve conduction studies revealed significant demyelination accompanying the axonal lesion in motor and sensory nerves. Five families have the c.986G>A, p.(Arg329His) variant, further supporting that this is a recurrent loss of function variant. The sixth family, of Irish origin, had a novel missense variant, c.2063A>G, p.(Glu688Gly). We discuss our findings and the associated phenotypic heterogeneity in these families, which expands the clinical spectrum of AARS-related neuropathies.

  18. Product related adult genitourinary injuries treated at emergency departments in the United States from 2002 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, Herman S; Tasian, Gregory E; Fisher, Patrick B; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2013-04-01

    We describe the epidemiological features of adult genitourinary injuries related to consumer products and determined the patient cohorts, products and situations associated with increased genitourinary injury risk. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a data set validated to provide a probability sample of injury related emergency department presentations in the United States, was analyzed to characterize genitourinary injuries from 2002 to 2010. We analyzed 3,545 observations to derive national estimates. An estimated 142,144 adults (95% CI 115,324-168,964) presented to American emergency departments with genitourinary injuries from 2002 to 2010. Of the injuries 69% occurred in men. A large majority of injuries involved the external genitalia. The most common categories of products involved were sporting items in 30.2% of cases, clothing articles in 9.4% and furniture in 9.2%. The highest prevalence of injury was at ages 18 to 28 years (37.5%), which was most often related to sports equipment, such as bicycles. Older cohorts (age greater than 65 years) more commonly sustained injuries during falls and often in the bathroom during use of a shower or tub. Of all patients 88% were evaluated and treated in the emergency department without inpatient admission, although the admission rate increased with increasing patient age. Acute genitourinary injury is often associated with common consumer items and with identifiable high risk cohorts, products and situations. Consumers, practitioners and safety champions can use our epidemiological data to prioritize and develop strategies aimed at the prevention, limitation and informed treatment of such injuries. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health related quality of life among myocardial infarction survivors in the United States: a propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Lea; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan

    2017-12-04

    Little is known regarding the health-related quality of life among myocardial infarction (MI) survivors in the United States. The purpose of this population-based study was to identify differences in health-related quality of life domains between MI survivors and propensity score matched controls. This retrospective, cross-sectional matched case-control study examined differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among MI survivors of myocardial infarction compared to propensity score matched controls using data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Propensity scores were generated via logistic regression for MI survivors and controls based on gender, race/ethnicity, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and comorbidities. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences between MI survivors to controls for demographic variables. A multivariate analysis of HRQoL domains estimated odds ratios. Life satisfaction, sleep quality, and activity limitations were estimated using binary logistic regression. Social support, perceived general health, perceived physical health, and perceived mental health were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Significance was set at p 15 days in the month (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.46-1.83) and poor mental health >15 days in the month (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07-1.46) compared to matched controls. There was no difference in survivors compared to controls in level of emotional support (rarely/never: AOR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.48-1.18; sometimes: AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.41-1.28), hours of recommended sleep (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.94-1.38), or life satisfaction (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 0.99-2.63). MI survivors experienced lower HRQoL on domains of general health, physical health, daily activity, and mental health compared to the general population.

  20. National Estimates of Marijuana Use and Related Indicators - National Survey on Drug Use and Health, United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Schauer, Gillian; McAfee, Tim; Grant, Althea; Lyerla, Rob

    2016-09-02

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. In 2013, 7.5% (19.8 million) of the U.S. population aged ≥12 years reported using marijuana during the preceding month. Because of certain state-level policies that have legalized marijuana for medical or recreational use, population-based data on marijuana use and other related indicators are needed to help monitor behavioral health changes in the United States. 2002-2014. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is a national- and state-level survey of a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population aged ≥12 years. NSDUH collects information about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; initiation of substance use; frequency of substance use; substance dependence and abuse; perception of substance harm risk or no risk; and other related behavioral health indicators. This report describes national trends for selected marijuana use and related indicators, including prevalence of marijuana use; initiation; perception of harm risk, approval, and attitudes; perception of availability and mode of acquisition; dependence and abuse; and perception of legal penalty for marijuana possession. In 2014, a total of 2.5 million persons aged ≥12 years had used marijuana for the first time during the preceding 12 months, an average of approximately 7,000 new users each day. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of marijuana use during the past month, past year, and daily or almost daily increased among persons aged ≥18 years, but not among those aged 12-17 years. Among persons aged ≥12 years, the prevalence of perceived great risk from smoking marijuana once or twice a week and once a month decreased and the prevalence of perceived no risk increased. The prevalence of past year marijuana dependence and abuse decreased, except among persons aged ≥26 years. Among persons aged ≥12 years, the percentage reporting that marijuana was fairly easy or very easy

  1. Fluorescent discharge lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, E.; Otsuka, H.; Nomi, K.; Honmo, I.

    1982-01-01

    A rapidly illuminating fluorescent lamp 1,200 mm long and 32.5 mm in diameter with an interior conducting strip which is compatible with conventional fixtures and ballasts is described. The fluorescent lamp is composed of a linear glass tube, electrodes sealed at both ends, mercury and raregas sealed in the glass tube, a fluorescent substance clad on the inner walls of the glass tube, and a clad conducting strip extending the entire length of the glass tube in the axial direction on the inner surface of the tube.

  2. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  3. Antinuclear antibodies: clinical significance of fluorescence patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, S.L.; Habermann, F.; Franco, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with 212 sera positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were studied to: 1) determine the immunofluorescent nuclear staining patterns using Burnham's technique and simplified classification; 2) note the specificity of fluorescence patterns among the various connective tissue diseases; 3) study comparatively the fluorescence paterns employing 5 different antigen substrates; 4) correlate ANA titers and fluorescence patterns with renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It was observed: 1) most of the sera gave nonparticulate fluorescent patterns: peripheral, homogeneous, or peripheral-homogeneneous; 2) 55,5% of the patients had LE and most of those sera showed nonparticulate fluorescent patterns; 3) the sera displayed no specificity for any of the following antigen substrates: imprints of human normal spleen, frozen rat liver and kidney sections, frozen mouse kidney sections and perypheral human blood smears; 4) imprints of normal human spleen were the best substrate for accurate identification of fluorescent patterns; 5) sera from SLE patients with renal involvement showed higher ANA titers in relation to patients without renal involvement; both groups of sera gave similar ANA fluorescent patterns. (Author) [pt

  4. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  5. Forty Years of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (XXX) on Zionism and Racism: the Brazilian Vote as an instance of United States - Brazil Relations

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, NORMA BREDA DOS; UZIEL, EDUARDO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 1975, Brazil voted in favor of the United Nations General Assembly resolution 3379 (XXX), equating Zionism with a form of racism. Focusing on the decision-making process of president Ernesto Geisel's (1974-1979) foreign policy, "responsible pragmatism", this article discusses how the ultimate decision to vote in favor of resolution was taken taking into account mainly US-Brazil relationship. Resumo Em 1975, o Brasil votou a favor da resolução da Assembleia Geral das Nações Unid...

  6. Introduction to fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, David M

    2014-01-01

    "An essential contribution to educating scientists in the principles of fluorescence. It will also be an important addition to the libraries of practitioners applying the principles of molecular fluorescence."-Ken Jacobson, Kenan Distinguished Professor of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill"An exquisite compendium of fluorescence and its applications in biochemistry enriched by a very exciting historical perspective. This book will become a standard text for graduate students and other scientists."-Drs. Zygmunt (Karol) Gryczynski and Ignacy Gryczynski, University of North Texas Health Science Center"… truly a masterwork, combining clarity, precision, and good humor. The reader, novice or expert, will be pleased with the text and will not stop reading. It is a formidable account of the fluorescence field, which has impacted the life sciences so considerably in the last 60 years."-Jerson L. Silva, M.D., Ph.D., Professor and Director, National Institute of Science and Tech...

  7. Geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Menon, Ram K; Freed, Gary L

    2008-03-01

    To determine the geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of US pediatric endocrinologists. Estimation of observed and "index" ratios of children with diabetes (by region and division) and obesity (body mass index >/=95th % for age and sex) (by region and state) to board-certified pediatric endocrinologists. At the national level, the ratio of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists is 290:1, and the ratio of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists is 17,741:1. Ratios of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists in the Midwest (370:1), South (335:1), and West (367:1) are twice as high as in the Northeast (144:1). Across states, there is up to a 19-fold difference in the observed ratios of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists. Under conditions of equitably distributed endocrinologist supply, variation across states would be mitigated considerably. The distribution of children with diabetes and obesity does not parallel the distribution of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States, due largely to geographic disparities in endocrinologist supply. Given the large burden of obese children to endocrinologists, multidisciplinary models of care delivery are essential for the US health care system to address the needs of children with diabetes and obesity.

  8. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  9. Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill; Cherepanav, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari

    2013-08-01

    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination compared to white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  10. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steven G.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; Sun, Shanlei; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Zhang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the relative roles of climatic variables in altering annual runoff in the conterminous United States (CONUS) in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress Index model, WaSSI) driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models. The results suggest that precipitation has been the primary control of runoff variation during the latest decades, but the role of temperature will outweigh that of precipitation in most regions if future climate change follows the projections of climate models instead of the historical tendencies. Besides these two key factors, increasing air humidity is projected to partially offset the additional evaporative demand caused by warming and consequently enhance runoff. Overall, the projections from 20 climate models suggest a high degree of consistency on the increasing trends in temperature, precipitation, and humidity, which will be the major climatic driving factors accounting for 43-50, 20-24, and 16-23 % of the runoff change, respectively. Spatially, while temperature rise is recognized as the largest contributor that suppresses runoff in most areas, precipitation is expected to be the dominant factor driving runoff to increase across the Pacific coast and the southwest. The combined effects of increasing humidity and precipitation may also surpass the detrimental effects of warming and result in a hydrologically wetter future in the east. However, severe runoff depletion is more likely to occur in the central CONUS as temperature effect prevails.

  11. Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Reale, Carrie; Slagle, Jason M; Anders, Shilo; Shotwell, Matthew S; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Weinger, Matthew B

    Medication safety presents an ongoing challenge for nurses working in complex, fast-paced, intensive care unit (ICU) environments. Studying ICU nurse's medication management-especially medication-related events (MREs)-provides an approach to analyze and improve medication safety and quality. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of facilitated MRE reporting in identifying system deficiencies and the relationship between MREs and nurses' work in the ICUs. We conducted 124 structured 4-hour observations of nurses in three different ICUs. Each observation included measurement of nurse's moment-to-moment activity and self-reports of workload and negative mood. The observer then obtained MRE reports from the nurse using a structured tool. The MREs were analyzed by three experts. MREs were reported in 35% of observations. The 60 total MREs included four medication errors and seven adverse drug events. Of the 49 remaining MREs, 65% were associated with negative patient impact. Task/process deficiencies were the most common contributory factor for MREs. MRE occurrence was correlated with increased total task volume. MREs also correlated with increased workload, especially during night shifts. Most of these MREs would not be captured by traditional event reporting systems. Facilitated MRE reporting provides a robust information source about potential breakdowns in medication management safety and opportunities for system improvement.

  12. Target-context unitization effect on the familiarity-related FN400: a face recognition exclusion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Etienne, Yann

    2015-03-01

    Using two exclusion tasks, the present study examined how the ERP correlates of face recognition are affected by the nature of the information to be retrieved. Intrinsic (facial expression) and extrinsic (background scene) visual information were paired with face identity and constituted the exclusion criterion at test time. Although perceptual information had to be taken into account in both situations, the FN400 old-new effect was observed only for old target faces on the expression-exclusion task, whereas it was found for both old target and old non-target faces in the background-exclusion situation. These results reveal that the FN400, which is generally interpreted as a correlate of familiarity, was modulated by the retrieval of intra-item and intrinsic face information, but not by the retrieval of extrinsic information. The observed effects on the FN400 depended on the nature of the information to be retrieved and its relationship (unitization) to the recognition target. On the other hand, the parietal old-new effect (generally described as an ERP correlate of recollection) reflected the retrieval of both types of contextual features equivalently. The current findings are discussed in relation to recent controversies about the nature of the recognition processes reflected by the ERP correlates of face recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  14. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C

    2016-10-01

    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of minitrampoline- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States, 1990-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Fernandez, Soledad A; Smith, Gary A

    2005-07-01

    To compare mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted for all ages from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 to 2002. We compared 137 minitrampoline-related injuries with 143 full-sized trampoline-related injuries, randomly selected from all full-sized trampoline-related injuries reported to the NEISS during the study period. Patients ranged in age from 1 to 80 years (mean [SD]: 13.9 [17.7]) and 2 to 52 years (mean [SD]: 11.0 [8.0]) for mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries, respectively. Most patients were younger than 18 years (82% mini, 91% full-sized). Thirty-two percent of minitrampoline- and 19% of full-sized trampoline-related injuries were to children who were younger than 6 years; girls predominated (63% mini, 51% full-sized). Children who were younger than 6 years were more likely to be injured on a minitrampoline than on a full-sized trampoline, when compared with 6- to 17-year-olds (odds ratio [OR]: 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-4.47). The majority of injuries occurred at home (87% mini, 89% full-sized). All patients who were injured on a minitrampoline were treated and released, whereas 5% of patients who were injured on a full-sized trampoline were admitted to the hospital. On minitrampolines, children who were younger than 6 years were at risk for head lacerations (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.71-16.03), and children who were 6 to 17 years were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 1.35-59.14). Children who were 6 to 17 years and injured on a full-sized trampoline were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 4.85; 95% CI: 1.09-44.93). Lower extremity strains or sprains were the most common injury sustained by adults (18 years and older; 33% mini, 15% full-sized). Injury patterns were similar for mini- and full-sized trampolines, although

  16. Scanning fluorescence detector for high-throughput DNA genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Terry L.; Petsinger, Jeremy; Christensen, Carl; Vaske, David A.; Brumley, Robert L., Jr.; Luckey, John A.; Weber, James L.

    1996-04-01

    A new scanning fluorescence detector (SCAFUD) was developed for high-throughput genotyping of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs). Fluorescent dyes are incorporated into relatively short DNA fragments via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and are separated by electrophoresis in short, wide polyacrylamide gels (144 lanes with well to read distances of 14 cm). Excitation light from an argon laser with primary lines at 488 and 514 nm is introduced into the gel through a fiber optic cable, dichroic mirror, and 40X microscope objective. Emitted fluorescent light is collected confocally through a second fiber. The confocal head is translated across the bottom of the gel at 0.5 Hz. The detection unit utilizes dichroic mirrors and band pass filters to direct light with 10 - 20 nm bandwidths to four photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are independently amplified with variable gain and then sampled at a rate of 2500 points per scan using a computer based A/D board. LabView software (National Instruments) is used for instrument operation. Currently, three fluorescent dyes (Fam, Hex and Rox) are simultaneously detected with peak detection wavelengths of 543, 567, and 613 nm, respectively. The detection limit for fluorescein-labeled primers is about 100 attomoles. Planned SCAFUD upgrades include rearrangement of laser head geometry, use of additional excitation lasers for simultaneous detection of more dyes, and the use of detector arrays instead of individual PMTs. Extensive software has been written for automatic analysis of SCAFUD images. The software enables background subtraction, band identification, multiple- dye signal resolution, lane finding, band sizing and allele calling. Whole genome screens are currently underway to search for loci influencing such complex diseases as diabetes, asthma, and hypertension. Seven production SCAFUDs are currently in operation. Genotyping output for the coming year is projected to be about one million total genotypes (DNA

  17. Assessment of the safety of injection practices and injection-related procedures in family health units and centers in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoseeny, Taghareed A; Mourad, Juidan K

    2014-08-01

    The Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN) developed an intervention strategy for reducing overuse of injections and promoting the administration of safe injections. Tool C--Revised is designed to assess the safety of the most common procedures that puncture the skin within health services. The aim of the study was to assess injection safety within the primary healthcare facilities in Alexandria using Tool C--Revised. A total of 45 family health units and centers in Alexandria were selected by proportional allocation from the eight regions of Alexandria. The Tool C--Revised of the WHO was used for observation of the entire facility, injection practices and injection-related procedures, and sterilization practices. Interview of different health providers and immediate supervisor of injections was carried out. Indicators that reflect risk included: deficiency of alcohol-based hand rub for cleansing hands (13.3%), compliance with hand wash before preparing a procedure (56.9% before injection practices, 61.3% before phlebotomy, and 67.6% before lancet puncture), and wearing a new pair of gloves before new procedures (48.6% before injection practices, 9.7% for phlebotomy, 11.8% for lancet puncture, and 80% for both intravenous injections and infusions). Enough disposable equipment in all facilities for at least 2 weeks dependent on the statement of the average numbers of procedures per week was shown. Only 38% of the providers had received training regarding injection safety in the last 2 years and 62.5% had completed their three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. Only 42.2% of staffs who handled healthcare waste had access to heavy gloves. Indicators related to injection and injection-related practices that reflect risk to patients include deficiency of alcohol-based hand rub tools, nonadherence to hand hygiene before preparing an injection, and inadequate adherence to using a clean barrier when opening a glass ampule and use of gloves. Indicators that may reflect risk to

  18. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  19. Plasmonic enhancement of ultraviolet fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaojin

    Plasmonics relates to the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and conduction electrons at metallic interfaces or in metallic nanostructures. Surface plasmons are collective electron oscillations at a metal surface, which can be manipulated by shape, texture and material composition. Plasmonic applications cover a broad spectrum from visible to near infrared, including biosensing, nanolithography, spectroscopy, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and so on. However, there remains a gap in this activity in the ultraviolet (UV, research. Motivating factors in the study of UV Plasmonics are the direct access to biomolecular resonances and native fluorescence, resonant Raman scattering interactions, and the potential for exerting control over photochemical reactions. This dissertation aims to fill in the gap of Plasmonics in the UV with efforts of design, fabrication and characterization of aluminium (Al) and magnesium (Mg) nanostructures for the application of label-free bimolecular detection via native UV fluorescence. The first contribution of this dissertation addresses the design of Al nanostructures in the context of UV fluorescence enhancement. A design method that combines analytical analysis with numerical simulation has been developed. Performance of three canonical plasmonic structures---the dipole antenna, bullseye nanoaperture and nanoaperture array---has been compared. The optimal geometrical parameters have been determined. A novel design of a compound bullseye structure has been proposed and numerically analyzed for the purpose of compensating for the large Stokes shift typical of UV fluorescence. Second, UV lifetime modification of diffusing molecules by Al nanoapertures has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Lifetime reductions of ~3.5x have been observed for the high quantum yield (QY) laser dye p-terphenyl in a 60 nm diameter aperture with 50 nm undercut. Furthermore, quantum-yield-dependence of lifetime reduction has been

  20. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455). Supplement No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Supplement No. 7 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to Commonwealth Edison Company's application for licenses to operate the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Rockvale Township, Ogle County, Illinois, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement provides additional information supporting the license for initial criticality and power ascension to full-power operation for Unit 2

  1. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-275 and 50-323)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Supplement 27 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Pacific Gas and Electric Company's application for a license to operate Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-275), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement addresses the revisions to the license conditions and to the Technical Specifications as they relate to Amendment 10 to Diablo Canyon, Unit 1 Facility Operating License, DPR-76

  2. Fluorescence Image Segmentation by using Digitally Reconstructed Fluorescence Images

    OpenAIRE

    Blumer, Clemens; Vivien, Cyprien; Oertner, Thomas G; Vetter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In biological experiments fluorescence imaging is used to image living and stimulated neurons. But the analysis of fluorescence images is a difficult task. It is not possible to conclude the shape of an object from fluorescence images alone. Therefore, it is not feasible to get good manual segmented nor ground truth data from fluorescence images. Supervised learning approaches are not possible without training data. To overcome this issues we propose to synthesize fluorescence images and call...

  3. Fluorescence of irradiated hydrocarbons. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulis, I G; Evdokimenko, V M; Lapkovskii, M P; Petrov, P T; Gulis, I M; Markevich, S V [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii

    1977-01-01

    A visible fluorescence has been found out in ..gamma..-irradiated aqueous solutions of carbohydrates. Two bands have been distinguished in fluorescence spectra of the irradiated solution of dextran: a short-wave band lambdasub(max)=140 nm (where lambda is a wave length) at lambdasub(..beta..)=380 nm and a long-wave band with lambdasub(max)=540 nm at lambdasub(..beta..)=430 nm. A similar form of the spectrum has been obtained for irradiated solutions of starch, amylopectin, low molecular glucose. It has been concluded that a macromolecule of polysaccharides includes fluorescent centers. A relation between fluorescence and ..cap alpha..-oxiketon groups formed under irradiation has been pointed out.

  4. Molecular diversity, cultivation, and improved detection by fluorescent in situ hybridization of a dominant group of human gut bacteria related to Roseburia spp. or Eubacterium rectale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminov, Rustam I.; Walker, Alan W.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Flint, Harry J.

    Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare 16S rRNA sequences from 19 cultured human gut strains of Roseburia and Eabacterium rectale with 356 related sequences derived from clone libraries. The cultured strains were found to represent five of the six phylotypes identified. A new oligonucleotide

  5. Phenotyping of Arabidopsis Drought Stress Response Using Kinetic Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Multicolor Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieni Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to drought stress are complex due to various mechanisms of drought avoidance and tolerance to maintain growth. Traditional plant phenotyping methods are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and subjective. Plant phenotyping by integrating kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence with multicolor fluorescence imaging can acquire plant morphological, physiological, and pathological traits related to photosynthesis as well as its secondary metabolites, which will provide a new means to promote the progress of breeding for drought tolerant accessions and gain economic benefit for global agriculture production. Combination of kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence and multicolor fluorescence imaging proved to be efficient for the early detection of drought stress responses in the Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0 and one of its most affected mutants called reduced hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]i increase 1. Kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence curves were useful for understanding the drought tolerance mechanism of Arabidopsis. Conventional fluorescence parameters provided qualitative information related to drought stress responses in different genotypes, and the corresponding images showed spatial heterogeneities of drought stress responses within the leaf and the canopy levels. Fluorescence parameters selected by sequential forward selection presented high correlations with physiological traits but not morphological traits. The optimal fluorescence traits combined with the support vector machine resulted in good classification accuracies of 93.3 and 99.1% for classifying the control plants from the drought-stressed ones with 3 and 7 days treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the combination of kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence and multicolor fluorescence imaging with the machine learning technique was capable of providing comprehensive information of drought stress effects on the photosynthesis and the secondary metabolisms. It is a promising

  6. Renal Impairment in 79 Pediatric Patients (158 Renal Units) With Repeated Urinary Tract Infection in Relation to Vesicoureteric Reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, H.; Amin, A.; El-Haddad, Sh.; Moustafa, B.; Wageeh, Sh.; Soliman, N.

    1998-01-01

    Seventy nine patients with repeated urinary tract infection were evaluated for detection of vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) by direct (DRC) and indirect (IRC) radionuclide cystography as well as assessment of renal scarring using 99 mTc-DMSA. Positive VUR was evident in 38 patients (59 renal units), 50%, patients had history of recurrent urinary tract infection. Patients kidneys were divided into 2 groups: group A with normal if kidneys (74 renal units), but still they have high grade VUR in 20 renal units (20.6%.Group B with scarred kidneys (84 renal Units) with high grade VUR in 36 renal units (42.9%) with significant difference between both groups (P 99 mTc-DMSA with VUR assessment are essential in pediatric patients with urinary tract infection for detection of high grade VUR which may contribute to renal scarring and damage

  7. Molecular Diversity, Cultivation, and Improved Detection by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization of a Dominant Group of Human Gut Bacteria Related to Roseburia spp. or Eubacterium rectale

    OpenAIRE

    Aminov, Rustam I.; Walker, Alan W.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Flint, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare 16S rRNA sequences from 19 cultured human gut strains of Roseburia and Eubacterium rectale with 356 related sequences derived from clone libraries. The cultured strains were found to represent five of the six phylotypes identified. A new oligonucleotide probe, Rrec584, and the previous group probe Rint623, when used in conjunction with a new helper oligonucleotide, each recognized an average of 7% of bacteria detected by the eubacterial probe Eub338 i...

  8. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Spain): Main activities related to the use of XRF techniques at the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group of the University of Girona (UdG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Group (QAA) is a consolidated research group of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Girona (North- East Spain). The main research topics of the group are related to the development and application of analytical methodologies for the determination of inorganic and organic species in different kind of environmental, clinical and industrial samples. From the beginning of the 2000’s, one of the research focuses of the group, is the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for the determination of trace amounts of metals and metalloids mostly in samples related to the environmental and industrial fields. For instance, in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera” (ICTJA-CSIC, Spain), we have developed and successfully applied several analytical approaches based on the use of EDXRF (Energy dispersive XRF), WDXRF (Wavelength dispersive XRF) and PEDXRF (Polarised EDXRF) for the determination of metals at trace levels in complex liquid samples such as sea water or electroplating waters in vegetation samples collected around mining environments or in active pharmaceutical ingredients. At present, the evaluation of the analytical possibilities of TXRF (Total reflection XRF) in the chemical analysis field is also one of the research topics of QAA. In this sense, several contributions related to the use of this technique for element determination in liquid and solid samples have been developed. A summary of these contributions is summarized in the last section of this review

  9. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  10. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK: a regional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Karl Frederick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.

  11. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in managing catheter-related blood stream infection in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xixi; He, Mei; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, was applied to reduce errors associated with the process which begins with assessment of patient and ends with treatment of complications. The aim of this study is to assess whether FMEA implementation will significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in intensive care unit.The FMEA team was constructed. A team of 15 medical staff from different departments were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible processes of central venous catheterization failures. Failure modes with risk priority number (RPN) ≥100 (top 10 RPN scores) were deemed as high-priority-risks, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications were put, the resulting RPN was compared with the previous one. A centralized nursing care system was designed.A total of 25 failure modes were identified. High-priority risks were "Unqualified medical device sterilization" (RPN, 337), "leukopenia, very low immunity" (RPN, 222), and "Poor hand hygiene Basic diseases" (RPN, 160). The corrective measures that we took allowed a decrease in the RPNs, especially for the high-priority risks. The maximum reduction was approximately 80%, as observed for the failure mode "Not creating the maximal barrier for patient." The averaged incidence of CRBSIs was reduced from 5.19% to 1.45%, with 3 months of 0 infection rate.The FMEA can effectively reduce incidence of CRBSIs, improve the security of central venous catheterization technology, decrease overall medical expenses, and improve nursing quality. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative roles of climatic variables in altering annual runoff in the conterminous United States (CONUS in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress Index model, WaSSI driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 climate models. The results suggest that precipitation has been the primary control of runoff variation during the latest decades, but the role of temperature will outweigh that of precipitation in most regions if future climate change follows the projections of climate models instead of the historical tendencies. Besides these two key factors, increasing air humidity is projected to partially offset the additional evaporative demand caused by warming and consequently enhance runoff. Overall, the projections from 20 climate models suggest a high degree of consistency on the increasing trends in temperature, precipitation, and humidity, which will be the major climatic driving factors accounting for 43–50, 20–24, and 16–23 % of the runoff change, respectively. Spatially, while temperature rise is recognized as the largest contributor that suppresses runoff in most areas, precipitation is expected to be the dominant factor driving runoff to increase across the Pacific coast and the southwest. The combined effects of increasing humidity and precipitation may also surpass the detrimental effects of warming and result in a hydrologically wetter future in the east. However, severe runoff depletion is more likely to occur in the central CONUS as temperature effect prevails.

  13. [French law related to patient's rights and end of life: pediatric intensive care unit's health professionals' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, L; Cremer, R; Elie, C; Lesage, F; Dupic, L; Hubert, P

    2014-01-01

    To identify the knowledge of caregivers of pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) on the French law related to patients' rights and end of life, their views on withholding/withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (WWLST) decisions, and their feelings about how these decisions were made and implemented. A multicenter survey in 24 French PICUs during the fourth trimester 2010. One thousand three hundred and thirty-nine professional healthcare workers (1005 paramedics and 334 physicians) responded. Over 85% of caregivers had good knowledge of the WWLST decision-making processes required by law. More than 80% of caregivers accepted mechanical ventilation, hemodiafiltration, or hemodynamic support withdrawal or withholding. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration generated reluctance or opposition for the majority of respondents. While paramedics' participation in the decision-making process was deemed necessary by all caregivers, paramedics found more often than physicians that they were insufficiently involved. The quality of end-of-life care was judged very positively by caregivers. The answers on how WWLST was applied suggest very different interpretations of the law. Some caregivers respect the principles of palliative care as stated in the public health code and 40% of doctors and 64% of caregivers consider it "acceptable" to hasten death if resulting from a collaborative decision-making process. This study is the first to show that caregivers of French PICUs have good knowledge of the French law concerning the end of life. Yet, there is still confusion about the limits of practice during the end-of-life period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular diversity, cultivation, and improved detection by fluorescent in situ hybridization of a dominant group of human gut bacteria related to Roseburia spp. or Eubacterium rectale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, Rustam I; Walker, Alan W; Duncan, Sylvia H; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Welling, Gjalt W; Flint, Harry J

    2006-09-01

    Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare 16S rRNA sequences from 19 cultured human gut strains of Roseburia and Eubacterium rectale with 356 related sequences derived from clone libraries. The cultured strains were found to represent five of the six phylotypes identified. A new oligonucleotide probe, Rrec584, and the previous group probe Rint623, when used in conjunction with a new helper oligonucleotide, each recognized an average of 7% of bacteria detected by the eubacterial probe Eub338 in feces from 10 healthy volunteers. Most of the diversity within this important group of butyrate-producing gut bacteria can apparently be retrieved through cultivation.

  15. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  16. Self-medication and related health complaints among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Khan, Nelofer; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Issa, Khaled Jamal; Arifulla, Mohamed

    Background Self-medication, often without adult guidance, has been reported to be a common practice during adolescence. Similar to other preventable health-risk behaviors initiated in early adolescence, it has become a cause for concern universally. Objective This study examines the prevalence of self-medication with both prescribed and non-prescribed (OTC) medications, related health complaints, sources of drugs, and sources of drug recommendation, and gender differences related to self-medication among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 324 expatriate students through a validated, self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed using SPSS 19 version. Means and proportions were calculated and Pearson Chi-square test of significance was used to analyze association among variables. Results Majority of the participating students, almost equally distributed by gender, was aged 16 to 17 years. The period prevalence rate of self-medication with prescribed and OTC medications were 89.2%, which did not vary with age, gender, ethnicity or parents’ educational level. The most common sources of drug and drug recommendation were community pharmacies and parents respectively. Headache and fever were the common self-medicated conditions and consequently, analgesics and antipyretics were most commonly used both in the previous two weeks and the previous year prior to the survey. A high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics (53%) and sedative/hypnotics (27%) was also observed. A female excess emerged for certain health complaints and use of medicines except for the use of anti-allergic and herbal/homeopathic drugs. Conclusions This is the first study to explore self-medication practices among high school students in UAE and provides baseline data critical in creating awareness about the risks and benefits of self-medication. Health care providers, educators and parents should be

  17. Connecting active to passive fluorescence with photosynthesis: a method for evaluating remote sensing measurements of Chl fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, Troy S; Frankenberg, Christian; Fisher, Joshua B; Sun, Ying; North, Gretchen B; Davis, Thomas S; Kornfeld, Ari; Siebke, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in the retrieval of Chl fluorescence from space using passive methods (solar-induced Chl fluorescence, SIF) promise improved mapping of plant photosynthesis globally. However, unresolved issues related to the spatial, spectral, and temporal dynamics of vegetation fluorescence complicate our ability to interpret SIF measurements. We developed an instrument to measure leaf-level gas exchange simultaneously with pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) and spectrally resolved fluorescence over the same field of view - allowing us to investigate the relationships between active and passive fluorescence with photosynthesis. Strongly correlated, slope-dependent relationships were observed between measured spectra across all wavelengths (F λ , 670-850 nm) and PAM fluorescence parameters under a range of actinic light intensities (steady-state fluorescence yields, F t ) and saturation pulses (maximal fluorescence yields, F m ). Our results suggest that this method can accurately reproduce the full Chl emission spectra - capturing the spectral dynamics associated with changes in the yields of fluorescence, photochemical (ΦPSII), and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). We discuss how this method may establish a link between photosynthetic capacity and the mechanistic drivers of wavelength-specific fluorescence emission during changes in environmental conditions (light, temperature, humidity). Our emphasis is on future research directions linking spectral fluorescence to photosynthesis, ΦPSII, and NPQ. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  19. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs, and concludes that the action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Beaver Valley Unit 2

  20. In vitro evaluation of relative biological effectiveness of 3MeV protons using γH2AX immuno-fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurasia, Rajesh K.; Desai, Utkarsha; Sirsath, K.B.; Bhat, N.N.; Sapra, B.K.; Gaur, Neeraj

    2018-01-01

    Use of charged particles for treating complicated tumors is gaining momentum. Their defined dose profile, near zero dose to normal tissue beyond tumour, skin sparing, more lethal effect than mutations, ability to focus beam with complex geometries are some of the advantages. Lack of scientific information on radiobiological efficacy, complexity and cost/maintenance of such facilities are hindering their use at present. Though a huge amount of time and resources are invested cancer treatment still primarily depends on chemotherapy and radiotherapy (γ-ray). Through this study we aim to demonstrate relative biological effectiveness of 3MeV proton beam with estimated LET of 13 keV/μm on cancerous mammalian cell line using highly reliable DNA double strand break γH2AX marker as a damage quantification tool

  1. A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for mm sized beads on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene; Koster, Maarten J.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact fluorescence detection system for on-chip analysis of beads, comprising a low-cost optical HD-DVD pickup. The complete system consists of a fluorescence detection unit, a control unit and a microfluidic chip containing microchannels and optical markers. With these

  2. Intrinsic fluorescence biomarkers in cells treated with chemopreventive drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Brands, William R.; Zou, Changping; Brewer, Molly A.; Utzinger, Urs

    2005-03-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of cellular metabolism offers promising insights into areas ranging from biomarkers for drug activity to cancer diagnosis. Fluorescence spectroscopy can be utilized in order to exploit endogenous fluorophores, typically metabolic co-factors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and estimate the redox status of the sample. Fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to follow metabolic changes in epithelial ovarian cells as well as bladder epithelial cancer cells during treatment with a chemopreventive drug that initiates cellular quiescence. Fluorescence signals consistent with NADH, FAD, and tryptophan were measured to monitor cellular activity, redox status, and protein content. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of N-4-(hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and measured in a stable environment with a sensitive fluorescence spectrometer. A subset of measurements was completed on a low concentration of cells to demonstrate feasibility for medical application such as in bladder or ovary washes. Results suggest that all of the cells responded with similar dose dependence but started at different estimated redox ratio baseline levels correlating with cell cycle, growth inhibition, and apoptosis assays. NADH and tryptophan related fluorescence changed significantly while FAD related fluorescence remained unaltered. Fluorescence data collected from approximately 1000 - 2000 cells, comparable to a bladder or ovary wash, was measurable and useful for future experiments. This study suggests that future intrinsic biomarker measurements may need to be most sensitive to changes in NADH and tryptophan related fluorescence while using FAD related fluorescence to help estimate the baseline redox ratio and predict response to chemopreventive agents.

  3. Chromosomal instability detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and its relation to p3 alteration in prostate carcinoma in Saudi patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a feature of human neoplasm. The p53 mutation has been shown to be associated with CIN in many human dysplastic and neoplastic lesions. The objective of this study was to examine CIN and p53 mutations in prostate carcinoma (Pca) resected from Saudi patients. Testing of p53 alterations using immunohistochemistry was performed on 28 archived prostatic carcinoma specimens containing Pca foci from Saudi patients seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Chrosomal instability was evaluated in the same tissues by interphase in situ hybridization (IFISH) using centromere probes for chromosomes 7 and 8. Immunochemistry and IFISH were performed at Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 2001. The p53 immunoreactivity was found in 29% in Pca and 0% in benign epithelium. Interphase in situ hybridization revealed numerical chromosomal alterations in keeping with CIN in 63% of p53 positive and 20% p53 negative Pca. No evidence of CIN was seen in non-neoplastic epithelium. We concluded that CIN as determined by IFISH is present in Pca from Saudi patients similarly to those reported in western countries. The p53 mutation occurs relatively infrequently in Pca and associated with the presence of CIN at least in a subset of Pca. (author)

  4. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs

  5. Fluorescence uranium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Cellini, R.; Crus Castillo, F. de la; Barrera Pinero, R.

    1960-01-01

    An equipment for analysis of uranium by fluorescence was developed in order to determine it at such a low concentration that it can not be determined by the most sensible analytical methods. this new fluorimeter was adapted to measure the fluorescence emitted by the phosphorus sodium fluoride-sodium carbonate-potasium carbonate-uranyl, being excited by ultraviolet light of 3,650 A the intensity of the light emitted was measure with a photomultiplicator RCA 5819 and the adequate electronic equipment. (Author) 19 refs

  6. Safety-evaluation report related to operation of McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-369 and 50-370

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report Related to the Operation of McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2 (SER (NUREG-0422)) issued in March 1978 by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by Duke Power Company, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-369 and 50-370). The facility is located in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, about 17 mi north-northwest of Charlotte, North Carolina. This supplement provides information related to issuance of a full-power authorization for Unit 2. The staff concludes that the McGuire Nuclear Station can be operated by the licensee without endangering the health and safety of the public

  7. Unmeasured improvement work: the lack of routinely collected, service-related data in NHS endoscopy units in England involved in "modernisation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchings Hayley A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of routinely collected service-related endoscopy data from NHS endoscopy units has never been quantified. Methods This retrospective observational study asked 19 endoscopy units to submit copies of all in-house, service-related endoscopy data that had been routinely collected by the unit – Referral numbers, Activity, Number of patients waiting and Number of lost slots. Nine of the endoscopy units had previously participated in the Modernising Endoscopy Services (MES project during 2003 to redesign their endoscopy services. These MES sites had access to additional funding and data collection software. The other ten (Control sites had modernised independently. All data was requested in two phases and corresponded to eight specific time points between January 2003 and April 2006. Results Only eight of 19 endoscopy units submitted routinely collected, service-related data. Another site's data was collected specifically for the study. A further two units claimed to routinely collect service-related data but did not submit any to the study. The remaining eight did not collect any service-related endoscopy data routinely and liaised with their Trust for data. Of the eight sites submitting service-related data, only three were MES project sites. Of these three, the data variables collected were limited and none collected the complete set of endoscopy data variables requested. Of the other five sites, two collected all four endoscopy data types. Data for the three MES project sites went back as far as January 2003, whilst the five Control sites were only able to submit data from December 2003 onwards. Conclusion There was a lack of service-related endoscopy data routinely collected by the study sites, especially those who had participated in the MES project. Without this data, NHS endoscopy services cannot have a true understanding of their services, cannot identify problems and cannot measure the impact of any

  8. Mean frequency and relative fluorescence intensity measurement of γ-H2AX foci dose response in PBL exposed to γ-irradiation: An inter- and intra-laboratory comparison and its relevance for radiation triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Raavi; Tamizh, Selvan G; Bhavani, Manivannan; Kumar, Arun; Alok, Amit; Karthik, Kanagaraj; Kalra, Namita; Vijayalakshmi, J; Paul, Solomon F D; Chaudhury, N K; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of γ-H2AX protein changes in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation is a simple, sensitive, and rapid assay for radiation triage and early marker of dose estimation. The qualitative and quantitative measurements of the protein changes were examined using flow cytometry and microscopy. Whole blood and isolated lymphocytes were exposed in vitro between 0.1 and 5 Gy doses of (60) Co γ-radiation at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min. Radiation induced γ-H2AX foci frequency (n = 3) and relative fluorescence intensity (n = 7) in PBL was measured at 0.5 and 2 hrs postexposure. The observed dose response for γ-H2AX foci frequency at both time points, for whole blood and isolated lymphocytes did not show any significant (P > 0.05) differences. However, when compared with γ-H2AX foci frequency scored manually (microscopy), the semiautomated analysis (captured images) showed a better correlation (r(2) = 0.918) than that obtained with automated (Metafer) scoring (r(2) = 0.690). It is noteworthy to mention that, the γ-H2AX foci frequency quantified using microscopy showed a dose dependent increase up to 2 Gy and the relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) measured with flow cytometry revealed an increase up to 5 Gy in the PBL exposed in vitro. Moreover, a better correlation was observed between the γ-H2AX foci frequency obtained by manual scoring and RFI (r(2) = 0.910). Kinetic studies showed that the γ-H2AX foci remain more or less unchanged up to 4 hrs and reduces gradually over 48 hrs of postexposure at 37°C. Further, inter and intra-laboratory comparisons showed consistency in the scoring of γ-H2AX foci frequency by manual and semiautomated scoring. The overall results suggest that measurement of γ-H2AX (microscopy and flow cytometry) should be employed within 4 to 6 hrs for a reliable dosimetry either by sharing the work load between the laboratories or investing more manpower; however, triage can be possible even up

  9. Billing and insurance-related administrative costs in United States' health care: synthesis of micro-costing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Aliya; Himmelstein, David; Woolhandler, Steffie; Kahn, James G

    2014-11-13

    The United States' multiple-payer health care system requires substantial effort and costs for administration, with billing and insurance-related (BIR) activities comprising a large but incompletely characterized proportion. A number of studies have quantified BIR costs for specific health care sectors, using micro-costing techniques. However, variation in the types of payers, providers, and BIR activities across studies complicates estimation of system-wide costs. Using a consistent and comprehensive definition of BIR (including both public and private payers, all providers, and all types of BIR activities), we synthesized and updated available micro-costing evidence in order to estimate total and added BIR costs for the U.S. health care system in 2012. We reviewed BIR micro-costing studies across healthcare sectors. For physician practices, hospitals, and insurers, we estimated the % BIR using existing research and publicly reported data, re-calculated to a standard and comprehensive definition of BIR where necessary. We found no data on % BIR in other health services or supplies settings, so extrapolated from known sectors. We calculated total BIR costs in each sector as the product of 2012 U.S. national health expenditures and the percentage of revenue used for BIR. We estimated "added" BIR costs by comparing total BIR costs in each sector to those observed in existing, simplified financing systems (Canada's single payer system for providers, and U.S. Medicare for insurers). Due to uncertainty in inputs, we performed sensitivity analyses. BIR costs in the U.S. health care system totaled approximately $471 ($330 - $597) billion in 2012. This includes $70 ($54 - $76) billion in physician practices, $74 ($58 - $94) billion in hospitals, an estimated $94 ($47 - $141) billion in settings providing other health services and supplies, $198 ($154 - $233) billion in private insurers, and $35 ($17 - $52) billion in public insurers. Compared to simplified financing, $375

  10. Surface recognition and fluorescence sensing of histone by dansyl-appended cyclophane-based resorcinarene trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Osamu; Ogawa, Naoyuki; Uchiyama, Masaki

    2007-11-07

    A cyclophane-based resorcinarene trimer (3) bearing a dansyl moiety as an environmentally sensitive fluorophore was prepared by stepwise condensation of a tetraaza[6.1.6.1]paracyclophane skeleton with a dansyl moiety and three resorcinarene derivatives having heptacarboxylic acid residues in this sequence. The dansyl-appended cyclophane exhibited the following fluorescence properties regarding solvent polarity dependency and histone surface recognition: With increasing dioxane contents in dioxane/water solvents, the fluorescence intensity originating from the dansyl moiety of 3 increased along with a concomitant blue shift of the fluorescence maximum (lambdaem). The microenvironmentally sensitive fluorescence properties of dansyl fluorophore were maintained, even when the dansyl moiety was covalently attached to a cyclophane. Most interestingly, the cyclophane-based resorcinarene trimer exhibited recognition and fluorescence sensing capabilities toward histone, a small basic protein of eukaryotic chromatins. The fluorescence intensity originating from 3 increased along with a concomitant blue shift of lambdaem upon the addition of histone, reflecting the formation of 3-histone complexes. A relatively large fluorescence polarization (P) value was obtained for the 3-histone complexes (0.15), reflecting highly restricted conformations of 3, and the obtained P value was much larger than that of 3 alone in aqueous medium (0.07). The binding constant (K) of 3 with histone (unit basis) was estimated to be 2.1 x 106 M-1. On the other hand, upon the addition of acetylated histone (Ac-histone) to an aqueous solution containing 3, the extent of change in fluorescence intensity originating from the dansyl group of 3 was almost negligible, indicating that the electrostatic interactions between 3 and Ac-histone were weak. In addition, the fluorescence spectral changes were also small or negligible upon the addition of other proteins such as albumin, ovalbumin, peanut agglutinin

  11. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-341). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1983

  12. A People Extra: North Dakota and United States Situational Issues Related to and Influences upon--Families (Single Persons, Single Parents, Parent-Child, Married).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Univ., Fargo. Dept. of Agriculture and Applied Science.

    Situational issues related to families and influences upon families in North Dakota and the United States are briefly outlined in these fact sheets. Contents specifically concern (1) outbound migration from North Dakota and transition of rural families from farming; (2) suicide in North Dakota and the nation; (3) child care issues, such as child…

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2. Docket No. 50-341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1982

  14. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-15

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  15. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to The Bilateral Agreement between the Philippines and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-14

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Philippines and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  16. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  17. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to The Bilateral Agreement between the Philippines and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Philippines and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. The aging self in a cultural context: the relation of conceptions of aging to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Whitbourne, S.K.; Freeman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the aging self, that is, conceptions of one’s own aging process, in relation to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands. As the liberal American system has a stronger emphasis on individual responsibility and youthfulness than the

  19. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, J.E.; Kuiper, R.; van Kan, H.J.; de Pont, A.C.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Lie-A-Huen, L.; Vroom, M.B.; Smorenburg, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an

  20. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kuiper, Rob; van Kan, Hendrikus J.; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Smorenburg, Susanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As

  1. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to a Bilateral Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-03-08

    The text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Republic of China and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 18 July 1955 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  2. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to a Bilateral Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Republic of China and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 18 July 1955 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  3. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). METHOD: Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and

  4. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional : An integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). Method Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and reference

  5. Evaluation of a fluorescence-based method for antibabesial drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswanto, Azirwan; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; Elsayed, Shimaa Abd Elsalam; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; ElSaid, ElSaid El Shirbini; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2014-08-01

    In vitro evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia and Theileria parasites has become routine, and the effectiveness of these chemicals is usually determined by comparing the parasitemia dynamics of untreated and treated parasites. Although microscopy is widely used to calculate parasitemia, several disadvantages are associated with this technique. The present study evaluated a fluorescence-based method using SYBR green I stain (SG I) to screen antibabesial agents in in vitro cultures of Babesia bovis. The linearity between relative fluorescence units (RFU) and parasitemia was found to be well correlated with a 0.9944 goodness-of-fit (r(2)) value. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated for 3 antiprotozoan agents, diminazene aceturate, nimbolide, and gedunin, by this method. For diminazene aceturate and nimbolide, the IC(50)s determined by the fluorescence-based method (408 nM and 8.13 μM, respectively) and microscopy (400.3 nM and 9.4 μM, respectively) were in agreement. Furthermore, the IC50 of gedunin determined by the fluorescence-based method (19 μM) was similar to the recently described microscopy-based value (21.7 μM) for B. bovis. Additionally, the Z' factor (0.80 to 0.90), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio (44.15 to 87.64), coefficient of variation at the maximum signal (%CVmax) (0.50 to 2.85), and coefficient of variation at the minimum signal (%CVmin) (1.23 to 2.21) calculated for the fluorescence method using diminazene aceturate were comparable to those previously determined in malaria research for this assay. These findings suggest that the fluorescence-based method might be useful for antibabesial drug screening and may have potential to be developed into a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-327 and 50-328, Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    Supplement No. 6 to the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) related to the operation of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, located in Hamilton County, Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the staff's evaluations of the issues related to the hydrogen mitigation system identified in the SER and previous supplements as needing resolution

  7. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  8. Monitoring by fluorescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolme-Lawes, D.J.; Gifford, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluorimetric detector is described in which the fluorescence excitation source may be 3 H, 14 C, 35 S, 147 Pm or 63 Ni. Such a detector can be adapted for use with flowing liquid systems especially liquid chromatography systems. (U.K.)

  9. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  10. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  11. Relation between location of a motor unit in the human biceps brachii and its critical firing levels for different tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Haar Romeny, B.M. ter; Gon, J.J.D. van der

    1984-01-01

    Critical firing levels (CFLs) of single motor units (MUs) in the long head of the human biceps brachii muscle were determined in combinations of two isometric tasks: flexion of the elbow, supination of the lower arm, and exorotation of the humerus, as well as the corresponding antagonistic tasks.

  12. Universal Beliefs and Specific Practices: Students' Math Self-Efficacy and Related Factors in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to compare and contrast student and school factors that are associated with students' mathematics self-efficacy in the United States and China. Using hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data, this study compares math self-efficacy, achievement, and variables…

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report of Long Island Lighting Company's application for a license to operate the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, located in Suffolk County, New York, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement addresses several items that have come to light since the previous supplement was issued

  14. Are Teachers' Beliefs Related to Their Preferences for ADHD Interventions? Comparing Teachers in the United States and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Moore, Dennis W.; Pisecco, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their preferences for classroom interventions for behaviours consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, effectiveness, and rate of change were compared across United States and New Zealand samples. Beliefs…

  15. Draft Environmental Statement related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental benefits and costs

  16. Prospective Analysis of Risk Factors Related to Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Deployed United States Navy Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and depression (MDD) than...United States Several epidemiological studies have been conducted on the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and major depression in...forms contain the same 4-item screener for post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). This screener was developed by the National Center for PTSD and

  17. Statistical filtering in fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Kapusta, Peter; Hof, Martin

    Roč. 406 , č. 20 (2014), s. 4797-4813 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Filtered fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  18. Real-time PCR based on SYBR-Green I fluorescence: An alternative to the TaqMan assay for a relative quantification of gene rearrangements, gene amplifications and micro gene deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puisieux Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is increasingly being adopted for RNA quantification and genetic analysis. At present the most popular real-time PCR assay is based on the hybridisation of a dual-labelled probe to the PCR product, and the development of a signal by loss of fluorescence quenching as PCR degrades the probe. Though this so-called 'TaqMan' approach has proved easy to optimise in practice, the dual-labelled probes are relatively expensive. Results We have designed a new assay based on SYBR-Green I binding that is quick, reliable, easily optimised and compares well with the published assay. Here we demonstrate its general applicability by measuring copy number in three different genetic contexts; the quantification of a gene rearrangement (T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; the detection and quantification of GLI, MYC-C and MYC-N gene amplification in cell lines and cancer biopsies; and detection of deletions in the OPA1 gene in dominant optic atrophy. Conclusion Our assay has important clinical applications, providing accurate diagnostic results in less time, from less biopsy material and at less cost than assays currently employed such as FISH or Southern blotting.

  19. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Wolf Creek Generating Staton, Unit No. 1, (Docket No. STN 50-482). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit No. 1 updates the information contained in the Safety Evaluation Report, dated April 1982 and Supplements 1, 2, and 3, dated August 1982, June 1983 and August, 1983, respectively. Supplement No. 4 addresses open issues, confirmatory items and addresses Board Notifications. The Safety Evaluation and its supplements pertain to the application for a license to operate the Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit No. 1 filed by Kansas Gas and Electric Company on February 19, 1980. The Construction Permit No. CPPR-147 was issued on May 17, 1977

  20. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Supplement No. 8 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to Commonwealth Edison Company's application for licenses to operate the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Rockvale Township, Ogle County, Illinois, has been prepared by th Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of the license conditions identified in the SER. Because of the favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the Byron Station, Unit 2 can be operated by the licensee at power levels greater than 5% without endangering the health and safety of the public

  1. The fluorescence properties and NMR analysis of protopine and allocryptopine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala, Martin; Vacek, Jan; Popa, Igor; Janovska, Marika; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichova, Jitka; Travnicek, Zdenek; Simanek, Vilim

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of protopine and allocryptopine in aqueous and organic environments are described for the first time. The fluorescence of alkaloids and their pH-dependent interconversion to cationic forms (transannular interaction) were studied using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. For the analysis of tricyclic base and cis/trans tetracyclic cations of the alkaloids, NMR and X-ray crystallography were used. - Highlights: → We describe fundamental fluorescence characteristics of alkaloids protopine and allocryptopine. → We analyzed the pH-dependent transitions and cis/trans isomerization. → These two alkaloids can be better distinguished by their fluorescence decay characteristics. → The fluorescence parameters are related to the NMR and crystallographic structural data.

  2. Who's who in fluorescence 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2008-01-01

    The Journal of Fluorescence's sixth Who's Who directory publishes the names, contact details, specialty keywords, and a brief description of scientists employing fluorescence methodology and instrumentation in their working lives. This is a unique reference.

  3. APPLICATION OF MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING IN STUDYING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence is a widely used tool to monitor the photosynthetic process in plants subjected to environmental stresses.this review reports the theoretical bases of Chl fluorescence, and the significance of the most important Chl fluorescence parameters. it also reportshow these parameters can be utilised to estimate changes in photosystem ii (PSII photochemistry, linear electron flux and energy dissipationmechanisms. the relation between actual PSII photochemistry and CO2 assimilation is discussed, as is the role of photochemical andnon-photochemical quenching in inducing changes in PSII activity. the application of Chl fluorescence imaging to study heterogeneity on leaflamina is also considered. this review summarises only some of the results obtained by this methodology to study the effects of differentenvironmental stresses, namely water and nutrients availability, pollutants, temperature and salinity.

  4. Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectra of Triazolylcoumarin Fluorescent Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xian-fu; LI Hong-qi

    2009-01-01

    Much attention is devoted to fluorescent dyes especially those with potential in versatile applications. Reactions under "click" conditions between nonfluorescent 3 - azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes produced 3 -(1, 2, 3- triazol- 1 - yl)cournarins, a novel type of fluorescent dyes with intense fluorescence. The structures of the new coumarins were characterized by 1H NMR, MS, and IR spectra. Fluorescence spectra measurement demonstrated excellent fluorescence performance of the triazolylcoumarins and this click reaction is a promising candidate for bioconjugation and bioimaging applications since both azide and alkynes are quite inert to biological systems.

  5. Photobleaching and Fluorescence Recovery of RPE Bisretinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available The autofluorescence of the retina that originates primarily from lipofuscin fluorophores in retinal pigment epithelial cells, is observed to undergo photobleaching during the acquisition of fundus autofluorescence images. Bisretinoid fluorophores isolated from retinal pigment epithelial cells have the spectral characteristics consistent with their being the source of fundus autofluorescence. Clinically relevant experiments were designed to better understand conditions in the micromilieu of bisretinoid fluorophores that can influence fluorescence efficiencies, photobleaching, and subsequent fluorescence recovery of this fluorophore. The consumption of the bisretinoid A2E due to photooxidation-induced degradation was quantified in solvent systems of variable relative permittivity (formerly called dielectric constant, in micelles, and in phospholipid vesicles of varying composition. Reorganization within biphasic systems was also examined. A2E content was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and fluorescence intensity was quantified spectroscopically. As solvent polarity was increased, A2E fluorescent spectra exhibited red-shifted maxima and reduced intensity. A2E was depleted by light irradiation and the loss was more pronounced in less polar solvents, lower concentrations of anionic surfactant, and in gel- versus fluid-ordered phospholipid liposomes. Conditions that permit A2E aggregation promoted photooxidation/photodegradation, while movement of A2E between bisphasic systems was associated with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The fluorescence characteristics of A2E are subject to environmental modulation. Photooxidation and photodegradation of bisretinoid can account for fundus autofluorescence photobleaching. Return of fluorescence intensity after photobleaching likely occurs due to redistribution of A2E fractions amongst co-existing heterogeneous microdomains of the lysosomal compartment.

  6. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dental calculus in comparison with the properties of adjacent unaffected tooth structure using both lasers and LEDs in the UV-visible range for fluorescence excitation. The influence of calculus color on the informative signal is demonstrated. The optimal spectral bands of excitation and registration of the fluorescence are determined

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, D.; Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dental calculus in comparison with the properties of adjacent unaffected tooth structure using both lasers and LEDs in the UV-visible range for fluorescence excitation. The influence of calculus color on the informative signal is demonstrated. The optimal spectral bands of excitation and registration of the fluorescence are determined.

  8. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  9. Factors influencing when intensive care unit nurses go to the bedside to investigate patient related alarms: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despins, Laurel A

    2017-12-01

    This study examines what prompts the intensive care unit (ICU) nurse to go to the patient's bedside to investigate an alarm and the influences on the nurse's determination regarding how quickly this needs to occur. A qualitative descriptive design guided data collection and analysis. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis guided by the Patient Risk Detection Theoretical Framework was applied to the data. Four specialty intensive care units in an academic medical center. ICU nurses go the patient's bedside in response to an alarm to catch patient deterioration and avert harm. Their determination of the immediacy of patient risk and their desire to prioritize their bedside investigations to true alarms influences how quickly they proceed to the bedside. Ready visual access to physiological data and waveform configurations, experience, teamwork, and false alarms are important determinants in the timing of ICU nurses' bedside alarm investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of the struggle for racial equality in the United States on British racialised relations from 1958 to 1968

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, N.

    1999-01-01

    During the late 1950s and the 1960s America faced a high level of racial tension. At the same time Britain imposed racially discriminatory immigration controls and passed legislation to outlaw racial discrimination. This thesis asks to what extent the events in the United States had an impact on the response of British institutions to the development of a multi-racial society and increased rate of non-white immigration during these crucial years between the 1958 race riots to t...

  11. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?nebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L.; Levene, Malcolm I.; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. Purpose The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of...

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report, Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the applicant) for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and its Supplements 1, 2, and 3 were published

  13. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    examines the extent to which the Army has (1) assessed the costs and benefits of Pacific Pathways; and (2) synchronized plans and incorporated ... costs . Such an analysis could both: • incorporate financial and non-financial costs and benefits of the initiative, to include readiness benefits for... logistics and sustainment units, any training efficiencies or cost avoidance resulting from Pacific Pathways, and non-financial costs , such as

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This report, Supplement No. 1 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the applicant) for a license to operate the Beaver valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time the Safety Evaluation Report was published

  15. Draft environmental statement related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51, as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This statement examines the environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  16. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-322)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Supplement 10 (SSER 10) to the Safety Evaluation Report on Long Island Lighting Company's application for a license to operate the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, located in Suffolk County, New York, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement addresses several items that have been reviewed by the staff since the previous supplement was issued

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of South Texas Project, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-499)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    In April 1986 the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0781) regarding the application of Houston Lighting and Power Company (applicant and agent for the owners) for a license to operate South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499). The facility is located in Matagorda County, Texas, west of the Colorado River, 8 miles north-northwest of the town of Matagorda and about 89 miles southwest of Houston. The first supplement to NUREG-0781 was issued in September 1986, the second supplement in January 1987, the third supplement in May 1987, the fourth supplement in July 1987, the fifth supplement in March 1988, and the sixth supplement in January 1989. This seventh supplement, which supports the issuance of a full-power license for Unit 2, provides updated information on the issues that had been considered previously as well as the evaluation of issues that have arisen since the sixth supplement was issued. The evaluation resolves all the issues necessary to support the issuance of a full-power license for Unit 2. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Use of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity in microalgae grown in different culture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix L Figueroa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence associated to Photosystem II is being used to evaluate photosynthetic activity of microalgae grown in different types of photobioreactors; however, controversy on methodology is usual. Several recommendations on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate electron transport rate and productivity of microalgae grown in thin-layer cascade cultivators and methacrylate cylindrical vessels are included. Different methodologies related to the measure of photosynthetic activity in microalgae are discussed: (1 measurement of light absorption, (2 determination of electron transport rates versus irradiance and (3 use of simplified devices based on pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorescence as Junior PAM or Pocket PAM with optical fiber and optical head as measuring units, respectively. Data comparisons of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence by using these devices and other PAM fluorometers as Water-PAM in the microalga Chlorella sp. (Chlorophyta are presented. Estimations of carbon production and productivity by transforming electron transport rate to gross photosynthetic rate (as oxygen evolution using reported oxygen produced per photons absorbed values and carbon photosynthetic yield based on reported oxygen/carbon ratio are also shown. The limitation of ETR as estimator of photosynthetic and biomass productivity is discussed. Low cost:quality PAMs can promote monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in algal biotechnology to estimate the photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity.

  19. Fluorescent determination of neptunium in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandruk, V.M.; Babaev, A.S.; Dem'yanova, T.A.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new procedure for direct determination of Neptunium in Plutonium using laser induced time resolved fluorescence method. The procedure based on measurement of fluorescence intensity of Neptunium followed its concentration in effective layer of pellet of calcium fluoride. Detection limit of determination of Neptunium is 2 10 -12 g. At the level of Neptunium content in Plutonium more than 5 ppm relative standard deviation is equal 0.08-0.12. For carrying out of single measurement it is necessary neither more nor less 5 mkg Plutonium

  20. Relative power density distribution calculations of the Kori unit 1 pressurized water reactor with full-scope explicit modeling of monte carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. O.; Kim, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Relative power density distributions of the Kori unit 1 pressurized water reactor calculated by Monte Carlo modeling with the MCNP code. The Kori unit 1 core is modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-eighth of the reactor in-vessel component with reflective boundaries at 0 and 45 degrees. The axial core model is based on half core symmetry and is divided into four axial segments. Fission reaction density in each rod is calculated by following 100 cycles with 5,000 test neutrons in each cycle after starting with a localized neutron source and ten noncontributing settle cycles. Relative assembly power distributions are calculated from fission reaction densities of rods in assembly. After 100 cycle calculations, the system coverages to a κ value of 1.00039 ≥ 0.00084. Relative assembly power distribution is nearly the same with that of the Kori unit 1 FSAR. Applicability of the full-scope Monte Carlo simulation in the power distribution calculation is examined by the relative root mean square error of 2.159%. (author)

  1. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.

  2. Fluorescent quantification of melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Matamá, Teresa; Guimarães, Diana; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Melanin quantification is reportedly performed by absorption spectroscopy, commonly at 405 nm. Here, we propose the implementation of fluorescence spectroscopy for melanin assessment. In a typical in vitro assay to assess melanin production in response to an external stimulus, absorption spectroscopy clearly overvalues melanin content. This method is also incapable of distinguishing non-melanotic/amelanotic control cells from those that are actually capable of performing melanogenesis. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy is the best method for melanin quantification as it proved to be highly specific and accurate, detecting even small variations in the synthesis of melanin. This method can also be applied to the quantification of melanin in more complex biological matrices like zebrafish embryos and human hair. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The enhanced cyan fluorescent protein: a sensitive pH sensor for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poëa-Guyon, Sandrine; Pasquier, Hélène; Mérola, Fabienne; Morel, Nicolas; Erard, Marie

    2013-05-01

    pH is an important parameter that affects many functions of live cells, from protein structure or function to several crucial steps of their metabolism. Genetically encoded pH sensors based on pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins have been developed and used to monitor the pH of intracellular compartments. The quantitative analysis of pH variations can be performed either by ratiometric or fluorescence lifetime detection. However, most available genetically encoded pH sensors are based on green and yellow fluorescent proteins and are not compatible with multicolor approaches. Taking advantage of the strong pH sensitivity of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), we demonstrate here its suitability as a sensitive pH sensor using fluorescence lifetime imaging. The intracellular ECFP lifetime undergoes large changes (32 %) in the pH 5 to pH 7 range, which allows accurate pH measurements to better than 0.2 pH units. By fusion of ECFP with the granular chromogranin A, we successfully measured the pH in secretory granules of PC12 cells, and we performed a kinetic analysis of intragranular pH variations in living cells exposed to ammonium chloride.

  4. Fluorescent nanodiamond for biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milos Nesladek

    2014-01-01

    NV centers in diamond have gained strong interest as a novel tool for quantum information processing, quantum computing and quantum photonics. These applications are based on fluorescent and spin properties of NV-centres. However, in some conditions NV- can lose an electron and turn to NV0. The occupation of NV0 and NV- charge states depend on the position of their ground states with respect to the Fermi level and the mechanism of the charge transfer. Interestingly, that the charge switch has important implications on applications of fluorescent nanodiamond (fND) to nano-biology and nano-medicine. fND can be used for bio-marking and bio-tracking but also for the monitoring of targeted delivery to the cells. In this presentation we review the current state-of-the art for using fND particles for fluorescent bio imaging in cells and discuss the charge transfer and its luminescence stability by using ultra high sensitive spectroscopy methods to study the NV0 and NV- state occupation. (author)

  5. A comparison of wakeboard-, water skiing-, and tubing-related injuries in the United States, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John I; Griffin, Russell; Brauneis, Paul F; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity) and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture). Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation) was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33). Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes. Key pointsIncrease annual injury rate trend in wakeboard injuries.Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more often to head and neck, waterskiing-related injuries more often to hip and lower extremity.Tubing-related injuries over 2-times as likely to be severe compared to

  6. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This report, Supplement No. 5 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the applicant) for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and its Supplements 1, 2, 3, and 4 were published

  7. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1, Docket No. 50-461

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Illinois Power Company, Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc., and Western Illinois Power Cooperative, Inc., as applicants and owners, for a license to operate the Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Harp Township, DeWitt County, Illinois. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplement No. 1

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-461)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Supplement No. 8 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Illinois Power Company, Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc., and Western Illinois Power Cooperative, Inc., as applicants and owners, for a license to operate the Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Harp Township, DeWitt County, Illinois. This supplement reports the status of items that have been resolved by the staff since Supplement No. 7 was issued

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Northeast Nuclear Energy Company, as applicant and agent for the owners, for a license to operate the Millstone Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-423), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in the town of Waterford, New London County, Connecticut, on the north shore of Long Island Sound. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the NRC staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  10. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Duquesne Light Company, as applicant and agent for the owners, for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Shippingport Borough, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, on the south bank of the Ohio River. Subject to the favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  11. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Supplement 10 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the licensee since the Safety Evaluation Report and its nine previous supplements were issued

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report issued in August 1984 provided the results of the NRC staff review of Northeast Nuclear Energy Company's application for a license to operate the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3. Supplement No. 1 to that report, issued in March 1985 updated the information contained in the Safety Evaluation Report and addressed the ACRS Report issued on September 10, 1984. The Report, Supplement No. 2 updates the information contained in the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplement No. 1 and addresses prior unresolved items. The facility is located in Waterford Township, New London, Connecticut. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report, Supplement No. 6 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Duquesne Light Company et al. (the licensee) for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and its Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were published

  14. An overview of remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Gang; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Liu, Yu-Guang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Xiu, Peng; Wang, Lin

    2007-03-01

    Besides empirical algorithms with the blue-green ratio, the algorithms based on fluorescence are also important and valid methods for retrieving chlorophyll-a concentration in the ocean waters, especially for Case II waters and the sea with algal blooming. This study reviews the history of initial cognitions, investigations and detailed approaches towards chlorophyll fluorescence, and then introduces the biological mechanism of fluorescence remote sensing and main spectral characteristics such as the positive correlation between fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration, the red shift phenomena. Meanwhile, there exist many influence factors that increase complexity of fluorescence remote sensing, such as fluorescence quantum yield, physiological status of various algae, substances with related optical property in the ocean, atmospheric absorption etc. Based on these cognitions, scientists have found two ways to calculate the amount of fluorescence detected by ocean color sensors: fluorescence line height and reflectance ratio. These two ways are currently the foundation for retrieval of chlorophyl l - a concentration in the ocean. As the in-situ measurements and synchronous satellite data are continuously being accumulated, the fluorescence remote sensing of chlorophyll-a concentration in Case II waters should be recognized more thoroughly and new algorithms could be expected.

  15. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  16. Safety Evaluation Report, related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to Commonwealth Edison Company's application for licenses to operate the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Rockvale Township, Ogle County, Illinois, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to Commonwealth Edison Company's application for licenses to operate the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Rockvale Township, Ogle County, Illinois, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  18. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Byron Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to Commonwealth Edison Company's application for licenses to operate the Byron Station, Units 1 and 2, located in Rockvale Township, Ogle County, Illinois, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  19. Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) from plant foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Williams, Darrel L.

    1987-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence induction kinetics of green plants excited at 337 nm by a laser were studied. They correlate with plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of stress. The plant types studied include herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, conifers, and algae. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands or the relative intensity of the bands. Differences in fluorescent spectra which could be related to vigor status are observed in conifers located in an area of high atmospheric deposition. Changes in the fluorescence spectra and induction kinetics are also seen in plants grown under conditions of nutrient deficiency and drought stress.

  20. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Callaway Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-483)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of Callaway Plant Unit 1, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Par 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the purpose and need for the Callaway project, alternatives to the project, the affected environment, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs. No water-use impacts are expected from cooling-tower markup withdrawn from, or blowdown discharged into, the Missouri River. Land-use and terrestrial- and aquatic-ecological impacts will be small. Air-quality impacts from cooling-tower drift and other emissions and dust will also be small. Impacts to historic and prehistoric sites will be negligible with the development and implementation of the applicant's cultural-resources management plan. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure is very low. The net socioeconomic effects of the project will be beneficial. The action called for is the issuance of an operating license for Unit 1 of the Callaway Plant. 18 figs., 16 tabs