WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative expression units

  1. Relative expression of genes related with cold tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low temperature is one of the main abiotic stresses affecting rice yield in Chile. Alterations in phenology and physiology of the crop are observed after a cold event. The objective of this work was to study the relative expression of genes related with cold stress in Chilean cultivars of rice. For this, we analyzed the expression ...

  2. Expression of interest: transcriptomics and the designation of conservation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M

    2010-05-01

    An important task within conservation genetics consists in defining intraspecific conservation units. Most conceptual frameworks involve two steps: (i) identifying demographically independent units, and (ii) evaluating their degree of adaptive divergence. Whereas a plethora of methods are available for delineating genetic population structure, assessment of functional genetic divergence remains a challenge. In this issue, Tymchuk et al. (2010) study Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations using both microsatellite markers and analysis of global gene expression. They show that important gene expression differences exist that can be interpreted in the context of different ecological conditions experienced by the populations, along with the populations' histories. This demonstrates an important potential role of transcriptomics for designating conservation units.

  3. Still a Special Relationship? The Significance of United States-United Kingdom Relations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Anglo - Saxon ally over Nasser and the canal.55 In 2010, in a speech at Chatham House, Liberal Democrat Nick Clegg suggested that “what...strategic culture, and as an expression of shared values and institutions the character of which is vital for those charged with service in an Anglo ...American context as well as NATO. 14. SUBJECT TERMS United Kingdom, United States, Special Relationship, Anglo - American Relations, Iraq, Afghanistan

  4. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  5. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... Peru. Venezuela. Mexico. New Zealand. Virgin Island. Europe. Germany. France. Italy. Netherlands. Portugal. Spain. Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan. Singapore. India. Indonesia. Korea. Taiwan. China. Thailand. 321,797.8. 12,782.7. 309,015.1. 56,421.7. 2,413.7. 44,448.1.

  6. ICGE: an R package for detecting relevant clusters and atypical units in gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irigoien Itziar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression technologies have opened up new ways to diagnose and treat cancer and other diseases. Clustering algorithms are a useful approach with which to analyze genome expression data. They attempt to partition the genes into groups exhibiting similar patterns of variation in expression level. An important problem associated with gene classification is to discern whether the clustering process can find a relevant partition as well as the identification of new genes classes. There are two key aspects to classification: the estimation of the number of clusters, and the decision as to whether a new unit (gene, tumor sample... belongs to one of these previously identified clusters or to a new group. Results ICGE is a user-friendly R package which provides many functions related to this problem: identify the number of clusters using mixed variables, usually found by applied biomedical researchers; detect whether the data have a cluster structure; identify whether a new unit belongs to one of the pre-identified clusters or to a novel group, and classify new units into the corresponding cluster. The functions in the ICGE package are accompanied by help files and easy examples to facilitate its use. Conclusions We demonstrate the utility of ICGE by analyzing simulated and real data sets. The results show that ICGE could be very useful to a broad research community.

  7. The Relations of Mothers' Negative Expressivity to Children's Experience and Expression of Negative Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2004-01-01

    Guided by the heuristic model proposed by Eisenberg et al. [Psychol. Inq. 9 (1998) 241], we examined the relations of mothers' reported and observed negative expressivity to children's (N = 159; 74 girls; M age = 7.67 years) experience and expression of emotion. Children's experience and/or expression of emotion in response to a distressing film…

  8. 16 CFR 500.10 - Units of fluid measure, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Units of fluid measure, how expressed. 500... UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.10 Units of fluid measure, how expressed. (a) Use of the terms “net” or “net contents” is optional. (b) Declaration of net quantity of contents...

  9. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...

  10. Perception of facial expressions produced by configural relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Barabanschikov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss the problem of perception of facial expressions produced by configural features. Experimentally found configural features influence the perception of emotional expression of subjectively emotionless face. Classical results by E. Brunsvik related to perception of schematic faces are partly confirmed.

  11. 16 CFR 500.9 - Units of weight or mass, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of contents in terms of avoirdupois weight shall be expressed as follows: (1) If less than 1 pound... may, when the net weight exceeds 1 pound, be expressed in terms of pounds and decimal fractions of the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Units of weight or mass, how expressed. 500...

  12. United States - Japanese nuclear relations: implications for the pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of a new approach to non-proliferation policy by the United States in 1977 was the most upsetting development in the history of US-Japanese nuclear relations. The policy has seemingly altered Japanese views of its own nuclear future very little, yet it has altered the tone of the nuclear relationship with the United States. Recent Japanese nuclear power developments, both technical and administrative, are outlined and the prospects for the future of the United States-Japanese nuclear relationship and for Pacific regional cooperation assessed. Issues of importance in the relationship include reprocessing - enrichment, plutonium management, spent fuel and waste management and uranium supplies

  13. Athero Express : ATHERO-sclerotic plaque EXPRESSion in relation to vascular events and patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, B.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Athero-Express is a tissue bank study, designed to investigate the expression of atherosclerotic derived biological variables in relation to the long-term outcome of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Its design includes both cross-sectional and follow-up studies, the results from which

  14. Differential expression of granulopoiesis related genes in neutrophil subsets distinguished by membrane expression of CD177

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Nan; Mora-Jensen, Helena; Theilgaard-Mønch, Kim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Differential gene expression in CD177+ and CD177- neutrophils was investigated, in order to detect possible differences in neutrophil function which could be related to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated Vasculitides (AAV). METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy controls (HC......) with high, negative or bimodal CD177 expression, and sorted into CD177+ and CD177- subpopulations. Total RNA was screened for expression of 24,000 probes with Illumina Ref-8 Beadchips. Genes showing differential expression between CD177+ and CD177- subsets in microarray analysis were re-assessed using...... quantitative-PCR. CD177 expression on neutrophil precursors in bone marrow was analyzed using quantitative PCR and flowcytometry. RESULTS: The proportion of CD177+ cells increased during neutrophil maturation in bone marrow. Fold change analysis of gene expression profile of sorted CD177+ and CD177...

  15. Plasticity-Related Gene Expression During Eszopiclone-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and two miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice. Gene expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by the TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and correlated with sleep parameters. Eszopiclone reduced the latency to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and increased NREM sleep amounts. Eszopiclone had no effect on slow wave activity (SWA) during baseline conditions but reduced the SWA increase during recovery sleep (RS) after sleep deprivation. Gene expression analyses revealed three distinct patterns: (1) four genes had higher expression either in the cortex or hippocampus in the group of mice with increased amounts of wakefulness; (2) a large proportion of plasticity-related genes (7 out of 18 genes) had higher expression during RS in the cortex but not in the hippocampus; and (3) six genes and the two miRNAs showed no significant changes across conditions. Even at a relatively high dose (20 mg/kg), eszopiclone did not reduce the expression of plasticity-related genes during RS period in the cortex. These results indicate that gene expression associated with synaptic plasticity occurs in the cortex in the presence of a hypnotic medication. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtelot, H A

    1979-12-11

    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes.

  17. Higher Education Relations: Iranian and the United States Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review examined the views of 35 higher education professionals in order to explore the history of higher education relations between Iran and the United States particularly before and after the revolution in Iran. The study used interviews with participants, correspondence, and published material from journals, monographs, and newspapers. All…

  18. The effects of unit morale and interpersonal relations on conflict in the nursing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K B

    2001-07-01

    Health care organizations face major changes, and these changes are likely to increase conflict in organizations. Although numerous studies have focused on conflict management, few have considered causes and effect of conflict in nursing units. The investigation tested a structural equation that examined the relationships among individual and contextual variables and intragroup conflict, job satisfaction, team performance effectiveness, and anticipated turnover. The nonrandom sample consisted of 141 nurses employed on 13 inpatient units at a state-supported, 597-bed academic medical centre in a southeastern city. Intragroup conflict was higher on smaller units with a higher ratio of RNs to total staff. Intragroup conflict was not associated with satisfaction with pay or anticipated turnover. In the final model, the unit morale and interpersonal relations dimension of team performance effectiveness was negatively associated with intragroup conflict and anticipated turnover, and positively associated with satisfaction with pay. High perceptions of unit morale and interpersonal relations buffered the effect of unit size and skill mix on intragroup conflict. Goodness of fit statistics indicated a good fit of the model to data. The findings have implications for nursing educators and administrators, and provide direction for future research.

  19. DEXTER: Disease-Expression Relation Extraction from Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Ross, Karen E; Hu, Yu; Wu, Cathy H; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2018-01-01

    Gene expression levels affect biological processes and play a key role in many diseases. Characterizing expression profiles is useful for clinical research, and diagnostics and prognostics of diseases. There are currently several high-quality databases that capture gene expression information, obtained mostly from large-scale studies, such as microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, in the context of disease. The scientific literature is another rich source of information on gene expression-disease relationships that not only have been captured from large-scale studies but have also been observed in thousands of small-scale studies. Expression information obtained from literature through manual curation can extend expression databases. While many of the existing databases include information from literature, they are limited by the time-consuming nature of manual curation and have difficulty keeping up with the explosion of publications in the biomedical field. In this work, we describe an automated text-mining tool, Disease-Expression Relation Extraction from Text (DEXTER) to extract information from literature on gene and microRNA expression in the context of disease. One of the motivations in developing DEXTER was to extend the BioXpress database, a cancer-focused gene expression database that includes data derived from large-scale experiments and manual curation of publications. The literature-based portion of BioXpress lags behind significantly compared to expression information obtained from large-scale studies and can benefit from our text-mined results. We have conducted two different evaluations to measure the accuracy of our text-mining tool and achieved average F-scores of 88.51 and 81.81% for the two evaluations, respectively. Also, to demonstrate the ability to extract rich expression information in different disease-related scenarios, we used DEXTER to extract information on differential expression information for 2024 genes in lung

  20. Visually Relating Gene Expression and in vivo DNA Binding Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Yu; Mackey, Lester; Ker?,; nen, Soile V. E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Jordan, Michael I.; Knowles, David W.; Biggin, Mark D.; Hamann, Bernd

    2011-09-20

    Gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data provide important information for understanding gene regulatory networks: in vivo DNA binding data indicate genomic regions where transcription factors are bound, and expression data show the output resulting from this binding. Thus, there must be functional relationships between these two types of data. While visualization and data analysis tools exist for each data type alone, there is a lack of tools that can easily explore the relationship between them. We propose an approach that uses the average expression driven by multiple of ciscontrol regions to visually relate gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data. We demonstrate the utility of this tool with examples from the network controlling early Drosophila development. The results obtained support the idea that the level of occupancy of a transcription factor on DNA strongly determines the degree to which the factor regulates a target gene, and in some cases also controls whether the regulation is positive or negative.

  1. Nucleosome-coupled expression differences in closely-related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbia Marinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy is negatively related to the average level of transcription factor motif binding based on studies in yeast and several other model organisms. The degree to which nucleosome-motif interactions relate to phenotypic changes across species is, however, unknown. Results We address this challenge by generating nucleosome positioning and cell cycle expression data for Saccharomyces bayanus and show that differences in nucleosome occupancy reflect cell cycle expression divergence between two yeast species, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Specifically, genes with nucleosome-depleted MBP1 motifs upstream of their coding sequence show periodic expression during the cell cycle, whereas genes with nucleosome-shielded motifs do not. In addition, conserved cell cycle regulatory motifs across these two species are more nucleosome-depleted compared to those that are not conserved, suggesting that the degree of conservation of regulatory sites varies, and is reflected by nucleosome occupancy patterns. Finally, many changes in cell cycle gene expression patterns across species can be correlated to changes in nucleosome occupancy on motifs (rather than to the presence or absence of motifs. Conclusions Our observations suggest that alteration of nucleosome occupancy is a previously uncharacterized feature related to the divergence of cell cycle expression between species.

  2. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the

  3. Expression of isgylation related genes in regenerating rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuklin A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies have revealed the early up-regulated expression of interferon alpha (IFNα in the liver, induced by partial hepatectomy. The role of this cytokine of innate immune response in liver regeneration is still controversial. Aim. To analyze expression of canonical interferon-stimulated genes Ube1l, Ube2l6, Trim25, Usp18 and Isg15 during the liver transition from quiescence to proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy, and acute phase response induced by laparotomy. These genes are responsible for posttranslational modification of proteins by ISGylation. The expression of genes encoding TATA binding protein (TBP and 18S rRNA served as indirect general markers of transcriptional and translational activities. Methods. The abundance of investigated RNAs was assessed in total liver RNA by real time RT–qPCR. Results. Partial hepatecomy induced steady upregulation of the Tbp and 18S rRNA genes expression during 12 hours post-surgery and downregulation or no change in expression of ISGylation-related genes during the first 3 hours followed by slight upregulation at 12 hours. The level of Isg15 transcripts was permanently below that of the control during the prereplicative period. Laparotomy induced a continuous downregulation of Tbp and 18S rRNA expression and early (1–3h upregulation of ISGylation–related transcripts followed by a sharp drop at 6 hours and slight increase/decrease at 12 hours. The changes in the abundance of Ifnα and ISGylation-related mRNAs were oppositely directed at each stage of the response to partial hepatectomy and laparotomy. Conclusion. We suggest that the expression of ISGylation-related genes does not depend on the expression of Ifnα gene after both surgeries. The indirect indices of transcription and translation as well as the expression of ISGylation-relaled genes are principally different in response to partial hepatectomy and laparotomy and argue for the high specificity of innate immune response.

  4. Expression of human soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NJ TONUKARI

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... bio-technique in bacterial (Lin et al., 2007), yeast (Xu et al., 2003) ... biological activity, such as human somatotropin (hST) .... sion way with chloroplast transit peptide (Wang et al., .... chloroplast protein synthesis capacity by massive expression of a ... necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo.

  5. Is expressive timing relational invariant under tempo transformation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study is concerned with examining the relation between tempo and expressive timing in music performance. This was investigated by asking listeners (N = 307) to distinguish between an original recording and a tempo-transformed version in a musical genre of their preference (jazz or

  6. Integrating Expressive Methods in a Relational-Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic Involvement is an integral part of all effective psychotherapy.This article is written to illustrate the concept of Therapeutic Involvement in working within a therapeutic relationship – within the transference -- and with active expressive and experiential methods to resolve traumatic experiences, relational disturbances and life shaping decisions.

  7. Age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Kumar, Dinesh; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies exist on the use of surface electromyogram (EMG) signal features to detect age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior. Motor unit remodeling leads to declined muscle strength and force steadiness during submaximal contractions which are factors for risk of falls in the elderly. This study investigated the remodeling phenomena in the Tibialis Anterior using sample entropy and higher order statistics. Eighteen young (26.1 ± 2.9 years) and twelve elderly (68.7 ± 9.0 years) participants performed isometric dorsiflexion of the ankle at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and their Tibialis Anterior (TA) EMG was recorded. Sample entropy, Gaussianity and Linearity Test statistics were calculated from the recorded EMG for each MVC. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine normality, and either a two-tail student t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to determine significant difference in the EMG features between the young and old cohorts. Results show age-related motor unit remodeling to be depicted by decreased sample entropy (p <; 0.1), increased non-Gaussianity (p <; 0.05) and lesser degree of linearity in the elderly. This is due to the increased sparsity of the MUAPs as a result of the denervation-reinnervation process, and the decrease in total number of motor units.

  8. The united fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A. V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The United Fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues was created in Russian-Belarusian Information Center on the Problems of the Consequences of the Catastrophe at Chernobyl NPP branch RSRUE 'Institute of Radiology' Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus. It contains accumulated during the post-Chernobyl period systematized maps, scientific and practical, educational, documentary, journalistic, artistic, photographic and other information. (authors)

  9. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. http://rged.wall-eva.net. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Availability and implementation: Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. Database URL: http://rged.wall-eva.net PMID:25252782

  11. Relation between media and the subcultural expression of urban youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Radomir D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's intention is to investigate the relations of the public media and some issues of youth subculture expression. The author's idea is that the public media are not necessarily in the indirect function of a positive and affirmative presentation of the subcultural sublimation and energy of youth, but are very often in a trivial function and as a factor of distraction, in the purpose of serving the ruling regime and political structures, democratic or nondemocratic.

  12. The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, Jose A; Baez, G

    2009-01-01

    The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants α, β and γ into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving the constants α, β and γ the values appropriate to each system

  13. Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.

  14. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  15. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Expression of results in quantum chemistry physical chemistry division commission on physicochemical symbols, terminology and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase """"atomic units"""" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitte

  17. Urinary catheter related nosocomial infections in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. The objective was to determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms responsible for urinary catheter related infections (UCRI. Colonization and/or bacteriuria was labelled as urinary catheter related infection (UCRI. Forty-four patients with 51 urinary catheters were studied. Incidence of UCRI was 47.06%. Age, female sex and immunocompromised status did not increase the risk of UCRI. Duration of catheter in-situ and duration of stay in the PICU were associated with higher risk of UCRI. The mortality was not increased by UCRI. Commonest organism isolated in UCRI was E. coli, which had maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin.

  18. The university sociocultural work related to teaching units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Cutiño-Jiménez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching units are very important when you want to integrate university and society, to pre- degree and post- degree teaching process, and during research, becoming a huge educative place to develop these activities. This research is related to a diagnose the author made to particular workers and Tributary Administrations National Office functionaries from Santiago of Cuba related to the information level contributors have about tributary subjects, to be sure there are insufficiencies in the local and national media when it comes to tributary information. Based on the results, the author contributes with some actions to improve teachers, communication, integrating university and tributary offices. This actions are also directed to students, functionaries and leaders from both institutions, in order to be more efficients in the contributors, knowledge so they can understand the importance of tributes and therefore, to improve the low collection indicator the Tributary Administrations are facing right now.

  19. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  20. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    2015-09-01

    Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an important role in both suicide and depression. We have employed qPCR to study 124 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) brain samples, obtained from two brain banks, from: i) young depressed patients (average age 43 years) who committed suicide (MDD-S) and depressed patients who died from causes other than suicide (MDD-NS) and from ii) elderly depressed patients (average age 75 years) who did not commit suicide (DEP). Both cohorts were individually matched with non-psychiatric non-suicide control subjects. We determined the transcript levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-regulating molecules (corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors, CRH binding protein, mineralocorticoid receptor/glucocorticoid receptor), transcription factors that regulate CRH expression, CRH-stimulating cytokines, chaperone proteins, retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B, cytochrome proteins, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and monoamines. In the MDD-S group, expression levels of CRH and neuronal NOS-interacting DHHC domain-containing protein with dendritic mRNA (NIDD) were increased. Other changes were only present in the DEP group, i.e. decreased NIDD, and increased and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) expression levels. Changes were found to be more pronounced in the anterior cingulate cortex than in the dorsolateral PFC. Depressed patients who committed suicide have different gene expression patterns than depressed patients who died of causes other than suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  2. Estrogen Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Expression in Normal Terminal Duct Lobular Units Surrounding Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Falk, Roni T.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Brinton, Louise A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Molecular and morphological alterations related to carcinogenesis have been found in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the microscopic structures from which most breast cancer precursors and cancers develop, and therefore, analysis of these structures may reveal early changes in breast carcinogenesis and etiologic heterogeneity. Accordingly, we evaluated relationships of breast cancer risk factors and tumor pathology to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in TDLUs surrounding breast cancers. Methods We analyzed 270 breast cancer cases included in a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland. TDLUs were mapped in relation to breast cancer: within the same block as the tumor (TDLU-T), proximal to tumor (TDLU-PT), or distant from (TDLU-DT). ER/PR was quantitated using image analysis of immunohistochemically stained TDLUs prepared as tissue microarrays. Results In surgical specimens containing ER-positive breast cancers, ER and PR levels were significantly higher in breast cancer cells than in normal TDLUs, and higher in TDLU-T than in TDLU-DT or TDLU-PT, which showed similar results. Analyses combining DT-/PT TDLUs within subjects demonstrated that ER levels were significantly lower in premenopausal women vs. postmenopausal women (odds ratio [OR]=0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.19, 0.76, P=0.0064) and among recent or current menopausal hormone therapy users compared with never users (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.046–0.43, Ptrend=0.0006). Compared with premenopausal women, TDLUs of postmenopausal women showed lower levels of PR (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.83–0.97, Ptrend=0.007). ER and PR expression in TDLUs was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in invasive tumors (P=0.019 for ER and P=0.03 for PR), but not with other tumor features. Conclusions Our data suggest that TDLUs near breast cancers reflect field effects, whereas those at a distance demonstrate influences of breast

  3. Muscle wasting and the temporal gene expression pattern in a novel rat intensive care unit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llano-Diez Monica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM or critical illness myopathy (CIM is frequently observed in intensive care unit (ICU patients. To elucidate duration-dependent effects of the ICU intervention on molecular and functional networks that control the muscle wasting and weakness associated with AQM, a gene expression profile was analyzed at time points varying from 6 hours to 14 days in a unique experimental rat model mimicking ICU conditions, i.e., post-synaptically paralyzed, mechanically ventilated and extensively monitored animals. Results During the observation period, 1583 genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by factors of two or greater. A significant temporal gene expression pattern was constructed at short (6 h-4 days, intermediate (5-8 days and long (9-14 days durations. A striking early and maintained up-regulation (6 h-14d of muscle atrogenes (muscle ring-finger 1/tripartite motif-containing 63 and F-box protein 32/atrogin-1 was observed, followed by an up-regulation of the proteolytic systems at intermediate and long durations (5-14d. Oxidative stress response genes and genes that take part in amino acid catabolism, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, muscle development, and protein synthesis together with myogenic factors were significantly up-regulated from 5 to 14 days. At 9-14 d, genes involved in immune response and the caspase cascade were up-regulated. At 5-14d, genes related to contractile (myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein C, regulatory (troponin, tropomyosin, developmental, caveolin-3, extracellular matrix, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, cytoskeleton/sarcomere regulation and mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated. An activation of genes related to muscle growth and new muscle fiber formation (increase of myogenic factors and JunB and down-regulation of myostatin and up-regulation of genes that code protein synthesis and translation factors were found from 5 to 14 days. Conclusions Novel

  4. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  5. Normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions in clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyi; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2015-09-01

    To improve the normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions (RI-TIMEXes) in clinical narratives. We analyzed the RI-TIMEXes in temporally annotated corpora and propose two hypotheses regarding the normalization of RI-TIMEXes in the clinical narrative domain: the anchor point hypothesis and the anchor relation hypothesis. We annotated the RI-TIMEXes in three corpora to study the characteristics of RI-TMEXes in different domains. This informed the design of our RI-TIMEX normalization system for the clinical domain, which consists of an anchor point classifier, an anchor relation classifier, and a rule-based RI-TIMEX text span parser. We experimented with different feature sets and performed an error analysis for each system component. The annotation confirmed the hypotheses that we can simplify the RI-TIMEXes normalization task using two multi-label classifiers. Our system achieves anchor point classification, anchor relation classification, and rule-based parsing accuracy of 74.68%, 87.71%, and 57.2% (82.09% under relaxed matching criteria), respectively, on the held-out test set of the 2012 i2b2 temporal relation challenge. Experiments with feature sets reveal some interesting findings, such as: the verbal tense feature does not inform the anchor relation classification in clinical narratives as much as the tokens near the RI-TIMEX. Error analysis showed that underrepresented anchor point and anchor relation classes are difficult to detect. We formulate the RI-TIMEX normalization problem as a pair of multi-label classification problems. Considering only RI-TIMEX extraction and normalization, the system achieves statistically significant improvement over the RI-TIMEX results of the best systems in the 2012 i2b2 challenge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Research in the United States relative to geochemistry and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, W.L.; Cannon, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the effects of the geochemical environment on health in the United States has fostered research studies in a number of universities and government agencies. The necessity to evaluate the effects of natural and man-made elemental excesses in the environment on health requires the establishment of requirements and tolerance limits for the various elements in water and crops. Maps of the geographic distribution of these elements in rocks, surficial materials and ground and surface waters are also essential for comparison with the occurrence of disease. Funding support for research projects that relate to various parameters of these problems emanates largely from a few federal agencies, and much of the work is conducted at government, university and private facilities. An example of the latter is the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, which has several components that are addressing a variety of comparative studies of the geochemical environment related to health; studies involve specific trace elements (like selenium and magnesium), diseases (like cancer, urolithiasis and cardiovascular disease), other health factors (like aging and nutrition) and links with timely major problems (like the health effects of greatly increasing the use of coal). ?? 1979.

  7. Protein expression analysis of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC development. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in protein expression between CRC and the surrounding nontumorous colonic tissues in the mice that received azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS using a proteomic analysis. Materials and Methods: Male ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, followed by 2% (w/v DSS in their drinking water for seven days, starting one week after the AOM injection. Colonic adenocarcinoma developed after 20 weeks and a proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraflex TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was conducted in the cancerous and nontumorous tissue specimens. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues in comparison to the nontumorous tissues. There were five markedly increased proteins (beta-tropomyosin, tropomyosin 1 alpha isoform b, S100 calcium binding protein A9, and an unknown protein and 16 markedly decreased proteins (Car1 proteins, selenium-binding protein 1, HMG-CoA synthase, thioredoxin 1, 1 Cys peroxiredoxin protein 2, Fcgbp protein, Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Va, ETHE1 protein, and 7 unknown proteins. Conclusions: There were 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues of the mice that received AOM and DSS. Their functions include metabolism, the antioxidant system, oxidative stress, mucin production, and inflammation. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies to treat carcinogenesis in the inflamed colon.

  8. Functional modules by relating protein interaction networks and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Sabine; Mewes, H W

    2003-11-01

    Genes and proteins are organized on the basis of their particular mutual relations or according to their interactions in cellular and genetic networks. These include metabolic or signaling pathways and protein interaction, regulatory or co-expression networks. Integrating the information from the different types of networks may lead to the notion of a functional network and functional modules. To find these modules, we propose a new technique which is based on collective, multi-body correlations in a genetic network. We calculated the correlation strength of a group of genes (e.g. in the co-expression network) which were identified as members of a module in a different network (e.g. in the protein interaction network) and estimated the probability that this correlation strength was found by chance. Groups of genes with a significant correlation strength in different networks have a high probability that they perform the same function. Here, we propose evaluating the multi-body correlations by applying the superparamagnetic approach. We compare our method to the presently applied mean Pearson correlations and show that our method is more sensitive in revealing functional relationships.

  9. Fibrosis-Related Gene Expression in Single Ventricle Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Stephanie J; Siomos, Austine K; Garcia, Anastacia M; Nguyen, Hieu; SooHoo, Megan; Galambos, Csaba; Nunley, Karin; Stauffer, Brian L; Sucharov, Carmen C; Miyamoto, Shelley D

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate fibrosis and fibrosis-related gene expression in the myocardium of pediatric subjects with single ventricle with right ventricular failure. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on explanted right ventricular myocardium of pediatric subjects with single ventricle disease and controls with nonfailing heart disease. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: single ventricle failing (right ventricular failure before or after stage I palliation), single ventricle nonfailing (infants listed for primary transplantation with normal right ventricular function), and stage III (Fontan or right ventricular failure after stage III). To evaluate subjects of similar age and right ventricular volume loading, single ventricle disease with failure was compared with single ventricle without failure and stage III was compared with nonfailing right ventricular disease. Histologic fibrosis was assessed in all hearts. Mann-Whitney tests were performed to identify differences in gene expression. Collagen (Col1α, Col3) expression is decreased in single ventricle congenital heart disease with failure compared with nonfailing single ventricle congenital heart disease (P = .019 and P = .035, respectively), and is equivalent in stage III compared with nonfailing right ventricular heart disease. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4) are downregulated in stage III compared with nonfailing right ventricular heart disease (P = .0047, P = .013 and P = .013, respectively). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) are similar between nonfailing single ventricular heart disease and failing single ventricular heart disease, and between stage III heart disease and nonfailing right ventricular heart disease. There is no difference in the prevalence of right ventricular fibrosis by histology in subjects with single ventricular failure heart disease with right ventricular failure (18%) compared with those with normal right

  10. A relational leadership perspective on unit-level safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debra N; Hoffman, Leslie A; Sereika, Susan M; Lorenz, Holly L; Wolf, Gail A; Burns, Helen K; Minnier, Tamra E; Ramanujam, Rangaraj

    2011-11-01

    This study compared nursing staff perceptions of safety climate in clinical units characterized by high and low ratings of leader-member exchange (LMX) and explored characteristics that might account for differences. Frontline nursing leaders' actions are critical to ensure patient safety. Specific leadership behaviors to achieve this goal are underexamined. The LMX perspective has shown promise in nonhealthcare settings as a means to explain safety climate perceptions. Cross-sectional survey of staff (n = 711) and unit directors from 34 inpatient units in an academic medical center was conducted. Significant differences were found between high and low LMX scoring units on supervisor safety expectations, organizational learning-continuous improvement, total communication, feedback and communication about errors, and nonpunitive response to errors. The LMX perspective can be used to identify differences in perceptions of safety climate among nursing staff. Future studies are needed to identify strategies to improve staff safety attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  11. Preschoolers' Emotion Expression and Regulation: Relations with School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys and girls differed…

  12. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... TGFβ/contact disruption-provoked Nox4 protein and mRNA expression, Nox4 promoter activation, and reactive oxygen species production. Mutation of the CC(A/T)6GG box eliminates the synergistic activation of the Nox4 promoter. Jasplakinolide-induced actin polymerization synergizes with TGFβ to facilitate...... MRTF-dependent Nox4 mRNA expression/promoter activation. Moreover, MRTF inhibition prevents Nox4 expression during TGFβ-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition as well. Although necessary, MRTF is insufficient; Nox4 expression also requires TGFβ-activated Smad3 and TAZ/YAP, two contact...

  13. Constraint Logic Programming for Resolution of Relative Time Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Translating time expression into absolute time points or durations is a challenge for natural languages processing such as text mining and text understanding in general. We present a constraint logic language CLP(Time) tailored to text usages concerned with time and calendar. It provides a simple...... and flexible formalism to express relationships between different time expressions in a text, thereby giving a recipe for resolving them into absolute time. A constraint solver is developed which, as opposed to some earlier approaches, is independent of the order in which temporal information is introduced...

  14. Expression of recombinant antibacterial lactoferricin-related peptides from Pichia pastoris expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen-Hung; Chen, Wei-Ming; Huang, Guo-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wen; Jiang, Shann-Tzong

    2009-10-28

    Four recombinant antimicrobial peptide (rAMP) cDNAs, constructed from two goat lactoferricin-related peptide cDNAs (GLFcin and GLFcin II) with/without (His)(6)-Tag, were cloned into pPICZalphaC and transformed into Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. After methanol induction, these rAMPs were expressed and secreted into broth. They were purified after CM-Sepharose (without His-tg), HisTrap (with His-tg) and Sephadex G-25 chromatographies. The yield of purified rAMP was 0.15 mg/mL of broth. These 4 rAMPs were thermal-stable and with high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BCRC 11549, Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCRC 12450, Bacillus cereus BCRC 10603, Staphylococcus aureus BCRC 25923, Propioni bacterium acnes BCRC 10723, and Listera monocytogenes BCRC 14845. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of rAMPs against these indicators ranged from 4.07 to 16.00 mg/mL.

  15. Present and Future of the United States-Bolivia Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Bolivariana para las Americas (Spanish for Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas) ALC Acuerdo de Libre Comercio (Spanish for Free Trade Agreement) ATPA...Challenge Account) DEA Drug Enforcement Agency FELCN Fuerza Especial de Lucha Contra el Narcotráfico (Spanish for Special Force to Combat Drug...Organizacion de Estados Americanos (Spanish for Organization of American States) PNUD United Nations Program for Development) TCP Tratado de Comercio de

  16. Uncertainties of exposure-related quantities in mammographic x-ray unit quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Pattison, John E.; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Breast screening programs operate in many countries with mammographic x-ray units subject to stringent quality control tests. These tests include the evaluation of quantities based on exposure measurements, such as half value layer, automatic exposure control reproducibility, average glandular dose, and radiation output rate. There are numerous error sources that contribute to the uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, some of which are unique to the low energy x-ray spectrum produced by mammographic x-ray units. For each of these exposure-related quantities, the applicable error sources and their magnitudes vary, depending on the test equipment used to make the measurement, and whether or not relevant corrections have been applied. This study has identified and quantified a range of error sources that may be used to estimate the combined uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, given the test equipment used and corrections applied. The uncertainty analysis uses methods described by the International Standards Organization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Examples of how these error sources combine to give the uncertainty of the exposure-related quantities are presented. Using the best test equipment evaluated in this study, uncertainties of the four exposure-related quantities at the 95% confidence interval were found to be ±1.6% (half value layer), ±0.0008 (automatic exposure control reproducibility), ±2.3% (average glandular dose), and ±2.1% (radiation output rate). In some cases, using less precise test equipment or failing to apply corrections, resulted in uncertainties more than double in magnitude

  17. A Relational Approach to the Study of Religious Survival Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The article departs from the finding that religious texts and actors relate to other religions as for instance The Old Testament relates to Canaanites, the New Testament to Jews, Pagans etc. A consequence of this inter-relatedness of religion is that religion can be studied as a relational......, a religion can be defined and studied as the result of complex set of dynamic relations, where a central tenet of a religion is that it relates to the significant religious other. As such religion is not a stable phenomenon but embedded in a dynamic historical process, which can explain the difficulties...

  18. Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family: Relations with parents' cultural orientations and children's emotion-related regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Networks in Wood Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Seyfferth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen (Populus tremula stems. ACC synthase expression suggests that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is synthesized during xylem expansion and xylem cell maturation. Ethylene-mediated transcriptional reprogramming occurs during all stages of secondary growth, as deduced from AspWood expression profiles of ethylene-responsive genes. A network centrality analysis of the AspWood dataset identified EIN3D and 11 ERFs as hubs. No overlap was found between the co-expressed genes of the EIN3 and ERF hubs, suggesting target diversification and hence independent roles for these transcription factor families during normal wood formation. The EIN3D hub was part of a large co-expression gene module, which contained 16 transcription factors, among them several new candidates that have not been earlier connected to wood formation and a VND-INTERACTING 2 (VNI2 homolog. We experimentally demonstrated Populus EIN3D function in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ERF hubs ERF118 and ERF119 were connected on the basis of their expression pattern and gene co-expression module composition to xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation, respectively. We hereby establish data resources for ethylene-responsive genes and

  20. Non-Relative Value Unit-Generating Activities Represent One-Fifth of Academic Neuroradiologist Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Zeineh, M; Zaharchuk, G; Srivastava, A; Fischbein, N

    2016-07-01

    A neuroradiologist's activity includes many tasks beyond interpreting relative value unit-generating imaging studies. Our aim was to test a simple method to record and quantify the non-relative value unit-generating clinical activity represented by consults and clinical conferences, including tumor boards. Four full-time neuroradiologists, working an average of 50% clinical and 50% academic activity, systematically recorded all the non-relative value unit-generating consults and conferences in which they were involved during 3 months by using a simple, Web-based, computer-based application accessible from smartphones, tablets, or computers. The number and type of imaging studies they interpreted during the same period and the associated relative value units were extracted from our billing system. During 3 months, the 4 neuroradiologists working an average of 50% clinical activity interpreted 4241 relative value unit-generating imaging studies, representing 8152 work relative value units. During the same period, they recorded 792 non-relative value unit-generating study reviews as part of consults and conferences (not including reading room consults), representing 19% of the interpreted relative value unit-generating imaging studies. We propose a simple Web-based smartphone app to record and quantify non-relative value unit-generating activities including consults, clinical conferences, and tumor boards. The quantification of non-relative value unit-generating activities is paramount in this time of a paradigm shift from volume to value. It also represents an important tool for determining staffing levels, which cannot be performed on the basis of relative value unit only, considering the importance of time spent by radiologists on non-relative value unit-generating activities. It may also influence payment models from medical centers to radiology departments or practices. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sucrose is required for plant growth and development. The sugar status of plant cells is sensed by sensor proteins. The signal generated by signal transduction cascades, which could involve mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein phosphatases, Ca2+ and calmodulins, results in appropriate gene expression. A variety of ...

  2. p53 expression in colorectal carcinoma in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematoxylin and eosin stain was used for evaluation of histological types and degree of differentiation of the tumors. Topography of the tumors and demographic data were obtained from accompanying histological request forms. Results: Out of 109 patient\\'s tissue blocks that were studied, 61 cases (56%) expressed p53 ...

  3. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2006-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  4. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2008-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  5. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2007-01-01

    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  6. Introduction: Issues Related to Dose Units and Damage Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, Roger E.

    2012-01-01

    The observable effects of irradiation on material properties are complex and each such property changed depends sensitively on a range of irradiation and material parameters. This works against development of a universal exposure parameter. The irradiation dose to the material (both ionizing and displacement dose) can be calculated with good accuracy as long as the relevant reaction cross sections are known and implemented in the codes used. This suggests that a focus on dose calculations is warranted. When assessing damage correlation parameters, it is important to determine the appropriate dose parameter first. Then a clear distinction between damage formation and damage accumulation needs to be kept in mind. The dose unit is most helpful for estimating the primary damage generation, e.g. how damage energy is used to estimate atomic displacements. However, damage accumulation requires longer times and involves kinetic and thermodynamic processes that cannot be accounted for in a dose or primary damage unit. The adequacy of the primary damage formulations can be assessed through their use in mean field reaction rate theory or kinetic Monte Carlo microstructural evolution models to predict damage accumulation. The results of these models can be directly compared with experimental observations. (author)

  7. Improvements in or relating to pulsed X-ray units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichenkov, E.I.; Klypin, V.V.; Palchikov, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed X-ray unit comprises a pulsed X-ray tube connected to a discharge capacitor. The discharge capacitor comprises two coaxially arranged cylinders. One cylinder of the discharge capacitor is connected to the X-ray tube and to the high-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a truncated cone, and is arranged internally of this winding coaxially therewith. The other cylinder of the discharge capacitor is also connected to the X-ray tube and to the low-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer, and is arranged intermediate this winding and the primary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a hollow cylinder, and connected to the charging device. The cylinders of the discharge capacitor have ports made therein for the passage therethrough of the magnetic flux produced by the windings of the pulsed transformer. (author)

  8. An Inventory of Crop Wild Relatives of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Greene, S.; Wiersema, J.; Maxted, N.; Jarvis, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of crop wild relatives (CWRs) in breeding is likely to continue to intensify as utilization techniques improve and crop adaptation to climate change becomes more pressing. Signifi cant gaps remain in the conservation of these genetic resources. As a fi rst step toward a national strategy for

  9. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...... given credit for and may be responsible for some reverse kinematics reported in shear zones....... or wakes, elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones or wakes. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators usually display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either side of the shear zone or wake reported here show reverse...... kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit shear zones with opposed senses of movement across their center-lines or -planes.We have used field observations and results from analytical and numerical models to suggest that examples of wakes are the transit paths that develop where denser blocks sink within salt...

  10. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  11. Improved methods and resources for paramecium genomics: transcription units, gene annotation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Olivier; Van Dijk, Erwin; Bétermier, Mireille; Lhuillier-Akakpo, Maoussi; de Vanssay, Augustin; Duharcourt, Sandra; Sallet, Erika; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sperling, Linda

    2017-06-26

    The 15 sibling species of the Paramecium aurelia cryptic species complex emerged after a whole genome duplication that occurred tens of millions of years ago. Given extensive knowledge of the genetics and epigenetics of Paramecium acquired over the last century, this species complex offers a uniquely powerful system to investigate the consequences of whole genome duplication in a unicellular eukaryote as well as the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that drive speciation. High quality Paramecium gene models are important for research using this system. The major aim of the work reported here was to build an improved gene annotation pipeline for the Paramecium lineage. We generated oriented RNA-Seq transcriptome data across the sexual process of autogamy for the model species Paramecium tetraurelia. We determined, for the first time in a ciliate, candidate P. tetraurelia transcription start sites using an adapted Cap-Seq protocol. We developed TrUC, multi-threaded Perl software that in conjunction with TopHat mapping of RNA-Seq data to a reference genome, predicts transcription units for the annotation pipeline. We used EuGene software to combine annotation evidence. The high quality gene structural annotations obtained for P. tetraurelia were used as evidence to improve published annotations for 3 other Paramecium species. The RNA-Seq data were also used for differential gene expression analysis, providing a gene expression atlas that is more sensitive than the previously established microarray resource. We have developed a gene annotation pipeline tailored for the compact genomes and tiny introns of Paramecium species. A novel component of this pipeline, TrUC, predicts transcription units using Cap-Seq and oriented RNA-Seq data. TrUC could prove useful beyond Paramecium, especially in the case of high gene density. Accurate predictions of 3' and 5' UTR will be particularly valuable for studies of gene expression (e.g. nucleosome positioning, identification of cis

  12. Golf-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brittany A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates unintentional non-fatal golf-related injuries in the US using a nationally representative database. This study analyzed golf-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 2011 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Injury rates were calculated using golf participation data. During 1990 through 2011, an estimated 663,471 (95% CI: 496,370-830,573) individuals ≥7years old were treated in US emergency departments for golf-related injuries, averaging 30,158 annually or 12.3 individuals per 10,000 golf participants. Patients 18-54years old accounted for 42.2% of injuries, but injury rates per 10,000 golf participants were highest among individuals 7-17years old (22.1) and ≥55years old (21.8) compared with 18-54years old (7.6). Patients ≥55years old had a hospital admission rate that was 5.01 (95% CI: 4.12-6.09) times higher than that of younger patients. Injured by a golf club (23.4%) or struck by a golf ball (16.0%) were the most common specified mechanisms of injury. The head/neck was the most frequently injured body region (36.2%), and sprain/strain (30.6%) was the most common type of injury. Most patients were treated and released (93.7%) and 5.9% required hospitalization. Although golf is a source of injury among all age groups, the frequency and rate of injury were higher at the two ends of the age spectrum. Given the higher injury and hospital admission rates of patients ≥55years, this age group merits the special attention of additional research and injury prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative expression of the products of glyoxylate bypass operon: contributions of transcription and translation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, T; Resnik, E; Stueland, C; LaPorte, D C

    1993-01-01

    Although the genes of the aceBAK operon are expressed from the same promoter, the relative cellular levels of their products are approximately 0.3:1:0.003. Gene and operon fusions with lacZ were constructed to characterize this differential expression. The upshift in expression between aceB and aceA resulted from differences in translational efficiency. In contrast, inefficient translation and premature transcriptional termination contributed to the downshift in expression between aceA and ac...

  14. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  15. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.

  16. Public relation aspects of site selection in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, T.

    1996-01-01

    Following a recent review, the UK Government has confirmed that it continues to favour a policy of deep disposal of intermediate low-level waste. The Government's continuing policy stems from the recommendations of the 1976 Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (the 'Flowers'Report) and White Papers issued in 1977 and 1982 and 1982. The paper outlines the search for a disposal site in the UK. Nirex (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) was set up in 1982 to research and develop disposal facilities for intermediate low-level waste and low-level waste. At that time disposal facilities were envisaged as an engineered near-surface facility for LLW and short-lived ILW, and a modified mine or purpose built cavity at greater depth for long-lived ILW. Investigation of various sites followed and is discussed in the paper. The paper reviews the lessons learned in the field of public relations and public consultation, notably that public acceptance is a key factor in site selection and development, and that transparency is essential. For example, when it was announced that Sellafield was the preferred site for the repository, local councils became involved in discussions and planning, and Nirex is becoming more and more integrated into the local community. (author)

  17. Expression and functional analysis of apoptosis-related gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... conducted a molecular cloning and functional analysis to study a specific silkworm gene BmICAD related to apoptosis. .... blocking with 5% non-fat milk for 1 h at room temperature, the .... requirements for all next experiments.

  18. Expression of phytoene synthase ( psy ) gene and its relation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carotenoids are important determinant of tea quality as many of the quality related flavour volatiles are produced through the degradation of carotenoids during tea processing. Variation in levels of carotenoids including neoxanthin, violoxanthin, xanthophylls and -carotene in early and late period of spring, summer and ...

  19. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    OBJECTIVE: Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an

  20. What is shared, what is different? Core relational themes and expressive displays of eight positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Belinda; Shiota, Michelle N; Keltner, Dacher; Gonzaga, Gian C; Goetz, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding positive emotions' shared and differentiating features can yield valuable insight into the structure of positive emotion space and identify emotion states, or aspects of emotion states, that are most relevant for particular psychological processes and outcomes. We report two studies that examined core relational themes (Study 1) and expressive displays (Study 2) for eight positive emotion constructs--amusement, awe, contentment, gratitude, interest, joy, love, and pride. Across studies, all eight emotions shared one quality: high positive valence. Distinctive core relational theme and expressive display patterns were found for four emotions--amusement, awe, interest, and pride. Gratitude was associated with a distinct core relational theme but not an expressive display. Joy and love were each associated with a distinct expressive display but their core relational themes also characterised pride and gratitude, respectively. Contentment was associated with a distinct expressive display but not a core relational theme. The implications of this work for the study of positive emotion are discussed.

  1. The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A; Baez, G [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.com, E-mail: gbaez@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-01-15

    The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving the constants {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} the values appropriate to each system.

  2. Expression of livin protein in lung cancer and its relation with the expression of pro-caspase3 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongru LI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Livin is a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP, recent studies showed it overexpresses in a variety of carcinomas including lung cancer and contributes much to the cancerous development. The objective of this study is to explore the expression of livin in tissues of lung cancer and its relationshipwith histological types, chemotherapy, Lymph node metastasis and to study its correlation with the expression of pro-caspase3 as well. Methods Expressions of Livin and caspase3 were detected by Western blot assay in lung cancer tissues as well as in controls. Results Livin was expressed in 15 of 27 lung cancer, significantly more than those in lung para-cancerous (1/5 or benign disease lung tissues (2/12 (P 0.05. Conclusion Livin are differently expressed in different histological types of lung cancer; High levels of livin expression do not relate to chemotherapy, lymph node metastasis (P >0.05. The levels of livin tends to be positively associated with those of accordingly pro-caspase3, it is presumed that livin could bind pro-caspase3 and suppress its activation.

  3. A Reduced Stimulation Unit: Effects on Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated special unit for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. Results showed in the unit, in which reduced stimulation was emphasized, patient weight loss was curtailed, patient agitation was diminished, restraint use was reduced, and wandering was no longer a concern. Found family members to be satisfied with care.…

  4. Changes in time and frequency related aspects of motor unit action potentials during fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Bouwens, Jeroen S.; Baten, Christian T.M.

    1996-01-01

    During fatigue the shape of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) change. Characteristics of the MUAPs described before concern several time related aspects. No attention has been given to the frequency spectrum changes of MUAPS. The median frequency of MUAPS has now been determined for motor units

  5. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  6. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.

  7. The Cross-Cultural study of Emotional Expression in Japan and the United States : The Non-monolithic Nature of Individualism and Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Isamu; Stephan, Cookie White; Stephan, Walter G.; Morrison, Shara L.

    1996-01-01

    In this study 3 hypotheses were tested concerning differences between the expression of emotions in collectivistic and individualistic cultures using samples from Japan and the United States. American participants anticipated feeling more comfortable expressing emotions that affirm independence but participants from Japan anticipated feeling equally comfortable expressing independent and interdependent emotions. Japanese participants anticipated feeling equally comfortable expressing emotions...

  8. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. → Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. → Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  9. Romantic Jealousy and Relational Satisfaction: A Look at the Impact of Jealousy Experience and Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that cognitive jealousy is a more potent predictor of relational satisfaction than emotional jealousy, individuals using integrative communication and/or expression of negative affect to communicate jealousy are most likely to be satisfied with their relationships, and jealousy expression accounts for significantly more variance in…

  10. Emotional Expressivity and Emotion Regulation: Relation to Academic Functioning among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Hanrahan, Amanda R.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined emotional expressivity (i.e., happiness, sadness, and anger) and emotion regulation (regulation of exuberance, sadness, and anger) as they relate to academic functioning (motivation, engagement, and achievement). Also, we tested the premise that emotional expressivity and emotion regulation are indirectly associated with achievement…

  11. Increased Symptom Expression among Patients with Delirium Admitted to an Acute Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maxine; Yennu, Sriram; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Reddy, Akhila; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric condition in very ill patients and those at the end of life. Previous case reports found that delirium-induced disinhibition may lead to overexpression of symptoms. It negatively affects communication between patients, family members, and the medical team and can sometimes lead to inappropriate interventions. Better understanding would result in improved care. Our aim was to determine the effect of delirium on the reporting of symptom severity in patients with advanced cancer. We reviewed 329 consecutive patients admitted to the acute palliative care unit (APCU) without a diagnosis of delirium from January to December 2011. Demographics, Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance status, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) on two time points were collected. The first time point was on admission and the second time point for group A was day one (+two days) of delirium. For group B, the second time point was within two to four days before discharge from the APCU. Patients who developed delirium and those who did not develop delirium during the entire course of admission were compared using chi-squared test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Paired t-test was used to assess if the change of ESAS from baseline to follow-up was associated with delirium. Ninety-six of 329 (29%) patients developed delirium during their admission to the APCU. The median time to delirium was two days. There was no difference in the length of stay in the APCU for both groups. Patients who did not have delirium expressed improvement in all their symptoms, while those who developed delirium during hospitalization showed no improvement in physical symptoms and worsening in depression, anxiety, appetite, and well-being. Patients with delirium reported no improvement or worsening symptoms compared to patients without delirium. Screening for delirium is important in patients who continue to report

  12. Expression Analysis of Genes Related to Rice Resistance Against Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panatda Jannoey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper (BPH is an insect species that feeds on the vascular system of rice plants. To examine the defence mechanism of rice plants against BPH, the pathogenesis-related genes (PR1a, PR2, PR3, PR4, PR6, PR9, PR10a, PR13, PR15 and PRpha, signaling molecule synthesis genes (AOS, AXR, ACO and LOX, antioxidant-related genes (CAT, TRX, GST and SOD and lignin biosynthesis-related genes (CHS, CHI and C4H were investigated in a resistant rice variety. AOS, PR6, PR9 and PR15 genes showed significantly increased relative expression levels at 24.38-, 19.17-, 14.71-, and 12.74-fold compared to the control. Moderate increased relative expression levels of lignin biosynthesis-related gene (C4H, pathogenesis-related genes (PR4, PR10a and PRpha, and antioxidant-related gene (GST were found, while CHI, LOX, SOD, TRX1 and AXR showed decreased relative expression levels. It was thus clearly shown that wound-induced response genes were activated in rice plants after BPH attacks through AOS activation. Jasmonic acid signaling molecule may activate PR6, PR15, GST and CAT subsequently increasing their expression for H2O2 detoxification. PR6 were expressed at the highest relative level among the PR genes. These genes therefore have also a considerable synergistic role with the other genes against BPH by interfered their digestion tract system.

  13. Expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 is decreased in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Yu Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the human kallikrein 7 (KLK7 is differentially regulated in a variety of tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 in our large collection of prostate samples. Between August 2000 and December 2012, 116 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer (PCa and 92 with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH were recruited into the study. Using immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot, kallikrein-related peptidase 7 expression in BPH and PCa tissues was determined at the mRNA and protein levels. The relationships between kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed. A total of 64 of 92 (69.57% benign cases showed positive staining for KLK7 and 23 of 116 (19.83% malignant cases showed positive, the difference of KLK7 expression between PCa and BPH was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The expression level of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA was significantly decreased in PCa tissues compared with that in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA exhibited different expression patterns in terms of localization depending on pathological category of PCa. Similarly, our western immunoblot analyses demonstrated that the protein expression levels of KLK7 was lower in PCa than in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 expression are down-regulated in PCa and lower expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 closely correlates with higher Gleason score and higher prostate-specific antigen level.

  14. Social Mobilization and Reaffirmation of Democratic Participation : The Brotherhood as Expression of a New Relational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Crystine Corrêa Sanches

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Democracy represents a fundamental right for citizens. Democracy and citizen par- ticipation are developing and they complement each other, given that there is no demo- cracy without the active and conscious participation of citizens in the political process. This democratic participation occurs through tools that enable the practice of citizenship, and, among them, the social movements stand out. There is a direct relationship between the social movements and democracy: whilst the social movements exist only in demo- cratic systems, democracy requires the participation of civil society with the state. The social movements consist on a structured organization that has the purpose of uniting people to defend and promote rights, containing social identity and a particular way of thinking and acting collectively to achieve the common good and a new sort of life. The particularities of the social movements let one glimpse that the major expression of civic participation contributes to a cultural change in society, given that, with common goals, the differences are overcome, encouraging a relatedness which looks for ethics, sharing and fraternity. The understanding of fraternity in its various forms – historical, political, legal and ethical – contributes to a development in respect among people, acceptance of socio-economic and cultural differences, emphasizing the feeling of a group belonging. This way, this article aims to analyse social movements and its cooperation in building a new relational culture, more Humane, Fair And Fraternal.

  15. A new expression of the probability distribution in Incomplete Statistics and fundamental thermodynamic relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhifu; Lin Bihong; ChenJincan

    2009-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of the original expression of the probability distribution appearing in literature of Incomplete Statistics, a new expression of the probability distribution is derived, where the Lagrange multiplier β introduced here is proved to be identical with that introduced in the second and third choices for the internal energy constraint in Tsallis' statistics and to be just equal to the physical inverse temperature. It is expounded that the probability distribution described by the new expression is invariant through uniform translation of the energy spectrum. Moreover, several fundamental thermodynamic relations are given and the relationship between the new and the original expressions of the probability distribution is discussed.

  16. VEGF expression and microvascular density in relation to high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPV)- related cancer mandates the search for new treatment modalities. Therapeutic targeting of tumor vasculature is a promising strategy. The aim was to study angiogenesis in cervical carcinoma in terms of VEGF expression and assessment ...

  17. Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensman, H.; Goransson, H.; Leuchowius, K.J.; Stromberg, S.; Ponten, F.; Isaksson, A.; Rutteman, G.R.; Heldin, N.; Pejler, G.; Hellmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas Journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 0167-6806 (Print) 1573-7217 (Online) Issue Volume 118, Number 2 / November, 2009 Category Preclinical Study DOI

  18. Leaders’ emotional expressiveness and their behavioural and relational authenticity : Effects on followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilies, R.; Curseu, P.L.; Dimotakis, N.; Spitzmuller, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effects of leader emotional expressiveness on idealized influence and leadership effectiveness. Drawing from recent theory and research on authentic leadership, we also examine the moderating role of leader behavioural and relational authenticity in the

  19. Necrosis related HIF-1α expression predicts prognosis in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeber, Laura MS; Horrée, Nicole; Groep, Petra van der; Wall, Elsken van der; Verheijen, René HM; Diest, Paul J van

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays an essential role in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia and is associated with aggressive tumour behaviour. We have shown p27 kip1 , which is generally reduced in endometrial cancer, to be re-expressed in hypoxic regions. This possibly contributes to survival of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of HIF-1α and p27 kip expression in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer. Expression levels of HIF-1α, CAIX, Glut-1, and p27 kip1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Percentage of positive cells, staining pattern (perinecrotic, diffuse, or mixed) and presence of necrosis were noted. Necrosis was correlated with shortened disease free survival (DFS) (p = 0.008) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.045). For DFS, perinecrotic HIF-1α expression was also prognostic (p = 0.044). Moreover, high p27 kip1 expression was an additional prognostic factor for these patients with perinecrotic HIF-1α expression. In multivariate Cox regression, perinecrotic HIF-expression emerged as an independent prognostic factor. Perinecrotic HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with CAIX and Glut-1 expression, pointing towards functional HIF-1. In patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer, necrosis and necrosis-related expression of HIF-1α are important prognostic factors. More aggressive adjuvant treatment might be necessary to improve the outcome of patients with these characteristics

  20. Expression analysis of fiber related genes in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) through real time pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Khatoon, A.; Asif, M.; Bashir, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular seed trichomes and the largest known plant cells. Fiber morphogenesis in cotton is a complex process involving a large number of genes expressed throughout fiber development process. The expression profiling of five gene families in various cotton tissues was carried out through real time PCR. Expression analysis revealed that transcripts of expansin, tubulin and E6 were elevated from 5 to 20 days post anthesis (DPA) fibers. Three Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) including LTP1, LTP3, LTP7 exhibited highest expression in 10 - 20 DPA fibers. Transcripts of LTP3 were detected in fibers and non fiber tissues that of LTP7 were almost negligible in non fiber tissues. Sucrose phosphate synthase gene showed highest expression in 10 DPA fibers while sucrose synthse (susy) expressed at higher rate in 5-20 DPA fibers as well as roots. The results reveal that most of fiber related genes showed high expression in 5-20 DPA fibers. Comprehensive expression study may help to determine tissue and stage specificity of genes under study. The study may also help to explore complex process of fiber development and understand the role of these genes in fiber development process. Highly expressed genes in fibers may be transformed in cotton for improvement of fiber quality traits. Genes that were expressed specifically in fibers or other tissues could be used for isolation of upstream regulatory sequences. (author)

  1. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  2. Hippocampal gene expression patterns in oxytocin male knockout mice are related to impaired social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Virginia Meneghini; Zimmermann-Peruzatto, Josi Maria; Agnes, Grasiela; Becker, Roberta Oriques; de Moura, Ana Carolina; Almeida, Silvana; Guedes, Renata Padilha; Giovenardi, Marcia

    2017-11-02

    Social interaction between animals is crucial for the survival and life in groups. It is well demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) play critical roles in the regulation of social behaviors in mammals, however, other neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in the brain circuitry related to these behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain of OT knockout (OTKO) male mice. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of the OT receptor (Oxtr), AVP receptors 1a and 1b (Avpr1a; Avpr1b), dopamine receptor 2 (Drd2), and the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (Esr1; Esr2) genes in the hippocampus (HPC), olfactory bulb (OB), hypothalamus (HPT) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). AVP gene (Avp) expression was analyzed in the HPT. Gene expression results were discussed regarding to social interaction and sexual behavior findings. Additionally, we analyzed the influence of OT absence on the Avp mRNA expression levels in the HPT. RNA extraction and cDNAs synthesis followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed for gene expression determination. Results were calculated with the 2 -ΔΔCt method. Our main finding was that HPC is more susceptible to gene expression changes due to the lack of OT. OTKOs exhibited decreased expression of Drd2 and Avpr1b, but increased expression of Oxtr in the HPC. In the PFC, Esr2 was increased. In the HPT, there was a reduced Avp expression in the OTKO group. No differences were detected in the OB and HPT. Despite these changes in gene expression, sexual behavior was not affected. However, OTKO showed higher social investigation and lower aggressive performance than wild-type mice. Our data highlight the importance of OT for proper gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors related to the regulation of social interaction in male mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  4. The Uniting of a Profession: The History of Public Relations Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Kathleen S.

    A chronological history of major public relations organizations in the United States is presented in this paper. Following an overview of the public relations profession, the paper traces the development of several sporatically formed organizations, starting with the Financial Advertising Association in 1915, and leading to the largest…

  5. MVP expression is related to IGF1-R in cervical carcinoma patients treated by radiochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Marta; Lara, Pedro Carlos; Bordón, Elisa; Rey, Agustin; Falcón, Orlando; Apolinario, Rosa Maria; Clavo, Bernardino; Ruiz, Ana

    2008-09-01

    To assess the expression of MVP in cervix carcinoma patients treated by radiochemotherapy, its relation to clinical and pathologic prognostic factors and its role in predicting clinical outcome. In addition the relation to IGF-1R expression in this cohort of patients will be explored. Sixty consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma were prospectively included in this study from July 1999 to December 2003. Follow-up was closed in November 2007. Patients were staged following the TNM classification. All patients received pelvic radiation (45-64.80 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy fractions) followed brachytherapy and concomitant cisplatin at 40 mg/m(2)/week doses. MVP expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. MVP was expressed in 58 patients (96.7%) and no relation was found with clinicopathological variables. High MVP expression was related to high IGF1-R expression (p=0.023). Complete response after treatment was observed in 50 patients (83.3%). Clinical stage of the disease and clinical response to radiochemotherapy were the most important prognostic factors related to survival. High MVP and IGF-1R tumour expression was strongly related to poor local and regional disease-free survival (p=0.006), distant disease-free survival (p=0.050), disease-free survival (p=0.006), and cause-specific survival (p=0.007) in patients achieving a complete response. MVP and IGF-1R expression were related in clinical cervical tumours and confer reduced long-term local control in patients who achieved clinical complete response to radiochemotherapy.

  6. Are event-related potentials to dynamic facial expressions of emotion related to individual differences in the accuracy of processing facial expressions and identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Guillermo; Wilhelm, Oliver; Sommer, Werner; Hildebrandt, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC). Then we estimated brain-behavior relationships between the ERP factors and behavioral indicators of facial identity and emotion-processing abilities. Structural models revealed that the participants who formed faster structural representations of neutral faces (i.e., shorter N170 latencies) performed better at face perception (r = -.51) and memory (r = -.42). The N170 amplitude was not related to individual differences in face cognition or emotion processing. The latent EPN factor correlated with emotion perception (r = .47) and memory (r = .32), and also with face perception abilities (r = .41). Interestingly, the latent factor representing the difference in EPN amplitudes between the two neutral control conditions (chewing and blinking movements) also correlated with emotion perception (r = .51), highlighting the importance of tracking facial changes in the perception of emotional facial expressions. The LPC factor for negative expressions correlated with the memory for emotional facial expressions. The links revealed between the latency and strength of activations of brain systems and individual differences in processing socio-emotional information provide new insights into the brain mechanisms involved in social communication.

  7. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F

    2007-01-01

    greater than the effect of concentric training on the expression of several transcripts. In conclusion, the study supports an involvement of TGF-beta-1 in loading-induced collagen synthesis in the muscle-tendon unit and importantly, it indicates that muscle tissue is more sensitive than tendon......Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF......-beta-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7...

  8. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-09-01

    To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors.

  9. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  10. Aerosol container-related eye injuries in the United States: 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Carly J; Linakis, James G; Mello, Michael J; Greenberg, Paul B

    2011-06-01

    To quantify and characterize eye injuries related to aerosol container consumer products treated in United States hospital emergency departments (EDs) from 1997 through 2009. Retrospective study. Descriptive analysis of aerosol container-related eye injury data derived from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a stratified probability sample of hospital-affiliated United States EDs. Data collected included demographic variables (gender and age), locale, diagnoses, and hospital disposition associated with aerosol container-related eye injuries treated in United States EDs from 1997 through 2009. Products associated with injury and mechanisms of injury also were extracted and analyzed. There were an estimated 10 765 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9842 to 11 688) visits to United States EDs for aerosol container-related eye injuries during the study period; 6756 (95% CI, 5771 to 7742; 63%) patients were male; 5927 (95% CI, 4956 to 6897; 55%) injuries occurred in children (age container-related eye injuries in the United States occur in men and children and that self-inflicted spray to the eye is the most common mechanism of injury. Further research is needed to devise effective prevention strategies for these types of injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Intersex related gene expression profiles in clams Scrobicularia plana: Molecular markers and environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocan, Corina M.; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Langston, William J.; Pope, Nick; Cornelius, Keith; Hill, E.M.; Alvarez-Munoz, Diana; Indiveri, Paolo; Lerebours, Adelaide; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expression of intersex-related genes was analysed in clam gonads sampled from the Channel. • Genes were differentially expressed at sites with varying levels of intersex and contaminants. • Correlations between gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling sites were identified. • No single gene expression studied correlated with intersex incidence. - Abstract: Intersex, the appearance of female characteristics in male gonads, has been identified in several aquatic species. It is a widespread phenomenon in populations of the bivalve, Scrobicularia plana, from the southwest coast of the U.K. Genes previously identified as differentially expressed (ferritin, testicular haploid expressed gene, THEG, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; receptor activated protein kinase C, RACK; cytochrome B, CYB; and cytochrome c oxidase 1, COX1) in intersex clams relative to normal male clams, were selected for characterisation and an environmental survey of the Channel region. Transcripts were significantly differentially expressed at sites with varying intersex incidence and contaminant burdens. Significant correlations between specific gene expressions, key contaminants and sampling locations have been identified, though no single gene was associated with intersex incidence. The results highlight the difficulty in understanding the intersex phenomenon in molluscs where there is still a lack of knowledge on the control of normal reproduction

  12. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  13. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  14. Individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions: an event-related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Tamamiya

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that early posterior components of event-related potentials (ERPs are modulated by facial expressions. The goal of the current study was to investigate individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions by examining the relationship between ERP components and the discrimination of facial expressions. Pictures of 3 facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral were presented to 36 young adults during ERP recording. Participants were asked to respond with a button press as soon as they recognized the expression depicted. A multiple regression analysis, where ERP components were set as predictor variables, assessed hits and reaction times in response to the facial expressions as dependent variables. The N170 amplitudes significantly predicted for accuracy of angry and happy expressions, and the N170 latencies were predictive for accuracy of neutral expressions. The P2 amplitudes significantly predicted reaction time. The P2 latencies significantly predicted reaction times only for neutral faces. These results suggest that individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions emerge from early components in visual processing.

  15. Individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamiya, Yoshiyuki; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that early posterior components of event-related potentials (ERPs) are modulated by facial expressions. The goal of the current study was to investigate individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions by examining the relationship between ERP components and the discrimination of facial expressions. Pictures of 3 facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral) were presented to 36 young adults during ERP recording. Participants were asked to respond with a button press as soon as they recognized the expression depicted. A multiple regression analysis, where ERP components were set as predictor variables, assessed hits and reaction times in response to the facial expressions as dependent variables. The N170 amplitudes significantly predicted for accuracy of angry and happy expressions, and the N170 latencies were predictive for accuracy of neutral expressions. The P2 amplitudes significantly predicted reaction time. The P2 latencies significantly predicted reaction times only for neutral faces. These results suggest that individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions emerge from early components in visual processing.

  16. [Relationship between PMI and relative expression of myocardial various RNAs in rats died of different causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ye-Hui; Zhang, Heng; Pan, Hui; Ma, Kai-Jun; Li, Wen-Can; Chen, Wen-Feng; Jiang, Jie-Qing'; Xue, Ai-Min; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Jun; Chen, Long

    2014-02-01

    To observe the changes of relative expression of myocardial various RNAs in rats died of different causes and their relationship with PMI. The rat models were established in which the rats were sacrificed by broken neck, asphyxia, and hemorrhagic shock. Total RNAs were extracted from myocardium. The quantitative real time PCR was used to calculate threshold cycle values of RNAs including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and U6 small nuclear RNA (U6 snRNA) and to study the changes of the relative expressions of various indexes with PMI. U6 snRNA with stable expression level could be used as appropriate internal control. In the early PMI, the relative expression of GAPDH, HIF-1, iNOS, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 more characteristically increased in groups of asphyxia and hemorrhagic shock than in group of broken neck, but the quantity of beta-actin decreased in all groups. In the late PMI, all the relative expressions significantly declined in correlation with the degradation of RNA. The characteristic changes of each RNA expression can be used as references to estimate PMI in deaths by different causes.

  17. Gene expression changes for antioxidants pathways in the mouse cochlea: relations to age-related hearing deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif F Tadros

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the number one neurodegenerative disorder and top communication deficit of our aged population. Like many aging disorders of the nervous system, damage from free radicals linked to production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively may play key roles in disease progression. The efficacy of the antioxidant systems, e.g., glutathione and thioredoxin, is an important factor in pathophysiology of the aging nervous system. In this investigation, relations between the expression of antioxidant-related genes in the auditory portion of the inner ear - cochlea, and age-related hearing loss was explored for CBA/CaJ mice. Forty mice were classified into four groups according to age and degree of hearing loss. Cochlear mRNA samples were collected and cDNA generated. Using Affymetrix® GeneChip, the expressions of 56 antioxidant-related gene probes were analyzed to estimate the differences in gene expression between the four subject groups. The expression of Glutathione peroxidase 6, Gpx6; Thioredoxin reductase 1, Txnrd1; Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, Idh1; and Heat shock protein 1, Hspb1; were significantly different, or showed large fold-change differences between subject groups. The Gpx6, Txnrd1 and Hspb1 gene expression changes were validated using qPCR. The Gpx6 gene was upregulated while the Txnrd1 gene was downregulated with age/hearing loss. The Hspb1 gene was found to be downregulated in middle-aged animals as well as those with mild presbycusis, whereas it was upregulated in those with severe presbycusis. These results facilitate development of future interventions to predict, prevent or slow down the progression of presbycusis.

  18. Increased tolerance to two oomycete pathogens in transgenic tobacco expressing pathogenesis-related protein 1a.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, D; Goodman, R M; Gut-Rella, M; Glascock, C; Weymann, K; Friedrich, L; Maddox, D; Ahl-Goy, P; Luntz, T; Ward, E

    1993-01-01

    Expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR-1a), a protein of unknown biochemical function, is induced to high levels in tobacco in response to pathogen infection. The induction of PR-1a expression is tightly correlated with the onset of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a defense response effective against a variety of fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. While PR-1a has been postulated to be involved in SAR, and is the most highly expressed of the PR proteins, evidence for its ro...

  19. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asting, Annika Gustafsson; Carén, Helena; Andersson, Marianne; Lönnroth, Christina; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Lundholm, Kent

    2011-01-01

    Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue

  20. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerstedt Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4 showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3 were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue.

  1. Expression of DISC1-interactome members correlates with cognitive phenotypes related to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Antonio; Walker, Rosie May; Torrance, Helen Scott; Anderson, Susan Maguire; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Masellis, Rita; Ursini, Gianluca; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Millar, J Kirsty; Porteous, David John; Thomson, Pippa Ann; Bertolino, Alessandro; Evans, Kathryn Louise

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is central to the schizophrenia phenotype. Genetic and functional studies have implicated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a leading candidate gene for schizophrenia and related psychiatric conditions, in cognitive function. Altered expression of DISC1 and DISC1-interactors has been identified in schizophrenia. Dysregulated expression of DISC1-interactome genes might, therefore, contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility via disruption of molecular systems required for normal cognitive function. Here, the blood RNA expression levels of DISC1 and DISC1-interacting proteins were measured in 63 control subjects. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychiatric tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the activity of prefrontal cortical regions during the N-back working memory task, which is abnormal in schizophrenia. Pairwise correlations between gene expression levels and the relationship between gene expression levels and cognitive function and N-back-elicited brain activity were assessed. Finally, the expression levels of DISC1, AKAP9, FEZ1, NDEL1 and PCM1 were compared between 63 controls and 69 schizophrenic subjects. We found that DISC1-interactome genes showed correlated expression in the blood of healthy individuals. The expression levels of several interactome members were correlated with cognitive performance and N-back-elicited activity in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, DISC1 and NDEL1 showed decreased expression in schizophrenic subjects compared to healthy controls. Our findings highlight the importance of the coordinated expression of DISC1-interactome genes for normal cognitive function and suggest that dysregulated DISC1 and NDEL1 expression might, in part, contribute to susceptibility for schizophrenia via disruption of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive functions.

  2. Expression of DISC1-interactome members correlates with cognitive phenotypes related to schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rampino

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is central to the schizophrenia phenotype. Genetic and functional studies have implicated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1, a leading candidate gene for schizophrenia and related psychiatric conditions, in cognitive function. Altered expression of DISC1 and DISC1-interactors has been identified in schizophrenia. Dysregulated expression of DISC1-interactome genes might, therefore, contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility via disruption of molecular systems required for normal cognitive function. Here, the blood RNA expression levels of DISC1 and DISC1-interacting proteins were measured in 63 control subjects. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychiatric tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the activity of prefrontal cortical regions during the N-back working memory task, which is abnormal in schizophrenia. Pairwise correlations between gene expression levels and the relationship between gene expression levels and cognitive function and N-back-elicited brain activity were assessed. Finally, the expression levels of DISC1, AKAP9, FEZ1, NDEL1 and PCM1 were compared between 63 controls and 69 schizophrenic subjects. We found that DISC1-interactome genes showed correlated expression in the blood of healthy individuals. The expression levels of several interactome members were correlated with cognitive performance and N-back-elicited activity in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, DISC1 and NDEL1 showed decreased expression in schizophrenic subjects compared to healthy controls. Our findings highlight the importance of the coordinated expression of DISC1-interactome genes for normal cognitive function and suggest that dysregulated DISC1 and NDEL1 expression might, in part, contribute to susceptibility for schizophrenia via disruption of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive functions.

  3. The role of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression in prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hurley, Gillian

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Improved prostate cancer (PCa)-specific biomarkers are urgently required to distinguish between indolent and aggressive disease, in order to avoid overtreatment. In this study, we investigated the prostatic tissue expression of secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP)-2. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following immunohistochemical analysis on PCa tissue microarrays with samples from 216 patients, strong\\/moderate SFRP-2 expression was observed in epithelial cells of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and negative\\/weak SFRP-2 expression was observed in the majority of tumour epithelia. However, among Gleason grade 5 carcinomas, 40% showed strong\\/moderate SFRP-2 expression and 60% showed negative SFRP-2 expression in epithelial cells. Further microscopic evaluation of Gleason grade 5 tumours revealed different morphological patterns, corresponding with differential SFRP-2 expression. The first subgroup (referred to as Type A) appeared to have a morphologically solid growth pattern, whereas the second subgroup (referred to as Type B) appeared to have a more diffuse pattern. Furthermore, 100% (4\\/4) of Type A patients experienced biochemical recurrence, as compared with 0% (0\\/6) of Type B patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply: (i) that there is a loss of SFRP-2 expression from benign to malignant prostate glands; and (ii) differential SFRP-2 expression among two possible subgroups of Gleason grade 5 tumours.

  4. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  5. Expression of a fms-related oncogene in carcinogen-induced neoplastic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.; Nettesheim, P.; Barrett, J.C.; Gilmer, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Following carcinogen exposure in vitro, normal rat tracheal epithelial cells are transformed in a multistage process in which the cultured cells become immortal and ultimately, neoplastic. Five cell lines derived from tumors produced by neoplastically transformed rat tracheal epithelial cells were examined for the expression of 11 cellular oncogenes previously implicated in pulmonary or epithelial carcinogenesis. RNA homologous to fms was expressed at a level 5-19 times higher than normal tracheal epithelial cells in three of five of the tumor-derived lines. All three lines expressing high levels of fms-related RNA gave rise to invasive tumors of epithelial origin when injected into nude mice. Increased expression of the fms-related mRNA was not due to gene amplification, and no gene rearrangement was detected by Southern analyses. RNA blot analysis using a 3' v-fms probe detected a 9.5-kilobase message in the three tumor-derived lines, whereas both normal rat aveolar macrophages and the human choriocarcinoma line BeWo expressed a fms transcript of ≅ 4 kilobases. The authors conclude from these data that the gene expressed as a 9.5-kilobase transcript in these neoplastic epithelial cells is a member of a fms-related gene family but may be distinct from the gene that encodes the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) receptor

  6. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  7. Expression of Lipid Metabolism-Related Proteins Differs between Invasive Lobular Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yoon Jin; Kim, Hye Min; Koo, Ja Seung

    2017-01-23

    We comparatively investigated the expression and clinical implications of lipid metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. A total of 584 breast cancers (108 ILC and 476 IDC) were subjected to tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis for lipid metabolism-related proteins including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin A, fatty acid binding protein (FABP)4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and fatty acid synthetase (FASN). HSL, perilipin A, and FABP4 expression (all p invasive cancers, HSL and FABP4 were highly expressed in luminal A-type ILC ( p cancers, HSL and FABP4 were more highly expressed in ILC ( p < 0.001). Univariate analysis found associations of shorter disease-free survival with CPT-1 positivity ( p = 0.004) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity ( p = 0.032) and of shorter overall survival with acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity ( p = 0.027). In conclusion, ILC and IDC exhibited different immunohistochemical lipid metabolism-related protein expression profiles. Notably, ILC exhibited high HSL and FABP4 and low perilipin A expression.

  8. Expression of Lipid Metabolism-Related Proteins Differs between Invasive Lobular Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We comparatively investigated the expression and clinical implications of lipid metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast. A total of 584 breast cancers (108 ILC and 476 IDC were subjected to tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis for lipid metabolism-related proteins including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, perilipin A, fatty acid binding protein (FABP4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and fatty acid synthetase (FASN. HSL, perilipin A, and FABP4 expression (all p < 0.001 differed significantly: HSL and FABP4 were more frequently present in ILC, whereas perilipin A was more frequently detected in IDC. Among all invasive cancers, HSL and FABP4 were highly expressed in luminal A-type ILC (p < 0.001 and perilipin A in luminal A-type IDC (p = 0.007. Among luminal B-type cancers, HSL and FABP4 were more highly expressed in ILC (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis found associations of shorter disease-free survival with CPT-1 positivity (p = 0.004 and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity (p = 0.032 and of shorter overall survival with acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity (p = 0.027. In conclusion, ILC and IDC exhibited different immunohistochemical lipid metabolism-related protein expression profiles. Notably, ILC exhibited high HSL and FABP4 and low perilipin A expression.

  9. Optimizing ultrasound molecular imaging of secreted frizzled related protein 2 expression in angiosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Tsuruta

    Full Text Available Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2 is a tumor endothelial marker expressed in angiosarcoma. Previously, we showed ultrasound molecular imaging with SFRP2-targeted contrast increased average video pixel intensity (VI of angiosarcoma vessels by 2.2 ± 0.6 VI versus streptavidin contrast. We hypothesized that redesigning our contrast agents would increase imaging performance. Improved molecular imaging reagents were created by combining NeutrAvidin™-functionalized microbubbles with biotinylated SFRP2 or IgY control antibodies. When angiosarcoma tumors in nude mice reached 8 mm, time-intensity, antibody loading, and microbubble dose experiments optimized molecular imaging. 10 minutes after injection, the control-subtracted time-intensity curve (TIC for SFRP2-targeted contrast reached a maximum, after subtracting the contribution of free-flowing contrast. SFRP2 antibody-targeted VI was greater when contrast was formulated with 10-fold molar excess of maleimide-activated NeutrAvidin™ versus 3-fold (4.5 ± 0.18 vs. 0.32 ± 0.15, VI ± SEM, 5 x 106 dose, p < 0.001. Tumor vasculature returned greater average video pixel intensity using 5 x 107 versus 5 x 106 microbubbles (21.2 ± 2.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.18, p = 0.0011. Specificity for tumor vasculature was confirmed by low VI for SFRP2-targeted, and control contrast in peri-tumoral vasculature (3.2 ± 0.52 vs. 1.6 ± 0.71, p = 0.92. After optimization, average video pixel intensity of tumor vasculature was 14.2 ± 3.0 VI units higher with SFRP2-targeted contrast versus IgY-targeted control (22.1 ± 2.5 vs. 7.9 ± 1.6, p < 0.001. After log decompression, 14.2 ΔVI was equal to ~70% higher signal, in arbitray acoustic units (AU, for SFRP2 versus IgY. This provided ~18- fold higher acoustic signal enhancement than provided previously by 2.2 ΔVI. Basing our targeted contrast on NeutrAvidin™-functionalized microbubbles, using IgY antibodies for our control contrast, and optimizing our imaging protocol

  10. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.; Flint, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections

  11. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Yucca Mountain Project, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  12. How pre-service elementary teachers express emotions about climate change and related disciplinary ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth J.

    As we face the challenges of serious environmental issues, science education has made a commitment to improving environmental literacy, in particular climate literacy (NRC, 2012; 2013). With an increased focus on climate change education in the United States, more research on the teaching and learning of this problem in science classrooms is occurring (e.g. Arslan, Cigdemoglu, & Moseley, 2012; Svihla & Linn, 2012). However, even though people experience a range of emotions about global problems like climate change (Hicks & Holden, 2007; Ojala, 2012; Rickinson, 2001), little attention is given to their emotions about the problem in science classrooms. Because emotions are evaluative (Boler, 1999; Keltner & Gross, 1999), they provided a lens for understanding how students engage personally with climate change. In this study, I drew from sociolinguistics, social psychology, and the sociology of emotions to examine a) the social interactions that allowed for emotional expressions to be constructed and b) the ways in which pre-service elementary teachers constructed emotional expressions about climate change in a science course. Three overall findings emerged: 1) emotions provided a means of understanding how students' conceptualized climate to be relevant to their lives, 2) emotional expressions and the aboutness of these expressions indicated that the students conceptualized climate change as distanced, both temporally and spatially, and 3) although most emotional constructions were distanced, there were multiple instances of emotional expressions in which students took climate change personally. Following a discussion of the findings, implications, limitations, and directions for future research are also described.

  13. Transcription Factor EB Expression in Early Breast Cancer Relates to Lysosomal/Autophagosomal Markers and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2017-06-01

    Disrupting the autophagic balance to trigger autophagic death may open new strategies for cancer therapy. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and may play a role in cancer biology and clinical behavior. The expression of TFEB and the lysosomal cancer cell content (expression of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2a [LAMP2a] and cathepsin D) was studied in a series of 100 T1-stage breast carcinomas. Expression patterns were correlated with autophagy/hypoxia-related proteins, angiogenesis, and clinical outcome. The effect of hypoxic/acidic conditions on TFEB kinetics was studied in the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Overexpression of TFEB in cancer cell cytoplasm and the perinuclear/nuclear area was noted in 23 (23%) of 100 cases. High LAMP2a and cathepsin D expression was noted in 30 (30%) of 100 and 28 (28%) of 100 cases, respectively. TFEB expression was directly linked with LAMP2a (P factor 2-alpha (HIF-2α) (P = .01, r = 0.25) expression and inversely with progesterone receptor (P = .01, r = 0.22). High vascular density was directly linked with LAMP2a (P = .05, r = 0.18) and cathepsin D (P = .005, r = 0.28). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, TFEB and cathepsin D expression were related to an ominous prognosis (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, TFEB expression sustained its independent prognostic significance (P = .05, hazard ratio 2.1). In in vitro experiments, acidity triggered overexpression of TFEB and nuclear translocation. Intense TFEB expression and lysosomal biogenesis, evident in one fourth of early breast carcinomas, define poor prognosis. Tumor acidity is among the microenvironmental conditions that trigger TFEB overactivity. TFEB is a sound target for the development of lysosomal targeting therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns of hedgehog-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie David

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes ten proteins that share sequence similarity with the Hedgehog signaling molecule through their C-terminal autoprocessing Hint/Hog domain. These proteins contain novel N-terminal domains, and C. elegans encodes dozens of additional proteins containing only these N-terminal domains. These gene families are called warthog, groundhog, ground-like and quahog, collectively called hedgehog (hh-related genes. Previously, the expression pattern of seventeen genes was examined, which showed that they are primarily expressed in the ectoderm. Results With the completion of the C. elegans genome sequence in November 2002, we reexamined and identified 61 hh-related ORFs. Further, we identified 49 hh-related ORFs in C. briggsae. ORF analysis revealed that 30% of the genes still had errors in their predictions and we improved these predictions here. We performed a comprehensive expression analysis using GFP fusions of the putative intergenic regulatory sequence with one or two transgenic lines for most genes. The hh-related genes are expressed in one or a few of the following tissues: hypodermis, seam cells, excretory duct and pore cells, vulval epithelial cells, rectal epithelial cells, pharyngeal muscle or marginal cells, arcade cells, support cells of sensory organs, and neuronal cells. Using time-lapse recordings, we discovered that some hh-related genes are expressed in a cyclical fashion in phase with molting during larval development. We also generated several translational GFP fusions, but they did not show any subcellular localization. In addition, we also studied the expression patterns of two genes with similarity to Drosophila frizzled, T23D8.1 and F27E11.3A, and the ortholog of the Drosophila gene dally-like, gpn-1, which is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The two frizzled homologs are expressed in a few neurons in the head, and gpn-1 is expressed in the pharynx. Finally, we compare the

  15. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  16. Sex-related differences in gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Welle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is sexual dimorphism of skeletal muscle, the most obvious feature being the larger muscle mass of men. The molecular basis for this difference has not been clearly defined. To identify genes that might contribute to the relatively greater muscularity of men, we compared skeletal muscle gene expression profiles of 15 normal men and 15 normal women by using comprehensive oligonucleotide microarrays. Although there were sex-related differences in expression of several hundred genes, very few of the differentially expressed genes have functions that are obvious candidates for explaining the larger muscle mass of men. The men tended to have higher expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, ribosomal proteins, and a few translation initiation factors. The women had >2-fold greater expression than the men (P<0.0001 of two genes that encode proteins in growth factor pathways known to be important in regulating muscle mass: growth factor receptor-bound 10 (GRB10 and activin A receptor IIB (ACVR2B. GRB10 encodes a protein that inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling. ACVR2B encodes a myostatin receptor. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed higher expression of GRB10 and ACVR2B genes in these women. In an independent microarray study of 10 men and 9 women with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, women had higher expression of GRB10 (2.7-fold, P<0.001 and ACVR2B (1.7-fold, P<0.03. If these sex-related differences in mRNA expression lead to reduced IGF-1 activity and increased myostatin activity, they could contribute to the sex difference in muscle size.

  17. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  18. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Rosa MRPS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT. Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1 was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results.

  19. Conservation priorities for tree crop wild relatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin K. Khoury; Stephanie L. Greene; Karen A. Williams; Chrystian C. Sosa; Chris. Richards

    2017-01-01

    Crop wild relatives native to the United States have proved useful as genetic resources in breeding more productive, nutritious, and resilient crops. Their utilization is expected to increase with better information about the species and improving breeding tools. But this utilization may be constrained by their limited representation in genebanks and the ongoing loss...

  20. Problems and Issues in Higher Education: Perspectives on Iran-United States Educational Relations and Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review evaluates the writings and opinions of Americans and Iranians on relations and influences between institutions of higher education in Iran and the United States before and after the 1979 revolution. The review explores the arrival of modern western education in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey where a traditional education system had prevailed…

  1. Key Issues in the United States-Iranian Relations 1980 – 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the views of Palmer and Perkins, (2007) “these are times that try men's souls”. The statement corroborates the America relations with Iran since the mid-1980s, when the United States, Israel and other Western Powers started accusing Iran of Uranium enrichment toward pursuing a nuclear weapons capability, a situation ...

  2. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  3. The Challenges of International Education: Developing a Public Relations Unit for the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kate; Surma, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Murdoch University's public relations program attracts a significant number of international students. Up to 60% of students in some units come from Singapore and Malaysia. While many spend at least one year in Australia as part of the three year degree, students in both countries may complete the entire degree offshore from 2007. The authors…

  4. Relating adaptive genetic traits to climate for Sandberg bluegrass from the intermountain western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Johnson; Matthew E. Horning; Erin Espeland; Ken Vance-Borland

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation for potentially adaptive traits of the key restoration species Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl) was assessed over the intermountain western United States in relation to source population climate. Common gardens were established at two intermountain west sites with progeny from two maternal parents from each of 130 wild populations. Data were...

  5. Management, restructuring and industrial relations : organizational change within the United Kingdom broadcasting industry, 1979-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade researchers began to remedy a literature deficit in the study of broadcasting institutions – addressing in particular the issues of labour process, restructuring and industrial relations. This thesis which considers management change, industrial relations and restructuring within the United Kingdom (‘UK’) broadcasting industry employs a case study format with a view to highlighting the variations of industry (macro) and firm (micro) based restructuring. Organizational chang...

  6. Computer Use and Vision-Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate

    OpenAIRE

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology we...

  7. THE UNITED RESCUE SYSTEM IN BULGARIA. CURRENT RESOURCE RELATED ISSUES AND PROSPECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Baleva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems related to securing the Bulgarian system for disaster management with the necessary resources for its proper functioning. The main challenges for the united rescue system in the country are analyzed, including those related to ensuring the system with the necessary material, financial and human resources. Some possibilities for solving these problems with the use of funds from the European Union are presented.

  8. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Érica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Otávio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we first described the

  9. Clinical Competence and Its Related Factors of Nurses in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Mirlashari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical competence of nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units together with advancements in medical science and technology increased the survival rate of newborns that need specialized care. To ensure the quality of care and provide the safety of patients, evaluating the clinical competence of nurses seems necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical competence of nurses in the neonatal intensive care units. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 117 nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by census method. The research tool was Development of Competency Inventory for Registered Nurses questionnaire which completed by self-assessment. The mean clinical competence scores of participants categorized into 3 levels: weak: 273. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using the Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The highest levels of competence were related to critical thinking and research attitude and interpersonal relationships, and the lowest level was related to training and mentoring. There was a direct statistically significant relationship between marital status, employment status, level of interest in working in the neonatal intensive-care units and the clinical competence of nurses. Conclusion: Since the clinical competence of nurses in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units is vital, some variables such as interest in the nursing profession, employment status, the neonatal intensive theoretical and practical training courses and the amount of overtime working hours should be taken into consideration.

  10. Event-related oscillations (EROs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) comparison in facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pozzoli, Uberto

    2007-09-01

    The study aims to explore the significance of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related brain oscillations (EROs) (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma power) in response to emotional (fear, happiness, sadness) when compared with neutral faces during 180-250 post-stimulus time interval. The ERP results demonstrated that the emotional face elicited a negative peak at approximately 230 ms (N2). Moreover, EEG measures showed that motivational significance of face (emotional vs. neutral) could modulate the amplitude of EROs, but only for some frequency bands (i.e. theta and gamma bands). In a second phase, we considered the resemblance of the two EEG measures by a regression analysis. It revealed that theta and gamma oscillations mainly effect as oscillation activity at the N2 latency. Finally, a posterior increased power of theta was found for emotional faces.

  11. The Lorentz transformation as an expression of opposite spacetime relations - abandonment of the principle of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renniger, M.

    1987-01-01

    Any increase of the characteristic energy of any body endowed with a clock, ΔE = E - E 0 (E 0 being the rest energy), is connected with an increase of its time lapse, t/t 0 = E/E 0 . Effective observation of this accelerating influence on the speed of any clock is restricted on the increase of the potential energy only. Increase of the kinetic energy (E/E 0 = 1/√(1-v 2 /c 2 )) is, on the contrary, connected with an increase of the energy: t/t 0 = E/E 0 = √(1-v 2 /c 2 ). Moreover, this amount is that one postulated by the Lorentz transformation. This effect is the well-known 'time dilatation' of the Special Theory of Relativity, the 'transversal Doppler effect'. The Lorentz transformation is of exclusively kinematical meaning and therefore takes no account of the energy increase connected with any motion. There is no reason, why the time accelerating effect of any energy should be absent in the case of kinetic energy, paying regard to it seems indispensable. Therefore the actual effect √(1-v 2 /c 2 ) has to be given as a superposition of the time accelerating effect 1/√(1-v 2 /c 2 ) and a decelerating kinematic effect of 'double' (inverse square amount: 1-v 2 /c 2 ). Modified transformation equations are derived which pay regard to this subdivision of the actual relations concerning time and local scales, and whose integrated form is nevertheless identical with the classical Lorentz transformation, if kinetic energy is the sole one being present. Of course this new subdivision of the content of meaning in the transformations is in contradiction with the 'principle of relativity', it presumes the existence of an inertial frame absolutely at rest related to the universe. A series of arguments is asserted which let appear the existence of such an absolute frame more fascinating than the equivalence of the variety of all inertial frames. (author)

  12. Pretransplant Immune- and Apoptosis-Related Gene Expression Is Associated with Kidney Allograft Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kamińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplant candidates present immune dysregulation, caused by chronic uremia. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pretransplant peripheral blood gene expression of immune factors affects clinical outcome of renal allograft recipients. Methods. In a prospective study, we analyzed pretransplant peripheral blood gene expression in87 renal transplant candidates with real-time PCR on custom-designed low density arrays (TaqMan. Results. Immediate posttransplant graft function (14-day GFR was influenced negatively by TGFB1 (P=0.039 and positively by IL-2 gene expression (P=0.040. Pretransplant blood mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes (CASP3, FAS, and IL-18 and Th1-derived cytokine gene IFNG correlated positively with short- (6-month GFR CASP3: P=0.027, FAS: P=0.021, and IFNG: P=0.029 and long-term graft function (24-month GFR CASP3: P=0.003, FAS: P=0.033, IL-18: P=0.044, and IFNG: P=0.04. Conclusion. Lowered pretransplant Th1-derived cytokine and apoptosis-related gene expressions were a hallmark of subsequent worse kidney function but not of acute rejection rate. The pretransplant IFNG and CASP3 and FAS and IL-18 genes’ expression in the recipients’ peripheral blood is the possible candidate for novel biomarker of short- and long-term allograft function.

  13. Loss of runt-related transcription factor 3 expression leads hepatocellular carcinoma cells to escape apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Shinichiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3 is known as a tumor suppressor gene for gastric cancer and other cancers, this gene may be involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods RUNX3 expression was analyzed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry in HCC cells and tissues, respectively. Hep3B cells, lacking endogenous RUNX3, were introduced with RUNX3 constructs. Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay and apoptosis was evaluated using DAPI staining. Apoptosis signaling was assessed by immunoblot analysis. Results RUNX3 protein expression was frequently inactivated in the HCC cell lines (91% and tissues (90%. RUNX3 expression inhibited 90 ± 8% of cell growth at 72 h in serum starved Hep3B cells. Forty-eight hour serum starvation-induced apoptosis and the percentage of apoptotic cells reached 31 ± 4% and 4 ± 1% in RUNX3-expressing Hep3B and control cells, respectively. Apoptotic activity was increased by Bim expression and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation. Conclusion RUNX3 expression enhanced serum starvation-induced apoptosis in HCC cell lines. RUNX3 is deleted or weakly expressed in HCC, which leads to tumorigenesis by escaping apoptosis.

  14. Gene expression of herpes simplex virus. II. Uv radiological analysis of viral transcription units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millette, R. L.; Klaiber, R.

    1980-01-01

    The transcriptional organization of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by measuring the sensitivity of viral polypeptide synthesis to uv irradiation of the infecting virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was irradiated with various doses of uv light and used to infect xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Immediate early transcription units were analyzed by having cycloheximide present throughout the period of infection, removing the drug at 8 h postinfection, and pulse-labeling proteins with [355]methionine. Delayed early transcription units were analyzed in similar studies by having 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine present during the experiment to block replication of the input irradiated genome. The results indicate that none of the immediate early genes analyzed can be cotranscribed, whereas some of the delayed early genes might be cotranscribed. No evidence was found for the existence of large, multigene transcription units

  15. The importance of being "me": The relation between authentic identity expression and transgender employees' work-related attitudes and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Larry R; Sawyer, Katina B; Thoroughgood, Christian N; Ruggs, Enrica N; Smith, Nicholas A

    2017-02-01

    The present research examined the relation between authentic identity expression and transgender employees' work-related attitudes and experiences. Drawing on Kernis' (2003) theoretical conceptualization of authenticity and expanding on current workplace identity management research, we predicted that employees who had taken steps to reduce the discrepancy between their inner gender identities and their outward manifestations of gender would report more positive job attitudes and workplace experiences, in part because the reduction of this discrepancy is related to greater feelings of authenticity. In Study 1, we found that the extent to which one has transitioned was related to higher job satisfaction and perceived person-organization (P-O) fit and lower perceived discrimination. In Study 2, we replicate and extend these results by showing that the extent to which employees felt that others at work perceived them in a manner consistent with how they perceived themselves (relational authenticity) mediated the relations between extent of transition and all 3 of these outcomes. However, perceptions of alignment between one's felt and expressed identity (action authenticity) only mediated this link for job satisfaction. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our results, as well as avenues for future research on authenticity in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge - IPS1 genes...... and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 - PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots). The decreased expression of PHO2 leads to Pi....... In shoots, the PHO2 mRNA level is decreased, leading to an increased Pi level. We concluded that Pi homeostasis in barley during heat stress is maintained by dynamic changes in Pi-related genes expression....

  17. Application of anti-listerial bacteriocins: monitoring enterocin expression by multiplex relative reverse transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Ross; Chanos, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    Listeriosis is a deadly food-borne disease, and its incidence may be limited through the biotechnological exploitation of a number of anti-listerial biocontrol agents. The most widely used of these agents are bacteriocins and the Class II enterocins are characterized by their activity against Listeria. Enterocins are primarily produced by enterococci, particularly Enterococcus faecium and many strains have been described, often encoding multiple bacteriocins. The use of these strains in food will require that they are free of virulence functions and that they exhibit a high level expression of anti-listerial enterocins in fermentation conditions. Multiplex relative RT (reverse transcription)-PCR is a technique that is useful in the discovery of advantageous expression characteristics among enterocin-producing strains. It allows the levels of individual enterocin gene expression to be monitored and determination of how expression is altered under different growth conditions.

  18. Bacterial Contamination of Expressed Breast Milk in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Karimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The milks expressed from the mothers’ breast might be infected during squeeze, storage and/or transmission. The infection level has been reported as different in various studies up to 97 percent. The main purpose of this study is to determine the infection level and its relevant organisms as well as to specify drug allergy of the expressed milks from the mothers with their infant admitted to NICU ward. Materials and Methods: In this study, among the expressed milks from 80 mothers, were cultured each in an amount of 0.5-1cc and antibiotic discs selected for every strain was placed.Results: The results indicate that 85 percent of samples were infected and dominant microorganisms were firstly Klebsiella (13.7% and then S. epidermidis (12.5%. In addition, 95% of Gram negative bacteria strains were susceptible to imipenem. The most effective antibiotic on isolated staphylococci was ceftizoxime (46.6% resistance. The colony count in 32.4% gram negative bacteria and in 66.7% gram positive bacteria was between 104 to 105 CFU/ml and the remaining was above 105 CFU/ml (p=0.02. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between bacterial infection of the expressed milks with the site of milk expressing (house or hospital, mode of expressing (by pump or hand, storage duration and the mother’s demographic characteristics including age and/or literacy.Conclusion: The studies show that infection prevalence in the milk samples was 85%; the most common infection factor was Klebsiella and then S. epidermidis that is indicative of high prevalence of hospital infection (nosocomial infection in the infants ward.

  19. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  20. Relative preservation of the recognition of positive facial expression "happiness" in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2013-01-01

    Positivity recognition bias has been reported for facial expression as well as memory and visual stimuli in aged individuals, whereas emotional facial recognition in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients is controversial, with possible involvement of confounding factors such as deficits in spatial processing of non-emotional facial features and in verbal processing to express emotions. Thus, we examined whether recognition of positive facial expressions was preserved in AD patients, by adapting a new method that eliminated the influences of these confounding factors. Sensitivity of six basic facial expressions (happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust, and fear) was evaluated in 12 outpatients with mild AD, 17 aged normal controls (ANC), and 25 young normal controls (YNC). To eliminate the factors related to non-emotional facial features, averaged faces were prepared as stimuli. To eliminate the factors related to verbal processing, the participants were required to match the images of stimulus and answer, avoiding the use of verbal labels. In recognition of happiness, there was no difference in sensitivity between YNC and ANC, and between ANC and AD patients. AD patients were less sensitive than ANC in recognition of sadness, surprise, and anger. ANC were less sensitive than YNC in recognition of surprise, anger, and disgust. Within the AD patient group, sensitivity of happiness was significantly higher than those of the other five expressions. In AD patient, recognition of happiness was relatively preserved; recognition of happiness was most sensitive and was preserved against the influences of age and disease.

  1. Premalignant quiescent melanocytic nevi do not express the MHC class I chain-related protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes B. Fuertes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA is an inducible molecule almost not expressed by normal cells but strongly up-regulated in tumor cells. MICA-expressing cells are recognized by natural killer (NK cells, CD8+ aßTCR and ?dTCR T lymphocytes through the NKG2D receptor. Engagement of NKG2D by MICA triggers IFN-? secretion and cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Although most solid tumors express MICA and this molecule is a target during immune surveillance against tumors, it has been observed that high grade tumors from different histotypes express low amounts of cell surface MICA due to a metalloprotease- induced shedding. Also, melanomas develop after a complex process of neotransformation of normal melanocytes. However, the expression of MICA in premalignant stages (primary human quiescent melanocytic nevi remains unknown. Here, we assessed expression of MICA by flow cytometry using cell suspensions from 15 primary nevi isolated from 11 patients. When collected material was abundant, cell lysates were prepared and MICA expression was also analyzed by Western blot. We observed that MICA was undetectable in the 15 primary nevi (intradermic, junction, mixed, lentigo and congenital samples as well as in normal skin, benign lesions (seborrheic keratosis, premalignant lesions (actinic keratosis and benign basocellular cancer. Conversely, a primary recently diagnosed melanoma showed intense cell surface MICA. We conclude that the onset of MICA expression is a tightly regulated process that occurs after melanocytes trespass the stage of malignant transformation. Thus, analysis of MICA expression in tissue sections of skin samples may constitute a useful marker to differentiate between benign and malignant nevi.

  2. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  3. The relation between survival and expression of HER1 and HER2 depends on the expression of HER3 and HER4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, A A; Sorensen, B S; Meldgaard, P

    2006-01-01

    significance of HER1 and HER2 receptors in bladder cancer is controversial and the effect of the expression of different combinations of these receptors on patient survival is not well understood. Therefore, we examined the mRNA expression of all four EGF receptors with real-time polymerase chain reaction......Increased expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors, HER1 and HER2 are related to poor prognosis in most cancers studied. Recently, a high expression of the two remaining receptors of the EGF system, HER3 and HER4 has been related to a favourable prognosis. However, prognostic...... in biopsies from 88 patients with bladder cancer, where the survival was followed for a median of 38.5 months (range 1-117 months). Expression of HER1 and HER2 alone showed no correlation with survival. However, a high expression of HER1 together with high expression of HER3 and HER4 correlated to a better...

  4. The United Nations and freedom of expression and information: critical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGonagle, T.; Donders, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a critical and uniquely comprehensive examination of the main UN standards and mechanisms dealing with the rights to freedom of expression and information. It details the chequered history of both rights within the UN system and evaluates the suitability of the system for

  5. Resolving relative time expressions in Dutch text with Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Camp, Matje; Christiansen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated how Constraint Handling Rules can be applied for resolution of indirect and relative time expressions in text as part of a shallow analysis, following a specialized tagging phase. A method is currently under development, optimized for a particular corpus of historical biographies...

  6. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  7. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  8. Instrumentality, Expressivity, and Relational Qualities in the Same-Sex Friendships of College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Lisa L.; Beesley, Denise; Hurst, Rebecca; Saldana, Star; Licuanan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Using the relational-cultural model (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991), the authors hypothesized that instrumentality, expressivity, and the individual affective experience of same-sex friendships would predict increased relationship mutuality, with college women and men showing different predictive patterns. Overall, results…

  9. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  10. Expression of PRL proteins at invasive margin of rectal cancers in relation to preoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Asa R.; Svanvik, Joar; Adell, Gunnar; Sun Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: PRL-3 (phosphatase of regenerating liver) is involved in metastasis of colorectal cancer; however, its therapeutic implication in cancer patients has not been studied. We investigated the relationships of PRL expression to radiotherapy (RT) in rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression was immunohistochemically examined in distant (n = 36) and adjacent (n = 82) normal mucosa, primary tumor (n = 125), biopsy specimens (n = 96), and lymph node metastasis (n = 30) from rectal cancer patients participating in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Results: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression was increased from the distant to adjacent mucosa and to the primary tumor (p < 0.05). PRL was highly expressed at the invasive margin in 28% of the primary tumors and 26% of the metastases. In the RT group, strong PRL expression at the invasive margin was related to distant recurrence (p 0.006) and poor survival (p = 0.01), but not in the non-RT group. The survival significance remained even after adjusting for Dukes' stage and differentiation (p = 0.02). Additional multivariate analyses showed that the correlation with prognostic significance of PRL differed between the RT and non-RT groups (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression (rather than PRL-3 alone) at the invasive margin predicted resistance to RT and unfavorable survival in rectal cancer patients with preoperative RT

  11. "Retweet to Pass the Blunt": Analyzing Geographic and Content Features of Cannabis-Related Tweeting Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Lamy, Francois R; Smith, G Alan; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Sheth, Amit

    2017-11-01

    Twitter data offer new possibilities for tracking health-related communications. This study is among the first to apply advanced information processing to identify geographic and content features of cannabis-related tweeting in the United States. Tweets were collected using streaming Application Programming Interface (March-May 2016) and were processed by eDrugTrends to identify geolocation and classify content by source (personal communication, media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral). States were grouped by cannabis legalization policies into "recreational," "medical, less restrictive," "medical, more restrictive," and "illegal." Permutation tests were performed to analyze differences among four groups in adjusted percentages of all tweets, unique users, personal communications only, and positive-to-negative sentiment ratios. About 30% of all 13,233,837 cannabis-related tweets had identifiable state-level geo-information. Among geolocated tweets, 76.2% were personal communications, 21.1% media, and 2.7% retail. About 71% of personal communication tweets expressed positive sentiment toward cannabis; 16% expressed negative sentiment. States in the recreational group had significantly greater average adjusted percentage of cannabis tweets (3.01%) compared with other groups. For personal communication tweets only, the recreational group (2.47%) was significantly greater than the medical, more restrictive (1.84%) and illegal (1.85%) groups. Similarly, the recreational group had significantly greater average positive-to-negative sentiment ratio (4.64) compared with the medical, more restrictive (4.15) and illegal (4.19) groups. Average adjusted percentages of unique users showed similar differences between recreational and other groups. States with less restrictive policies displayed greater cannabis-related tweeting and conveyed more positive sentiment. The study demonstrates the potential of Twitter data to become a valuable indicator of drug-related

  12. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  13. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6, Zusanli (ST36, and Sanyinjiao (SP6; in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23 was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6 and Zusanli (ST36, needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS and serum C peptide (C-P were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules.

  14. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Künecke

    Full Text Available Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110 in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  15. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  16. Net Neutrality, the Fairness Doctrine, and the NRB: The Tension between United States Religious Expression and Media Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Montalbano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical continuity between the opposition of the National Religious Broadcasters (NRB to the Fairness Doctrine (1949 and to the contemporary Federal Communications Commission (FCC Open Internet principle, net neutrality. These debates demonstrate how media policy discourse has shaped democratic ideals, including by designating whose voices are or are not included in broadcast and digital communication spaces. The discourse emerging from both media policy debates reveals that fears concerning cultural hegemony and the diversity of expression in the United States have intertwined with fears concerning the invasion of foreign ideologies. The article then considers the possibility of reconciling religious and secular discourse in the mediated public sphere.

  17. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F; Langberg, H; Kjaer, M; Baldwin, K M; Schjerling, P

    2007-08-01

    Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve. RNA was extracted from medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon tissue 24 h after the last training bout, and mRNA levels for collagens I and III, TGF-beta-1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), lysyl oxidase (LOX), metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and 2) were measured by Northern blotting and/or real-time PCR. In tendon, expression of TGF-beta-1 and collagens I and III (but not CTGF) increased in response to all types of training. Similarly, enzymes/factors involved in collagen processing were induced in tendon, especially LOX (up to 37-fold), which could indicate a loading-induced increase in cross-linking of tendon collagen. In skeletal muscle, a similar regulation of gene expression was observed, but in contrast to the tendon response, the effect of eccentric training was significantly greater than the effect of concentric training on the expression of several transcripts. In conclusion, the study supports an involvement of TGF-beta-1 in loading-induced collagen synthesis in the muscle-tendon unit and importantly, it indicates that muscle tissue is more sensitive than tendon to the specific mechanical stimulus.

  18. Glucocorticoid Receptor Related Genes: Genotype And Brain Gene Expression Relationships To Suicide And Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Huang, Yung-yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We tested the relationship between genotype, gene expression and suicidal behavior and MDD in live subjects and postmortem samples for three genes, associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD); FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), Spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 2 (SKA2) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1). Materials and Methods Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes were tested for association with suicidal behavior and MDD in a live (N=277) and a postmortem sample (N=209). RNA-seq was used to examine gene and isoform-level brain expression postmortem (Brodmann Area 9) (N=59). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) relationships were examined using a public database (UK Brain Expression Consortium). Results We identified a haplotype within the FKBP5 gene, present in 47% of the live subjects, that was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt (OR=1.58, t=6.03, p=0.014). Six SNPs on this gene, three SNPs on SKA2 and one near NR3C1 showed before-adjustment association with attempted suicide, and two SNPs of SKA2 with suicide death, but none stayed significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Only the SKA2 SNPs were related to expression in the prefrontal cortex. One NR3C1 transcript had lower expression in suicide relative to non-suicide sudden death cases (b=-0.48, SE=0.12, t=-4.02, adjusted p=0.004). Conclusion We have identified an association of FKBP5 haplotype with risk of suicide attempt and found an association between suicide and altered NR3C1 gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Our findings further implicate hypothalamic pituitary axis dysfunction in suicidal behavior. PMID:27030168

  19. THE FEATURES OF CONNEXINS EXPRESSION IN THE CELLS OF NEUROVASCLAR UNIT IN NORMAL CONDITIONS AND HYPOXIA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Morgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess a role of connexin 43 (Cx43 and associated molecule CD38 in the regulation of cell-cell interactions in the neurovascular unit (NVU in vitro in physiological conditions and in hypoxia.Materials and methods. The study was done using the original neurovascular unit model in vitro. The NVU consisted of three cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells derived from rats. Hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with sodium iodoacetate for 30 min at37 °C in standard culture conditions.Results. We investigated the role of connexin 43 in the regulation of cell interactions within the NVU in normal and hypoxic injury in vitro. We found that astrocytes were characterized by high levels of expression of Cx43 and low level of CD38 expression, neurons demonstrated high levels of CD38 and low levels of Cx43. In hypoxic conditions, the expression of Cx43 and CD38 in astrocytes markedly increased while CD38 expression in neurons decreased, however no changes were found in endothelial cells. Suppression of Cx43 activity resulted in down-regulation of CD38 in NVU cells, both in physiological conditions and at chemical hypoxia.Conclusion. Thus, the Cx-regulated intercellular NAD+-dependent communication and secretory phenotype of astroglial cells that are the part of the blood-brain barrier is markedly changed in hypoxia.

  20. Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Political blogs and freedom of expression: a comparative study of Malaysia and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Nawang, Nazli; Nawang, Nazli Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The study is undertaken on the premise that the technological advancement of blogs has not only accorded a novel platform for communication, but has also democratised the right to exercise political expression in Malaysia. Blogs have on numerous occasions outpaced restrictive laws that were enacted to curtail the exercise of this fundamental right and have caused great challenges in applying the existing specific media laws to online content in the blogosphere. The main p...

  2. PhysioSpace: relating gene expression experiments from heterogeneous sources using shared physiological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lenz

    Full Text Available Relating expression signatures from different sources such as cell lines, in vitro cultures from primary cells and biopsy material is an important task in drug development and translational medicine as well as for tracking of cell fate and disease progression. Especially the comparison of large scale gene expression changes to tissue or cell type specific signatures is of high interest for the tracking of cell fate in (trans- differentiation experiments and for cancer research, which increasingly focuses on shared processes and the involvement of the microenvironment. These signature relation approaches require robust statistical methods to account for the high biological heterogeneity in clinical data and must cope with small sample sizes in lab experiments and common patterns of co-expression in ubiquitous cellular processes. We describe a novel method, called PhysioSpace, to position dynamics of time series data derived from cellular differentiation and disease progression in a genome-wide expression space. The PhysioSpace is defined by a compendium of publicly available gene expression signatures representing a large set of biological phenotypes. The mapping of gene expression changes onto the PhysioSpace leads to a robust ranking of physiologically relevant signatures, as rigorously evaluated via sample-label permutations. A spherical transformation of the data improves the performance, leading to stable results even in case of small sample sizes. Using PhysioSpace with clinical cancer datasets reveals that such data exhibits large heterogeneity in the number of significant signature associations. This behavior was closely associated with the classification endpoint and cancer type under consideration, indicating shared biological functionalities in disease associated processes. Even though the time series data of cell line differentiation exhibited responses in larger clusters covering several biologically related patterns, top scoring

  3. [Expression of saponin biosynthesis related genes in different tissues of Panax quinquefolius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Yu; Liu, Wei-Can; Zhang, Mei-Ping; Zhao, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Yan-Fang; Li, Li; Sun, Chun-Yu; Hu, Ke-Xin; Cong, Yue-Yi; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between saponin content of Panax quinquefolius in different parts of the organization and expression of ginsenoside biosynthesis related gene was obtained by the correlation analysis between saponin content and gene expression. The 14 tissue parts of P. quinquefolius were studied, six saponins in P. quinquefolius. Samples (ginsenoside Rg₁, Re, Rb₁, Rc, Rb₂ and Rd), group saponins and total saponins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetric method. Simultaneously, the expression levels of 7 ginsenoside biosynthesis related genes ( SQS, OSC, DS, β-AS, SQE, P450 and FPS ) in different tissues of P. quinquefolius were determined by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Although 7 kinds of ginsenoside biosynthesis related enzyme gene in the P. quinquefolius involved in ginsenoside synthesis, the expression of β-AS and P450 genes had no significant effect on the content of monosodium saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins, FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE had significant or extremely significant on the contents of single saponins Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rd, group saponin PPD and PPT, total saponin TMS and total saponin TS ( P saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins in P. quinquefolius was affected by the interaction of multiple enzyme genes in the saponin synthesis pathway, the content of saponins in different tissues of P. quinquefolius was determined by the differences in the expression of key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, this study further clarified that FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE was the key enzyme to control the synthesis of saponins in P. quinquefolius by correlation analysis, the biosynthesis of ginsenosides in P. quinquefolius was regulated by these five kind of enzymes in cluster co-expression of interaction mode. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Altered cortical expression of GABA-related genes in schizophrenia: illness progression vs developmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoftman, Gil D; Volk, David W; Bazmi, H Holly; Li, Siyu; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with altered expression of GABA-related genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether these gene expression abnormalities reflect disturbances in postnatal developmental processes before clinical onset or arise as a consequence of clinical illness remains unclear. Expression levels for 7 GABA-related transcripts (vesicular GABA transporter [vGAT], GABA membrane transporter [GAT1], GABAA receptor subunit α1 [GABRA1] [novel in human and monkey cohorts], glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 [GAD67], parvalbumin, calretinin, and somatostatin [previously reported in human cohort, but not in monkey cohort]) were quantified in the PFC from 42 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects and from 49 rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 1 week postnatal to adulthood. Levels of vGAT and GABRA1, but not of GAT1, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were lower in the PFC of the schizophrenia subjects. As previously reported, levels of GAD67, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, but not of calretinin, mRNAs were also lower in these subjects. Neither illness duration nor age accounted for the levels of the transcripts with altered expression in schizophrenia. In monkey PFC, developmental changes in expression levels of many of these transcripts were in the opposite direction of the changes observed in schizophrenia. For example, mRNA levels for vGAT, GABRA1, GAD67, and parvalbumin all increased with age. Together with published reports, these findings support the interpretation that the altered expression of GABA-related transcripts in schizophrenia reflects a blunting of normal postnatal development changes, but they cannot exclude a decline during the early stages of clinical illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Unpredictable neonatal stress enhances adult anxiety and alters amygdala gene expression related to serotonin and GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, E C; Sullivan, R M; Barr, G

    2014-01-31

    Anxiety-related disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. Early-life trauma, such as abuse from a caregiver, can be predictable or unpredictable, each resulting in increased prevalence and severity of a unique set of disorders. In this study, we examined the influence of early unpredictable trauma on both the behavioral expression of adult anxiety and gene expression within the amygdala. Neonatal rats were exposed to unpaired odor-shock conditioning for 5 days, which produces deficits in adult behavior and amygdala dysfunction. In adulthood, we used the Light/Dark box test to measure anxiety-related behaviors, measuring the latency to enter the lit area and quantified urination and defecation. The amygdala was then dissected and a microarray analysis was performed to examine changes in gene expression. Animals that had received early unpredictable trauma displayed significantly longer latencies to enter the lit area and more defecation and urination. The microarray analysis revealed over-represented genes related to learning and memory, synaptic transmission and trans-membrane transport. Gene ontology and pathway analysis identified highly represented disease states related to anxiety phenotypes, including social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder. Addiction-related genes were also overrepresented in this analysis. Unpredictable shock during early development increased anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood with concomitant changes in genes related to neurotransmission, resulting in gene expression patterns similar to anxiety-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 28 CFR 0.109 - Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and Spain. 0.109 Section 0.109 Judicial... Service § 0.109 Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States... States within the meaning of Article XXIV of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the...

  7. Differential Expression of Growth-, Angiogenesis- and Invasion-Related Factors in The Development of Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Jhy Tseng

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta is the major cause of maternal death complicated by massive peripartum hemorrhage. Its development is traditionally considered to be related to a decidual defect caused by previous cesarean deliveries or uterine curettages. Usually, placental villi firmly adhere to the superficial myometrium and deeply invade, or even penetrate, the uterine wall. Abnormal uteroplacental neovascularization is another characteristic. Therefore, we hypothesized that placenta accreta develops as a result of abnormal expressions of growth-, angiogenesis- and invasion-related factors in trophoblast populations. We have found, in pregnancies complicated by placenta accreta: upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor and downregulated c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in syncytiotrophoblasts; downregulated vasculoendothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and increased vasculoendothelial growth factor in placental lysates; and downregulated Tie-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and enhanced angiopoietin-2 level in placental lysates. However, matrix metalloproteinase expression was not upregulated, so the association of these invasion-related molecules with placenta accreta is less likely. Taken together, these findings imply that complex factors, either alone or in combination, might be responsible for the development of placenta accreta. Further studies are needed to understand the signaling pathways and possible genetic events.

  8. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis.

  9. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  10. Dissecting Time- from Tumor-Related Gene Expression Variability in Bilateral Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Callari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous (MBC and synchronous bilateral breast tumors (SBC are mostly distinct primaries, whereas paired primaries and their local recurrences (LRC share a common origin. Intra-pair gene expression variability in MBC, SBC, and LRC derives from time/tumor microenvironment-related and tumor genetic background-related factors and pairs represents an ideal model for trying to dissect tumor-related from microenvironment-related variability. Pairs of tumors derived from women with SBC (n = 18, MBC (n = 11, and LRC (n = 10 undergoing local-regional treatment were profiled for gene expression; similarity between pairs was measured using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC computed for each gene and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. When considering biologically unselected genes, the highest correlations were found for primaries and paired LRC, and the lowest for MBC pairs. By instead limiting the analysis to the breast cancer intrinsic genes, correlations between primaries and paired LRC were enhanced, while lower similarities were observed for SBC and MBC. Focusing on stromal-related genes, the ICC values decreased for MBC and were significantly different from SBC. These findings indicate that it is possible to dissect intra-pair gene expression variability into components that are associated with genetic origin or with time and microenvironment by using specific gene subsets.

  11. Apoptosis related genes expressed in cultured Fallopian tube epithelial cells infected in vitro with Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAZ A REYES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection of the Fallopian tubes (FT by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo can lead to acute salpingitis, an inflammatory condition resulting in damage primarily to the ciliated cells, with loss of ciliary activity and sloughing of the cells from the epithelium. Recently, we have shown that Ngo infection induced apoptosis in FT epithelium cells by a TNF-alpha dependent mechanism that could contribute to the cell and tissue damage observed in gonococcal salpingitis. Aim: To investigate the apoptosis-related genes expressed during apoptosis induction in cultured FT epithelial cells infected in vitro by Ngo. Materials and Methods: In the current study, we used cDNA macroarrays and real time PCR to identify and determine the expression levels of apoptosis related genes during the in vitro gonococci infection of FT epithelial cells. Results: Significant apoptosis was induced following infection with Ngo. Macroarray analysis identified the expression of multiple genes of the TNF receptor family (TNFRSF1B, -4, -6, -10A, -10B and -10D and the Bcl-2 family (BAK1, BAX, BLK, HRK and MCL-1 without differences between controls and infected cells. This lack of difference was confirmed by RT-PCR of BAX, Bcl-2, TNFRS1A (TNFR-I and TNFRSF1B (TNFR-II. Conclusion: Several genes related to apoptosis are expressed in primary cultures of epithelial cells of the human Fallopian tube. Infection with Ngo induces apoptosis without changes in the pattern of gene expression of several apoptosis-related genes. Results strongly suggest that Ngo regulates apoptosis in the FT by post-transcriptional mechanisms that need to be further addressed

  12. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Zha, Jinmiao; Li, Wei; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Zijian

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333microg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The expressions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100microg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  13. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 {mu}g/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The expressions of Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 {mu}g/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  14. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli; Wang Zijian

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 μg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na + ,K + -ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The expressions of Na + ,K + -ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 μg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  15. Injuries to children in the United States related to trampolines, 1990-1995: a national epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A

    1998-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of trampoline-related injuries among children in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data for children 18 years old and younger from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1990 through 1995. There were an estimated 249 400 trampoline-related injuries [95% confidence interval (CI), 166 300-332 500] to children 18 years old and younger treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States during the 6-year study period. The number of injuries increased by 98% from 29 600 in 1990 to 58 400 in 1995, with an average of 41 600 (95% CI, 27 700-55 500) injuries per year, or 59.4 injuries per 100 000 United States children per year (95% CI, 39.6-79.3). The median age of injured children was 10 years, and 50% were males. Ninety-three percent of injuries occurred at home. Injuries to the extremities predominated among children of all ages and accounted for more than 70% of all injuries. This study identified several age-specific injury patterns. There was an inverse relationship between age versus the relative frequency of upper extremity injuries, and fractures and dislocations; and there was a direct relationship between age versus lower extremity injuries and soft tissue injury. There was also an inverse relationship between age versus facial injuries, head and neck injuries, and lacerations. Annually, an estimated 1400 children (95% CI, 800-2000), or 2.0 per 100 000 United States children (95% CI, 1. 1-2.9), required hospital admission or interhospital transfer because of a trampoline-related injury. This represented 3.3% of all children with a trampoline-associated injury. Fractures or dislocations accounted for 83% of injuries among admitted or transferred children, and children with a fracture or dislocation were more likely to be admitted or transferred to another hospital (8.4%) than children with other types of injury (relative risk, 10.80; 95% CI

  16. Addiction and Reward-related Genes Show Altered Expression in the Postpartum Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiu eZhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in 5 of 5 independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia. Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions.

  17. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  18. The relation between T-cell expression of LFA-1 and immunological memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Odum, N; Theander, T G

    1993-01-01

    Antibodies against isotypes of the leucocyte common antigen (LCA, CD45) can be used to identify largely reciprocal subsets of human peripheral T cells, characterized by differential ability to respond to recall antigen in vitro. The transition from naive, unprimed T cells to memory cells capable...... of responding to recall stimulating has been associated with a switch in surface expression of CD45 from the CD45RA isotype to CD45RO. It has been proposed that this transition is accompanied by the coordinated up-regulation of a number of cell-surface molecules involved in cellular adhesion and/or activation......, including the leucocyte function-associated antigens (LFA). In the present study we have examined the expression of LFA-1 on subsets of human peripheral T cells, and related it to the expression of markers of cellular activation and CD45 isotypes, and thus to immunological memory. Our results suggest...

  19. Glycoproteins of mouse vaginal epithelium: differential expression related to estrous cyclicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvat, B; Multhaupt, H A; Damjanov, I

    1993-01-01

    We used lectin overlay blotting and SDS-PAGE to analyze the estrous cycle-specific expression of mouse vaginal epithelial glycoproteins. Seven lectins chosen for their differential carbohydrate-binding specificity revealed 15 glycoproteins that showed cycle-related expression. Each lectin had...... in proestrus, coincident with the transformation of two superficial layers of vaginal squamous epithelium into mucinous cuboidal cells. Electron microscopic lectin histochemistry revealed the glycoproteins in the mucinous granules of surface cuboidal cells and in the lumen of the vagina. Our results illustrate...... the complexity of glycoconjugate synthesis in mouse vagina and reveal the distinct cycle-specific patterns of individual glycoprotein expression. These cyclic glycoproteins could serve as vaginal biochemical markers for the specific phases of the estrous cycle....

  20. Expression and purification of lacticin Q by small ubiquitin-related modifier fusion in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingshan; Yu, Zhanqiao; Han, Bing; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Rijun

    2012-04-01

    Lacticin Q is a broad-spectrum class II bacteriocin with potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. The objective of this study was to produce recombinant lacticin Q using a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion protein expression system. The 168-bp lacticin Q gene was cloned into the expression vector pET SUMO and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The soluble fusion protein was recovered with a Ni-NTA Sepharose column (95% purity); 130 mg protein was obtained per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO tag was then proteolytically cleaved from the protein, which was re-applied to the column. Finally, about 32 mg lacticin Q (≥96% purity) was obtained. The recombinant protein exhibited antimicrobial properties similar to that of the native protein, demonstrating that lacticin Q had been successfully expressed by the SUMO fusion system.

  1. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Mira; Ilavská, Silvia; Štefíková, Kornélia; Szabová, Michaela; Krivošíková, Zora; Jahnová, Eva; Tulinská, Jana; Spustová, Viera; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-07-11

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells ( p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  2. Relation between tetR and tetA expression in tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracyclines are among the most used antibiotics in livestock worldwide. Resistance is widely disseminated in Escherichia coli, where it is generally mediated by tetracycline efflux pumps, such as TetA. Expression of tetracycline efflux pumps is tightly controlled by the repressor Tet......R, which has been shown to be tetracycline-responsive at sub-MIC tetracycline concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing tetracycline concentrations on the growth of TetA-producing E. coli, and to determine how expression of tetA and tetR related to each other...... in different growth phases in the presence of tetracycline. Results: A tetracycline resistant E. coli strain containing tetA and tetR on the chromosome was constructed and cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of tetracycline. Expression of tetR and tetA was measured at four time points...

  3. DNA mismatch repair related gene expression as potential biomarkers to assess cadmium exposure in Arabidopsis seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wan; Zhou Qixing; Li Peijun; Gao Hairong; Han, Y.P.; Li, X.J.; Yang, Y.S.; Li Yanzhi

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, Arabidopsis seedlings were hydroponically grown on MS media containing cadmium (Cd) of 0-2.0 mg L -1 for 60 h of treatment. Gene expression profiles were used to relate exposure to Cd with some altered biological responses and/or specific growth effects. RT-PCR analysis was used to quantitate mRNA expression for seven genes known to be involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system and cell division. Results indicated that Cd concentrations of 0.25-2.0 mg L -1 cause increased total soluble protein levels in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings in an inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. Exposure to 0.25 and 0.5 mg L -1 of Cd dramatically induced expression of four genes (i.e. proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2 (atPCNA 2), MutL1 homolog (atMLH1), MutS 2 homolog (atMSH2) and atMSH3) and five genes (i.e. atPCNA1,2, atMLH1 and atMSH2,7), respectively, in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings; Exposure to 1.0 mg L -1 of Cd significantly elevated expression of only two genes (atMSH6,7), but caused prominent inhibition in expression of three genes (atPCNA2, atMLH1 and atMSH3) in shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings. The expression alterations of the above genes were independent of any biological effects such as survival, fresh weight and chlorophyll level of shoots. However, shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to 2.0 mg L -1 of Cd exhibited statistically prominent repression in expression of these seven genes, and showed incipient reduction of fresh weight and chlorophyll level. This research provides data concerning sensitivity of expression profiles of atMLH1, atMSH2,3,6,7 and atPCNA1,2 genes in Arabidopsis seedlings to Cd exposure, as well as the potential use of these gene expression patterns as representative molecular biomarkers indicative of Cd exposure and related biological effects.

  4. Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals

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    Pia Løtvedt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens.We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds. Keywords: Animal domestication, Stress response, HPA axis, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gene expression, Chicken

  5. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

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    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  6. Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2012-07-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 μL L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. BRCA1 gene expression in relation to prognostic parameters of breast cancer

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    Manal Kamal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1 has been conferred to increase the susceptibility to breast cancer in younger women. This work studied the expression of BRCA1 (mRNA in women with breast cancer in relation to other prognostic parameters such as histological type and grade of cancer, hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu and CA15-3. Thirty patients with positive family history of breast cancer and a control group of 20 healthy subjects were also included for the study. Ribonucleic acid (RNA extraction from breast cancer tissues was done (considered suitable for RNA extraction if 70% or more of the tissue section contained tumor and was followed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. BRCA1 expression was assessed and correlated with age, histological type and grade of breast cancer, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR status, HER2/neu expression and CA15-3 levels. The mean age of patients was 54.8 ± 10.49 years. Of the 30 breast cancer cases studied, the majority (77% was of high histological grade and the most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (20 cases. ER expression was positive in 53.3% of breast cancers, while PR expression was positive in 50% of cancers. BRCA1 mRNA was found in 6 patient samples (20% of the breast cancer patients while the remaining 24 patients (80% showed negative BRCA1 mRNA expression as well as the control group. A positive significant relationship was demonstrated between BRCA1 (mRNA expression and high histological grade, negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and high levels of serum CA15-3. A significant negative correlation was found between BRCA1 mRNA expression and age (r = −0.683; p < 0.01. The study demonstrated lack of BRCA1 gene expression (mRNA in the majority of breast cancer cases and confirmed the relationship between BRCA1 expression and parameters that determine poor prognosis in breast cancer. The

  8. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mee-Yon, E-mail: meeyon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  9. Expressed sequence tags related to nitrogen metabolism in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Defilippi, L; Pereira, E M; Silva, F M; Moro, G V

    2017-05-31

    The relative quantitative real-time expression of two expressed sequence tags (ESTs) codifying for key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism in maize, nitrate reductase (ZmNR), and glutamine synthetase (ZmGln1-3) was performed for genotypes inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense. Two commercial single-cross hybrids (AG7098 and 2B707) and two experimental synthetic varieties (V2 and V4) were raised under controlled greenhouse conditions, in six treatment groups corresponding to different forms of inoculation and different levels of nitrogen application by top-dressing. The genotypes presented distinct responses to inoculation with A. brasilense. Increases in the expression of ZmNR were observed for the hybrids, while V4 only displayed a greater level of expression when the plants received nitrogenous fertilization by top-dressing and there was no inoculation. The expression of the ZmGln1-3EST was induced by A. brasilense in the hybrids and the variety V4. In contrast, the variety V2 did not respond to inoculation.

  10. Association of medication errors with drug classifications, clinical units, and consequence of errors: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Maki; Shen, Jay J; Angosta, Alona

    2017-02-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play an important role in safe medication administration and patient safety. This study examined a total of 1276 medication error (ME) incident reports made by RNs in hospital inpatient settings in the southwestern region of the United States. The most common drug class associated with MEs was cardiovascular drugs (24.7%). Among this class, anticoagulants had the most errors (11.3%). The antimicrobials was the second most common drug class associated with errors (19.1%) and vancomycin was the most common antimicrobial that caused errors in this category (6.1%). MEs occurred more frequently in the medical-surgical and intensive care units than any other hospital units. Ten percent of MEs reached the patients with harm and 11% reached the patients with increased monitoring. Understanding the contributing factors related to MEs, addressing and eliminating risk of errors across hospital units, and providing education and resources for nurses may help reduce MEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

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    Érica de Sousa

    Full Text Available In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we

  12. Gene Co-expression Analysis to Characterize Genes Related to Marbling Trait in Hanwoo (Korean) Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dajeong; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Kuk; Cho, Yong-Min; Chai, Han-Ha; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Kim, Heebal

    2013-01-01

    Marbling (intramuscular fat) is an important trait that affects meat quality and is a casual factor determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. It is a complex trait and has many biological pathways related to muscle and fat. There is a need to identify functional modules or genes related to marbling traits and investigate their relationships through a weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on the system level. Therefore, we investigated the co-expression relationships of genes related to the 'marbling score' trait and systemically analyzed the network topology in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). As a result, we determined 3 modules (gene groups) that showed statistically significant results for marbling score. In particular, one module (denoted as red) has a statistically significant result for marbling score (p = 0.008) and intramuscular fat (p = 0.02) and water capacity (p = 0.006). From functional enrichment and relationship analysis of the red module, the pathway hub genes (IL6, CHRNE, RB1, INHBA and NPPA) have a direct interaction relationship and share the biological functions related to fat or muscle, such as adipogenesis or muscle growth. This is the first gene network study with m.logissimus in Hanwoo to observe co-expression patterns in divergent marbling phenotypes. It may provide insights into the functional mechanisms of the marbling trait.

  13. Gene Co-expression Analysis to Characterize Genes Related to Marbling Trait in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajeong Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marbling (intramuscular fat is an important trait that affects meat quality and is a casual factor determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. It is a complex trait and has many biological pathways related to muscle and fat. There is a need to identify functional modules or genes related to marbling traits and investigate their relationships through a weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on the system level. Therefore, we investigated the co-expression relationships of genes related to the ‘marbling score’ trait and systemically analyzed the network topology in Hanwoo (Korean cattle. As a result, we determined 3 modules (gene groups that showed statistically significant results for marbling score. In particular, one module (denoted as red has a statistically significant result for marbling score (p = 0.008 and intramuscular fat (p = 0.02 and water capacity (p = 0.006. From functional enrichment and relationship analysis of the red module, the pathway hub genes (IL6, CHRNE, RB1, INHBA and NPPA have a direct interaction relationship and share the biological functions related to fat or muscle, such as adipogenesis or muscle growth. This is the first gene network study with m.logissimus in Hanwoo to observe co-expression patterns in divergent marbling phenotypes. It may provide insights into the functional mechanisms of the marbling trait.

  14. Expression of estrogen-related gene markers in breast cancer tissue predicts aromatase inhibitor responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Moy

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are the most effective class of drugs in the endocrine treatment of breast cancer, with an approximate 50% treatment response rate. Our objective was to determine whether intratumoral expression levels of estrogen-related genes are predictive of AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Primary breast carcinomas were obtained from 112 women who received AI therapy after failing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and developing recurrent breast cancer. Tumor ERα and PR protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Messenger RNA (mRNA levels of 5 estrogen-related genes-AKR1C3, aromatase, ERα, and 2 estradiol/ERα target genes, BRCA1 and PR-were measured by real-time PCR. Tumor protein and mRNA levels were compared with breast cancer progression rates to determine predictive accuracy. Responsiveness to AI therapy-defined as the combined complete response, partial response, and stable disease rates for at least 6 months-was 51%; rates were 56% in ERα-IHC-positive and 14% in ERα-IHC-negative tumors. Levels of ERα, PR, or BRCA1 mRNA were independently predictive for responsiveness to AI. In cross-validated analyses, a combined measurement of tumor ERα and PR mRNA levels yielded a more superior specificity (36% and identical sensitivity (96% to the current clinical practice (ERα/PR-IHC. In patients with ERα/PR-IHC-negative tumors, analysis of mRNA expression revealed either non-significant trends or statistically significant positive predictive values for AI responsiveness. In conclusion, expression levels of estrogen-related mRNAs are predictive for AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, and mRNA expression analysis may improve patient selection.

  15. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  16. Gene expression in triple-negative breast cancer in relation to survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyang; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Guo, Xingyi; Shi, Liang; Wu, Jie; Ye, Fei; Qiu, Qingchao; Zheng, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Bao, Ping-Ping; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2018-05-10

    The identification of biomarkers related to the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is critically important for improved understanding of the biology that drives TNBC progression. We evaluated gene expression in total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples using the NanoString nCounter assay for 469 TNBC cases from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. We used Cox regression to quantify Hazard Ratios (HR) and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in models that included adjustment for breast cancer intrinsic subtype. Of 302 genes in our discovery analysis, 22 were further evaluated in relation to OS among 134 TNBC cases from the Nashville Breast Health Study and the Southern Community Cohort Study; 16 genes were further evaluated in relation to DFS in 335 TNBC cases from four gene expression omnibus datasets. Fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to combine results across data sources. Twofold higher expression of EOMES (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97), RASGRP1 (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97), and SOD2 (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.96) was associated with better OS. Twofold higher expression of EOMES (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and RASGRP1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.95) was also associated with better DFS. On the contrary, a doubling of FA2H (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.22) and GSPT1 (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.55) expression was associated with shorter DFS. We identified five genes (EOMES, FA2H, GSPT1, RASGRP1, and SOD2) that may serve as potential prognostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for TNBC.

  17. Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors in the Retinas of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports show that ER stress plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy (DR, but ER stress is a complicated process involving a network of signaling pathways and hundreds of factors, What factors involved in DR are not yet understood. We selected 89 ER stress factors from more than 200, A rat diabetes model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The expression of 89 ER stress-related factors was found in the retinas of diabetic rats, at both 1- and 3-months after development of diabetes, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. There were significant changes in expression levels of 13 and 12 ER stress-related factors in the diabetic rat retinas in the first and third month after the development of diabetes, Based on the array results, homocysteine- inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1(HERP, and synoviolin(HRD1 were studied further by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses showed that the expression of HERP was reduced in the retinas of diabetic rats in first and third month. The expression of Hrd1 did not change significantly in the retinas of diabetic rats in the first month but was reduced in the third month.

  18. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  19. Target-context unitization effect on the familiarity-related FN400: a face recognition exclusion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Etienne, Yann

    2015-03-01

    Using two exclusion tasks, the present study examined how the ERP correlates of face recognition are affected by the nature of the information to be retrieved. Intrinsic (facial expression) and extrinsic (background scene) visual information were paired with face identity and constituted the exclusion criterion at test time. Although perceptual information had to be taken into account in both situations, the FN400 old-new effect was observed only for old target faces on the expression-exclusion task, whereas it was found for both old target and old non-target faces in the background-exclusion situation. These results reveal that the FN400, which is generally interpreted as a correlate of familiarity, was modulated by the retrieval of intra-item and intrinsic face information, but not by the retrieval of extrinsic information. The observed effects on the FN400 depended on the nature of the information to be retrieved and its relationship (unitization) to the recognition target. On the other hand, the parietal old-new effect (generally described as an ERP correlate of recollection) reflected the retrieval of both types of contextual features equivalently. The current findings are discussed in relation to recent controversies about the nature of the recognition processes reflected by the ERP correlates of face recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. LEXICAL UNITS STARTING WITH THE LETTERS «Б» AND «B» MATCHING IN THE PLANE OF EXPRESSION (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Maria A. Ankudinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to lexical units starting with the letters «б» and «b» matching in the plane of expression, based on the Russian and English languages. Lexical units were chosen by the random sampling method, were classified and analyzed, based on their spelling and pronunciation.

  1. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Thanseem, Ismail; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Miyachi, Taishi; Yamada, Satoru; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC

  2. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Ayyappan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG, motor cortex (MC and thalamus (THL from autism patients (n=8 and controls (n=10 were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2, neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27 showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066 and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990 showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The

  3. Relation between premorbid personality and patterns of emotion expression in mid- to late-stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magai, C; Cohen, C I; Culver, C; Gomberg, D; Malatesta, C

    1997-11-01

    Twenty-seven nursing home patients with mid- to late-stage dementia participated in a study of the relation between preillness personality, as indexed by attachment and emotion regulation style, and current emotional behavior. Preillness measures were completed by family members and current assessments of emotion were supplied by nursing home aides and family members; in addition, emotion was coded during a family visit using an objective coding system for facial emotion expressions. Attachment style was found to be related to the expression of positive affect, with securely attached individuals displaying more positive affect than avoidantly attached individuals. In addition, high ratings on premorbid hostility were associated with higher rates of negative affect and lower rates of positive affect. These findings indicate that premorbid aspects of personality show continuity over time, even in mid- to late-stage dementia.

  4. Epidemiology, trends, assessment and management of sport-related concussion in United States high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Proctor, Mark R; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P

    2012-12-01

    Sport-related concussion affects athletes at every level of participation. The short and long-term effects of concussions that occur during childhood and adolescence are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to describe the current burden of disease, current practice patterns and current recommendations for the assessment and management of sport-related concussions sustained by United States high school athletes. Millions of high school students participate in organized sports in the United States. Current estimates suggest that, across all sports, approximately 2.5 concussions occur for every 10 000 athletic exposures, in which an athletic exposure is defined as one athlete participating in one game or practice. At schools that employ at least one athletic trainer, most high school athletes who sustain sport-related concussions will be cared for by athletic trainers and primary care physicians. Approximately 40% will undergo computerized neurocognitive assessment. The number of high school athletes being diagnosed with sport-related concussions is rising. American football has the highest number of concussions in high school with girls' soccer having the second highest total number. Fortunately, coaches are becoming increasingly aware of these injuries and return-to-play guidelines are being implemented.

  5. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... and scale effects. Moreover, some results from the Crescent City Prototype Dolosse study are presented and related to results from small-de model tests. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse ir presented as well....

  6. Developmental and Functional Expression of miRNA-Stability Related Genes in the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, ?rica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Ot?vio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We fi...

  7. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...

  8. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  9. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    OpenAIRE

    Horv?thov?, Mira; Ilavsk?, Silvia; ?tef?kov?, Korn?lia; Szabov?, Michaela; Krivo??kov?, Zora; Jahnov?, Eva; Tulinsk?, Jana; Spustov?, Viera; Gajdo?, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The signific...

  10. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Lee, Anna W; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-28

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85-100%) and low (40-60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary TiO2 particles modulate expression of hormone-related genes in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guofang; Zhan, Pengfei; Jin, Weiming; Fei, JianMing; Zhao, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically beneficial insect. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. In the present study, we found that feeding titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NP) caused a significant increase of body size. TiO 2 NP stimulated the transcription of several genes, including the insulin-related hormone bombyxin, PI3K/Akt/TOR (where PI3K is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and TOR is target of rapamycin), and the adenosine 5'-monophosphateactivated protein kinase (AMPK)/target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis documented 26 developmental hormone signaling related genes that were differentially expressed following dietary TiO 2 NP treatment. qPCR analysis confirmed the upregulation of insulin/ecdysteroid signaling genes, such as bombyxin B-1, bombyxin B-4, bombyxin B-7, MAPK, P70S6K, PI3k, eIF4E, E75, ecdysteroid receptor (EcR), and insulin-related peptide binding protein precursor 2 (IBP2). We infer from the upregulated expression of bombyxins and the signaling network that they act in bombyxin-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Elevated interleukin-32 expression is associated with Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Sheng Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin-32 (IL-32 is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases. We investigated the expression of IL-32 and its regulation mechanism in the inflammatory response of patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. DESIGN AND METHODS: IL-32 mRNA and protein expression in gastric tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The regulation of IL-32 in human gastric epithelia cell line AGS was investigated by different cytokine stimulation and different H. pylori strain infection. RESULTS: Gastric IL-32 mRNA and protein expression were elevated in patients with H. pylori infection and positively correlated with gastritis. In H. pylori-infected patients, the mRNA level of IL-32 was also correlated with that of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. In vitro IL-1β and TNF-α could upregulate IL-32 mRNA and protein level in AGS cells, which was dependent on NF-κB signal pathway. The regulation of IL-32 expression in response to H. pylori-infection could be weakened by using neutralizing antibodies to block IL-1β and TNF-α. Moreover, H. pylori-infected AGS cells also induced IL-32 mRNA and protein expression, which was dependent on CagA. CONCLUSIONS: IL-32 level is elevated in patients with H. pylori infection and its expression is regulated by proinflammatory stimuli, suggesting that IL-32 may play a role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-related gastritis.

  13. Gene expression related to oxidative stress in the heart of mice after intestinal ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaio Neto, Frederico; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Chaves, José Carlos Bertoletto; Teruya, Roberto; Fagundes, Djalma José; Taha, Murched Omar

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion is a frequent clinical event associated to injury in distant organs, especially the heart. To investigate the gene expression of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the heart of inbred mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Twelve mice (C57BL / 6) were assigned to: IR Group (GIR) with 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion; Control Group (CG) which underwent anesthesia and laparotomy without IR procedure and was observed for 120 minutes. Intestine and heart samples were processed using the RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method for the gene expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and oxidative defense (Student's 't' test, p < 0.05). The intestinal tissue (GIR) was noted to have an up-regulation of 65 genes (74.71%) in comparison to normal tissue (CG), and 37 genes (44.04%) were hyper-expressed (greater than three times the threshold allowed by the algorithm). Regarding the remote effects of intestinal I/R in cardiac tissue an up-regulation of 28 genes (33.33%) was seen, but only eight genes (9.52%) were hyper-expressed three times above threshold. Four (7.14%) of these eight genes were expressed in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Cardiomyocytes with smaller and pyknotic nuclei, rich in heterochromatin with rare nucleoli, indicating cardiac distress, were observed in the GIR. Intestinal I/R caused a statistically significant over expression of 8 genes associated with oxidative stress in remote myocardial tissue

  14. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  15. Expression of LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs in common solid malignancies correlates with patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Gonias

    Full Text Available LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs are transmembrane receptors involved in endocytosis, cell-signaling, and trafficking of other cellular proteins. Considerable work has focused on LRPs in the fields of vascular biology and neurobiology. How these receptors affect cancer progression in humans remains largely unknown. Herein, we mined provisional databases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to compare expression of thirteen LRPs in ten common solid malignancies in patients. Our first goal was to determine the abundance of LRP mRNAs in each type of cancer. Our second goal was to determine whether expression of LRPs is associated with improved or worsened patient survival. In total, data from 4,629 patients were mined. In nine of ten cancers studied, the most abundantly expressed LRP was LRP1; however, a correlation between LRP1 mRNA expression and patient survival was observed only in bladder urothelial carcinoma. In this malignancy, high levels of LRP1 mRNA were associated with worsened patient survival. High levels of LDL receptor (LDLR mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. High levels of LRP10 mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. LRP2 was the only LRP for which high levels of mRNA expression correlated with improved patient survival. This correlation was observed in renal clear cell carcinoma. Insights into LRP gene expression in human cancers and their effects on patient survival should guide future research.

  16. Abnormal Sensory Protein Expression and Urothelial Dysfunction in Ketamine-Related Cystitis in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chou Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of sensory protein expression and urothelial dysfunction in ketamine-related cystitis (KC in humans. Methods Biopsies of bladder mucosa were performed in 29 KC patients during cystoscopy. Then specimens were analyzed for tryptase, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, E-cadherin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL with immunofluorescence staining and quantification. In addition, 10 healthy control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Another 16 whole bladder specimens obtained from partial cystectomy were also analyzed for the muscarinic receptors M2 and M3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, β-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs, and the P2X3 receptor by western blotting. In addition, 3 normal control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Results The KC bladder mucosa revealed significantly less expression of ZO-1 and E-cadherin, and greater expression of TUNEL and tryptase activity than the control samples. The expression of M3 and β3-AR in the KC specimens was significantly greater than in the controls. The expression of iNOS, eNOS, M2, and P2X3 was not significantly different between the KC and control specimens. Conclusions The bladder tissue of KC patients revealed significant urothelial dysfunction, which was associated with mast-cell mediated inflammation, increased urothelial cell apoptosis, and increased expression of the M3 and β3-AR.

  17. Gene expression related to oxidative stress in the heart of mice after intestinal ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaio Neto, Frederico; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Chaves, José Carlos Bertoletto; Teruya, Roberto; Fagundes, Djalma José; Taha, Murched Omar

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion is a frequent clinical event associated to injury in distant organs, especially the heart. Objective To investigate the gene expression of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the heart of inbred mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Methods Twelve mice (C57BL / 6) were assigned to: IR Group (GIR) with 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion; Control Group (CG) which underwent anesthesia and laparotomy without IR procedure and was observed for 120 minutes. Intestine and heart samples were processed using the RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method for the gene expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and oxidative defense (Student's "t" test, p < 0.05). Results The intestinal tissue (GIR) was noted to have an up-regulation of 65 genes (74.71%) in comparison to normal tissue (CG), and 37 genes (44.04%) were hyper-expressed (greater than three times the threshold allowed by the algorithm). Regarding the remote effects of intestinal I/R in cardiac tissue an up-regulation of 28 genes (33.33%) was seen, but only eight genes (9.52%) were hyper-expressed three times above threshold. Four (7.14%) of these eight genes were expressed in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Cardiomyocytes with smaller and pyknotic nuclei, rich in heterochromatin with rare nucleoli, indicating cardiac distress, were observed in the GIR. Conclusion Intestinal I/R caused a statistically significant over expression of 8 genes associated with oxidative stress in remote myocardial tissue. PMID:24346830

  18. Gene expression related to oxidative stress in the heart of mice after intestinal ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somaio Neto, Frederico; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Chaves, José Carlos Bertoletto [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados - UFGD, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Teruya, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul - UFMS, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Fagundes, Djalma José, E-mail: fsomaio@cardiol.br; Taha, Murched Omar [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion is a frequent clinical event associated to injury in distant organs, especially the heart. To investigate the gene expression of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the heart of inbred mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Twelve mice (C57BL / 6) were assigned to: IR Group (GIR) with 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion; Control Group (CG) which underwent anesthesia and laparotomy without IR procedure and was observed for 120 minutes. Intestine and heart samples were processed using the RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method for the gene expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and oxidative defense (Student's 't' test, p < 0.05). The intestinal tissue (GIR) was noted to have an up-regulation of 65 genes (74.71%) in comparison to normal tissue (CG), and 37 genes (44.04%) were hyper-expressed (greater than three times the threshold allowed by the algorithm). Regarding the remote effects of intestinal I/R in cardiac tissue an up-regulation of 28 genes (33.33%) was seen, but only eight genes (9.52%) were hyper-expressed three times above threshold. Four (7.14%) of these eight genes were expressed in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Cardiomyocytes with smaller and pyknotic nuclei, rich in heterochromatin with rare nucleoli, indicating cardiac distress, were observed in the GIR. Intestinal I/R caused a statistically significant over expression of 8 genes associated with oxidative stress in remote myocardial tissue.

  19. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Bazmi, H Holly; Mirnics, Karoly; Wu, Qiang; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2008-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in a number of cognitive, affective, sensory, and motor functions that depend on the circuitry of different cortical areas. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related genes. Consequently, the authors sought to determine whether this pattern of altered gene expression is restricted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or could also contribute to the dysfunction of other cortical areas in subjects with schizophrenia. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of eight GABA-related transcripts in four cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary motor and primary visual cortices) of subjects (N=12) with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects. Expression levels of seven transcripts were lower in subjects with schizophrenia, with the magnitude of reduction for each transcript comparable across the four areas. The largest reductions were detected for mRNA encoding somatostatin and parvalbumin, followed by moderate decreases in mRNA expression for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the GABA membrane transporter GAT-1, and the alpha 1 and delta subunits of GABA(A) receptors. In contrast, the expression of calretinin mRNA did not differ between the subject groups in any of the four areas. Because the areas examined represent the major functional domains (e.g., association, limbic, motor, and sensory) of the cerebral cortex, our findings suggest that a conserved set of molecular alterations affecting GABA neurotransmission contribute to the pathophysiology of different clinical features of schizophrenia.

  20. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary, and three-component (ternary combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although

  1. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  2. Acting with dedication and expertise: Relatives' experience of nurses' provision of care in a palliative unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøthe, Å; Biong, Stian; Grov, E K

    2015-12-01

    Admission of a cancer patient to a palliative unit when near the final stage of their disease trajectory undoubtedly impacts their relatives. The aim of our study was to illuminate and interpret relatives' lived experiences of health personnel's provision of care in a palliative ward. A phenomenological/hermeneutic approach was employed that was inspired by the philosophical tradition of Heidegger and Ricoeur and further developed by Lindseth and Nordberg. The perspectives of the narrator and the text were interpreted by highlighting relatives' views on a situation in which they have to face existential challenges. The analysis was undertaken in three steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive understanding, including the authors' professional experiences and theoretical background. Six subthemes appeared: the dying person, the bubble, the sight, the cover, the provision for children's needs, and the availability of immediate help. These components were further constructed into three themes: the meaning of relating, the meaning of action, and the meaning of resources. Our comprehensive understanding of the results suggests that the most important theme is "acting with dedication and expertise." The following aspects are crucial for relatives of cancer patients hospitalized in a palliative ward: time and existence, family dynamics, and care adjusted to the situation. Our study results led to reflections on the impact of how nurses behave when providing care to patients during the palliative phase, and how they interact with relatives in this situation. We found that cancer patients in a palliative unit most appreciate nurses who act with dedication and expertise.

  3. Relational invariance of expressive microstructure across global tempo changes in music performance: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, B H

    1994-01-01

    This study addressed the question of whether the expressive microstructure of a music performance remains relationally invariant across moderate (musically acceptable) changes in tempo. Two pianists played Schumann's "Träumerei" three times at each of three tempi on a digital piano, and the performance data were recorded in MIDI format. In a perceptual test, musically trained listeners attempted to distinguish the original performances from performances that had been artificially speeded up or slowed down to the same overall duration. Accuracy in this task was barely above chance, suggesting that relational invariance was largely preserved. Subsequent analysis of the MIDI data confirmed that each pianist's characteristic timing patterns were highly similar across the three tempi, although there were statistically significant deviations from perfect relational invariance. The timing of (relatively slow) grace notes seemed relationally invariant, but selective examination of other detailed temporal features (chord asynchrony, tone overlap, pedal timing) revealed no systematic scaling with tempo. Finally, although the intensity profile seemed unaffected by tempo, a slight overall increase in intensity with tempo was observed. Effects of musical structure on expressive microstructure were large and pervasive at all levels, as were individual differences between the two pianists. For the specific composition and range of tempi considered here, these results suggest that major (cognitively controlled) temporal and dynamic features of a performance change roughly in proportion with tempo, whereas minor features tend to be governed by tempo-independent motoric constraints.

  4. Expression pattern of neuronal intermediate filament α-internexin in anterior pituitary gland and related tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, D; Hölsken, A; Buchfelder, M; Schlaffer, S-M; Siegel, S; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I; Fahlbusch, R; Buslei, R

    2015-08-01

    α-Internexin (INA) is a class IV neuronal intermediate filament protein that maintains the morphogenesis of neurons. It is expressed in developing neuroblasts and represents the major component of the cytoskeleton in cerebellar granule cells of adult central nervous system tissue. Data concerning INA expression in the human frontal pituitary lobe and related adenomas (PA) is missing. Using immunohistochemistry we examined the distribution pattern of INA in a large cohort of 152 PA, 11 atypical PA, 4 pituitary carcinomas and 20 normal pituitaries (overall n = 187). Quantity of INA protein expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated and grouped into five categories (0 = 0%; 1 = >0-5%; 2 = >5-35%; 3 = >35-80%; 4 = >80% of cells). Cellular staining intensity of INA appeared significantly higher in gonadotropinomas (Go, n = 62), null cell adenomas (NC, n = 7) and thyrotropinomas (TSHomas, n = 7) compared to the other tumor subtypes (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, Go and NC showed a peculiar pseudorosette-like staining pattern surrounding blood vessels in 85.5% (59/69) of cases. Interestingly, areas exhibiting homogenous INA staining were often associated with oncocytic cell changes and decreased immunohistochemically detectable hormone expression. Only 8.5% (8/94) of other PA showed a comparable INA distribution (p ≤ 0.001). Go, NC as well as TSHomas exhibit high levels of intracellular INA protein indicating neuronal transdifferentiation. A possible impact on pathogenesis and endocrine activity needs further investigation.

  5. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Dai, Hongzheng; Chen, Sidi; Zhang, Luoying; Long, Manyuan

    2011-04-26

    Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta). Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  6. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta. Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  7. Effects of high temperature on photosynthesis and related gene expression in poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High temperature, whether transitory or constant, causes physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that adversely affect tree growth and productivity by reducing photosynthesis. To elucidate the photosynthetic adaption response and examine the recovery capacity of trees under heat stress, we measured gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, electron transport, water use efficiency, and reactive oxygen-producing enzyme activities in heat-stressed plants. Results We found that photosynthesis could completely recover after less than six hours of high temperature treatment, which might be a turning point in the photosynthetic response to heat stress. Genome-wide gene expression analysis at six hours of heat stress identified 29,896 differentially expressed genes (15,670 up-regulated and 14,226 down-regulated), including multiple classes of transcription factors. These interact with each other and regulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes in response to heat stress, controlling carbon fixation and changes in stomatal conductance. Heat stress of more than twelve hours caused reduced electron transport, damaged photosystems, activated the glycolate pathway and caused H2O2 production; as a result, photosynthetic capacity did not recover completely. Conclusions This study provides a systematic physiological and global gene expression profile of the poplar photosynthetic response to heat stress and identifies the main limitations and threshold of photosynthesis under heat stress. It will expand our understanding of plant thermostability and provides a robust dataset for future studies. PMID:24774695

  8. Arsenic-induced alteration in the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The present revision focuses on the effect of arsenic on tissues that participate directly in glucose homeostasis, integrating the most important published information about the impairment of the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes by arsenic as one of the possible mechanisms by which it leads to the disease. Many factors are involved in the manner in which arsenic contributes to the occurrence of diabetes. The reviewed studies suggest that arsenic might increase the risk for type 2 diabetes via multiple mechanisms, affecting a cluster of regulated events, which in conjunction trigger the disease. Arsenic affects insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by modifying the expression of genes involved in insulin resistance and shifting away cells from differentiation to the proliferation pathway. In the liver arsenic disturbs glucose production, whereas in pancreatic beta-cells arsenic decreases insulin synthesis and secretion and reduces the expression of antioxidant enzymes. The consequences of these changes in gene expression include the reduction of insulin secretion, induction of oxidative stress in the pancreas, alteration of gluconeogenesis, abnormal proliferation and differentiation pattern of muscle and adipocytes as well as peripheral insulin resistance

  9. Expression of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) in human cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, No Hee; Chang, Ji-Won; Choi, June; Jung, Hak Hyun; Im, Gi Jung

    2013-02-01

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) is a 21-kDa signaling G protein that functions as a pleiotropic regulator of many cellular processes including epithelial differentiation. RAC1 activates the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex which promotes formation of reactive oxygen species and degradation enzymes. RAC1 has been associated with rapid epithelial differentiation and invasive properties in human cholesteatoma. This study aimed to identify the presence of RAC1 in human cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of proteolysis and overgrowth. Tissue samples from human cholesteatoma and normal postaural skin were obtained from patients during otologic surgery for cholesteatoma. The expression of RAC1 mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and localization of RAC1 expression was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining. Expression of RAC1 mRNA in the epithelium of cholesteatoma was significantly elevated 2.94 fold on average, compared with normal control skin. RAC1 expression in the suprabasal and basal layer of cholesteatoma epithelium was stronger than normal control skin. Our results suggest that RAC1 can be associated with rapid epithelial differentiation and invasive properties of human cholesteatoma.

  10. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP. in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Giulia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca, ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata, ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa. Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT, F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O, that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

  11. The communication between patient relatives and physicians in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicekci, Faruk; Duran, Numan; Ayhan, Bunyamin; Arican, Sule; Ilban, Omur; Kara, Iskender; Turkoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Fatma; Hasirci, Ismail; Karaibrahimoglu, Adnan; Kara, Inci

    2017-07-17

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians. The questionnaire included three sub-dimensions: informing, empathy and trust. The study included 181 patient relatives and 103 ICU physicians from three different cities and six hospitals. Based on the results of the questionnaire, identification of the mutual expectations and substance of the messages involved in the communication process between the ICU patients' relatives and physicians was made. The gender and various disciplines of the physicians and the time of the conversation with the patients' relatives were found to affect the communication attitude towards the patient. Moreover, the age of the patient's relatives, the level of education, the physician's perception, and the contact frequency with the patient when he/she was healthy were also proven to have an impact on the communication attitude of the physician. This study demonstrates the mutual expectations and substance of messages in the informing, empathy and trust sub-dimensions of the communication process between patient relatives and physicians in the ICU. The communication between patient relatives and physicians can be strengthened through a variety of training programs to improve communication skills.

  12. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  13. Expression of osteoprotegerin, RNAK and RANKL genes in femoral head avascular necrosis and related signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qingtang; Hao, Sibin; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xueling

    2015-01-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) causes the damage of hip joint and related dysfunctions, thus consisting of a clinical challenge. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) all regulate the formation of bones via gene transcriptional regulation for the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This study thus investigated the expressional profiles of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN patients, and explored related molecular mediating pathways. Real-time qPCR was used to measure the gene expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN femoral head tissue samples from 42 patients, along with normal tissues. Western blotting analysis was performed to quantify protein levels of OPG and RANKL. There was a trend but not statistically significant elevation of mRNA levels of OPG in femoral head AVN tissues compared to normal tissues (P>0.05). The expression of RNAK and RNAKL, however, was significantly elevated in necrotic tissues (P<0.05). No significant difference in protein levels of OPG or RANKL between groups. The expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes exert a crucial role in the progression of AVN, suggesting their roles in mediating bone homeostasis and potential effects on bone destruction.

  14. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  15. Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2014-10-01

    We examined neonatal mortality in relation to birth settings and birth attendants in the United States from 2006 through 2009. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-linked birth and infant death dataset in the United States from 2006 through 2009 were used to assess early and total neonatal mortality for singleton, vertex, and term births without congenital malformations delivered by midwives and physicians in the hospital and midwives and others out of the hospital. Deliveries by hospital midwives served as the reference. Midwife home births had a significantly higher total neonatal mortality risk than deliveries by hospital midwives (1.26 per 1000 births; relative risk [RR], 3.87 vs 0.32 per 1000; P home births of 41 weeks or longer (1.84 per 1000; RR, 6.76 vs 0.27 per 1000; P home births of women with a first birth (2.19 per 1000; RR, 6.74 vs 0.33 per 1000; P home births, neonatal mortality for first births was twice that of subsequent births (2.19 vs 0.96 per 1000; P home births compared with midwife hospital births was 9.32 per 10,000 births, and the excess early neonatal mortality was 7.89 per 10,000 births. Our study shows a significantly increased total and early neonatal mortality for home births and even higher risks for women of 41 weeks or longer and women having a first birth. These significantly increased risks of neonatal mortality in home births must be disclosed by all obstetric practitioners to all pregnant women who express an interest in such births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Different alpha crystallin expression in human age-related and congenital cataract lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Guo, Minfei; Li, Yuting; Gu, Jianjun

    2016-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the different expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in human lens epithelium of age-related and congenital cataracts. The central part of the human anterior lens capsule approximately 5 mm in diameter together with the adhering epithelial cells, were harvested and processed within 6 hours after cataract surgery from age-related and congenital cataract patients or from normal eyes of fresh cadavers. The mRNA and soluble protein levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the human lens epithelium were detected by real-time PCR and western blots, respectively. The mRNA and soluble protein expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium were both reduced in age-related and congenital cataract groups when compared with the normal control group. However, the degree of α-crystallin loss in the lens epithelium was highly correlated with different cataract types. The α-crystallin expression of the lens epithelium was greatly reduced in the congenital cataract group but only moderately decreased in the age-related cataract group. The reduction of αA-crystallin soluble protein levels in the congenital cataract group was approximately 2.4 fold decrease compared with that of the age-related cataract group, while an mRNA fold change of 1.67 decrease was observed for the age-related cataract group. Similarly, the reduction of soluble protein levels of αB-crystallin in the congenital cataract group was approximately a 1.57 fold change compared with that of the age-related cataract group. A 1.75 fold change for mRNA levels compared with that of the age-related cataract group was observed. The results suggest that the differential loss of α-crystallin in the human lens epithelium could be associated with the different mechanisms of cataractogenesis in age-related versus congenital cataracts, subsequently resulting in different clinical presentations.

  17. Reluctance to express emotion explains relation between cognitive distortions and social competence in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brandon G; Pina, Armando A; Parker, Julia H

    2017-12-12

    Guided by social information processing and affective social competence models, the focal objective of this research was to examine the relations among anxious children's cognitive distortions, social skill competence, and reluctance to express emotion. In addition, we explored whether children's attention control played any meaningful role. Using a sample of 111 anxious children (M age  = 9.63, SD = 0.73; 75.7% girls; 56% Hispanic/Latino), we found that cognitive distortions were negatively related to social competence. In addition, tests of moderated mediation showed that the negative association between cognitive distortions and social skill competence was indirect via reluctance to express emotion, but this only was the case for anxious children with high attention control and for distortions in the academic domain. The findings of this study may set the stage for new ways to conceptualize the role of higher attention control among anxious youth. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive errors are prevalent in anxious youth Anxious children show socio-emotion deficits What does this study add? Cognitive errors are related to socio-emotion deficits in anxious youth Relations depend on attention control. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Multiparameter flow cytometry reveals myelodysplasia-related aberrant antigen expression in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Wolfgang; Bacher, Ulrike; Schnittger, Susanne; Alpermann, Tamara; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2013-05-01

    Within the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) category of the WHO (2008), only chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was so far evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). To investigate the potential of MFC for MDS/MPNs, unclassifiable (MDS/MPNu), and refractory anemia associated with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis (RARS-T), we studied 91 patients with these entities (60 males/31 females; 35.3-87.4 years) for MDS-related aberrant immunophenotypes (≥ 2 different cell lineages with ≥ 3 aberrantly expressed antigens). Data were correlated with cytomorphology and cytogenetics. MFC identified MDS-related immunophenotypes in 54/91 (59.3%) of patients. Patients with or without MDS-related immunophenotype did not differ significantly by demographic characteristics, blood values, or median overall survival. MDS-related immunophenotype cases showed a higher number of aberrantly expressed antigens (mean ± SD, 4.9 ± 2.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.4; P MPNu and RARS-T. MFC therefore may be helpful to separate cases into more "MDS-like" or "MPN-like" subgroups. Copyright © 2012 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in uterine endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, K; Sakayori, M; Arai, H; Yamaoka, K; Kurihara, S; Nozawa, S

    1991-08-01

    The expression of A, B, and H group antigens, Lewis group antigens (Lewis(a), Lewis(b), Lewis(x), and Lewis(y)), and Lc4 and nLc4 antigens, the precursor antigens of both groups, was examined immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in 9 normal endometria, 6 endometrial hyperplasias, and 31 endometrial cancers. 1) A, B and/or H antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at an incidence of 51.6%, while no distinct localization of these antigens was observed in normal endometria. H antigen, the precursor of A and B antigens, was particularly frequently detected in endometrial cancers. 2) An increased rate of expression of Lewis group antigens, particularly Lewis(b) antigen, was observed in endometrial cancers compared with its expression in normal endometria. 3) Lc4 and nLc4 antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at rates of 41.9% and 38.7%, respectively, these expressions being increased compared with those in normal endometria. 4) These results suggest that a highly abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in endometrial cancers occurs not only at the level of A, B, and H antigens and Lewis group antigens, but also at the level of their precursor Lc4 and nLc4 antigens. 5) Lewis(a), Lewis(b), and Lc4 antigens, built on the type-1 chain, are more specific to endometrial cancers than their respective positional isomers, Lewis(x), Lewis(y), and nLc4 antigens, built on the type-2 chain.

  20. Acceptance and expressed emotion in Mexican American caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, Marina; Ramírez García, Jorge I; López, Steven R; Hernández, Brenda

    2008-06-01

    The relation between Expressed Emotion (EE) and caregiver acceptance was tested with the use of video-recorded interactions between 31 Mexican American family caregivers and their relatives with schizophrenia. Borrowing the concept from Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy, acceptance was defined as caregiver's engagement with the ill relative along with low levels of expectations for behavioral change. Three aspects of caregiver acceptance were measured: global acceptance of the patient, unified detachment (i.e., nonblaming but engaged problem discussion), and low aversive responses to patient behavior (e.g., criticisms and demanding change). Relative to high EE caregivers, low EE caregivers were consistently more accepting of their ill relatives across the three measures of acceptance. Unified detachment was negatively associated with emotional overinvolvement and aversive responses were positively related to criticism. Warmth was not related to acceptance. The findings suggest that the study of acceptance in family caregivers is a heuristic avenue for future research due to its potential to shed light on specifically what family members do in caring for their ill relatives with schizophrenia.

  1. Age-related changes in expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Olsen, M; Zhernosekov, D

    1993-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is expressed by muscle and involved in muscle-neuron and muscle-muscle cell interactions. The expression in muscle is regulated during myogenesis and by the state of innervation. In aged muscle, both neurogenic and myogenic degenerative processes occur. We here...... report quantitative and qualitative changes in NCAM protein and mRNA forms during aging in normal rat skeletal muscle. Determination of the amount of NCAM by e.l.i.s.a. showed that the level decreased from perinatal to adult age, followed by a considerable increase in 24-month-old rat muscle. Thus NCAM...... concentration in aged muscle was sixfold higher than in young adult muscle. In contrast with previous reports, NCAM polypeptides of 200, 145, 125 and 120 kDa were observed by immunoblotting throughout postnatal development and aging, the relative proportions of the individual NCAM polypeptides remaining...

  2. Ethylene-induced senescence-related gene expression requires protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, K.A.; Raghothama, K.G.; Woodson, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of inhibiting protein synthesis on the ethylene-induced expression of 3 carnation senescence-related genes, pSR5, pSR8, and pSR12. Treatment of preclimacteric carnation petal discs with 1μg/ml of cycloheximide, a cytoplasmic protein synthesis inhibitor, for 3h inhibited protein synthesis by >80% as quantitated by the incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Pre-treatment of petal discs with cycloheximide prevented ethylene-induced SR transcript accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment of petal discs held in air did not result in increased levels of SR mRNA. These results indicate that ethylene does not interact with pre-formed factors but rather that the activation of SR gene expression by ethylene is mediated by labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Experiments are currently underway to determine if cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level

  3. The meaning and importance of vigilant attendance for the relatives of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Sotirios; Taket, Ann; Cant, Bob; Fouka, Georgia; Vardaki, Zambia

    2014-09-01

    To explore the meaning of vigilant attendance for relatives of critically ill patients in Greece. A plethora of international research has identified proximity to the patient to be a major concern for relatives of critically ill patients. Greece however follows a strict visiting policy in intensive care units (ICUs) so Greek relatives spend great amounts of time just outside the ICUs. This qualitative study adopted the social constructionist version of grounded theory. Data were collected from three ICUs in Athens through in depth interviews with 25 informants and approximately 10 h of observations outside the ICUs on 159 relatives. Vigilant attendance was one of the main coping mechanisms identified for relatives. Four subcategories were found to comprise vigilant attendance: (1) being as close as possible to feel relief, (2) being there to find out what is going on, (3) monitoring changes in the loved one and making own diagnosis and (4) interacting with the ICU professionals. Vigilant attendance describes the way in which relatives in Greece stayed outside the ICUs. Relatives felt satisfaction from being close as the best alternative for not actually being inside the ICU and they tried to learn what was going on by alternative methods. By seeing the patients, relatives were also able to make their own diagnoses and could therefore avoid relying solely on information given to them. However, a prerequisite for successful vigilant attendance was to get on well with doctors and nurses. Changes in visiting policies in Greece are needed to meet the needs of relatives adequately. Recommendations for changes with minimal investment of time and funding are made. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related protein expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao X

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xing Yao,1,* Xiang Wang,1,* Zishu Wang,2,* Licheng Dai,1 Guolei Zhang,1 Qiang Yan,1 Weimin Zhou11Huzhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang Huzhou, 2Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, Bengbu Medical College, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related proteins in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers was also evaluated.Methods: We detected the expression status of three EMT-related proteins, ie, E-cadherin, vimentin, and N-cadherin, by immunohistochemistry in consecutive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma specimens from 96 patients.Results: The frequency of loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and N-cadherin, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 43.8%, 37.5% and 57.3%, respectively. Altered expression of EMT markers was associated with aggressive tumor behavior, including lymph node metastasis, undifferentiated-type histology, advanced tumor stage, venous invasion, and shorter overall survival. Moreover, loss of E-cadherin was retained as an independent prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the EMT process is associated with tumor progression and a poor outcome in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and inhibition of EMT might offer novel promising molecular targets for the treatment of affected patients.Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, expression, prognosis, immunohistochemistry

  5. Effects of 2G on Gene Expression of Stress-Related Hormones in Rat Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S.; Talyansky, Y.; Moyer, E. L.; Lowe, M.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    quantified the expression levels of the genes of interest relative to the GAPDH housekeeping gene, using RT-qPCR and gene-specific cDNA probes. Elucidation of glucocorticoid transfer and synthesis in the placenta can provide new insights into the unique dynamics of mammalian development in microgravity and guide future multi-generational studies in space.

  6. Marketing Cyprus as a tourism destination for the United States: theory, marketing and public relations strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yiannakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a framework for segmenting Cyprus as a tourism destination and discusses ways for reaching various target markets in the United States. Prior research using multi-dimensional scaling demonstrates (Yiannakis & Gibson, 1988, 1992, 2002; Gibson 1994; Foo, McGuiggan & Yiannakis, 2004 that when tourists go on vacation they seek a balance among three fundamental or core push factors: familiarity-strangeness, structure-independence and stimulation tranquility. When the above are matched with various product categories (pull factors that represent what Cyprus has to offer (e.g., heritage/cultural tourism, escapist tourism, sport tourism, eco-tourism and the like, we are able to develop a targeted framework that can help us market Cyprus as a tourism destination to various markets in the United States. The authors also discuss some of the major selling points that make Cyprus attractive as a tourism destination and suggest how these may be employed in an overall strategy for reaching the relatively untapped markets of the United States. The authors make a number of recommendations involving new market exploration and discuss strategies for increasing the island's exposure through both marketing, as well as public relations activities. In closing, the authors recommend that in addition to economic impact studies Cyprus needs to assess the socio-cultural and environmental impacts of tourism on the island and its people. Such findings may help the tourism industry and the people of Cyprus determine the kind of tourism product they want, and the type of tourist they would prefer to attract to the island.

  7. Work Related Psychosocial and Organizational Factors for Neck Pain in Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340

  8. Elevator-related injuries to children in the United States, 1990 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory K; Huisingh, Carrie; Smith, Gary A

    2007-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of elevator-related injuries among children in the United States from 1990 to 2004. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Reported cases were used to project national estimates. An estimated 29 030 elevator-related injuries occurred among children in the United States during 1990 to 2004. The mean age was 8.1 years (SD, 6.1 years), with 53.3% of injuries among boys. The overall injury rate was 2.5 injuries per 100,000 population. The injury rate for children aged 0-4 years was 4.2 per 100,000 population, and for children aged 5-19 years the injury rate was 1.9 per 100,000 population. The most frequent cause of injury was the elevator door closing on a body part, the most frequently injured body region was the upper extremity, and soft-tissue injuries were the most frequent type of injury. Children should be closely supervised on or near elevators to reduce the risk of injury.

  9. The relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site within ecological landform units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, R.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; Hall, D.B.; Ostler, W.K.

    1998-09-01

    Sign-survey transects were sampled in 1996 to better determine the relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These transects were sampled within ecological land-form units (ELUs), which are small, ecologically homogeneous units of land. Two-hundred and six ELUs were sampled by walking 332 transects totaling 889 kilometers (km). These ELUs covered 528 km 2 . Two-hundred and eight-one sign were counted. An average of 0.32 sign was found per km walked. Seventy percent of the area sampled had a very low abundance of tortoises, 29% had a low abundance, and 1% had a moderate abundance. A revised map of the relative abundance of desert tortoise on the NTS is presented. Within the 1,330 km 2 of desert tortoise habitat on the NTS, 49% is classified as having no tortoises or a very low abundance, 18% has a low or moderate abundance, 12% is unclassified land being used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, and the remaining 21% still has an unknown abundance of desert tortoises. Based on the results of this work, the amount of tortoise habitat previously classified as having an unknown or low-moderate abundance, and on which clearance surveys and on-site monitoring was required, has been reduced by 20%

  10. Extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Devon D; Dudek, Jonathan A; Potterat, John J; Muth, Stephen Q; Roberts, John M; Woodhouse, Donald E

    2006-09-01

    Prostitute women have the highest homicide victimization rate of any set of women ever studied. We analyzed nine diverse homicide data sets to examine the extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States. Most data sources substantially under-ascertained prostitute homicides. As estimated from a conservative capture-recapture analysis, 2.7% of female homicide victims in the United States between 1982 and 2000 were prostitutes. Frequencies of recorded prostitute and client homicides increased substantially in the late 1980s and early 1990s; nearly all of the few observed pimp homicides occurred before the late 1980s. These trends may be linked to the rise of crack cocaine use. Prostitutes were killed primarily by clients, clients were killed mainly by prostitutes, and pimps were killed predominantly by pimps. Another conservative estimate suggests that serial killers accounted for 35% of prostitute homicides. Proactive surveillance of, and evidence collection from, clients and prostitutes might enhance the investigation of prostitution-related homicide.

  11. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Guo, Huimin; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Xuexia

    2012-12-10

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF) are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT). We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1). We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC) of more than 2.0 (Pgenes related to BPH-induced resistance, most of them were readily induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH feeding, for instance, 154 TF genes were up-regulated in TN1, but only 31 TF genes were up-regulated in RHT at 24 hours after BPH infestation; 2-4 times more TF genes were induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH. At an FC threshold of >10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants

  12. Identifying modules of coexpressed transcript units and their organization of Saccharopolyspora erythraea from time series gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Saccharopolyspora erythraea genome sequence was released in 2007. In order to look at the gene regulations at whole transcriptome level, an expression microarray was specifically designed on the S. erythraea strain NRRL 2338 genome sequence. Based on these data, we set out to investigate the potential transcriptional regulatory networks and their organization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In view of the hierarchical structure of bacterial transcriptional regulation, we constructed a hierarchical coexpression network at whole transcriptome level. A total of 27 modules were identified from 1255 differentially expressed transcript units (TUs across time course, which were further classified in to four groups. Functional enrichment analysis indicated the biological significance of our hierarchical network. It was indicated that primary metabolism is activated in the first rapid growth phase (phase A, and secondary metabolism is induced when the growth is slowed down (phase B. Among the 27 modules, two are highly correlated to erythromycin production. One contains all genes in the erythromycin-biosynthetic (ery gene cluster and the other seems to be associated with erythromycin production by sharing common intermediate metabolites. Non-concomitant correlation between production and expression regulation was observed. Especially, by calculating the partial correlation coefficients and building the network based on Gaussian graphical model, intrinsic associations between modules were found, and the association between those two erythromycin production-correlated modules was included as expected. CONCLUSIONS: This work created a hierarchical model clustering transcriptome data into coordinated modules, and modules into groups across the time course, giving insight into the concerted transcriptional regulations especially the regulation corresponding to erythromycin production of S. erythraea. This strategy may be extendable to studies

  13. Identifying modules of coexpressed transcript units and their organization of Saccharopolyspora erythraea from time series gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiao; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yong-Tao; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2010-08-12

    The Saccharopolyspora erythraea genome sequence was released in 2007. In order to look at the gene regulations at whole transcriptome level, an expression microarray was specifically designed on the S. erythraea strain NRRL 2338 genome sequence. Based on these data, we set out to investigate the potential transcriptional regulatory networks and their organization. In view of the hierarchical structure of bacterial transcriptional regulation, we constructed a hierarchical coexpression network at whole transcriptome level. A total of 27 modules were identified from 1255 differentially expressed transcript units (TUs) across time course, which were further classified in to four groups. Functional enrichment analysis indicated the biological significance of our hierarchical network. It was indicated that primary metabolism is activated in the first rapid growth phase (phase A), and secondary metabolism is induced when the growth is slowed down (phase B). Among the 27 modules, two are highly correlated to erythromycin production. One contains all genes in the erythromycin-biosynthetic (ery) gene cluster and the other seems to be associated with erythromycin production by sharing common intermediate metabolites. Non-concomitant correlation between production and expression regulation was observed. Especially, by calculating the partial correlation coefficients and building the network based on Gaussian graphical model, intrinsic associations between modules were found, and the association between those two erythromycin production-correlated modules was included as expected. This work created a hierarchical model clustering transcriptome data into coordinated modules, and modules into groups across the time course, giving insight into the concerted transcriptional regulations especially the regulation corresponding to erythromycin production of S. erythraea. This strategy may be extendable to studies on other prokaryotic microorganisms.

  14. Barbara's story: a thematic analysis of a relative's reflection of being in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Probst, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this reflective account is to provide a view of the intensive care unit (ICU) relative's experiences of supporting and being supported in the ICU. Understanding the relatives' experiences of ICU is important especially because a recent work has identified the potential for this group to develop post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition that is normally equated with the ICU survivor. A thematic analysis was used in identifying emerging themes that would be significant in an ICU nursing context. The incident took place in two 8-bedded ICUs (Private and National Health Service) in October. Two emergent themes were identified from the reflective story - fear of the technological environment and feeling hopeless and helpless. The use of relative stories as an insight into the live experiences of ICU relatives may give a deeper understanding of their life-world. The loneliness, anguish and pain of the ICU relative extends beyond the walls of the ICU, and this is often negated as the focus of the ICU team is the patient. Developing strategies to support relatives might include the use of relative diaries used concurrently with patient diaries to support this groups recovery or at the very least a gaining a sense of understanding for their ICU experience. Relative follow-up clinics designed specifically to meet their needs where support and advice can be given by the ICU team, in addition to making timely and appropriate referrals to counselling services and perhaps involving spiritual leaders where appropriate. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  15. Health-Related Behaviors and Academic Achievement Among High School Students - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Tiu, Georgianne F; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Lee, Sarah M; Bohm, Michele K; Annor, Francis; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2017-09-08

    Studies have shown links between educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, or other measures of academic achievement, and health-related behaviors (1-4). However, as reported in a 2013 systematic review, many of these studies have used samples that are not nationally representative, and quite a few studies are now at least 2 decades old (1). To update the relevant data, CDC analyzed results from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial, cross-sectional, school-based survey measuring health-related behaviors among U.S. students in grades 9-12. Analyses assessed relationships between academic achievement (i.e., self-reported letter grades in school) and 30 health-related behaviors (categorized as dietary behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, violence-related behaviors, and suicide-related behaviors) that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the United States (5). Logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school found that students who earned mostly A's, mostly B's, or mostly C's had statistically significantly higher prevalence estimates for most protective health-related behaviors and significantly lower prevalence estimates for most health-related risk behaviors than did students with mostly D's/F's. These findings highlight the link between health-related behaviors and education outcomes, suggesting that education and public health professionals can find their respective education and health improvement goals to be mutually beneficial. Education and public health professionals might benefit from collaborating to achieve both improved education and health outcomes for youths.

  16. Variation in social relationships relates to song preferences and EGR1 expression in a female songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubloom, Hannah E; Woolley, Sarah C

    2016-09-01

    Social experiences can profoundly shape social behavior and the underlying neural circuits. Across species, the formation of enduring social relationships is associated with both neural and behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how longer-term relationships between individuals influence brain and behavior. Here, we investigated how variation in social relationships relates to variation in female preferences for and neural responses to song in a pair-bonding songbird. We assessed variation in the interactions between individuals in male-female zebra finch pairs and found that female preferences for their mate's song were correlated with the degree of affiliation and amount of socially modulated singing, but not with the frequency of aggressive interactions. Moreover, variation in measures of pair quality and preference correlated with variation in the song-induced expression of EGR1, an immediate early gene related to neural activity and plasticity, in brain regions important for auditory processing and social behavior. For example, females with weaker preferences for their mate's song had greater EGR1 expression in the nucleus Taeniae, the avian homologue of the mammalian medial amygdala, in response to playback of their mate's courtship song. Our data indicate that the quality of social interactions within pairs relates to variation in song preferences and neural responses to ethologically relevant stimuli and lend insight into neural circuits sensitive to social information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1029-1040, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Expression of Iron-Related Proteins Differentiate Non-Cancerous and Cancerous Breast Tumors

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    Sara Pizzamiglio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported hepcidin and ferritin increases in the plasma of breast cancer patients, but not in patients with benign breast disease. We hypothesized that these differences in systemic iron homeostasis may reflect alterations in different iron-related proteins also play a key biochemical and regulatory role in breast cancer. Thus, here we explored the expression of a bundle of molecules involved in both iron homeostasis and tumorigenesis in tissue samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or reverse-phase protein array (RPPA, were used to measure the expression of 20 proteins linked to iron processes in 24 non-cancerous, and 56 cancerous, breast tumors. We found that cancerous tissues had higher level of hepcidin than benign lesions (p = 0.012. The univariate analysis of RPPA data highlighted the following seven proteins differentially expressed between non-cancerous and cancerous breast tissue: signal transducer and transcriptional activator 5 (STAT5, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6, cluster of differentiation 74 (CD74, transferrin receptor (TFRC, inhibin alpha (INHA, and STAT5_pY694. These findings were confirmed for STAT5, STAT3, BMP6, CD74 and INHA when adjusting for age. The multivariate statistical analysis indicated an iron-related 10-protein panel effective in separating non-cancerous from cancerous lesions including STAT5, STAT5_pY694, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88, CD74, iron exporter ferroportin (FPN, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, STAT3_pS727, TFRC, ferritin heavy chain (FTH, and ferritin light chain (FTL. Our results showed an association between some iron-related proteins and the type of tumor tissue, which may provide insight in strategies for using iron chelators to treat breast cancer.

  18. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to

  19. Team leadership: network differences in women's and men's instrumental and expressive relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C; Grusky, O; Podus, D; Young, A

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasised differences in leadership styles between women and men. Women have an "interactive" leadership style while men are more "directive" and "authoritative." Social network analysis is used to examine differences in eight mental health case management teams, half formally supervised by women and half by men. The techniques used are graphical displays and measures of centrality. Results show male leaders as the most central team member for both instrumental and expressive relations. Female leaders, however, do not adhere to a single leadership style. Team centralisation also differs with gender composition of teams influencing leadership differences.

  20. Significance of glycolytic metabolism-related protein expression in colorectal cancer, lymph node and hepatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC

  1. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus would emerge and 2) whether this sex difference is related to sexual orientation or transsexuality. Postmortem hypothalamic tissues were collected by The Netherlands Brain Bank, and sections were stained for kisspeptin by immunohistochemistry. Hypothalami of 43 control subjects were categorized into three periods: infant/prepubertal (six girls, seven boys), adult (11 women, seven men), and elderly (six aged women, six aged men). Eight male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals, three HIV(+) heterosexual men, and five HIV(+) homosexual men were also analyzed. We estimated the total number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons within the infundibular nucleus. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the human infundibular kisspeptin system exhibits a female-dominant sex difference. The number of kisspeptin neurons is significantly greater in the infant/prepubertal and elderly periods compared with the adult period. Finally, in MTF transsexuals, but not homosexual men, a female-typical kisspeptin expression was observed. These findings suggest that infundibular kisspeptin neurons are sensitive to circulating sex steroid hormones throughout life and that the sex reversal observed in MTF transsexuals might reflect, at least partially, an atypical brain sexual differentiation.

  2. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Horváthová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells (p < 0.05. The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD, waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  3. Biological Roles of Aberrantly Expressed Glycosphingolipids and Related Enzymes in Human Cancer Development and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghao Zhuo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosphingolipids (GSLs, which consist of a hydrophobic ceramide backbone and a hydrophilic carbohydrate residue, are an important type of glycolipid expressed in surface membranes of all animal cells. GSLs play essential roles in maintenance of plasma membrane stability, in regulation of numerous cellular processes (including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and recognition, and in modulation of signal transduction pathways. GSLs have traditionally been classified as ganglio-series, lacto-series, or globo-series on the basis of their diverse types of oligosaccharide chains. Structures and functions of specific GSLs are also determined by their oligosaccharide chains. Different cells and tissues show differential expression of GSLs, and changes in structures of GSL glycan moieties occur during development of numerous types of human cancer. Association of GSLs and/or related enzymes with initiation and progression of cancer has been documented in 100s of studies, and many such GSLs are useful markers or targets for cancer diagnosis or therapy. In this review, we summarize (i recent studies on aberrant expression and distribution of GSLs in common human cancers (breast, lung, colorectal, melanoma, prostate, ovarian, leukemia, renal, bladder, gastric; (ii biological functions of specific GSLs in these cancers.

  4. The Attachment Imperative: Parental Experiences of Relation-making in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navne, Laura E; Svendsen, Mette N; Gammeltoft, Tine M

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we explore how parents establish relations with extremely premature infants whose lives and futures are uncertain. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), we engage recent discussions of the limits of conventional anthropological thinking on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment. Such "cuts" in parent-infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as "maybe-lives" by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for "maybe-parents." © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  5. Gasoline-related injuries and fatalities in the United States, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Dorothy A

    2018-02-12

    This descriptive study examines twenty years of gasoline-related fatalities and emergency department treated injuries in the United States, based on data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Thermal burns consistently accounted for the majority (56%) of gasoline-related injuries and for most (82%) gasoline-related deaths, and were commonly (57-71%) associated with the use of gasoline as an accelerant. Poisoning accounted for 13% of injuries and 17% of deaths. The primary poisoning injury pattern was ingestion; the primary fatality pattern was inhalation, with about half of those associated with deliberate abuse. The estimated number of ingestions decreased from 60 to 23% of poisoning-related injuries, while injuries associated with inhalation abuse increased from 6 to 23%. Chemical burns and dermatitis were less represented in the injury data and were primarily associated with gasoline spills or splashes. Gasoline cans reportedly ignited or exploded in about 5% of thermal burn injuries and fatalities. While mandatory requirements for child resistant closures on gasoline cans (a primary intervention) have potentially impacted poisonings, the use of flame mitigation devices to address thermal injuries, if successful, would be a secondary intervention, and could address only a small percentage (about 5%) of injuries and deaths.

  6. Mountain biking-related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1994-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicolas G; McKenzie, Lara B

    2011-02-01

    Injury research on mountain biking has been mostly limited to examining professional riders and off-road biking. Mountain bikes represent the largest segment of bike sales in the United States. Recreational mountain bike use is popular and understudied. To describe the scope, distribution, and trends of mountain bike-related injuries treated in US emergency departments. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A retrospective analysis was conducted with data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for patients aged ≥ 8 years from 1994 through 2007. Sample weights provided by the system were used to calculate national estimates of mountain bike-related injuries based on 4624 cases. Bivariate comparisons between categorical variables were assessed with injury proportion ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Nationwide, an estimated 217 433 patients were treated for mountain bike-related injuries in US emergency departments from 1994 to 2007, an average of 15 531 injuries per year. The annual number of injuries decreased 56%, from a high of 23 177 in 1995 to 10 267 in 2007 (P bike-related injuries decreased from 1994 to 2007. Upper extremity fractures were the most common injury. Girls and women may be more likely than boys and men to sustain more severe injuries requiring hospitalization. Despite the decline over the past decade, more can be done to improve safety and reduce injuries in this popular recreational activity.

  7. Expression of transforming growth factor beta 1-related signaling proteins in irradiated vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preidl, Raimund H.M.; Moebius, Patrick; Weber, Manuel; Neukam, Friedrich W.; Schlegel, Andreas; Wehrhan, Falk [University of Erlangen- Nuernberg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); University of Erlangen- Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Amann, Kerstin [University of Erlangen- Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-12-09

    Microvascular free tissue transfer is a standard method in head and neck reconstructive surgery. However, previous radiotherapy of the operative region is associated with an increased incidence in postoperative flap-related complications and complete flap loss. As transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) 1 and galectin-3 are well known markers in the context of fibrosis and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein 1 (LOX-1) supports vascular atherosclerosis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β1 and related markers as well as LOX-1 in irradiated vessels. To evaluate the expression of galectin-3, Smad 2/3, TGF-β1, and LOX-1, 20 irradiated and 20 nonirradiated arterial vessels were used for immunohistochemical staining. We semiquantitatively assessed the ratio of stained cells/total number of cells (labeling index). Expression of galectin-3, Smad 2/3, and TGF-β1 was significantly increased in previously irradiated vessels compared with nonirradiated controls. Furthermore, LOX-1 was expressed significantly higher in irradiated compared with nonirradiated vessels. Fibrosis-related proteins like galectin-3, Smad 2/3, and TGF-β1 are upregulated after radiotherapy and support histopathological changes leading to vasculopathy of the irradiated vessels. Furthermore, postoperative complications in irradiated patients can be explained by increased endothelial dysfunction caused by LOX-1 in previously irradiated patients. Consequently, not only TGF-β1 but also galectin-3inhibitors may decrease complications after microsurgical tissue transfer. (orig.) [German] Der freie mikrovaskulaere Gewebetransfer gilt heute als fester Standard in der rekonstruktiven Kopf-Hals-Chirurgie. Es zeigte sich jedoch, dass im Falle einer stattgehabten Bestrahlung im Operationsgebiet mit einer erhoehten Rate an transplantatbezogenen Komplikationen gerechnet werden muss. Sowohl TGF-β1 als auch Galektin-3 sind bekannte Mediatoren in Bezug auf die Fibroseentstehung

  8. Pediatric sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared with FIC events (mean increase

  9. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Thavamani, Geetha; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Shek, Lynette P; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok Hian; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-05-27

    Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. We included 541 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM) feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes)) was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian) ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97-5.91), tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower) (2.22, 1.22-4.04), primiparity (1.54, 1.04-2.26) and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60-4.02). Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61-3.02), and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05-5.41). Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  10. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression

  11. Expression pattern of salt tolerance-related genes in Aegilops cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabbeigi, Mahbube; Arzani, Ahmad; Majidi, Mohammad Mahdi; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Saha, Prasenjit

    2018-02-01

    Aegilops cylindrica , a salt-tolerant gene pool of wheat, is a useful plant model for understanding mechanism of salt tolerance. A salt-tolerant USL26 and a salt-sensitive K44 genotypes of A. cylindrica , originating from Uremia Salt Lake shores in Northwest Iran and a non-saline Kurdestan province in West Iran, respectively, were identified based on screening evaluation and used for this work. The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression patterns of four genes related to ion homeostasis in this species. Under treatment of 400 mM NaCl, USL26 showed significantly higher root and shoot dry matter levels and K + concentrations, together with lower Na + concentrations than K44 genotype. A. cylindrica HKT1;5 ( AecHKT1;5 ), SOS1 ( AecSOS1 ), NHX1 ( AecNHX1 ) and VP1 ( AecVP1 ) were partially sequenced to design each gene specific primer. Quantitative real-time PCR showed a differential expression pattern of these genes between the two genotypes and between the root and shoot tissues. Expressions of AecHKT1;5 and AecSOS1 was greater in the roots than in the shoots of USL26 while AecNHX1 and AecVP1 were equally expressed in both tissues of USL26 and K44. The higher transcripts of AecHKT1;5 in the roots versus the shoots could explain both the lower Na + in the shoots and the much lower Na + and higher K + concentrations in the roots/shoots of USL26 compared to K44. Therefore, the involvement of AecHKT1;5 in shoot-to-root handover of Na + in possible combination with the exclusion of excessive Na + from the root in the salt-tolerant genotype are suggested.

  12. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-02-17

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression.

  13. Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Retinoblastoma-Related Gene from Chinese Wild Vitis pseudoreticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifeng; Gao, Min; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hui; Walter, Monika; Xu, Weirong; Bassett, Carole; Wang, Xiping

    2012-01-01

    Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes, a conserved gene family in higher eukaryotes, play important roles in cell differentiation, development, and mammalian cell death; however, little is known of their function in plants. In this study, a RBR gene was isolated from the Chinese wild grape, Vitis pseudoreticulata W. T. Wang clone "Baihe-35-1", and designated as VpRBR . The cDNA sequence of VpRBR was 3,030 bp and contained an open reading frame of 3,024 bp. Conceptual translation of this gene indicated a composition of 1,007 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 117.3 kDa. The predicted protein showed a retinoblastoma-associated protein domain A from amino acid residues 416 to 579, and domain B from residues 726 to 855. The result of expression analysis indicated that VpRBR was expressed in tissues, leaves, stem, tendrils, flower, and grape skin at different expression levels. Further quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) data indicated that VpRBR levels were higher in Erysiphe necator-treated "Baihe-35-1" and "Baihe-13-1", two resistant clones of Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata , than in E. necator-treated "Hunan-1", a susceptible clone of V. pseudoreticulata . Furthermore, the expression of VpRBR in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethylene (Eth) in grape leaves was also investigated. Taken together, these data indicate that VpRBR may contribute to some aspect of powdery mildew resistance in grape.

  14. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Pang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 541 breastfeeding mother—infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Results: Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97–5.91, tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower (2.22, 1.22–4.04, primiparity (1.54, 1.04–2.26 and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60–4.02. Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61–3.02, and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05–5.41. Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  15. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  16. Topography of somatostatin gene expression relative to molecular progenitor domains during ontogeny of the mouse hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor eMorales-Delgado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus comprises alar, basal and floor plate developmental compartments. Recent molecular data support a rostro-caudal subdivision into rostral (terminal and caudal (peduncular halves. In this context, the distribution of neuronal populations expressing somatostatin (Sst mRNA was analyzed in the developing mouse hypothalamus, comparing with the expression pattern of the genes Orthopedia (Otp, Distal-less 5 (Dlx5, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh and Nk2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1. At embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5, Sst mRNA was first detectable in the anterobasal nucleus, a Nkx2.1-, Shh- and Otp- positive basal domain. By E13.5, nascent Sst expression was also related to two additional Otp-positive domains within the alar plate and one in the basal plate. In the alar plate, Sst-positive cells were observed in rostral and caudal ventral subdomains of the Otp-positive paraventricular complex. An additional basal Sst-expressing cell group was found within a longitudinal Otp-positive periretromamillary band that separates the retromamillary area from tuberal areas. Apart of subsequent growth of these initial populations, at E13.5 and E15.5 some Sst-positive derivatives migrate tangentially into neighboring regions. A subset of cells produced at the anterobasal nucleus disperses ventralwards into the shell of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Cells from the rostroventral paraventricular subdomain reach the suboptic nucleus, whereas a caudal contingent migrates radially into lateral paraventricular, perifornical and entopeduncular nuclei. Our data provide a topologic map of molecularly-defined progenitor areas originating a specific neuron type during early hypothalamic development. Identification of four main separate sources helps to understand causally its complex adult organization.

  17. Gene expression markers of age-related inflammation in two human cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Luke C; Joehanes, Roby; Melzer, David; Harries, Lorna W; Henley, William; Dupuis, Josée; Lin, Honghuang; Mitchell, Marcus; Hernandez, Dena; Ying, Sai-Xia; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Benjamin, Emelia J; Singleton, Andrew; Levy, Daniel; Munson, Peter; Murabito, Joanne M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    Chronically elevated circulating inflammatory markers are common in older persons but mechanisms are unclear. Many blood transcripts (>800 genes) are associated with interleukin-6 protein levels (IL6) independent of age. We aimed to identify gene transcripts statistically mediating, as drivers or responders, the increasing levels of IL6 protein in blood at older ages. Blood derived in-vivo RNA from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n=2422, ages 40-92 yrs) and InCHIANTI study (n=694, ages 30-104 yrs), with Affymetrix and Illumina expression arrays respectively (>17,000 genes tested), were tested for statistical mediation of the age-IL6 association using resampling techniques, adjusted for confounders and multiple testing. In FHS, IL6 expression was not associated with IL6 protein levels in blood. 102 genes (0.6% of 17,324 expressed) statistically mediated the age-IL6 association of which 25 replicated in InCHIANTI (including 5 of the 10 largest effect genes). The largest effect gene (SLC4A10, coding for NCBE, a sodium bicarbonate transporter) mediated 19% (adjusted CI 8.9 to 34.1%) and replicated by PCR in InCHIANTI (n=194, 35.6% mediated, p=0.01). Other replicated mediators included PRF1 (perforin, a cytolytic protein in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells) and IL1B (Interleukin 1 beta): few other cytokines were significant mediators. This transcriptome-wide study on human blood identified a small distinct set of genes that statistically mediate the age-IL6 association. Findings are robust across two cohorts and different expression technologies. Raised IL6 levels may not derive from circulating white cells in age related inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M. G. L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E. M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W. G.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Groothuis, G. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be

  19. Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Satomi; Takeda, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi; Carrara, Fernanda Souza Angotti; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; Zanei, Suely Sueko Viski; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium. Of the total 149 patients in the sample, 69 (46.3%) presented delirium during ICU stay, whose mean age, severity of illness and length of ICU stay were statistically higher. The factors related to delirium were: age, midazolam, morphine and propofol. Results showed high incidence of ICU delirium associated with older age, use of sedatives and analgesics, emphasizing the need for relevant nursing care to prevent and identify early, patients presenting these characteristics. Identificar a incidência de delirium, comparar as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes com e sem delirium e verificar os fatores relacionados ao delirium em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Coorte prospectiva, cuja amostra foi constituída de pacientes internados em UTI de um hospital universitário. Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e da avaliação com o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit para identificação de delirium foram processadas para análise univariada, e regressão logística para identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência do delirium. Do total de 149 pacientes da amostra, 69 (46,3%) apresentaram delirium durante a internação na UTI, observando-se que a média da idade, o índice de gravidade e o tempo de permanência nas UTI foram estatisticamente maiores. Os fatores relacionados ao delirium foram: idade, midazolam, morfina e propofol. Os

  20. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Iran of any goods, technology, or services, except to the extent that such exportation or... States Government and the granting of such a license by that agency would be prohibited by law; (3) Financial transactions related to the resolution of disputes at tribunals, including transactions related to...

  1. Liver kinase B1 inhibits the expression of inflammation-related genes postcontraction in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Moore, Timothy M; Ebbert, Mark T W; McVey, Natalie L; Madsen, Steven R; Hallowell, David M; Harris, Alexander M; Char, Robin E; Mackay, Ryan P; Hancock, Chad R; Hansen, Jason M; Kauwe, John S; Thomson, David M

    2016-04-15

    Skeletal muscle-specific liver kinase B1 (LKB1) knockout mice (skmLKB1-KO) exhibit elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling after treadmill running. MAPK activation is also associated with inflammation-related signaling in skeletal muscle. Since exercise can induce muscle damage, and inflammation is a response triggered by damaged tissue, we therefore hypothesized that LKB1 plays an important role in dampening the inflammatory response to muscle contraction, and that this may be due in part to increased susceptibility to muscle damage with contractions in LKB1-deficient muscle. Here we studied the inflammatory response and muscle damage with in situ muscle contraction or downhill running. After in situ muscle contractions, the phosphorylation of both NF-κB and STAT3 was increased more in skmLKB1-KO vs. wild-type (WT) muscles. Analysis of gene expression via microarray and RT-PCR shows that expression of many inflammation-related genes increased after contraction only in skmLKB1-KO muscles. This was associated with mild skeletal muscle fiber membrane damage in skmLKB1-KO muscles. Gene markers of oxidative stress were also elevated in skmLKB1-KO muscles after contraction. Using the downhill running model, we observed significantly more muscle damage after running in skmLKB1-KO mice, and this was associated with greater phosphorylation of both Jnk and STAT3 and increased expression of SOCS3 and Fos. In conclusion, we have shown that the lack of LKB1 in skeletal muscle leads to an increased inflammatory state in skeletal muscle that is exacerbated by muscle contraction. Increased susceptibility of the muscle to damage may underlie part of this response. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Indirect two-sided relative ranking: a robust similarity measure for gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licamele Louis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large amount of gene expression data that exists in the public domain. This data has been generated under a variety of experimental conditions. Unfortunately, these experimental variations have generally prevented researchers from accurately comparing and combining this wealth of data, which still hides many novel insights. Results In this paper we present a new method, which we refer to as indirect two-sided relative ranking, for comparing gene expression profiles that is robust to variations in experimental conditions. This method extends the current best approach, which is based on comparing the correlations of the up and down regulated genes, by introducing a comparison based on the correlations in rankings across the entire database. Because our method is robust to experimental variations, it allows a greater variety of gene expression data to be combined, which, as we show, leads to richer scientific discoveries. Conclusions We demonstrate the benefit of our proposed indirect method on several datasets. We first evaluate the ability of the indirect method to retrieve compounds with similar therapeutic effects across known experimental barriers, namely vehicle and batch effects, on two independent datasets (one private and one public. We show that our indirect method is able to significantly improve upon the previous state-of-the-art method with a substantial improvement in recall at rank 10 of 97.03% and 49.44%, on each dataset, respectively. Next, we demonstrate that our indirect method results in improved accuracy for classification in several additional datasets. These datasets demonstrate the use of our indirect method for classifying cancer subtypes, predicting drug sensitivity/resistance, and classifying (related cell types. Even in the absence of a known (i.e., labeled experimental barrier, the improvement of the indirect method in each of these datasets is statistically significant.

  3. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer-related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Christensen, Søren; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood in women treated for early stage breast cancer. Methods: A nationwide sample of 507 Danish women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer...... were randomly assigned to three 20-min home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on either emotional disclosure (EWI group) or a non-emotional topic (control group). Cancer-related distress [Impact of Event Scale (IES)], depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—Short Form......), and negative (37-item Profile of Moods State) and positive mood (Passive Positive Mood Scale) were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months post-intervention. Choice of writing topic (cancer versus other), alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale), and social constraints (Social Constraints Scale) were...

  4. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lele; Wang, Honghao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Ruijun; Su, Rui; Liu, Zhihong; Zhao, Yanhong; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. We found that FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  5. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. Results We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. Conclusion This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  6. Steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Negro Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation. METHODS: Thirty-two virgin adult female rats were randomized to two groups as follows: the control group GI received vehicle and the experimental group GII received melatonin supplementation (10 µg/night per animal for 60 consecutive days. After the treatment, animals were anesthetized and the collected ovaries were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analyses. A GeneChip¯ Kit Rat Genome 230 2.0 Affymetrix Array was used for gene analysis and the experiment was repeated three times for each group. The results were normalized with the GeneChip¯ Operating Software program and confirmed through analysis with the secondary deoxyribonucleic acid-Chip Analyzer (dChip software. The data were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Genes related to ovarian function were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found the upregulation of the type 9 adenylate cyclase and inhibin beta B genes and the downregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element modulator and cytochrome P450 family 17a1 genes in the ovarian tissue of GII compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that melatonin supplementation decreases gene expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which changes ovarian steroidogenesis.

  7. Expression of biomineralization-related ion transport genes in Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinder, Luke; Wheeler, Glen; Schroeder, Declan; von Dassow, Peter; Riebesell, Ulf; Brownlee, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Biomineralization in the marine phytoplankton Emiliania huxleyi is a stringently controlled intracellular process. The molecular basis of coccolith production is still relatively unknown although its importance in global biogeochemical cycles and varying sensitivity to increased pCO₂ levels has been well documented. This study looks into the role of several candidate Ca²⁺, H⁺ and inorganic carbon transport genes in E. huxleyi, using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Differential gene expression analysis was investigated in two isogenic pairs of calcifying and non-calcifying strains of E. huxleyi and cultures grown at various Ca²⁺ concentrations to alter calcite production. We show that calcification correlated to the consistent upregulation of a putative HCO₃⁻ transporter belonging to the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family, a Ca²⁺/H⁺ exchanger belonging to the CAX family of exchangers and a vacuolar H⁺-ATPase. We also show that the coccolith-associated protein, GPA is downregulated in calcifying cells. The data provide strong evidence that these genes play key roles in E. huxleyi biomineralization. Based on the gene expression data and the current literature a working model for biomineralization-related ion transport in coccolithophores is presented. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A socio-relational framework of sex differences in the expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob Miguel

    2009-10-01

    Despite a staggering body of research demonstrating sex differences in expressed emotion, very few theoretical models (evolutionary or non-evolutionary) offer a critical examination of the adaptive nature of such differences. From the perspective of a socio-relational framework, emotive behaviors evolved to promote the attraction and aversion of different types of relationships by advertising the two most parsimonious properties of reciprocity potential, or perceived attractiveness as a prospective social partner. These are the individual's (a) perceived capacity or ability to provide expedient resources, or to inflict immediate harm onto others, and their (b) perceived trustworthiness or probability of actually reciprocating altruism (Vigil 2007). Depending on the unique social demands and relational constraints that each sex evolved, individuals should be sensitive to advertise "capacity" and "trustworthiness" cues through selective displays of dominant versus submissive and masculine versus feminine emotive behaviors, respectively. In this article, I introduce the basic theoretical assumptions and hypotheses of the framework, and show how the models provide a solid scaffold with which to begin to interpret common sex differences in the emotional development literature. I conclude by describing how the framework can be used to predict condition-based and situation-based variation in affect and other forms of expressive behaviors.

  9. Relative codon adaptation: a generic codon bias index for prediction of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse M; Erill, Ivan

    2010-06-01

    The development of codon bias indices (CBIs) remains an active field of research due to their myriad applications in computational biology. Recently, the relative codon usage bias (RCBS) was introduced as a novel CBI able to estimate codon bias without using a reference set. The results of this new index when applied to Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae led the authors of the original publications to conclude that natural selection favours higher expression and enhanced codon usage optimization in short genes. Here, we show that this conclusion was flawed and based on the systematic oversight of an intrinsic bias for short sequences in the RCBS index and of biases in the small data sets used for validation in E. coli. Furthermore, we reveal that how the RCBS can be corrected to produce useful results and how its underlying principle, which we here term relative codon adaptation (RCA), can be made into a powerful reference-set-based index that directly takes into account the genomic base composition. Finally, we show that RCA outperforms the codon adaptation index (CAI) as a predictor of gene expression when operating on the CAI reference set and that this improvement is significantly larger when analysing genomes with high mutational bias.

  10. Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-16

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain

  11. Hypomethylation and Aberrant Expression of the Glioma Pathogenesis-Related 1 Gene in Wilms Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Chilukamarri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumors (WTs have a complex etiology, displaying genetic and epigenetic changes, including loss of imprinting (LOI and tumor suppressor gene silencing. To identify new regions of epigenetic perturbation in WTs, we screened kidney and tumor DNA using CpG island (CGI tags associated with cancer-specific DNA methylation changes. One such tag corresponded to a paralog of the glioma pathogenesis-related 1/related to testis-specific, vespid, and pathogenesis proteins 1 (GLIPR1/RTVP-1 gene, previously reported to be a tumor-suppressor gene silenced by hypermethylation in prostate cancer. Here we report methylation analysis of the GLIPR1/RTVP-1 gene in WTs and normal fetal and pediatric kidneys. Hypomethylation of the GLIPR1/RTVP-1 5'-region in WTs relative to normal tissue is observed in 21/24 (87.5% of WTs analyzed. Quantitative analysis of GLIPR1/RTVP-1 expression in 24 WTs showed elevated transcript levels in 16/24 WTs (67%, with 12 WTs displaying in excess of 20-fold overexpression relative to fetal kidney (FK control samples. Immunohistochemical analysis of FK and WT corroborates the RNA expression data and reveals high GLIPR1/RTVP-1 in WT blastemal cells together with variable levels in stromal and epithelial components. Hypomethylation is also evident in the WT precursor lesions and nephrogenic rests (NRs, supporting a role for GLIPR1/RTVP-1 deregulation early in Wilms tumorigenesis. Our data show that, in addition to gene dosage changes arising from LOI and hypermethylation-induced gene silencing, gene activation resulting from hypomethylation is also prevalent in WTs.

  12. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  13. SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS FOR MEASURING AND FORECASTING THE CASH GENERATING UNIT FLOWS RELATED TO INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica R GROSU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the difficulties encountered in assessing the value of the CGU (Cash Generating Unit and of the cash flows associated with goodwill or other intangible assets of a company and after performing the impairment test as provided by the IAS 36-Intangibile Asset and the forecasts related to it, the aim of this paper is to identify and suggest software instruments that would assist in the measurement and forecasting of these elements. The employment of the SPSS and the NeuroShell programmes in analyzing and forecasting the changes in CGU and CGU flows has helped compare the results and the ensuing error margins, thus giving the business entity the possibility to select the best software option, depending on certain variables identified on a micro or a macroeconomic level that may affect the depreciation or the increases in value of the underlying assets for CGU or CGU flows.

  14. Associations Between Relative Value Units and Patient-Reported Back Pain and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Gold PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe associations between health care utilization measures and patient-reported outcomes (PROs. Method: Primary data were collected from patients ≥65 years with low back pain visits from 2011 to 2013. Six PROs of pain and functionality were collected 12 and 24 months after the index visits and total and spine-specific relative value units (RVUs from electronic health records were tabulated over 1 year. We calculated correlation coefficients between RVUs and 12- and 24-month PROs and conducted linear regressions with each 12- and 24-month PRO as the outcome variables and RVUs as predictors of interest. Results: We observed very weak correlations between worse PROs at 12 and 24 months and greater 12-month utilization. In regression analyses, we observed slight associations between greater utilization and worse 12- and 24-month PROs. Discussion: We found that 12-month health care utilization is not strongly associated with PROs at 12 or 24 months.

  15. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P recruitment behaviour were organised into localised MU task groups. MUs with different task specificity in seven examined tasks were observed. The RMS EMG values obtained from the different recording sites were also significantly (P recruitment was significantly (P recruited MUs and the RMS EMG values decreased significantly (P recruitment behaviour in discrete subvolumes of the masseter in response to small changes in vertical jaw relations. These fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nonfatal, unintentional, non--fire-related carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. CO poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States; it was responsible for approximately 450 deaths each year during 1999-2004 and an estimated 15,200 emergency department (ED) visits each year during 2001-2003. Health effects of CO exposure can range from viral-like symptoms (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, headache, confusion, and nausea) to more severe conditions (e.g., disorientation, unconsciousness, long-term neurologic disabilities, coma, cardiorespiratory failure, and death). CO poisoning often is misdiagnosed and underdetected because of the nonspecific nature of symptoms. To update a previously published report and provide national estimates of CO-related ED visits during 2004-2006, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database. During 2004-2006, an estimated average of 20,636 ED visits for nonfatal, unintentional, non-fire-related CO exposures occurred each year. Approximately 73% of these exposures occurred in homes, and 41% occurred during winter months (December-February). Prevention efforts targeting residential and seasonal CO exposures can substantially reduce CO-related morbidity.

  17. Open intensive care units: a global challenge for patients, relatives, and critical care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Elena; Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Milanesio, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the current status of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours policies internationally and to explore the influence of ICUs' open visiting policies on patients', visitors', and staff perceptions, as well as on patients' outcomes. A review of the literature was done through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. The following keywords were searched: "visiting," "hours," "ICU," "policy," and "intensive care unit." Inclusion criteria for the review were original research paper, adult ICU, articles published in the last 10 years, English or Italian language, and available abstract. Twenty-nine original articles, mainly descriptive studies, were selected and retrieved. In international literature, there is a wide variability about open visiting policies in ICUs. The highest percentage of open ICUs is reported in Sweden (70%), whereas in Italy there is the lowest rate (1%). Visiting hours policies and number of allowed relatives are variable, from limits of short precise segments to 24 hours and usually 2 visitors. Open ICUs policy/guidelines acknowledge concerns with visitor hand washing to prevent the risk of infection transmission to patients. Patients, visitors, and staff seem to be inclined to support open ICU programs, although physicians are more inclined to the enhancement of visiting hours than nurses. The percentages of open ICUs are very different among countries. It can be due to local factors, cultural differences, and lack of legislation or hospital policy. There is a need for more studies about the impact of open ICUs programs on patients' mortality, length of stay, infections' risk, and the mental health of patients and their relatives.

  18. Chapter F: Preliminary Bibliography of Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits in the Western United States and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Karen S.; Wallace, Alan R.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Bliss, James D.; Orris, Greta J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction As part of the assessment of lacustrine diatomite resources in the Western United States (fig. 1), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project members conducted a review of literature relating to the formation, location, and nature of deposits in the study area. This preliminary bibliography consists of selected publications to identify, locate, and describe the deposits to be studied, to characterize common geologic factors about the deposits, and to better understand the factors that control their formation, preservation, or destruction. The bibliography also serves as a resource for other workers to research the topic. References included in the preliminary bibliography were gathered by searching existing bibliographic data bases and library collections. Project researchers also contributed references that they found during the course of their work. This bibliography should be considered a working document that will grow as research and literature searches continue. Clearly, many significant publications may be missing from this preliminary list; therefore, USGS staff members intend to issue a revised bibliography as project work progresses. To assure completeness, input from other researchers and industry is welcome. Although the focus of this bibliography is lacustrine diatomite deposits of the Western United States, additional references that provide a foundation of knowledge for the study of diatomites, diatoms, and diatom-related processes (ecology, geology, geochemistry) and for the uses and behavior of diatomite have also been included. An index of keywords has been added to this bibliography, designed to help the user locate reports by topic or by geographic location. The letter 'A' following a number indicates that the report referenced is an abstract.

  19. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  20. Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelissen, Marion; Kuyl, Antoinette C van der; Burg, Remco van den; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Noesel, Carel JM van; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a proliferation of aberrant vascular structures lined by spindle cells, and is caused by a gammaherpes virus (HHV8/KSHV). Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of KS, we have analysed tissue from two AIDS-KS lesions, and from normal skin by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was then used to validate the results. The expression profile of AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS) reflects an active process in the skin. Transcripts of HHV8 were found to be very low, and HIV-1 mRNA was not detected by SAGE, although it could be found using RT-PCR. Comparing the expression profile of AIDS-KS tissue with publicly available SAGE libraries suggested that AIDS-KS mRNA levels are most similar to those in an artificially mixed library of endothelial cells and leukocytes, in line with the description of KS lesions as containing spindle cells with endothelial characteristics, and an inflammatory infiltrate. At least 64 transcripts were found to be significantly elevated, and 28 were statistically downregulated in AIDS-KS compared to normal skin. Five of the upregulated mRNAs, including Tie 1 and sialoadhesin/CD169, were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR to be elevated in additional AIDS-KS biopsies. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169, a known marker of activated macrophages, were shown to specifically label tumour macrophages. The expression profile of AIDS-KS showed 64 genes to be significantly upregulated, and 28 genes downregulated, compared with normal skin. One of the genes with increased expression was sialoadhesin (CD169). Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169 specifically labelled tumour-associated macrophages, suggesting that macrophages present in AIDS-KS lesions belong to a subset of human CD169+ macrophages

  1. The clinical significance of thymidylate synthase expression in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisayuki; Yui, Takehiro; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Urano, Makoto; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The focus of human papilloma virus (HPV), particulary HPV 16 is on the role of carcinogenic and prognostic factors on oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC). However, it remains unclear why patients with HPV-positive tumors have better outcomes than those with HPV-negative tumors. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is one of the initial key enzymes in the 5-fluouracil (5-FU) metabolic pathway. Clinical studies showed that intratumoural TS level was related to the response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with several types of cancer such as gastroenterological and head and neck cancers. We investigated the prevalence of HPV infection and TS expression in the patients with OSCC and evaluated the prognostic implications according to the HPV status and TS expression. We evaluated for high-risk HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, 58) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on archival biopsies from 54 patients with OSCC. Immunohistochemical assessments for TS were also performed. HPV was positive in 22 (40.7%) of 54 samples. Of these positive cases, 21 (95%) carried HPV 16 and only 1 (5%) HPV58 sequences. TS was overexpressed in 25 (46.3%) of 54 samples. Of these, 19 (76.0%) had an HPV-negative status and 21 (84.0%) were heavy smokers. TS overexpression was associated with the patients with HPV-negative tumors (P=0.02) and heavy smokers (p=0.012). Univariate analysis revealed that HPV positive status (77.3% vs. 29.0%; p=0.006) significantly improved overall survival. Conversely, no remarkable prognostic difference was observed on immunohistochemical analysis of TS expression. A multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazard model showed that early T stage (T1-2), early N stage (N0-1), and positive HPV status were significantly independent predictors for superior overall survival. Our studies suggested that positive HPV status was most strongly associated with a favorable prognosis in the patients with OSCC. TS expression has an unusual aspect

  2. The epidemiology of firework-related injuries in the United States: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of firework-related injuries among an emergency department (ED) nationally representative population of the United States for the years 2000-2010, including whether the type of firework causing the injury is differential by patient demographics and whether the severity of injury is associated with the firework type. The data analysed in this study was collected from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC's) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). A total of 2812 injuries represented an estimated 97,562 firework-related injuries treated in emergency departments within the United States from 2000 to 2010. The incidence generally decreased over time. With respect to age, the rate was higher for children, with the highest rates being observed for 10-19 year olds (7.28 per 100,000 persons) and 0-9 year olds (5.45 per 100,000 persons). The injury rate was nearly three times higher for males compared to the female counterparts (4.48 vs. 1.57 per 100,000 persons). Females were less likely than males to severely injure themselves with all types of fireworks besides sparklers/novelty devices (OR 1.08, CI 0.26-4.38). The results from this suggest that firework-related injuries have decreased by nearly 30% over the 11-year period between 2000 and 2010. Moreover, there has been a decreasing trend in the type of firework causing injury for every firework type excluding the unspecified firework type. However, adolescents of 10-19 years old had the highest rate of injury for fireworks over the 11-year period. In addition odds of injury are differential by firework type. Understanding the specific types of fireworks may lead to better preventative methods and regulations. Moreover, preventative methods should be taken to reduce the rate of firework-related injuries among U.S. youths [1], and possibly more regulations and enforcement of laws geared towards prohibiting novice use of fireworks. Published

  3. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and Relations With the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    .... The United States is working with President Saca to combat narco-trafficking, to resolve immigration issues, and to promote free trade, possibly through the proposed United States- Dominican Republic...

  4. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, J.; Brøns, C.; Friedrichsen, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing...... type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression...... downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin). LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS...

  5. Vision-Related Functional Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy Across Severity Levels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jeffrey R; Doan, Quan V; Gleeson, Michelle; Haskova, Zdenka; Ramulu, Pradeep; Morse, Lawrence; Cantrell, Ronald A

    2017-09-01

    Among adults with diabetes in the United States, severe forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are significantly associated with a greater vision-related functional burden. To assess the functional burden of DR across severity levels in the United States. This cross-sectional study was based on 1004 participants 40 years or older with diabetes and valid ocular and sociodemographic outcomes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (2005-2006 and 2007-2008). Diabetic retinopathy was based on fundus photograph grading, using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. The analysis was performed from October 15, 2016, to June 15, 2017. Functional difficulties secondary to vision were assessed during a household questionnaire in which participants self-reported difficulty with reading, visuospatial tasks (ie, close-up work or finding things on a crowded shelf), mobility (ie, walking down steps, stairs, or curbs), and driving. The main outcome measure was vision-related functional burden, which was defined as present for individuals reporting moderate or greater difficulty in any of the aforementioned tasks. Of the 1004 persons with diabetes analyzed for this study (mean age, 65.7 years [95% CI, 64.0-67.3 years]; 51.1% male [95% CI, 47.1-55.2] and 48.9% female [95% CI, 44.8-52.9]), the prevalence was 72.3% for no retinopathy, 25.4% for mild and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 2.3% for severe NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The prevalence of vision-related functional burden was 20.2% (95% CI, 16.3%-24.1%) for those with no retinopathy, 20.4% (95% CI, 15.3%-27.8%) for those with mild and moderate NPDR, and 48.5% (95% CI, 25.6%-71.5%) for those with severe NPDR or PDR (P = .02). In multivariable analysis, the odds of vision-related functional burden were significantly greater among those with severe NPDR or PDR relative to those with no retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.59; 95

  6. Physiological relation between respiration activity and heterologous expression of selected benzoylformate decarboxylase variants in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohl Martina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD from Pseudomonas putida is a biotechnologically interesting biocatalyst. It catalyses the formation of chiral 2-hydroxy ketones, which are important building blocks for stereoselective syntheses. To optimise the enzyme function often the amino acid composition is modified to improve the performance of the enzyme. So far it was assumed that a relatively small modification of the amino acid composition of a protein does not significantly influence the level of expression or media requirements. To determine, which effects these modifications might have on cultivation and product formation, six different BFD-variants with one or two altered amino acids and the wild type BFD were expressed in Escherichia coli SG13009 pKK233-2. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR as parameter for growth and metabolic activity of the different E. coli clones was monitored on-line in LB, TB and modified PanG mineral medium with the Respiratory Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS. Results Although the E. coli clones were genetically nearly identical, the kinetics of their metabolic activity surprisingly differed in the standard media applied. Three different types of OTR curves could be distinguished. Whereas the first type (clones expressing Leu476Pro-Ser181Thr or Leu476Pro had typical OTR curves, the second type (clones expressing the wild type BFD, Ser181Thr or His281Ala showed an early drop of OTR in LB and TB medium and a drastically reduced maximum OTR in modified PanG mineral medium. The third type (clone expressing Leu476Gln behaved variable. Depending on the cultivation conditions, its OTR curve was similar to the first or the second type. It was shown, that the kinetics of the metabolic activity of the first type depended on the concentration of thiamine, which is a cofactor of BFD, in the medium. It was demonstrated that the cofactor binding strength of the different BFD-variants correlated with the differences

  7. Computer use and vision-related problems among university students in ajman, United arab emirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm - OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.065-3.368). High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness among students and corrective measures need to be implemented to reduce the impact of computer related vision problems.

  8. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. An Anacardiaceae preparation reduces the expression of inflammation-related genes in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, J; García, D; Arranz, J A; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Orallo, F

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae; Vimang), which contains a defined mixture of components including polyphenols (principally mangiferin, MA), triterpenes, phytosteroids, fatty acids and microelements, on expression of inflammation mediators in inflammatory murine macrophages after stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In vitro treatment with Vimang at 4 microg/ml reduced levels of NOS-2 mRNA and NOS-2, while treatment at 40 microg/ml also reduced levels of COX-2 mRNA, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Results suggested that MA is involved in these effects. In vitro treatment with Vimang at 40 microg/ml also inhibited mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but did not affect mRNA levels of IL-6 or tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Extracellular release of TNF-alpha by inflammatory macrophages was inhibited by in vitro treatment with Vimang at the same concentrations that showed inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The inhibition of TNF-alpha production appears to be at least partially attributable to MA. Vimang at 4 microg/ml decreased mRNA levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) but did not affect expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor (IkappaB). These data indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effects of Vimang are due to selective modulation of the expression of inflammation-related genes, leading to attenuation of macrophage activation.

  10. Racial/ethnic variations in substance-related disorders among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E; Yang, Chongming; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G

    2011-11-01

    While young racial/ethnic groups are the fastest growing population in the United States, data about substance-related disorders among adolescents of various racial/ethnic backgrounds are lacking. To examine the magnitude of past-year DSM-IV substance-related disorders (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, analgesic opioids, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers) among adolescents of white, Hispanic, African American, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander, and multiple race/ethnicity. The 2005 to 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Academic research. Noninstitutionalized household adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Substance-related disorders were assessed by standardized survey questions administered using the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method. Of 72 561 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, 37.0% used alcohol or drugs in the past year; 7.9% met criteria for a substance-related disorder, with Native Americans having the highest prevalence of use (47.5%) and disorder (15.0%). Analgesic opioids were the second most commonly used illegal drugs, following marijuana, in all racial/ethnic groups; analgesic opioid use was comparatively prevalent among adolescents of Native American (9.7%) and multiple race/ethnicity (8.8%). Among 27 705 past-year alcohol or drug users, Native Americans (31.5%), adolescents of multiple race/ethnicity (25.2%), adolescents of white race/ethnicity (22.9%), and Hispanics (21.0%) had the highest rates of substance-related disorders. Adolescents used marijuana more frequently than alcohol or other drugs, and 25.9% of marijuana users met criteria for marijuana abuse or dependence. After controlling for adolescents' age, socioeconomic variables, population density of residence, self-rated health, and survey year, adjusted analyses of adolescent substance users indicated elevated odds of substance-related disorders among Native Americans, adolescents of multiple race/ethnicity, adolescents of

  11. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ,000 ind. L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests...

  12. China’s Trade Relations with the United States in Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s trade relations with the United States over the past four decades is a topic that has not been fully dealt with in scholarly works. This paper charts the course of US-China economic relations since 1971, explains the principal forces stimulating growth and encouraging change and, finally, discusses how these two economic giants fit into an interlocking Asian and world economy. In reaction to the post-2008 financial downturn, advocates for a new world economic order have suggested a rebalancing of global demand, which will arguably become a major, politically charged issue in the US and in China in the years to come. Growing economic interdependence has quickly presented new challenges and opportunities, with issues such as human rights, Most-Favoured-Nation status, the Taiwan and Tibet question, and the huge American trade deficit threatening to cloud the relationship at times. With China’s emergence as a major power and America’s hegemonic ambitions tested in successive wars, the contradiction between a booming commercial relationship and conflict associated with geopolitical and ideological differences will continue to constitute a serious challenge. The long-term goal for each side will be to forge economic ties strong enough to create a stable political relationship, rather than to be held hostage by geopolitical constraints.

  13. Differential declines in syphilis-related mortality in the United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Moschetti, Kristin; Smith, Lisa V; Sorvillo, Frank; Kuo, Tony

    2017-04-01

    After reaching an all time low in 2000, the rate of syphilis in the United States has been steadily increasing. Parallel benchmarking of the disease's mortality burden has not been undertaken. Using ICD-10 classification, all syphilis-related deaths in the national Multiple Cause of Death dataset were examined for the period 2000-2014. Descriptive statistics and age-adjusted mortality rates were generated. Poisson regression was performed to analyze trends over time. A matched case-control analysis was conducted to assess the associations between syphilis-related deaths and comorbid conditions listed in the death records. A total of 1,829 deaths were attributed to syphilis; 32% (n = 593) identified syphilis as the underlying cause of death. Most decedents were men (60%) and either black (48%) or white (39%). Decedents aged ≥85 years had the highest average mortality rate (0.47 per 100,000 population; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.52). For the sampled period, the average annual decline in mortality was -2.90% (95% CI, -3.93% to -1.87%). However, the average annual percent change varied across subgroups of interest. Declines in U.S. syphilis mortality suggest early detection and improved treatment access likely helped attenuate disease progression; however, increases in the disease rate since 2000 may be offsetting the impact of these advancements. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hospital Related Stress Among Patients Admitted to a Psychiatric In-patient Unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric patient’s attitudes towards hospitalization have found an association between patient perceptions of the ward atmosphere and dissatisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine the aspects of stress related to hospitalization in inpatients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Fifty in-patients of both sexes admitted consecutively to a psychiatric unit in a General Hospital were asked to rate the importance of, and their satisfaction with, 38 different aspects of in-patient care and treatment. Results showed that the major sources of stress were related to having a violent patient near to his/her bed; being away from family; having to stay in closed wards; having to eat cold and tasteless food; losing income or job due to illness, being hospitalized away from home; not able to understand the jargons used by the clinical staff and not getting medication for sleep. A well-differentiated assessment of stress and satisfaction has implications for the evaluation of the quality of psychiatric care and for the improvement of in-patient psychiatric care.

  15. Pediatric Firework-Related Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Departments, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billock, Rachael M; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2017-06-01

    This study characterizes the epidemiology of nonfatal pediatric firework-related injuries in the United States among children and adolescents by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 1990 through 2014. During this 25-year period, an estimated 136 991 (95% CI = 113 574-160 408) children firework-related injuries. The annual injury rate decreased significantly by 30.4% during this period. Most of those injured were male (75.7%), mean patient age was 10.6 years, and 7.6% required hospital admission. The hands (30.0%) were the most commonly injured body region, followed by head and neck (22.2%), and eyes (21.5%). Sixty percent of injuries were burns. Injuries were most commonly associated with firecrackers (26.2%), aerial devices (16.3%), and sparklers (14.3%). Consumer fireworks pose a serious injury risk to pediatric users and bystanders, and families should be encouraged to attend public firework displays rather than use consumer fireworks.

  16. Expression of nucleolar-related proteins in porcine preimplantation embryos produced in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Wrenzycki, Christine; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2004-01-01

    The expression of nucleolar-related proteins was studied as an indirect marker of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene activation in porcine embryos up to the blastocyst stage produced in vivo and in vitro. A group of the in vivo-developed embryos were cultured with alpha-amanitin to block the de novo...... proteins pRb and p130, which are involved in cell-cycle regulation, was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR up to the blastocyst stage. Toward the end of third cell cycle, the nuclei in non-alpha-amanitin-treated, in vivo-produced embryos displayed different stages of transformation of the nuclear...... was delayed in porcine embryos produced in vitro compared to the in vivo-derived counterparts with respect to mRNAs encoding PAF53 and UBF. Moreover, differences existed in the mRNA expression patterns of pRb between in vivo- and in vitro-developed embryos. These findings show, to our knowledge for the first...

  17. Abiotic Stress-Related Expressed Sequence Tags from the Diploid Strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo. Rivarola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry ( spp. is a eudicotyledonous plant that belongs to the Rosaceae family, which includes other agronomically important plants such as raspberry ( L. and several tree-fruit species. Despite the vital role played by cultivated strawberry in agriculture, few stress-related gene expression characterizations of this crop are available. To increase the diversity of available transcriptome sequence, we produced 41,430 L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs from plants growing under water-, temperature-, and osmotic-stress conditions as well as a combination of heat and osmotic stresses that is often found in irrigated fields. Clustering and assembling of the ESTs resulted in a total of 11,836 contigs and singletons that were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, over 1200 sequences with no match to available Rosaceae ESTs were found, including six that were assigned the “response to stress” GO category. Analysis of EST frequency provided an estimate of steady state transcript levels, with 91 sequences exhibiting at least a 20-fold difference between treatments. This EST collection represents a useful resource to advance our understanding of the abiotic stress-response mechanisms in strawberry. The sequence information may be translated to valuable tree crops in the Rosaceae family, where whole-plant treatments are not as simple or practical.

  18. Expressing complementarity and the x-p commutation relation through further quantum inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, Ramon F

    2010-01-01

    Complementarity and the commutation relation of position (x) and momentum (p) imply much more than the fundamental x-p uncertainty inequality. Here, we display some further consequences of the former that could have certain pedagogical interest and, so, contribute to the teaching of quantum mechanics. Inspired by an elementary derivation of the x-p uncertainty inequality, based upon a positive quadratic polynomial, we explore one possible extension, via quartic polynomials and simple algebra and integrations. Our analysis, aimed at providing some further pedagogic expression of genuine quantum behaviours, yields other quantum inequalities for expectation values, expressed through suitable discriminants associated with quartic algebraic equations, which differ from (and are not a strict consequence of) the x-p uncertainty inequality. Those quantum inequalities are confirmed, and genuine non-classical behaviours are exhibited, for simple cases: a harmonic oscillator, a hydrogenic atom and free Gaussian wave packets. The physical interest of the expectation values involved in the quantum inequalities and of the latter is discussed, in the framework of quantum optics and squeezing phenomena.

  19. Soluble Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of Bioactive Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Bich Hang; Nguyen, Minh Tan; Song, Jung-A; Park, Sangsu; Yoo, Jiwon; Jang, Jaepyeong; Lee, Sunju; So, Seoungjun; Yoon, Yejin; Kim, Inki; Lee, Kyungjin; Jang, Yeon Jin; Choe, Han

    2017-12-28

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered as an antitumor agent owing to its ability to induce apoptosis of cancer cells without imparting toxicity toward most normal cells. TRAIL is produced in poor yield because of its insoluble expression in the cytoplasm of E. coli . In this study, we achieved soluble expression of TRAIL by fusing maltose-binding protein (MBP), b'a' domain of protein disulfide isomerase (PDIb'a'), or protein disulfide isomerase at the N-terminus of TRAIL. The TRAIL was purified using subsequent immobilized metal affinity chromatography and amylose-binding chromatography, with the tag removal using tobacco etch virus protease. Approximately 4.5 mg of pure TRAIL was produced from 125 ml flask culture with a purification yield of 71.6%. The endotoxin level of the final product was 0.4 EU/μg, as measured by the Limulus amebocyte lysate endotoxin assay. The purified TRAIL was validated and shown to cause apoptosis of HeLa cells with an EC₅₀ and Hill coefficient of 0.6 ± 0.03 nM and 2.41 ± 0.15, respectively. The high level of apoptosis in HeLa cells following administration of purified TRAIL indicates the significance and novelty of this method for producing high-grade and high-yield TRAIL.

  20. Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors relative to calcification in AAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xun; Winrow, Vivienne R.; Horrocks, Michael; Stevens, Cliff R.

    2007-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. Human AAA tissue displays cells undergoing all stages of apoptosis. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in tumour cells but not in normal cells. It has death receptors and decoy receptors. An inhibitor of TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), is involved in osteogenesis and vascular calcification. We investigated TRAIL and its receptors in AAA compared within normal aorta (NA). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of calcification in AAA walls were determined using Von Kossa staining and pre-operation computer tomography (CT) scans. There was a significant difference in calcification level at different locations in the AAA wall (p < 0.05). Apoptosis was confirmed in AAA by TUNEL assay. A significant difference in TRAIL and its receptor expression was observed between normal aortae and AAA (p < 0.05). Significant differences were also observed between tissues displaying different extents of calcification for TRAIL mRNA (p < 0.05) by RT-PCR examination and OPG protein (p < 0.01) by protein blotting examination. We propose that this pattern of expression of TRAIL and its receptors may contribute to AAA formation and calcification in the AAA wall

  1. Geographic distribution of trauma centers and injury-related mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Rosengart, Matthew R; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however, access to care is not uniform across the United States. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Level I or II trauma centers in the contiguous United States were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates per 100,000 people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNRs) were generated for each state. A NNR less than 1 indicates clustering, while a NNR greater than 1 indicates dispersion. NNRs were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNRs were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.35, p center distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ = 0.34, p = 0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared with dispersed states (56.9 [IQR, 46.5-58.9] vs. 64.9 [IQR, 52.5-77.1]; p = 0.04). Dispersed compared with clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% vs. 1.2%, p distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and require further study to investigate underlying mechanisms. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV.

  2. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children’s Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objectives Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children’s psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. Design The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children’s adjustment was measured with parents’, teachers’, and peers’ or children’s reports. Results Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children’s externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. Conclusions Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child’s adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  3. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    probable travel-related diagnoses. Of these, 23,006 (16%) patients were evaluated in the United States, 10,032 (44%) of whom were evaluated after returning from travel outside of the United States (i.e., after-travel patients). Of the 10,032 after-travel patients, 4,977 (50%) were female, 4,856 (48%) were male, and 199 (2%) did not report sex; the median age was 34 years. Most were evaluated in outpatient settings (84%), were born in the United States (76%), and reported current U.S. residence (99%). The most common reasons for travel were tourism (38%), missionary/volunteer/research/aid work (24%), visiting friends and relatives (17%), and business (15%). The most common regions of exposure were Sub-Saharan Africa (23%), Central America (15%), and South America (12%). Fewer than half (44%) reported having had a pretravel visit with a health-care provider. Of the 13,059 diagnoses among the 10,032 after-travel patients, the most common diagnoses were acute unspecified diarrhea (8%), acute bacterial diarrhea (5%), postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (5%), giardiasis (3%), and chronic unknown diarrhea (3%). The most common diagnostic groupings were acute diarrhea (22%), nondiarrheal gastrointestinal (15%), febrile/systemic illness (14%), and dermatologic (12%). Among 1,802 patients with febrile/systemic illness diagnoses, the most common diagnosis was Plasmodium falciparum malaria (19%). The rapid communication component of the GeoSentinel network has allowed prompt responses to important health events affecting travelers; during 2010 and 2011, the notification capability of the GeoSentinel network was used in the identification and public health response to East African trypanosomiasis in Eastern Zambia and North Central Zimbabwe, P. vivax malaria in Greece, and muscular sarcocystosis on Tioman Island, Malaysia. The GeoSentinel Global Surveillance System is the largest repository of provider-based data on travel-related illness. Among ill travelers evaluated in U.S. Geo

  4. Language of Uncertainty: the Expression of Decisional Conflict Related to Skin Cancer Prevention Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; James, Vaughan S

    2017-09-01

    User-generated information on the Internet provides opportunities for the monitoring of health information consumer attitudes. For example, information about cancer prevention may cause decisional conflict. Yet posts and conversations shared by health information consumers online are often not readily actionable for interpretation and decision-making due to their unstandardized format. This study extends prior research on the use of natural language as a predictor of consumer attitudes and provides a link to decision-making by evaluating the predictive role of uncertainty indicators expressed in natural language. Analyzed data included free-text comments and structured scale responses related to information about skin cancer prevention options. The study identified natural language indicators of uncertainty and showed that it can serve as a predictor of decisional conflict. The natural indicators of uncertainty reported here can facilitate the monitoring of health consumer perceptions about cancer prevention recommendations and inform education and communication campaign planning and evaluation.

  5. Discovery of the Meanings, Expressions, and Practices Related to Malaria Care Among the Maasai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Cecily W; Mixer, Sandra J

    2016-07-01

    Although malaria is preventable and treatable, morbidity and mortality from this disease continue among the Maasai of Southern Kenya. Prior to this study, the Maasai's generic and professional malaria care/cure practices were largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to discover, describe, and systematically analyze meanings, expressions, and practices that promote culturally congruent malaria care among this population. The qualitative, ethnonursing research method was used to conduct in-depth examination of the Maasai ethnohistory and culture relevant to malaria care and analyze data from 48 interviews conducted in Maasailand. Guided by the "culture care theory," four themes were discovered related to Maasai community, traditional, spiritual, and professional care/cure practices. These significant findings filled a research gap and contribute to nursing knowledge and caring practice. These study findings have implications for culturally congruent malaria care education, practice, research, policy, and partnership with traditional and professional caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho; Mendes, Gabriela Pacheco; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Papa, Paula de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96). However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01). In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the extracellular matrix

  7. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL. Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96. However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01. In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the

  8. Light quality affects flavonoid production and related gene expression in Cyclocarya paliurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Shengzuo; Yang, Wanxia; Shang, Xulan; Fu, Xiangxiang

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the responses of plant growth and secondary metabolites to differential light conditions is very important to optimize cultivation conditions of medicinal woody plants. As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. In this study, LED-based light including white light (WL), blue light (BL), red light (RL), and green light (GL) were used to affect leaf biomass production, flavonoid accumulation and related gene expression of one-year C. paliurus seedlings in controlled environments. After the treatments of 60 days, the highest leaf biomass appeared in the treatment of WL, while the lowest leaf biomass was found under GL. Compared to WL, the total flavonoid contents of C. paliurus leaves were significantly higher in BL, RL, and GL, but the highest values of selected flavonoids (kaempferol, isoquercitrin and quercetin) were observed under BL. Furthermore, the greatest yields of total and selected flavonoids in C. paliurus leaves per seedling were also achieved under BL, indicating that blue light was effective for inducing the production of flavonoids in C. paliurus leaves. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significantly positive correlations between leaf flavonoid content and relative gene expression of key enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; 4-coumaroyl CoA-ligase, 4CL; and chalcone synthase, CHS) in the upstream, which converting phenylalanine into the flavonoid skeleton of tetrahydroxy chalcone. It is concluded that manipulating light quality may be potential mean to achieve the highest yields of flavonoids in C. paliurus cultivation, however this needs to be further verified by more field trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. External causes of pediatric injury-related emergency department visits in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tamara D; Bublitz, Caroline; Hambidge, Simon J

    2004-10-01

    To characterize the types and external causes of pediatric injury-related visits (IRVs) to emergency departments (EDs), in particular, sports-related injuries. To compare the characteristics of children with IRVs with those with non-IRVs, specifically, differences in IRV rates by race and ethnicity and by health insurance. This was a stratified random-sample survey of EDs in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), including all IRVs for patients less than 19 years of age in 1998 (n = 2,656). National estimates of pediatric IRVs were obtained using the assigned patient visit weights in the NHAMCS databases and SUDAAN analyses. Measures of association between predictor variables (patient and health insurance characteristics) and whether a child had an IRV were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Pediatric IRVs accounted for more than 11 million ED visits annually. The most common diagnoses for IRVs were open wounds, contusions, sprains and strains, and fractures and dislocations. The leading external causes of IRVs were sports-related injuries, accidental falls, being struck by objects, and motor vehicle collisions. Children with IRVs differed from those who presented for non-IRVs in many characteristics: they were more likely to be male, to be older, to be of white race, and to have private insurance, and less likely to be of Asian or Hispanic ethnicity. Sports and recreation are the leading external causes of pediatric IRVs to EDs in the United States. There are different patterns of IRVs according to gender, age, race, ethnicity, and insurance. Identification of specific patterns of injury is necessary for the design of effective prevention strategies.

  10. Prospective study of device-related complications in intensive care unit detected by virtual autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, D; Heinemann, A; Zähler, S; Vogel, H; Höpker, W; Püschel, K; Kluge, S

    2018-06-01

    There has been increasing use of invasive techniques, such as extracorporeal organ support, in intensive care units (ICU), and declining autopsy rates. Thus, new measures are needed to maintain high-quality standards. We investigated the potential of computed tomography (CT)-based virtual autopsy to substitute for medical autopsy in this setting. We investigated the potential of virtual autopsy by post-mortem CT to identify complications associated with medical devices in a prospective study of patients who had died in the ICU. Clinical records were reviewed to determine the number and types of medical devices used, and findings from medical and virtual autopsies, related and unrelated to the medical devices, were compared. Medical and virtual autopsies could be performed in 61 patients (Group M/V), and virtual autopsy only in 101 patients (Group V). In Group M/V, 41 device-related complications and 30 device malpositions were identified, but only with a low inter-method agreement. Major findings unrelated to a device were identified in about 25% of patients with a high level of agreement between methods. In Group V, 8 device complications and 36 device malpositions were identified. Device-related complications are frequent in ICU patients. Virtual and medical autopsies showed clear differences in the detection of complications and device malpositions. Both methods should supplement each other rather than one alone for quality control of medical devices in the ICU. Further studies should focus on the identification of special patient populations in which virtual autopsy might be of particular benefit. NCT01541982. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential expression of photosynthesis-related genes in pentaploid interspecific hybrid and its decaploid of Fragaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Dongya; Chen, Baoyu; Mao, Nini; Qiao, Yushan; Ji, Muxiang

    2018-03-01

    Polyploidization always induces a series of changes in genome, transcriptome and epigenetics, of which changes in gene expression are the immediate causes of genotype alterations of polyploid plants. In our previous study on strawberry polyploidization, genes related to photosynthesis were found to undergo changes in gene expression and DNA methylation. Therefore, we chose 11 genes that were closely related to plant photosynthesis and analysed their expression during strawberry hybridization and chromosome doubling. Most genes of pentaploids showed expression levels between parents and were more similar to F. × ananassa. Gene expression levels of decaploids were higher than those of pentaploids and F. × ananassa. Different types of photosynthesis-related genes responded differently to hybridization and chromosome doubling. Chloroplast genes and regulatory genes showed complex responses. Structural genes of the photosynthetic system were expressed at a constant level and displayed a clear dosage effect. The methylation levels of one CG site on SIGE, which regulates expression of chloroplast genes, were negatively correlated with gene expression. In pentaploids and decaploids, more transcripts were from F. × ananassa than from F. viridis. The ratio of transcripts from from F. × ananassa to those from F. viridis was close to the ratio (4:1) of the genome of F. × ananassa to that of F. viridis in pentaploids and decaploids, but there were also some exceptions with obvious deviation.

  12. Expression of perilipins in human skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo in relation to diet, exercise and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, I M F; Haugen, F; Gulseth, H L

    2011-01-01

    , enhanced the expression of perilipin 2 and 3. Perilipin 1 mRNA correlated positively with body fat mass, whereas none of the perilipins were associated with insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, all perilipins mRNAs were expressed in human skeletal muscle. Diet as well as endurance exercise modulated......The perilipin proteins enclose intracellular lipid droplets. We describe the mRNA expression of the five perilipins in human skeletal muscle in relation to fatty acid supply, exercise and energy balance. We observed that all perilipins were expressed in skeletal muscle biopsies with the highest m......RNA levels of perilipin 2, 4 and 5. Cultured myotubes predominantly expressed perilipin 2 and 3. In vitro, incubation of myotubes with fatty acids enhanced mRNA expression of perilipin 1, 2 and 4. In vivo, low fat diet increased mRNA levels of perilipin 3 and 4. Endurance training, but not strength training...

  13. Expression of emotions related to the experience of cancer in younger and older Arab breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Cohen, Miri; Azaiza, Faisal

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that older adults express less negative emotions. Yet, emotional expression patterns in older and younger breast cancer survivors, have barely been examined. This study aimed to explore types and intensity of negative and positive emotional expression related to the breast cancer experience by younger and older Arab breast cancer survivors. Participants were 20 younger (aged 32-50) and 20 older (aged 51-75) Muslim and Christian Arab breast cancer survivors (stages I-III), currently free of disease. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Mixed methods analyses were conducted, including: (1) frequency analysis of participants' emotional expressions; (2) content analysis of emotional expressions, categorized according to negative and positive emotions. Three emotional expression modalities were revealed: (1) Succinct versus comprehensive accounts; (2) expression of emotions versus avoidance of emotions; (3) patterns of expression of positive emotions and a sense of personal growth. Younger women provided more detailed accounts about their illness experiences than older women. Older women's accounts were succinct, action-focused, and included more emotion-avoiding expressions than younger women. Understanding the relationships between emotional expression, emotional experience, and cancer survivors' quality of life, specifically of those from traditional communities, is necessary for developing effective psycho-social interventions.

  14. p16 expression in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a potential mimicker of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingxin; Yang, Chen; Lewis, James S; El-Mofty, Samir K; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2017-08-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in cervical lymph nodes. It has histologic and clinical overlap with the much more common p16-positive human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, which characteristically has nonkeratinizing morphology and often presents as an isolated neck mass. Not surprisingly, follicular dendritic cell sarcomas are commonly misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry is helpful in separating the 2 entities. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma expresses dendritic markers such as CD21 and CD23 and is almost always cytokeratin negative. However, in many cases of HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinoma, only p16 immunohistochemistry as a prognostic and surrogate marker for HPV is performed. p16 expression in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma has not been characterized. Here, we investigate the expression of p16 in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma and correlate it with retinoblastoma protein expression. A pilot study of dendritic marker expression in HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was also performed. We found that 4 of 8 sarcomas expressed p16 with strong and diffuse staining in 2 cases. In 2 of the 4 cases, p16 expression corresponded to loss of retinoblastoma protein expression. Dendritic marker expression (CD21 and CD23) was not found in HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. As such, positive p16 immunohistochemistry cannot be used as supportive evidence for the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma as strong and diffuse p16 expression may also occur in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Cytokeratins and dendritic markers are critical in separating the two tumor types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Balance in Positive Emotional Expressivity across School Contexts Relates to Kindergartners' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Berger, Rebecca H.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Southworth, Jody; Silva, Kassondra M.

    2018-01-01

    Positive emotional expressivity has been associated with increased social competence and decreased maladjustment in childhood. However, a few researchers have found null or even positive associations between positive emotional expressivity and maladjustment, which suggests that there may be nuanced associations of positive expressivity, perhaps as…

  16. The expression of VFL and VvTFL1 genes in relation to the effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... in the ovule primordia and calyptra (Figures 4P and Q). Before flowering, VFL expression was detected in the calyx, calyptra, stigma, anther, entire ovary wall and ovule. (Figure 4R) and the expression in the nucellus tissue was more obvious (Figure 4S). The effect of GAs on the expression patterns of.

  17. An experimental examination of catastrophizing-related interpretation bias for ambiguous facial expressions of pain using an incidental learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eKHATIBI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with pain-related concerns are likely to interpret ambiguous pain-related information in a threatening manner. It is unknown whether this interpretation bias also occurs for ambiguous pain-related facial expressions. This study examined whether individuals who habitually attach a catastrophic meaning to pain are characterized by negative interpretation bias for ambiguous pain-related facial expressions. Sixty-four female undergraduates completed an incidental learning task during which pictures of faces were presented, each followed by a visual target at one of two locations. Participants indicated target location by pressing one of two response keys. During the learning phase, happy and painful facial expressions predicted target location. During two test phases, morphed facial expressions of pain and happiness were added, equally often followed by a target at either location. Faster responses following morphs to targets at the location predicted by painful expressions compared to targets at the location predicted by happy expressions were taken to reflect pain-related interpretation bias. During one test phase, faces were preceded by either a safe or threatening context cue. High, but not low, pain-catastrophizers responded faster following morphs to targets at the location predicted by painful expressions than to targets at the other location (when participants were aware of the contingency between expression type and target location. When context cues were presented, there was no indication of interpretation bias. Participants were also asked to directly classify the facial expressions that were presented during the incidental learning task. Participants classified morphs more often as happy than as painful, independent of their level of pain catastrophizing. This observation is discussed in terms of differences between indirect and direct measures of interpretation bias.

  18. Consumer use of health-related endorsements on food labels in the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Boaz, A; Higginson, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine how consumers use health-related food endorsements on food labels. Three endorsement programs were examined: those of the two major retailers in the United Kingdom, Tesco and Sainsbury's, and the "Pick the Tick" program of the National Heart Foundation of Australia. The main methodology used was protocol analysis. This involves the subject "thinking aloud" while performing a task--in this case, (a) shopping normally and (b) shopping "healthily" for foods on a predetermined list--to generate a protocol. Each subject was also interviewed to investigate reported use of endorsements. Subjects were a quota sample (N = 44) of shoppers representative of the U.K. and Australian populations. Information about the subjects, the protocols, and interview data were analyzed quantitatively; the protocols were also analyzed qualitatively. Sainsbury's and Australian shoppers never used the endorsements when shopping but Tesco shoppers did, albeit rarely. Tesco shoppers used the endorsement in complex ways and not just as a trigger to food selection. They sometimes used the endorsement to reject endorsed foods. Subjects claimed to use the endorsements even though the protocol analysis revealed no actual use. There are features of the Tesco endorsement program that make it more helpful to consumers than the other programs.

  19. Health-related quality of life after prolonged pediatric intensive care unit stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Niamh P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for patients requiring at least 28 days of pediatric intensive care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: A 21-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-three patients who spent 28 days or longer in the PICU between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds QL 4.0) parent-proxy version at 2 to 10 yrs after discharge. The PedsQL 4.0 is a modular measure of HRQOL, which is reliable in children aged 2 to 18 yrs. It generates a total score and physical, emotional, social, school, and psychosocial subscores. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 41 died during their PICU admission and 27 died between PICU discharge and follow-up. Quality of life questionnaires were posted to parents of 108 of the 125 survivors and 70 were returned completed. Forty children (57.1%) had scores indicating a normal quality of life, whereas 30 (42.9%) had scores indicating impaired HRQOL. Of these, 14 (20%) had scores indicating poor quality of life with ongoing disabling health problems requiring hospitalization or the equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while long PICU stay is associated with significant mortality, the long-term HRQOL is normal for the majority of surviving children.

  20. [Single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses in relation to the occlusal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Gerritsen, A E; van Spijker, A; Creugers, N H J

    2013-02-01

    Occlusion concepts based on functional aspects offer more solid ground in the diagnostic process and in the treatment of (reduced) dentitions than morphologically and mechanically oriented occlusion concepts. Nevertheless, for occlusal reconstruction morphologically oriented guidelines are necessary. These guidelines are based on the border movements and positions of the mandible in the orofacial system, and on the location and modelling of the occlusal contacts in the occlusal system. The modelling of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses must harmonize with the occlusal system. Moreover, an important feature is the relation of the anterior teeth which enables mutually protected occlusion. Characteristics of a healthy orofacial and occlusal system are: absence of pathology, perceived sufficient oral functions, variability inform and function, and adaptive capacity. When designing single- or multiunit fixed dental prostheses, a pragmatic starting point is to maintain the existing occlusion and the existing speech pattern unless arguments can be provided for alterations. The occlusal design should aim at optimizing oral functions, such as mandibular and occlusal stability.

  1. Burnout in the neonatal intensive care unit and its relation to healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, D S; Sexton, J B; Kan, P; Sharek, P J; Nisbet, C C; Rigdon, J; Lee, H C; Profit, J

    2017-03-01

    To examine burnout prevalence among California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to test the relation between burnout and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Retrospective observational study of provider perceptions of burnout from 2073 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses and respiratory therapists, using a validated four-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relation between burnout and HAI rates among VLBW (<1500 g) neonates from each NICU was evaluated using multi-level logistic regression analysis with patient-level factors as fixed effects. We found variable prevalence of burnout across the NICUs surveyed (mean 25.2±10.1%). Healthcare-associated infection rates were 8.3±5.1% during the study period. Highest burnout prevalence was found among nurses, nurse practitioners and respiratory therapists (non-physicians, 28±11% vs 17±19% physicians), day shift workers (30±3% vs 25±4% night shift) and workers with 5 or more years of service (29±2% vs 16±6% in fewer than 3 years group). Overall burnout rates showed no correlation with risk-adjusted rates of HAIs (r=-0.133). Item-level analysis showed positive association between HAIs and perceptions of working too hard (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.28). Sensitivity analysis of high-volume NICUs suggested a moderate correlation between burnout prevalence and HAIs (r=0.34). Burnout is most prevalent among non-physicians, daytime workers and experienced workers. Perceptions of working too hard associate with increased HAIs in this cohort of VLBW infants, but overall burnout prevalence is not predictive.

  2. Elevator-related injuries to older adults in the United States, 1990 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory K; O'Neil, Joseph; Huisingh, Carrie; Smith, Gary A

    2010-01-01

    Elevators remain one of the safest forms of transportation; however, they are still associated with deaths and injuries. This study describes the epidemiology of elevator-related injuries among adults aged 65 years and older in the United States between 1990 and 2006, through a retrospective analysis of data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by age group for cause of injury, injured body region, injury type, and locale. Rate ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated to determine any association between the body region injured, type of injury, and cause of injury categories. There were an estimated 44,870 elevator-related injuries in older adults. The mean age was 79.5 years, and approximately 75% were women. More than half of the injuries (51.4%) were caused from a slip, trip, or fall. Soft-tissue injuries were the most common injury type (48.0%). The upper extremities were the most commonly injured body region (26.2%). Almost 15% (14.5%) of those injured required hospital admission. Of those admitted, more than 40% were for a fractured hip. Injuries associated with passenger elevators occur fairly frequently among older adults, are often associated with slip, trip or falls, and can be severe enough to require hospital admission. Older adults should use caution when stepping on or off an elevator. Awareness of the risk and the circumstances leading to falls allows for better direction of intervention strategies.

  3. Can male vaccination reduce the burden of human papillomavirus-related disease in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Garren M I; Attiga, Yasser S; Garg, Gaurav; Schlegal, Richard; Gallicano, G Ian

    2012-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer, as well as a number of other diseases in both men and women. Both sexes play a role in transmission of the disease, but the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination differs between them. It is necessary to determine the best allocation of limited resources between these two populations to produce the most effective strategy for reducing the burden from HPV-related disease. This literature review intends to elucidate the economic and social considerations that will lead to maximum utilization of vaccination programs, which in turn will reduce the burden of HPV-related disease. Current outreach in the United States is based on vaccination against HPV as a means for combating cervical cancer in women. If we are to include males, however, new marketing strategies must focus on educating patients about the full range of the vaccine's benefits. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are also unprotected against HPV in the current system. Social considerations alone may not be enough, however, as economic prediction models suggest that the associated costs outweigh the benefits in most circumstances. Taking this into account, our review also considers alternate methods of maximizing prevention of HPV-associated disease. The most prudent programs will include physician involvement in patient education and the implementation of structured vaccination and screening programs. Unfortunately, many countries do not have the necessary resources to undertake national vaccination programs. HPV testing and cytology screening for women and MSM may be the most financially reasonable option for many countries.

  4. Epidemiology, morbidity and mortality from fall-related injuries in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a significant burden on victims, families, and societies. We aimed to study the mechanism, risk factors, and outcome of hospitalized patients with fall-related injuries in order to propose preventive measures. Methods Fall-related injured patients who were admitted to Al Ain Hospital, United Arab Emirates (UAE) for more than 24 hours or who died after arrival to the hospital, were studied over 3 years. Demography, location and time of injury, affected body regions, hospital and ICU stay, and outcome were analyzed. Results 882 patients were studied, 82% were males, and 22% were less than 19 years old. Majority were from the Indian subcontinent. The most common location for fall injuries was work. Patients injured at work were older and mainly non-UAE nationals (p < 0.0001) when compared with those injured at home. Patients falling from height, when compared with those falling from same level, were older (p = 0.017), had more males (p < 0.001), were mainly from the Indian subcontinent (p < 0.001), had higher ISS (p = 0.011) and longer total hospital stay (p < 0.001). Conclusions Falls are a major health problem in the UAE. Falls at work can be prevented by safety education tailored to different ethnic groups, and proper legislation and regulation. Environmental modification using evidence-based architectural design may prevent falls among vulnerable risk groups. PMID:25178823

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in colorectal carcinoma: relation with clinicopathological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Andrade Azevedo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of tissue immunostaining of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR may contribute with the understanding of its role in the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. Objective: To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma tissues and transitional tumor-mucosa and mucosa adjacent to neoplasia, and its relation with cancer. Method: The study was conducted with 40 patients with colorectal carcinoma who had surgery with curative intent in order to analyze the immunoexpression of EGFR with anti-EGFR. We used parametric and nonparametric tests. Results: The immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in tumor samples showed a significant difference as to the level of immunostaining in tissue specimens of transitional tumor-mucosa (p=0.01 and the level of immunoreactivity in tissues of the adjacent mucosa (p=0, 04. The immunoexpression of EGFR showed no significant relation with the size of the tumor, angiolymphatic invasion, neural invasion, cellular differentiation, level of carcinoma infiltration in the intestinal wall, lymph node metastases and liver metastases. Conclusions: The EGFR showed a more intense expression in the mucosa of colorectal carcinoma than in the transitional epithelium and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa. The immunoexpression of EGFR did not correlate with pathological parameters of colorectal carcinoma and liver metastases.Introdução: O estudo da imunoexpressão tecidual do receptor do fator de crescimento epitelial (EGFR pode contribuir para o entendimento de seu papel no prognóstico do carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: Analisar a expressão imuno-histoquímica do EGFR no carcinoma colorretal e nos tecidos da transição tumor-mucosa e da mucosa adjacente à neoplasia, e avaliar a relação com os aspectos anatomopatológicos da neoplasia. Método: Em 40 doentes com carcinoma colorretal operados com intenção curativa, estudou-se a imunoexpressão do EGFR com anticorpo anti

  6. ROS1 Expression in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast Related to Proliferation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Minseob; Lkhagvadorj, Sayamaa; Oh, Sung Soo; Han, Airi; Park, Kwang Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ROS1 is an oncogene, expressed primarily in glioblastomas of the brain that has been hypothesized to mediate the effects of early stage tumor progression. In addition, it was reported that ROS1 expression was observed in diverse cancer tissue or cell lines and ROS1 is associated with the development of several tumors. However, ROS1 expression has not been studied in breast cancer to date. Therefore, we investigated ROS1 expression at the protein and gene level to compare expression pa...

  7. Expression of microRNA related to bone remodeling regulation in plasma in patients with acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Grebennikova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Backgraund. MiсroRNA are small regulatory factors that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA, playing an important role in numerous cellular processes including organogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Acromegaly causes bone fragility, but the pathogenetic mechanism is generally unknown. Aim. To evaluate levels of microRNA related to bone remodeling regulation in plasma samples from patients with acromegaly Materials and methods. Fasting plasma samples were taken and stored in aliquot at ≤ -80°C from consecutive subjects with clinically evident and biochemically confirmed active acromegaly and healthy volunteers matched by age, sex and body mass index (BMI. miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit, TaqMan Advanced miRNA cDNA Synthesis Kit, TaqMan Advanced miRNA Assays were used to assay plasma miRNA expression. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 was measured by immunochemiluminescence assay (Liaison. Results. We enrolled 40 subjects 22 patients suffered from acromegaly and 18 matched healthy controls matched by sex, age and BMI. The median age of patients with acromegaly was 42 years (Q25;Q75 – 37;43 with no difference among the groups, p=0.205; BMI – 28 (24;32 kg/m2, p=0.253. The median IGF1 in subjects with acromegaly – 622 (514;1000 ng/ml was significantly higher as compared to the control group (p<0.001. Patients with acromegaly had significantly higher expression of microRNA-100-5р (p=0.051, microRNA-550а-5р (p=0.048, microRNA-7b-5р (p=0.005 and microRNA-96-5р (p=0.042 among 27 bone-specific microRNA tested in plasma Conclusions. This study reveals that several microRNAs, known to regulate bone remodeling can be detected in plasma samples of patients with acromegaly and may be suggested as biomarkers for skeletal involvement in patients with acromegaly.

  8. Expression of apoptosis-related genes in acute β-irradiated skin injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu; He Hanliang; Qi Qiang; Lin Wei; Shen Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dynamic expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2, Bax and P53 in acute radiation-induced skin ulcers, and to explore the underlying mechanism involved in retarded healing of the ulcer. Methods: Fifty-four female SD rats were divided into 3 groups. The model of acute radiation-induced skin injury, in rats was replicated with 45 Gy electron accelerator β-ray to the skin as radiation group (n=24); the model of deep second degree scald in rats was established as burn group (n=24); 6 normal rats were served as normal control group. From different periods skin wounds, the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and P53 were respectively assessed by means of immunohistochemical technique and. apoptosis was observed by TUNEL assay. Results: (1) The result of the TUNEL manifested that the integral absorbance (IA) of the radiation group was much higher than that of the control group. There is statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05). (2) 0, 1, 2, 3 weeks after wound emerging, the Bax and P53 integral absorbance (IA) in radiation group was much higher than that of the control group. The Bcl-2 integral absorbance (IA) in bum group was much higher than that of the radiation group. There is statistical significance between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: It was shown that apoptosis of β radiation manifested three typical characteristics, namely early occurrence, high frequency and delayed disappearance after radiation, which might explain the delayed wound healing caused by β radiation. (authors)

  9. Safety. Unit 8: A Core Curriculum of Related Instruction for Apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The safety education unit is presented to assist apprentices to acquire a general knowledge of procedures for insuring safety on the job. The unit consists of 10 modules: (1) the Occupational Safety and Health Act: safety and health bill of rights for workers; (2) accident prevention; (3) first aid; (4) accident reports; importance, use, and how…

  10. The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; S. L. Brown; R. Dodson; T. S Smith; H. H. Shugart

    1999-01-01

    Aim Our main goals were to develop a map of the life zones for the conterminous United States, based on the Holdridge Life Zone system, as a tool for ecosystem mapping, and to compare the map of Holdridge life zones with other global vegetation classification and mapping efforts. Location The area of interest is the forty-eight contiguous states of the United States....

  11. Tools. Unit 9: A Core Curriculum of Related Instruction for Apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The tool handling unit is presented to assist apprentices to acquire a general knowledge on the use of various basic tools. The unit consists of seven modules: (1) introduction to hand tools and small power tools; (2) measuring tools: layout and measuring tools for woodworking; (3) measuring tools: feeler gauge, micrometer, and torque wrench; (4)…

  12. Fatigue-related changes in motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles within and across legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Daffertshofer, A.; van Ditshuizen, J.C.; van den Heuvel, M.R.C.; Hofman, C.; Willigenburg, N.W.; Beek, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine effects of muscle fatigue on motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) within and between legs. We expected muscle fatigue to result in an increased common drive to different motor units of

  13. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... in labor units in 1995-2012. METHODS: Exposure information regarding the annual number of deliveries per labor unit was retrieved from the Danish National Birth Register. Outcome information was retrieved from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. Exposure was categorized in delivery volume...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D...

  14. Creative expressive encounters in health ethics education: teaching ethics as relational engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Eleanor; Woodley, Emma

    2009-01-01

    The growing expectation that health practitioners should be ethically attuned and responsive to the broader humanistic and moral dimensions of their practice has seen a rise in medical ethics courses in universities. Many of these courses incorporate creative expressive encounters--such as the exploration and interpretation of poetry, art, music, and literature--as a powerful vehicle for increasing understanding of the illness experience and to support a relational approach to ethics in health care practices. First-year paramedic students were invited to produce their own creative composition in response to a short vignette describing the plight of a fictional "patient-other." Our aim was twofold: first, to engage their "sympathetic imaginations" to capture a sense of illness as being not only a fracturing of bodily wellness but also, for many, a fracturing of holistic well-being, and second, to encourage an ethics of relational engagement-rather than an ethics based on the detached, intellectual mastery of moral principles and theories-within their paramedical practice. After some initial apprehension, students embraced this task, producing works of great insight and sensitivity to the embedded and embodied nature of "being." Their work demonstrated deep ethical understanding of the multiple subjective and intersubjective layers of the illness experience, displaying a heightened understanding of ethics in practice as a relational engagement. Educationally, we found this to be an extremely powerful and successful pedagogical tool, with our students noting emotional and intellectual transformations that challenged and sensitised them to the deeper human dimensions of their practice.

  15. Enhanced degradation of haloacid by heterologous expression in related Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianbin; Deng, Liyu; Kong, Ka Fai; Tsang, Jimmy S H

    2013-10-01

    Haloacids are environmental pollutant and can be transformed to non-toxic alkanoic acids by microbial dehalogenase. Bacterium Burkholderia species MBA4 was enriched from soil for its ability to bioremediate haloacids such as mono-chloroacetate (MCA), mono-bromoacetate (MBA), 2-mono-chloropropionate, and 2-mono-bromopropionate. MBA4 produces an inducible dehalogenase Deh4a that catalyzes the dehalogenation process. The growth of MBA4 on haloacid also relies on the presence of a haloacid-uptake system. Similar dehalogenase genes can be found in the genome of many related species. However, wildtype Burkholderia caribensis MWAP64, Burkholderia phymatum STM815, and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 were not able to grow on MCA. When a plasmid containing the regulatory and structural gene of Deh4a was transformed to these species, they were able to grow on haloacid. The specific enzyme activities in these recombinants ranges from 2- to 30-fold that of MBA4 in similar condition. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR showed that the relative transcript levels in these recombinant strains ranges from 9 to over 1,600 times that of MBA4 in similar condition. A recombinant has produced nearly five times of dehalogenase that MBA4 could ever achieve. While the expressions of Deh4a were more relaxed in these phylogenetically related species, an MCA-uptake activity was found to be inducible. These metabolically engineered strains are better degraders than the haloacid-enriched MBA4. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Social barriers to emotional expression and their relations to distress in male and female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowski, Sandra G; Harris, Casey; Krueger, Nancy; Laubmeier, Kimberly K; Garrett, Susan; Flanigan, Robert; Johnson, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Emotional expression is an important means of coping with stressful experiences such as cancer. Social barriers to expression may have adverse effects. Research has suggested that men are less likely to express their emotions and have different patterns of social support compared to women. We examined whether male cancer patients have a lower tendency to express emotions, are less likely to perceive social barriers to expression, and are differentially affected by social barriers from different support sources as compared to women. Questionnaires were administered to 41 women and 41 men using a cross-sectional study design. Patients diagnosed with gynaecological or prostate cancer within the past 5 years completed questionnaires on moods, intrusive thoughts, social constraints and emotional expressivity. There was a trend towards greater emotional expressivity in women as compared to men, but no significant gender differences in perceptions of social constraints from spouse/partner or others. Multiple regression analyses revealed that men experienced significantly greater distress in association with social constraints from their spouse/partner than did women. Men may be more vulnerable to social barriers to expression than previously assumed. Gender differences in emotional expressivity may be less important than the social context in which expression takes place.

  17. Effects of methionine supplementation on the expression of protein deposition-related genes in acute heat stress-exposed broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Del Vesco

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress and methionine supplementation on the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, growth hormone receptor (GHR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and regulatory 1 (PI3KR1 in the liver, as well as the expression of the atrogin 1 and cathepsin L2 (CTSL2 genes in the breast muscle of broilers. Broilers from 1-21 and 22-42 days of age were divided into three treatments related to methionine supplementation as follows: without methionine supplementation (MD, recommended level of methionine (DL1, and excess supplementation of methionine (DL2. The animals were either maintained at a thermal comfort temperature or exposed to heat stress (HS (38°C for 24 hours, starting on day 20 or day 41 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively. The heat stress increased the body temperature at both ages. Starter period: The HS animals presented increased plasma creatinine content (P<0.0001 and the highest CTSL2 gene expression (P<0.0001. The methionine supplementation increased the IGF-I (P = 0.0144 and GHR (P = 0.0011 gene expression and decreased the CTSL2 (P = 0.0004 and atrogin 1 (P = 0.0012 gene expression. Grower period: Significant effects for the interaction between supplementation and environment were observed for GHR (P = 0.0252 and CTSL2 (P = 0.0011 gene expression. The highest GHR expression was observed in animals that remained in thermal comfort on the DL2 diet, and the lowest expression occurred in the HS animals fed the MD diet. For CTSL2, the HS animals fed the MD diet presented the highest CTSL2 gene expression, and the lowest expression was observed in the animals maintained at thermal comfort on DL1 and DL2 diets. Only methionine supplementation had effect on atrogin-1 gene expression (P<0.0001, with higher methionine content in the diet lower atrogin-1 gene expression was observed. Our results suggest that heat stress induces greater protein degradation and that

  18. Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Y; Peeters, D; Boulle, F; van den Hove, D L A; van Bokhoven, H; Zhou, H; Homberg, J R

    2015-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine is widely prescribed for the treatment of symptoms related to a variety of psychiatric disorders. After chronic SSRI treatment, some symptoms remediate on the long term, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood. Here we studied the long-term consequences (40 days after treatment) of chronic fluoxetine exposure on genome-wide gene expression. During the treatment period, we measured body weight; and 1 week after treatment, cessation behavior in an SSRI-sensitive anxiety test was assessed. Gene expression was assessed in hippocampal tissue of adult rats using transcriptome analysis and several differentially expressed genes were validated in independent samples. Gene ontology analysis showed that upregulated genes induced by chronic fluoxetine exposure were significantly enriched for genes involved in myelination. We also investigated the expression of myelination-related genes in adult rats exposed to fluoxetine at early life and found two myelination-related genes (Transferrin (Tf) and Ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf)) that were downregulated by chronic fluoxetine exposure. Cntf, a neurotrophic factor involved in myelination, showed regulation in opposite direction in the adult versus neonatally fluoxetine-exposed groups. Expression of myelination-related genes correlated negatively with anxiety-like behavior in both adult and neonatally fluoxetine-exposed rats. In conclusion, our data reveal that chronic fluoxetine exposure causes on the long-term changes in expression of genes involved in myelination, a process that shapes brain connectivity and contributes to symptoms of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26393488

  19. Expression analyses of human cleft palate tissue suggest a role for osteopontin and immune related factors in palatal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L.P.; Borup, R.; Vestergaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, selected differentially expressed genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, and by immunohistochemical staining of craniofacial tissue from human embryos. Osteopontin (SPP1) and other immune related genes were significantly higher expressed in palate tissue from patients with CLP compared to CP...... and palate (CLP). In order to understand the biological basis in these cleft lip and palate subgroups better we studied the expression profiles in human tissue from patients with CL/P. In each of the CL/P subgroups, samples were obtained from three patients and gene expression analysis was performed...... and immunostaining in palatal shelves against SPP1, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and serglycin (PRG1) in human embryonic craniofacial tissue were positive, supporting a role for these genes in palatal development. However, gene expression profiles are subject to variations during growth and therefore we recommend...

  20. Identification of cytochrome P450 differentiated expression related to developmental stages in bromadiolone resistance in rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    over-express the Cyp2a1 gene. TGhe altered gene expression has been suggested to be involved in the bromadiolone resistance by facilitating enhanced anticoagulant metabolism. To investigate the gene expression of these cytochrome P450 genes in rats of different developmental stages we compared...... expression profiles, from 8-, 12- and 20-week-old resistant rats of the Danish strain to profiles of anticoagulant-susceptible rats of same ages. The three age-groups were selected to represent a group of pre-pubertal, pubertal and adult rats. We found expression profiles of the pre-pubertal and pubertal...... resistant rats to concur with profiles of the adults suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the Danish bromadiolone resistance regardless of developmental stage. We also investigated the relative importance of the six cytochrome P450s in the different development stages of the resistant...

  1. Relative contribution of different altered motor unit control to muscle weakness in stroke: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Suresh, Nina L.; Zev Rymer, William; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach. Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level. We additionally expanded the original model to include a fatigue component, which variably decreased the output force with increasing length of contraction. Differences in the force output at both the peak and fatigued time points across different excitation levels were quantified and compared across different sets of MU parameters. Main results. Across the different simulation parameters, we found that the main driving factor of the reduced force output was due to the compressed range of MU recruitment. Recruitment compression caused a decrease in total force across all excitation levels. Additionally, a compression of the range of MU firing rates also demonstrated a decrease in the force output mainly at the higher excitation levels. Lastly, changes to the recruitment order of MUs appeared to minimally impact the force output. Significance. We found that altered control of MUs alone, as simulated in this study, can lead to a substantial reduction in muscle force generation in stroke survivors. These findings may provide valuable insight for both clinicians and researchers in prescribing and developing different types of therapies for the rehabilitation and restoration of lost strength after stroke.

  2. Tornado-related fatalities--five states, Southeastern United States, April 25-28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    During April 25-28, 2011, a massive storm system generated 351 tornadoes (including 15 registering 4 or 5 on the Enhanced Fujita [EF] scale*), killing 338 persons in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. This was the third-deadliest tornado event in the United States, surpassing an April 1974 event that resulted in 315 fatalities. This event also was historic because of the record number of fatalities that occurred despite modern advances in tornado forecasting, advanced warning times, and media coverage. Risk factors for death and injury from tornadoes are sheltering in mobile homes, proximity to an EF-4 or EF-5 tornado, being an older adult (aged ≥65 years), lack of accessibility to safe rooms (e.g., basements or reinforced shelters), and a night-time tornado impact. To describe the fatalities by demographic characteristics, type of shelter used, cause of death, and tornado severity and location, CDC reviewed data from the American Red Cross (Red Cross), death certificates, and the National Weather Service (NWS). This report summarizes the results of that review. Among the 338 decedents, median age was 55.0 years (range: 4 days-97 years); approximately one third were older adults. On tornado impact, 46.7% of decedents were in single-family homes, and 26.6% were in mobile homes. The leading cause of death was traumatic injury, including 21.9% with head injuries. Half of the deadly tornadoes were rated EF-4 or EF-5 and were responsible for 89.5% of the deaths. To prevent tornado-related deaths, health messaging should encourage the public (especially older adults and residents of mobile/manufactured homes) to pre-identify an accessible safe room, prepare the room with personal protection items (e.g., blankets and helmets), and monitor local weather.

  3. Cultural expressions of social class and their implications for group-related beliefs and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Becker, Julia; Kraus, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the Great Recession, rising inequality has increased social class disparities between people in society. In this research, we examine how differences in social class shape unique patterns of cultural expression, and how these cultural expressions affirm ingroup beliefs. In Study 1 (N=113), we provide evidence that cultural expressions of social class on an online social network can signal the social class of targets: by simply viewing the cultural practices of individuals captu...

  4. Age-Related Gene Expression in the Frontal Cortex Suggests Synaptic Function Changes in Specific Inhibitory Neuron Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon French

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide expression profiling of the human brain has revealed genes that are differentially expressed across the lifespan. Characterizing these genes adds to our understanding of both normal functions and pathological conditions. Additionally, the specific cell-types that contribute to the motor, sensory and cognitive declines during aging are unclear. Here we test if age-related genes show higher expression in specific neural cell types. Our study leverages data from two sources of murine single-cell expression data and two sources of age-associations from large gene expression studies of postmortem human brain. We used nonparametric gene set analysis to test for age-related enrichment of genes associated with specific cell-types; we also restricted our analyses to specific gene ontology groups. Our analyses focused on a primary pair of single-cell expression data from the mouse visual cortex and age-related human post-mortem gene expression information from the orbitofrontal cortex. Additional pairings that used data from the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, somatosensory cortex and blood were used to validate and test specificity of our findings. We found robust age-related up-regulation of genes that are highly expressed in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, while genes highly expressed in layer 2/3 glutamatergic neurons were down-regulated across age. Genes not specific to any neural cell type were also down-regulated, possibly due to the bulk tissue source of the age-related genes. A gene ontology-driven dissection of the cell-type enriched genes highlighted the strong down-regulation of genes involved in synaptic transmission and cell-cell signaling in the Somatostatin (Sst neuron subtype that expresses the cyclin dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6 and in the vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip neuron subtype expressing myosin binding protein C, slow type (Mybpc1. These findings provide new insights into cell specific susceptibility to normal aging

  5. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of expression data of monozygotic twins identifies specific modules and hub genes related to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing; Jiang, Wenjie; Hou, Lin; Duan, Haiping; Wu, Yili; Xu, Chunsheng; Tan, Qihua; Li, Shuxia; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-11-13

    The therapeutic management of obesity is challenging, hence further elucidating the underlying mechanisms of obesity development and identifying new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets are urgent and necessary. Here, we performed differential gene expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify significant genes and specific modules related to BMI based on gene expression profile data of 7 discordant monozygotic twins. In the differential gene expression analysis, it appeared that 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were with a trend of up-regulation in twins with higher BMI when compared to their siblings. Categories of positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process, positive regulation of NF-kappa B import into nucleus, and peroxidase activity were significantly enriched within GO database and NF-kappa B signaling pathway within KEGG database. DEGs of NAMPT, TLR9, PTGS2, HBD, and PCSK1N might be associated with obesity. In the WGCNA, among the total 20 distinct co-expression modules identified, coral1 module (68 genes) had the strongest positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.56, P = 0.04) and disease status (r = 0.56, P = 0.04). Categories of positive regulation of phospholipase activity, high-density lipoprotein particle clearance, chylomicron remnant clearance, reverse cholesterol transport, intermediate-density lipoprotein particle, chylomicron, low-density lipoprotein particle, very-low-density lipoprotein particle, voltage-gated potassium channel complex, cholesterol transporter activity, and neuropeptide hormone activity were significantly enriched within GO database for this module. And alcoholism and cell adhesion molecules pathways were significantly enriched within KEGG database. Several hub genes, such as GAL, ASB9, NPPB, TBX2, IL17C, APOE, ABCG4, and APOC2 were also identified. The module eigengene of saddlebrown module (212 genes) was also significantly

  6. Relational Stability in the Expression of Normality, Variation, and Control of Thyroid Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone concentrations only become sufficient to maintain a euthyroid state through appropriate stimulation by pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In such a dynamic system under constant high pressure, guarding against overstimulation becomes vital. Therefore, several defensive mechanisms protect against accidental overstimulation, such as plasma protein binding, conversion of T4 into the more active T3, active transmembrane transport, counter-regulatory activities of reverse T3 and thyronamines, and negative hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid feedback control of TSH. TSH has gained a dominant but misguided role in interpreting thyroid function testing in assuming that its exceptional sensitivity thereby translates into superior diagnostic performance. However, TSH-dependent thyroid disease classification is heavily influenced by statistical analytic techniques such as uni- or multivariate-defined normality. This demands a separation of its conjoint roles as a sensitive screening test and accurate diagnostic tool. Homeostatic equilibria (set points) in healthy subjects are less variable and do not follow a pattern of random variation, rather indicating signs of early and progressive homeostatic control across the euthyroid range. In the event of imminent thyroid failure with a reduced FT4 output per unit TSH, conversion efficiency increases in order to maintain FT3 stability. In such situations, T3 stability takes priority over set point maintenance. This suggests a concept of relational stability. These findings have important implications for both TSH reference limits and treatment targets for patients on levothyroxine. The use of archival markers is proposed to facilitate the homeostatic interpretation of all parameters. PMID:27872610

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Soyeum Pharmacopuncture (SPP on LPS-induced Inflammation Related Cytokine Expressions of RAW 264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Mi-Young

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This study was done to investigate whether SPP has inhibitory effects on the activation of RAW 264.7 cells. Method : In tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a/ interleukin-1b (IL-1b and IL-6, the mRNA expression of molecular indicators related to inflammatory changes of the Reumatoid Arthritis (RA were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results : The treatment of SPP significantly suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6 compared with the control. The expression of NOS-II was considerably reduced, which was accompanied by a reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO. It also reduced the expression of TNF-αin serum of Balb/c mice compared with control group. Conclusion : SPP is an effective herbal material for suppressing the inflammation related cytokines of RAW 264.7 cells.

  8. Repression of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in trigeminal neurons by a Theobroma cacao extract☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Marcie J.; Patil, Vinit V.; Vause, Carrie V.; Durham, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Cocoa bean preparations were first used by the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations of South America to treat a variety of medical ailments involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Diets rich in foods containing abundant polyphenols, as found in cocoa, underlie the protective effects reported in chronic inflammatory diseases. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal nerves promotes inflammation in peripheral tissues and nociception. Aim of the study To determine whether a methanol extract of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) beans enriched for polyphenols could inhibit CGRP expression, both an in vitro and an in vivo approach was taken. Results Treatment of rat trigeminal ganglia cultures with depolarizing stimuli caused a significant increase in CGRP release that was repressed by pretreatment with Theobroma cacao extract. Pretreatment with Theobroma cacao was also shown to block the KCl- and capsaicin-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Next, the effects of Theobroma cacao on CGRP levels were determined using an in vivo model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Capsaicin injection into the TMJ capsule caused an ipsilateral decrease in CGRP levels. Theobroma cacao extract injected into the TMJ capsule 24 h prior to capsaicin treatment repressed the stimulatory effects of capsaicin. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Theobroma cacao extract can repress stimulated CGRP release by a mechanism that likely involves blockage of calcium channel activity. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of diets rich in cocoa may include suppression of sensory trigeminal nerve activation. PMID:17997062

  9. Repression of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in trigeminal neurons by a Theobroma cacao extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Marcie J; Patil, Vinit V; Vause, Carrie V; Durham, Paul L

    2008-01-17

    Cocoa bean preparations were first used by the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations of South America to treat a variety of medical ailments involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Diets rich in foods containing abundant polyphenols, as found in cocoa, underlie the protective effects reported in chronic inflammatory diseases. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal nerves promotes inflammation in peripheral tissues and nociception. To determine whether a methanol extract of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) beans enriched for polyphenols could inhibit CGRP expression, both an in vitro and an in vivo approach was taken. Treatment of rat trigeminal ganglia cultures with depolarizing stimuli caused a significant increase in CGRP release that was repressed by pretreatment with Theobroma cacao extract. Pretreatment with Theobroma cacao was also shown to block the KCl- and capsaicin-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Next, the effects of Theobroma cacao on CGRP levels were determined using an in vivo model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Capsaicin injection into the TMJ capsule caused an ipsilateral decrease in CGRP levels. Theobroma cacao extract injected into the TMJ capsule 24h prior to capsaicin treatment repressed the stimulatory effects of capsaicin. Our results demonstrate that Theobroma cacao extract can repress stimulated CGRP release by a mechanism that likely involves blockage of calcium channel activity. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of diets rich in cocoa may include suppression of sensory trigeminal nerve activation.

  10. Expression of defence-related genes in sunflower infected with broomrape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Şestacova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional activity of four defence-related genes (NPR1, PAL, defensin and PR5 in seven sunflower lines – resistant (MS-2161A, tolerant (MS-2039A and susceptible (MS-2098A, MS-2091A, MS-2077A, MS-2067A and MS-1589A, infected with three broomrape populations (Tulcea, Romania; Soroca and Anenii Noi, Republic of Moldova, was studied in advanced stages of infection (90 days after sowing. Obtained results revealed that resistant genotypes are characterized through higher stability in transcriptional activity of the studied genes. Thus, resistance could be associated with ability rapidly to maintain and recover a normal level of metabolism under more intensive stress factors. Also, it was established that expression of PR5 and defensin genes was altered and revealed considerable deviations in this phase of adaptation, while NPR1 and PAL mostly showed values at the level of the control group, which allows assuming that these genes, in the moment of sample collection and analysis, had normalized transcriptional activity, probably being involved in early responses.

  11. Alexithymia Is Related to the Need for More Emotional Intensity to Identify Static Fearful Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Starita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of alexithymia, a personality trait marked by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented style of thinking, appear to require more time to accurately recognize intense emotional facial expressions (EFEs. However, in everyday life, EFEs are displayed at different levels of intensity and individuals with high alexithymia may also need more emotional intensity to identify EFEs. Nevertheless, the impact of alexithymia on the identification of EFEs, which vary in emotional intensity, has largely been neglected. To address this, two experiments were conducted in which participants with low (LA and high (HA levels of alexithymia were assessed in their ability to identify static (Experiment 1 and dynamic (Experiment 2 morphed faces ranging from neutral to intense EFEs. Results showed that HA needed more emotional intensity than LA to identify static fearful – but not happy or disgusted – faces. On the contrary, no evidence was found that alexithymia affected the identification of dynamic EFEs. These results extend current literature suggesting that alexithymia is related to the need for more perceptual information to identify static fearful EFEs.

  12. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad--to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs

  13. Relating Economic Ideology to Consumer Protection: A Suggested Unit in Consumer Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert O.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a suggested unit in consumer education designed to give students insight into the controversy about consumer protection policy and proposals, and compares the basic views of three economic belief systems: neoclassical, managerial, and liberal-Galbraithian. (MF)

  14. Profiles of mRNA expression of genes related to sex differentiation of the gonads in the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, I; Tsukada, A; Saito, N; Shimada, K

    2003-09-01

    Sex is determined genetically in birds. The homogametic sex is male (ZZ), whereas the heterogametic sex is female (ZW). According to the genetic sex, gonads develop into testes or ovary. In this study, we performed experiments to reveal mRNA expression patterns in the gonad between d 5.5 and 8.5 of incubation and examined a possible role of Dss-Ahc critical region on the X chromosome 1 (Dax1), Steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), P450aromatase (P450arom), Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), doublesex and mab3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1), Sry-related HMG box gene 9 (Sox9), Gata binding protein 4 (Gata4), and anti-müllerian hormone (Amh) in sex differentiation in chicken embryonic gonads using RNase protection assay. In embryonic chicken gonads, Dax1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes but was higher in females than in males at d 6.5 and 7.5 of incubation. The Sf1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it was expressed more in males at d 5.5 than in females but more in females than in males at d 7.5 and 8.5 of incubation. The P450arom mRNA was expressed only in female gonads from d 5.5 of incubation. The ER alpha mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it did not show a sex difference. On the other hand, the Dmrt1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it showed a male-specific expression pattern. The male-specific expression pattern was observed in Sox9 mRNA, but it was not expressed in female gonads. The Gata4 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, and sex differences were not revealed throughout the observational period. Amh mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it had male-specific mRNA expression pattern at d 6.5 to 8.5 of incubation. These results indicate that Dax1, Sf1, and P450arom have possible roles in ovary formation, whereas Dmrt1, Sox9, and Amh are related to testis formation in differentiating chicken gonads at d 5.5 to 8.5 of incubation.

  15. Relative or Absolute Freedom of Expression as One of Human Rights In Islamic and Western Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Borandegi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of expression is a human right. Some experts agree with absolute freedom of expression. For them, the freedom of expression makes all options to be heard; the extent of people’s participation to increase, democracy to be protected and dogmatic rituals to be challenged. Some experts have opposed absolute freedom of expression. Comparing to poisonous food they believe that those who are aware of toxic thoughts, should prevent their circulation in the society. Does Islam accept relative or absolute freedom of expression? This paper is trying to answer this question through dealing with the Islamic and Western foundations of freedom of expression. pirits and Gods, caused human freedom and his control of his destiny and paved the way for the priority of existence to belief. In fact, for this reason and also for superior position of morality in religions, religions must be regard as a supporter of human rights. آزادی بیان یکی از مؤلفه‌‌های حقوق بشر است. عد‌های از صاحب‌نظران با آزادی مطلق بیان موافقند. به نظر آنها، آزادی بیان موجب شنیده شدن صدای همه اعم از موافق و مخالف، بالا رفتن میزان مشارکت در جامعه، حفاظت از مردم‌سالاری و مبارزه با آیین‌‌های جزمی‌می‌شود. عد‌های با آزادی مطلق بیان مخالفت کرده‌اند و با بیان تمثیل جلوگیری از توزیع غذای مسموم اظهار می‌دارند که باید کسانی که آگاهند از انتشار افکار مسموم در جامعه جلوگیری کنند. آیا اسلام، آزادی مطلق بیان را می‌پذیرد و یا محدوده و خطوط قرمزی را برای آن تعریف می‌کند؟ مقاله حاضر درصدد است که ضمن پاسخ به این سؤال، با استفاده از

  16. Changes in Intestinal Gene Expression of Zebrafish (Danio rerio Related to Sterol Uptake and Excretion upon β-Sitosterol Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Takase

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of fishmeal with plant ingredients will introduce not only plant oil and protein but also phytosterol to the fish diet. Mammals strictly restrict the uptake of phytosterol at intestinal epithelial cells by regulating the gene expressions of sterol uptake and excretion proteins; however, phytosterol is found in the fish muscle and other organs. In order to assess the ability of phytosterol uptake by the intestinal epithelial cells of fish, no-sterol diet, cholesterol-, and β-sitosterol-containing diet was separately administered to zebrafish, and the relative mRNA expressions related to sterol uptake and excretion were evaluated. Gene expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 in the sitosterol-fed group was significantly higher than that of the cholesterol-fed group (p < 0.05. The expression of apolipoprotein A-I gene was also higher in the sitosterol-fed group than that in the no-sterol and cholesterol-fed groups. The expressions of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 5 and 8, were significantly higher in the sitosterol-fed group, compared to the no-sterol group. Regarding the gene expression of ATP-binding cassette sub-family A, member 1, the sitosterol-fed group showed higher expression level compared to the other groups (p < 0.01. These results suggest that fish should be tolerant to phytosterols in contrast to mammals.

  17. Expression of Plasmodium vivax crt-o Is Related to Parasite Stage but Not Ex Vivo Chloroquine Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava, Zuleima; Handayuni, Irene; Wirjanata, Grennady; To, Sheren; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium vivax is present in most countries where P. vivax infection is endemic, but the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Increased expression of P. vivax crt-o (pvcrt-o) has been correlated with in vivo CQ resistance in an area with low-grade resistance. We assessed pvcrt-o expression in isolates from Papua (Indonesia), where P. vivax is highly CQ resistant. Ex vivo drug susceptibilities to CQ, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine, and artesunate were determined using a modified schizont maturation assay. Expression levels of pvcrt-o were measured using a novel real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Large variations in pvcrt-o expression were observed across the 51 isolates evaluated, with the fold change in expression level ranging from 0.01 to 59 relative to that seen with the P. vivax β-tubulin gene and from 0.01 to 24 relative to that seen with the P. vivax aldolase gene. Expression was significantly higher in isolates with the majority of parasites at the ring stage of development (median fold change, 1.7) compared to those at the trophozoite stage (median fold change, 0.5; P determinant of ex vivo drug susceptibility. A comprehensive transcriptomic approach is warranted for an in-depth investigation of the role of gene expression levels and P. vivax drug resistance. Copyright © 2015 Pava et al.

  18. Tie2-Expressing Monocytes Are Associated with Identification and Prognoses of Hepatitis B Virus Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Resection

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yi-Feng; Wang, Chao-Qun; Yu, Yao; Qian, Jing; Song, Kang; Sun, Qi-Man; Zhou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) are found in various tumors, involved in forming tumor blood vessels and expressing several important proangiogenic factors. The goals of this study were to evaluate the value of TEMs in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Flow cytometry was performed to identify and count TEMs in peripheral blood monocytes from HCC patients (n = 84) receiving hepatectomy, HBV cirrhotic p...

  19. Differential transgene expression in brain cells in vivo and in vitro from AAV-2 vectors with small transcriptional control units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuegler, S.; Lingor, P.; Schoell, U.; Zolotukhin, S.; Baehr, M.

    2003-01-01

    Adeno-associated- (AAV) based vectors are promising tools for gene therapy applications in several organs, including the brain, but are limited by their small genome size. Two short promoters, the human synapsin 1 gene promoter (hSYN) and the murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (mCMV), were evaluated in bicistronic AAV-2 vectors for their expression profiles in cultured primary brain cells and in the rat brain. Whereas transgene expression from the hSYN promoter was exclusively neuronal, the murine CMV promoter targeted expression mainly to astrocytes in vitro and showed weak transgene expression in vivo in retinal and cortical neurons, but strong expression in thalamic neurons. We propose that neuron specific transgene expression in combination with enhanced transgene capacity will further substantially improve AAV based vector technology

  20. Changes in gene expression following trauma are related to the age of transfused packed red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Hew D T; Vivian, Mark E; Brohi, Karim; Prowle, John R; Pearse, Rupert M; Owen, Helen C; Hinds, Charles J; O'Dwyer, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is associated with an increased incidence of nosocomial infections and an increased risk of death. The duration of storage before transfusion may influence these outcomes. Here, we explore the association between the age of transfused PRBCs and specific patterns of inflammatory gene expression in severely injured trauma patients. Severely injured trauma patients requiring intensive care unit treatment and receiving transfusion of PRBCs within 24 hours of the injury were recruited. Blood samples were obtained within 2 hours of the trauma, at 24 hours, and at 72 hours. Messenger RNA was extracted from whole blood, and gene expression was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The median age of the units of PRBCs transfused to each patient was recorded. The primary outcome measure was the change in candidate gene expression over the initial 72 hours. Sixty-four patients were studied. Fifty-three patients (83%) were male, and the median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31-59). Median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 31.5 (IQR, 23-43), and 55 patients (86%) experienced a blunt injury. Forty-one patients (64%) developed a nosocomial infection, and 15 patients (23%) died before hospital discharge. Each patient received a median of 5 U of PRBCs (IQR, 4-9.8 U) during the first 24 hours of hospital admission. The median age of the units of PRBCs transfused in each patient was 20 days (IQR, 17-22 days). Older blood was associated with greater decreases in interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-23, and RORγt (all p's < 0.05) gene expression over the initial 24 hours, greater decreases in IL-12 gene expression over 72 hours, and a rise in transforming growth factor β gene expression over the first 72 hours. A multivariate analysis confirmed the independence of these associations. Increasing the duration of storage of PRBCs before transfusion is associated with a pattern of gene expression consistent with more

  1. Degradation of lignin β-aryl ether units in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing LigD, LigF and LigG from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mnich, Ewelina; Vanholme, Ruben; Oyarce, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility....... The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin inter-unit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG (LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce post...

  2. Relation of Transcriptional Factors to the Expression and Activity of Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases 1A in Human Liver: Co-Expression Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shilong; Han, Weichao; Hou, Chuqi; Liu, Junjin; Wu, Lili; Liu, Menghua; Liang, Zhi; Lin, Haoming; Zhou, Lili; Liu, Shuwen; Tang, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) play important roles in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds. The gene transcription of CYPs and UGTs can be enhanced or reduced by transcription factors (TFs). This study aims to explore novel TFs involved in the regulatory network of human hepatic UGTs/CYPs. Correlations between the transcription levels of 683 key TFs and CYPs/UGTs in three different human liver expression profiles (n = 640) were calculated first. Supervised weighted correlation network analysis (sWGCNA) was employed to define hub genes among the selected TFs. The relationship among 17 defined TFs, CYPs/UGTs expression, and activity were evaluated in 30 liver samples from Chinese patients. The positive controls (e.g., PPARA, NR1I2, NR1I3) and hub TFs (NFIA, NR3C2, and AR) in the Grey sWGCNA Module were significantly and positively associated with CYPs/UGTs expression. And the cancer- or inflammation-related TFs (TEAD4, NFKB2, and NFKB1) were negatively associated with mRNA expression of CYP2C9/CYP2E1/UGT1A9. Furthermore, the effect of NR1I2, NR1I3, AR, TEAD4, and NFKB2 on CYP450/UGT1A gene transcription translated into moderate influences on enzyme activities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to integrate Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and supervised weighted correlation network analysis (sWGCNA) for defining TFs potentially related to CYPs/UGTs. We detected several novel TFs involved in the regulatory network of hepatic CYPs and UGTs in humans. Further validation and investigation may reveal their exact mechanism of CYPs/UGTs regulation.

  3. Caste-, sex-, and age-dependent expression of immune-related genes in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Mitaka

    Full Text Available Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested. Although termite immune-inducible genes have been identified, few studies have investigated the differential expression of these genes between reproductive and neuter castes, and between sexes in each caste. In this study, we compared the expression levels of immune-related genes among castes, sexes, and ages in a Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus. Using RNA-seq, we found 197 immune-related genes, including 40 pattern recognition proteins, 97 signalling proteins, 60 effectors. Among these genes, 174 showed differential expression among castes. Comparing expression levels between males and females in each caste, we found sexually dimorphic expression of immune-related genes not only in reproductive castes, but also in neuter castes. Moreover, we identified age-related differential expression of 162 genes in male and/or female reproductives. In addition, although R. speratus is known to use the antibacterial peptide C-type lysozyme as an egg recognition pheromone, we determined that R. speratus has not only C-type, but also P-type and I-type lysozymes, as well as other termite species. Our transcriptomic analyses revealed immune response plasticity among all castes, and sex-biased expression of immune genes even in neuter castes, suggesting a sexual division of labor in the immune system of R. speratus. This study heightens the understanding of the evolution of

  4. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Palsgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin. LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that increased expression of insulin signaling molecules in first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes, work in concert with increased levels of insulin as a compensatory mechanism, counter-acting otherwise reduced insulin signaling activity, protecting these individuals from severe insulin resistance. This compensation is lost in people with type 2 diabetes where expression of insulin signaling molecules is reduced.

  5. Treatment-related survival associations of claudin-2 expression in fibroblasts of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezheyeuski, Artur; Strell, Carina; Hrynchyk, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Claudin-2 is a trans-membrane protein—component of tight junctions in epithelial cells. Elevated claudin-2 expression has been reported in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of claudin-2 in human CRC samples and analyze its association...... with clinical characteristics and treatment outcome. TMAs of primary tumors from two cohorts of metastatic CRC (mCRC) were used. Claudin-2 IHC staining was evaluated in a semi-quantitative manner in different regions and cell types. Claudin-2 expression was also analyzed by immunofluorescence in primary...... cultures of human CRC cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Initial analyses identified previously unrecognized expression patterns of claudin-2 in CAFs of human CRC. Claudin-2 expression in CAFs of the invasive margin was associated with shorter progression-free survival. Subgroup analyses demonstrated...

  6. Expression of blood group-related glycoconjugates in the junctional and other oral epithelia of rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, I C; Dabelsteen, Erik; Rittman, G

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The junctional epithelium (JE) attaches the gingiva to the non-vital tooth surface and has other unusual properties which protect the underlying periodontal tissues. The JE differs from other gingival and oral epithelia in its unusual expression of cytokeratins typical of both...... and provide an alternative marker system for regionally-differing patterns of cell maturation. RESULTS: Markers that are typical of basal cells in other stratifying epithelia were expressed by all cell strata of JE. JE lacked differentiation markers typical of other stratifying oral epithelial but showed...... suprabasal expression of markers typically expressed by simple epithelia and specialized epithelia, such as taste buds. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of rodent JE differs from that of other oral epithelia and the pattern of differentiation assessed by its expression of glycoconjugates parallels that for other...

  7. Expression of OATP family members in hormone-related cancers: potential markers of progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Pressler

    Full Text Available The organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP family of transporters has been implicated in prostate cancer disease progression probably by transporting hormones or drugs. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the expression, frequency, and relevance of OATPs as a biomarker in hormone-dependent cancers. We completed a study examining SLCO1B3, SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 mRNA expression in 381 primary, independent patient samples representing 21 cancers and normal tissues. From a separate cohort, protein expression of OATP1B3 was examined in prostate, colon, and bladder tissue. Based on expression frequency, SLCO2B1 was lower in liver cancer (P = 0.04 which also trended lower with decreasing differentiation (P = 0.004 and lower magnitude in pancreatic cancer (P = 0.05. SLCO2B1 also had a higher frequency in thyroid cancer (67% than normal (0% and expression increased with stage (P = 0.04. SLCO1B3 was expressed in 52% of cancerous prostate samples and increased SLCO1B3 expression trended with higher Gleason score (P = 0.03. SLCO1B3 expression was also higher in testicular cancer (P = 0.02. SLCO1B1 expression was lower in liver cancer (P = 0.04 which trended lower with liver cancer grade (P = 0.0004 and higher with colon cancer grade (P = 0.05. Protein expression of OATP1B3 was examined in normal and cancerous prostate, colon, and bladder tissue samples from an independent cohort. The results were similar to the transcription data, but showed distinct localization. OATPs correlate to differentiation in certain hormone-dependent cancers, thus may be useful as biomarkers for assessing clinical treatment and stage of disease.

  8. Linking Excessive Heat with Daily Heat-Related Mortality over the Coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981- 2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a 'heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km) much finer than that of GCMs, to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air

  9. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Supplement 26 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several licensing issues that relate to Unit 1, which have been resolved since Supplement 25 was issued

  10. [Expressions of neuropathic pain-related proteins in the spinal cord dorsal horn in rats with bilateral chronic constriction injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Le; Li, Xu; Wang, Hai-tang; Yu, Xue-rong; Huang, Yu-guang

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the pain-related behavioral changes in rats with bilateral chronic constriction injury(bCCI)and identify the expressions of neuropathic pain-related proteins. The bCCI models were established by ligating the sciatic nerves in female Sprague Dawley rats. Both mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hyperalgesia were evaluated through electronic von Frey and acetone method. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was applied to characterize the differentially expressed proteins. Both mechanical withdrawal threshold and cold hyperalgesia threshold decreased significantly on the postoperative day 7 and 14, when compared with na ve or sham rats(P <0.05). Twenty five differentially expressed proteins associated with bilateral CCI were discovered, with eighteen of them were upregulated and seven of them downregulated. The bCCT rats have remarkably decreased mechanical and cold hyperalgesia thresholds. Twenty five neuropathic pain-related proteins are found in the spinal cord dorsal horn.

  11. Differential expression of cyclin Dl in human pituitary tumors: relation to MIB-1 and p27/Kipl labeling indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewedi, I.H.; Osman, W.M.; El Mahdy, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are a common form of endocrine neoplasia. However few studies assessed the expression of the principal cyclin regulating checkpoint exit, cyclin Dl. Cyclin Dl expression in pituitary tumors and its possible relation to MIB-1 and p27/K.ipl labeling indices (Us) was explored. Design: We studied a total of 199 pituitaries, including normal pituitaries (n = 7), pituitary adenomas (n = 187), and pituitary carcinoma (n = 5). All tissues were tested as cores of archived tissue microarrays that were immuno stained for cyclin Dl, MIB-1 and p27 using a standard technique. Tissue cores were subjected to automated analysis to evaluate the staining LIs, Results: No cyclin Dl positive cells in the normal anterior pituitary gland was found. Sparse nuclear staining was noted in pituitary tumors. Higher expression of cyclin Dl was noted in pituitary carcinomas compared to adenomas (p < 0.001), in non-functioning adenomas compared to functioning ones (p < 0.001) in macroadenomas versus micro adenomas (p — 0.017) and in recurrent non recurrent adenomas (p < 0.001). Cyclin Dl LI and MIB-1 LI were related among adenomas (p < 0.001) and carcinomas (p = 0.041). p27 LI was neither related to pituitary adenoma recurrence nor invasion. Conclusions: Expression of cyclin Dl in pituitary tumors is related to cell proliferation, recurrence, and metastatic potential. Nuclear cyclin Dl expression is a good marker of aggressive behavior in pituitary tumors

  12. Respiration-related discharge of hyoglossus muscle motor units in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gregory L; Rice, Amber; Bennett-Cross, Seres J; Fregosi, Ralph F

    2014-01-01

    Although respiratory muscle motor units have been studied during natural breathing, simultaneous measures of muscle force have never been obtained. Tongue retractor muscles, such as the hyoglossus (HG), play an important role in swallowing, licking, chewing, breathing, and, in humans, speech. The HG is phasically recruited during the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Moreover, in urethane anesthetized rats the drive to the HG waxes and wanes spontaneously, providing a unique opportunity to study motor unit firing patterns as the muscle is driven naturally by the central pattern generator for breathing. We recorded tongue retraction force, the whole HG muscle EMG and the activity of 38 HG motor units in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats under low-force and high-force conditions. Activity in all cases was confined to the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Changes in the EMG were correlated significantly with corresponding changes in force, with the change in EMG able to predict 53-68% of the force variation. Mean and peak motor unit firing rates were greater under high-force conditions, although the magnitude of discharge rate modulation varied widely across the population. Changes in mean and peak firing rates were significantly correlated with the corresponding changes in force, but the correlations were weak (r(2) = 0.27 and 0.25, respectively). These data indicate that, during spontaneous breathing, recruitment of HG motor units plays a critical role in the control of muscle force, with firing rate modulation playing an important but lesser role.

  13. In silico differential display of defense-related expressed sequence tags from sugarcane tissues infected with diazotrophic endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambais Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of 277 sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST-contigs encoding putative defense-related (DR proteins were evaluated using the Sugarcane EST database. The DR proteins evaluated included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chalcone synthases, chalcone isomerases, isoflavone reductases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, proline-rich glycoproteins, peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutases, WRKY-like transcription factors and proteins involved in cell death control. Putative sugarcane WRKY proteins were compared and their phylogenetic relationships determined. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to identify DR ESTs with similar expression profiles in representative cDNA libraries. To identify DR ESTs differentially expressed in sugarcane tissues infected with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus or Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, 179 putative DR EST-contigs expressed in non-infected tissues (leaves and roots and/or infected tissues were selected and arrayed by similarity of their expression profiles. Changes in the expression levels of 124 putative DR EST-contigs, expressed in non-infected tissues, were evaluated in infected tissues. Approximately 42% of these EST-contigs showed no expression in infected tissues, whereas 15% and 3% showed more than 2-fold suppression in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. Approximately 14 and 8% of the DR EST-contigs evaluated showed more than 2-fold induction in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. The differential expression of clusters of DR genes may be important in the establishment of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and diazotrophic endophytes. It is suggested that the hierarchical clustering approach can be used on a genome-wide scale to identify genes likely involved in controlling plant-microorganism interactions.

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of Fascin-1 in colorectal cancer in relation to clinical and pathological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskor, Barbara M; Pryczynicz, Anna; Lubowicka, Emilia; Miniewska, Katarzyna; Zinczuk, Justyna; Zareba, Konrad; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2018-06-11

    Fascins are a group of proteins taking part in the maintenance of a proper structure of the cellular cytoskeleton. Fascin-1 is an actin-bundling protein present in neurons, fibroblasts, endothelial, smooth muscle, dendritic and mesenchymal cells whereas lack of its expression is characteristic of epithelial cells. Fascin-1 overexpression can be observed in neoplastic cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the expression of Fascin-1 protein in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to analyze associations between Fascin-1 expression and clinical-pathological parameters. The study material included postoperative samples (tumor and unchanged colon tissue) obtained from 51 CRC patients. Fascin-1 expression was assessed in the paraffin sections by immunohistochemistry. A statistically significant correlation was found between the histological type of cancer and the expression of Fascin-1 (p = 0.012). Increased expression of Fascin-1 in CRC was more frequent in adenocarcinoma type without the mucosal component with a better prognosis and decreased expression of this protein correlated with infiltration of cancer cells to blood and lymphatic vessels (p = 0.038). Our findings indicate a potential role of Fascin-1 in the pathogenesis of colon cancer; however, further studies will show whether this protein plays a role in the infiltration of colorectal cancer cells.

  15. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Thailand and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-09

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Thailand and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  16. The Text of the Safeguards agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Switzerland and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-04-20

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Switzerland and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 30 December 1965 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for 'the information of all Members.

  17. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to the Bilateral Agreement Between Sweden and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Sweden and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 28 July 1966, as amended, between the two Governments for co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Colombia and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Colombia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 9 December 1970.

  19. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-01-06

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  20. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Colombia and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-02-23

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Colombia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 9 December 1970.

  1. The Texts of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Israel and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-07-13

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  2. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-04-09

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement berween the two Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development or the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  3. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Thailand and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Thailand and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  4. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  5. The Texts of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Israel and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  6. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement berween the two Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development or the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  7. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Peter V. Caldwell; Erika C. Cohen; Shanlei Sun; Heather D. Aldridge; Decheng Zhou; Liangxia Zhang; Yang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relative roles of cli- matic variables in altering annual runoff in the contermi- nous United States (CONUS) in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress In- dex model, WaSSI) driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercompar- ison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)...

  8. Analyzing the Curricula of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Technology-Related Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaden, Abdullah; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze on-campus and online PhD programs in educational technology-related fields in the United States. In particular, it sought to evaluate the most common program titles; core, elective, and research courses based on program curricula. The research design was quantitative content analysis and data were collected…

  9. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  10. A qualitative signature for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on relative expression orderings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Lu; Zhang, Zimei; Guan, Qingzhou; Guo, Yating; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Lv, Xingwei; Huang, Haiyan; Zhang, Huarong; Wang, Xianlong; Guo, Zheng

    2018-04-23

    Currently, using biopsy specimens to confirm suspicious liver lesions of early hepatocellular carcinoma are not entirely reliable because of insufficient sampling amount and inaccurate sampling location. It is necessary to develop a signature to aid early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis using biopsy specimens even when the sampling location is inaccurate. Based on the within-sample relative expression orderings of gene pairs, we identified a simple qualitative signature to distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients. A signature consisting of 19 gene pairs was identified in the training data sets and validated in 2 large collections of samples from biopsy and surgical resection specimens. For biopsy specimens, 95.7% of 141 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and all (100%) of 108 cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients were correctly classified. Especially, all (100%) of 60 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues and 77.5% of 80 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. For surgical resection specimens, 99.7% of 733 hepatocellular carcinoma specimens were correctly classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, while 96.1% of 254 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues and 95.9% of 538 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, 17.0% of 47 cirrhosis from non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients waiting for liver transplantation were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating that some patients with long-lasting cirrhosis could have already gained hepatocellular carcinoma characteristics. The signature can distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and tumour-adjacent tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients even using inaccurately sampled biopsy specimens, which can aid early

  11. Expression of Mycobacterium smegmatis pyrazinamidase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers hypersensitivity to pyrazinamide and related amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, H I; Mizrahi, V

    2000-10-01

    A pyrazinamidase (PZase)-deficient pncA mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, constructed by allelic exchange, was used to investigate the effects of heterologous amidase gene expression on the susceptibility of this organism to pyrazinamide (PZA) and related amides. The mutant was highly resistant to PZA (MIC, >2,000 microg/ml), in accordance with the well-established role of pncA in the PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis (A. Scorpio and Y. Zhang, Nat. Med. 2:662-667, 1996). Integration of the pzaA gene encoding the major PZase/nicotinamidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis (H. I. M. Boshoff and V. Mizrahi, J. Bacteriol. 180:5809-5814, 1998) or the M. tuberculosis pncA gene into the pncA mutant complemented its PZase/nicotinamidase defect. In both pzaA- and pncA-complemented mutant strains, the PZase activity was detected exclusively in the cytoplasm, suggesting an intracellular localization for PzaA and PncA. The pzaA-complemented strain was hypersensitive to PZA (MIC, /=20 microg/ml) and was also sensitive to benzamide (MIC, 20 microg/ml), unlike the wild-type and pncA-complemented mutant strains, which were highly resistant to this amide (MIC, >500 microg/ml). This finding was consistent with the observation that benzamide is hydrolyzed by PzaA but not by PncA. Overexpression of PzaA also conferred sensitivity to PZA, nicotinamide, and benzamide on M. smegmatis (MIC, 150 microg/ml in all cases) and rendered Escherichia coli hypersensitive for growth at low pH.

  12. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls.Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  13. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization decreases the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eduardo; Galeano, Pablo; Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco J; Rivera, Patricia; Serrano, Antonia; Alen, Francisco; Rubio, Leticia; Vargas, Antonio; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Decara, Juan; Bilbao, Ainhoa; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2016-03-01

    In the reward mesocorticolimbic circuits, the glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems are implicated in neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction. However, the involvement of both systems in the hippocampus, a critical region to process relational information relevant for encoding drug-associated memories, in cocaine-related behaviors remains unknown. In the present work, we studied whether the hippocampal gene/protein expression of relevant glutamate signaling components, including glutamate-synthesizing enzymes and metabotropic and ionotropic receptors, and the hippocampal gene/protein expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes were altered following acute and/or repeated cocaine administration resulting in conditioned locomotion and locomotor sensitization. Results showed that acute cocaine administration induced an overall down-regulation of glutamate-related gene expression and, specifically, a low phosphorylation level of GluA1. In contrast, locomotor sensitization to cocaine produced an up-regulation of several glutamate receptor-related genes and, specifically, an increased protein expression of the GluN1 receptor subunit. Regarding the endocannabinoid system, acute and repeated cocaine administration were associated with an increased gene/protein expression of CB1 receptors and a decreased gene/protein expression of the endocannabinoid-synthesis enzymes N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine D (NAPE-PLD) and diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα). These changes resulted in an overall decrease in endocannabinoid synthesis/degradation ratios, especially NAPE-PLD/fatty acid amide hydrolase and DAGLα/monoacylglycerol lipase, suggesting a reduced endocannabinoid production associated with a compensatory up-regulation of CB1 receptor. Overall, these findings suggest that repeated cocaine administration resulting in locomotor sensitization induces a down-regulation of the endocannabinoid signaling that could

  14. Associations between indoor tanning and risky health-related behaviors among high school students in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Stephanie; Ashack, Kurt; Bell, Eric; Sendelweck, Myra Ann; Dellavalle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among adolescents across the United States is incomplete. The purpose of this study is to identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning according to region. We analyzed the results from surveys of adolescents in 14 different states administered as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013. D...

  15. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  16. Towards a best practice of modeling unit of measure and related statistical metadata

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Data and metadata exchange between organizations requires a common language for describing structure and content of statistical data and metadata. The SDMX consortium develops content oriented guidelines (COG) recommending harmonized cross-domain concepts and terminology to increase the efficiency of (meta-) data exchange. A recent challenge is a recommended code list for the unit of measure. Based on examples from SDMX sponsor organizations this paper analyses the diversity of ""unit of measure"" as used in practice, including potential breakdowns and interdependencies of the respective meta-

  17. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Aragonès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3 in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18, simple steatosis (SS, n = 20, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17. Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  18. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-04-27

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  19. Gene Expression Profiling and Association with Prion-Related Lesions in the Medulla Oblongata of Symptomatic Natural Scrapie Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali, Hicham; Martin-Burriel, Inmaculada; Harders, Frank; Varona, Luis; Lyahyai, Jaber; Zaragoza, Pilar; Pumarola, Martí; Badiola, Juan J.; Bossers, Alex; Bolea, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases remains unclear. Examining transcriptome variations in infected versus control animals may highlight new genes potentially involved in some of the molecular mechanisms of prion-induced pathology. The aim of this work was to identify disease-associated alterations in the gene expression profiles of the caudal medulla oblongata (MO) in sheep presenting the symptomatic phase of natural scrapie. The gene expression patterns in the MO from 7 sheep that had been naturally infected with scrapie were compared with 6 controls using a Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) custom designed 4×44K microarray. The microarray consisted of a probe set on the previously sequenced ovine tissue library by CVI and was supplemented with all of the Ovis aries transcripts that are currently publicly available. Over 350 probe sets displayed greater than 2-fold changes in expression. We identified 148 genes from these probes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in the immune response, ion transport, cell adhesion, and transcription. Our results confirm previously published gene expression changes that were observed in murine models with induced scrapie. Moreover, we have identified new genes that exhibit differential expression in scrapie and could be involved in prion neuropathology. Finally, we have investigated the relationship between gene expression profiles and the appearance of the main scrapie-related lesions, including prion protein deposition, gliosis and spongiosis. In this context, the potential impacts of these gene expression changes in the MO on scrapie development are discussed. PMID:21629698

  20. Expression of leukemia/lymphoma related factor (LRF/Pokemon) in human benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Hunter, William J; Yohannes, Paulos; Khan, Ansar U; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-04-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor (LRF), also known as Pokemon, is a protein that belongs to the POK family of transcriptional repressors. It has an oncogenic role in many different solid tumors. In this study, the expression of LRF was evaluated in benign prostate hyperplastic (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC) tissues. The functional expression of LRF was studied using multiple cellular and molecular methods including RT-PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Paraffin-embedded human tissues of BPH and PC were used to examine LRF expression. Histological staining of the BPH and PC tissue sections revealed nuclear expression of LRF with minimal expression in the surrounding stroma. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western immunoblot analyses demonstrated significantly higher mRNA transcripts and protein expression in PC than BPH. High expression of LRF suggests that it may have a potential role in the pathogenesis of both BPH and prostate cancer. Further studies will help elucidate the mechanisms and signaling pathways that LRF may follow in the pathogenesis of prostate carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...... transgenic tobacco was blocked by pyroglutamate, after the removal of which, N-terminal sequencing verified the transit signal-peptide cleavage site deduced from the cDNA sequence. Phenotype comparisons show that the constitutive expression of Prx8 lead to growth retardation. However, an infection assay...

  2. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental

  3. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    cultures. The organotypic skin and oral mucosa cultures showed a histological differentiation pattern analogous to that of normal skin and buccal mucosa, and a tissue-specific expression of carbohydrate structures and cytokeratins. However, both types of organotypic cultures also expressed markers which...... are normally seen during wound healing, including Lewis y, cytokeratin 16, and cytokeratin 19. We conclude that the organotypic cultures of oral mucosa and skin are suitable models for future studies of the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, although the expression of wound healing markers has to be taken...... the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, we established organotypic cultures of skin and buccal mucosa. In these cultures, keratinocytes are grown at the air-liquid interface on a supporting matrix consisting of homologous fibroblasts embedded in a collagen type I gel. We examined the expression of blood...

  4. VEGF expression and microvascular density in relation to high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bassma M. El Sabaa

    2012-01-13

    Jan 13, 2012 ... Eleven cases were low grade and 19 were high-grade cases. VEGF expression .... increasing microvascular permeability,26 degradation of extra- ...... soluble receptors in pre-invasive, invasive and recurrent cervical cancer.

  5. EGFR-expression in primary urinary bladder cancer and corresponding metastases and the relation to HER2-expression. On the possibility to target these receptors with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Jörgen; Wester, Kenneth; De La Torre, Manuel; Malmström, Per-Uno; Gårdmark, Truls

    2015-01-01

    There is limited effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or “naked” antibodies binding EGFR or HER2 for therapy of metastasized urinary bladder cancer and these methods are therefore not routinely used. Targeting radio-nuclides to the extracellular domain of the receptors is potentially a better possibility. EGFR- and HER2-expression was analyzed for primary tumors and corresponding metastases from 72 patients using immunohistochemistry and the internationally recommended HercepTest. Intracellular mutations were not analyzed since only the receptors were considered as targets and intracellular abnormalities should have minor effect on radiation dose. EGFR was positive in 71% of the primary tumors and 69% of corresponding metastases. Local and distant metastases were EGFR-positive in 75% and 66% of the cases, respectively. The expression frequency of HER2 in related lesions was slightly higher (data from previous study). The EGFR-positive tumors expressed EGFR in metastases in 86% of the cases. The co-expression of EGFR and HER2 was 57% for tumors and 53% for metastases. Only 3% and 10% of the lesions were negative for both receptors in tumors and metastases, respectively. Thus, targeting these receptors with radionuclides might be applied for most patients. At least one of the EGFR- or HER2-receptors was present in most cases and co-expressed in more than half the cases. It is therefore interesting to deliver radionuclides for whole-body receptor-analysis, dosimetry and therapy. This can hopefully compensate for resistance to other therapies and more patients can hopefully be treated with curative instead of palliative intention

  6. L-dopa decarboxylase (DDC) gene expression is related to outcome in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalellis, Georgios; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Avgeris, Margaritis; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Scorilas, Andreas; Lazaris, Andreas; Constantinides, Constantinos

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? L-dopa decarboxylase (DDC) has been documented as a novel co-activator of androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Recently, it was shown that DDC gene expression is significantly higher in patients with PCa than in those with BPH. In the present study, there was a significant association between the DDC gene expression levels and the pathological stage and Gleason score of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Moreover, DDC expression was shown to be an unfavourable prognostic marker of biochemical recurrence and disease-free survival in patients with PCa treated by radical prostatectomy. To determine whether L-dopa decarboxylase gene (DDC) expression levels in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) correlate to biochemical recurrence and disease prognosis after radical prostatectomy (RP). The present study consisted of 56 samples with confirmed malignancy from patients with PCa who had undergone RP at a single tertiary academic centre. Total RNA was isolated from tissue specimens and a SYBR Green fluorescence-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction methodology was developed for the determination of DDC mRNA expression levels of the tested tissues. Follow-up time ranged between 1.0 and 62.0 months (mean ± SE, 28.6 ± 2.1 month; median, 31.5 months). Time to biochemical recurrence was defined as the interval between the surgery and the measurement of two consecutive values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥0.2 ng/mL. DDC expression levels were found to be positively correlated with the tumour-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.021) and Gleason score (P = 0.036) of the patients with PCa. Patients with PCa with raised DDC expression levels run a significantly higher risk of biochemical recurrence after RP, as indicated by Cox proportional regression analysis (P = 0.021). Multivariate Cox proportional regression models revealed the preoperative PSA-, age- and digital rectal examination

  7. Temporal expression of wound healing-related genes in skin burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hidemichi; Hayashi, Takahito; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Kanekura, Takuro; Ogata, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the age of burns, as well as of wounds induced mechanically, is essential in forensic practice, particularly in cases of suspected child abuse. Here, we investigated temporal changes in the expression of 13 genes during wound healing after a burn. The expression of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ), chemokines (KC, MCP-1), proliferative factors (TGF-β, VEGF), proteases (MMP-2, 9, 13) and type I collagen in murine skin was examined by real-time PCR at 3, 6, 9, and 12 h and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after a burn. Based on macroscopic and histological appearance, the healing process of a burn consists of 3 phases: inflammatory (from 3 h to 1 day after the burn), proliferative (from 1 to 7 days), and maturation (from 7 to 14 days). Expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and KC increased significantly in a biphasic pattern from 3 or 6 h to 12 h or 1 day and from 3 or 5 days to 7 days. Expression of MCP-1 increased significantly from 6 h to 5 days. Expression of both IL-10 and TGF-β increased significantly from 12 h to 7 days. Expression of VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-13 and type I collagen increased significantly from 3 days to 7 or 14 days. Expression of MMP-9 increased significantly from 6 h to 14 days. Our results suggest that evaluating the expression of a combination of these genes would enable the exact estimation of the age of a burn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taziaux, Mélanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Swaab, Dick F.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus w...

  9. Expression Profile of Genes Related to Drug Metabolism in Human Brain Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Stavrinou

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous compounds as well as carcinogens are metabolized and detoxified by phase I and II enzymes, the activity of which could be crucial to the inactivation and hence susceptibility to carcinogenic factors. The expression of these enzymes in human brain tumor tissue has not been investigated sufficiently. We studied the association between tumor pathology and the expression profile of seven phase I and II drug metabolizing genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, ALDH3A1, AOX1, GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM3 and some of their proteins.Using qRT-PCR and western blotting analysis the gene and protein expression in a cohort of 77 tumors were investigated. The major tumor subtypes were meningioma, astrocytoma and brain metastases, -the later all adenocarcinomas from a lung primary.Meningeal tumors showed higher expression levels for AOX1, CYP1B1, GSTM3 and GSTP1. For AOX1, GSTM and GSTP1 this could be verified on a protein level as well. A negative correlation between the WHO degree of malignancy and the strength of expression was identified on both transcriptional and translational level for AOX1, GSTM3 and GSTP1, although the results could have been biased by the prevalence of meningiomas and glioblastomas in the inevitably bipolar distribution of the WHO grades. A correlation between the gene expression and the protein product was observed for AOX1, GSTP1 and GSTM3 in astrocytomas.The various CNS tumors show different patterns of drug metabolizing gene expression. Our results suggest that the most important factor governing the expression of these enzymes is the histological subtype and to a far lesser extent the degree of malignancy itself.

  10. FXYD-3 expression in relation to local recurrence of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftas, Per; Arbman, Gunnar; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hallbook, Olof [Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Norrkoping (Sweden); Edler, David [Dept. of Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Syk, Erik [Dept. of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    In a previous study, the transmembrane protein FXYD-3 was suggested as a biomarker for a lower survival rate and reduced radiosensitivity in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of preoperative irradiation in rectal cancer is to reduce local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of FXYD-3 as a biomarker for increased risk for local recurrence of rectal cancer. FXYD-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in surgical specimens from a cohort of patients with rectal cancer who developed local recurrence (n = 48). The cohort was compared to a matched control group without recurrence (n = 81). Weak FXYD-3 expression was found in 106/129 (82%) of the rectal tumors and strong expression in 23/129 (18%). There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the patients with local recurrence and the control group. Furthermore there was no difference in FXYD-3 expression and time to diagnosis of local recurrence between patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and those without. Previous findings indicated that FXYD-3 expression may be used as a marker of decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy or even overall survival. We were unable to confirm this in a cohort of rectal cancer patients who developed local recurrence.

  11. FXYD-3 expression in relation to local recurrence of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftas, Per; Arbman, Gunnar; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hallbook, Olof; Edler, David; Syk, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, the transmembrane protein FXYD-3 was suggested as a biomarker for a lower survival rate and reduced radiosensitivity in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of preoperative irradiation in rectal cancer is to reduce local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of FXYD-3 as a biomarker for increased risk for local recurrence of rectal cancer. FXYD-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in surgical specimens from a cohort of patients with rectal cancer who developed local recurrence (n = 48). The cohort was compared to a matched control group without recurrence (n = 81). Weak FXYD-3 expression was found in 106/129 (82%) of the rectal tumors and strong expression in 23/129 (18%). There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the patients with local recurrence and the control group. Furthermore there was no difference in FXYD-3 expression and time to diagnosis of local recurrence between patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and those without. Previous findings indicated that FXYD-3 expression may be used as a marker of decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy or even overall survival. We were unable to confirm this in a cohort of rectal cancer patients who developed local recurrence

  12. Relative IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues from diabetic swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.K.; Leaman, D.W.; White, M.E.; Ramsay, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen pregnant, crossbred gilts were utilized in this study. Seven gilts were injected with alloxan (50 mg/kg) at day 75 of gestation to induce diabetes. Gilts underwent caesarean section on day 105 of gestation. Samples were collected from maternal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, uterus and endometrium; and from fetal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, placenta, liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain and spleen. Tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression. Samples were pooled and total RNA was isolated using the guanidine isothiocynate method. Total mRNA was analyzed by dot blot hybridization. Blots were probed with 32 P-cDNA for porcine IGF-1 and rat IGF-2. IGF-1 gene expression in maternal tissues was unaffected by diabetes. Maternal diabetes increased IGF-2 mRNA in maternal adipose tissue but exhibited no effect in muscle or uterus. Expression of IGF-2 by maternal endometrium was decreased by diabetes. Maternal diabetes induced an increase in IGF-1 gene expression in muscle and placenta while causing an increase in IGF-2 expression in fetal liver and placenta. IGF-2 mRNA was lower in lung from fetuses of diabetic mothers than in controls. These results suggest that maternal diabetes alters IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in specific tissues and differential regulation of these genes appears to exist in the mother and developing fetus

  13. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific

  14. United States-Vietnam Relations 1945-1967. Book 8 of 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-09-20

    territories t- ken from the enemy in this war, as Might be agreed upon at a later date, end also such other territories as mi~r.it voluntarily...lag controls* In consequence tho process of Giving definition 211 . the ontot’prise * A dispassionate cvpprsisSl loach ) tho United States

  15. STATEMENT OF VIEWS RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF IN THE UNITED STATES--1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FELLENDORF, GEORGE W.

    REPRESENTATIVE OF THE VIEWS OF THE ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL ASSOCIATION FOR THE DEAF, THIS STATEMENT SETS FORTH THE PURPOSES OF THE BELL ASSOCIATION AND DISCUSSES THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ABOUT DEAF EDUCATION--(1) THEIR AMBITIONS FOR ALL DEAF CHILDREN, (2) A CRITIQUE ON THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF IN THE UNITED STATES, (3) CONCERN FOR DEAF CHILDREN WHO ARE…

  16. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  17. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  18. Climate change impacts on freshwater fish, coral reefs, and related ecosystem services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed the potential physical and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries and coral reefs in the United States, examining a reference scenario and two policy scenarios that limit global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We modeled shifts in suitable habitat ...

  19. DDAH2 mRNA expression is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk-related features in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchau, Blanca; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3) are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  20. DDAH2 mRNA Expression Is Inversely Associated with Some Cardiovascular Risk-Related Features in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Puchau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  1. Altered expression of the TCR signaling related genes CD3 and FcεRIγ in patients with aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aplastic anemia (AA is characterized by pancytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia, which results from immune-mediated hematopoiesis suppression. Understanding the pathophysiology of the immune system, particularly T cells immunity, has led to improved AA treatment over the past decades. However, primary and secondary failure after immunosuppressive therapy is frequent. Thus, knowledge of the immune mechanisms leading to AA is crucial to fundamentally understand the disease. Findings To elucidate the T cell receptor (TCR signal transduction features in AA, the expression levels of CD3γ, δ, ε and ζ chain and FcεRIγ genes, which are involved in TCR signal transduction, and the negative correlation of the expression levels between the CD3ζ and FcεRIγ genes in T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR using the SYBR Green method was used to detect the expression level of these genes in PBMCs from 18 patients with AA and 14 healthy individuals. The β2microglobulin gene (β2M was used as an endogenous reference. The expression levels of the CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3ε and CD3ζ genes in patients with AA were significantly increased compared to a healthy control group, whereas the FcεRIγ gene expression level was significantly decreased in patients with AA in comparison with the healthy control group. Moreover, the negative correlation of the expression levels between the CD3ζ and FcεRIγ genes was lost. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3ε, CD3ζ and FcεRIγ gene expression in patients with AA. The abnormally expressed TCR signaling related genes may relate to T cells dysfunction in AA.

  2. DIVERSITY IN DIAK JÄRVENPÄÄ CAMPUS UNIT : Diversity and Relation among Different Institutions Located Within the Campus Premises

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Samasty; Singh, Sadin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Sadin Kumar Singh & Samasty Shakya. Diversity in Diak Järvenpää Campus Unit: Diversity and Relation among Different Institution Located within the campus premises. Järvenpää, Spring 2012. 48p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree program in Social Services (UAS) Focus on Community Development Work The primary purpose of this research was to find the biggest issue of diversity in the campus area. All three educational institutions operating from t...

  3. The text of a safeguards transfer agreement relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The document reproduces the text of a safeguards transfer agreement of 28 August 1996 relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the agreement of 25 July 1969 between the Agency, Argentina and the United States of America in light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the quadripartite safeguards agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 13 January 1997

  4. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2016-01-01

    subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF) and highprotein (HP) diets.Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months) to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed.Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a). Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet.Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as well as a marker of increased risk of metabolic diseases

  5. Age-Related Changes in the Expression of the Circadian Clock Protein PERIOD in Drosophila Glial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani M. Long

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks consist of molecular negative feedback loops that coordinate physiological, neurological, and behavioral variables into “circa” 24-h rhythms. Rhythms in behavioral and other circadian outputs tend to weaken during aging, as evident in progressive disruptions of sleep-wake cycles in aging organisms. However, less is known about the molecular changes in the expression of clock genes and proteins that may lead to the weakening of circadian outputs. Western blot studies have demonstrated that the expression of the core clock protein PERIOD (PER declines in the heads of aged Drosophila melanogaster flies. This age-related decline in PER does not occur in the central pacemaker neurons but has been demonstrated so far in retinal photoreceptors. Besides photoreceptors, clock proteins are also expressed in fly glia, which play important roles in neuronal homeostasis and are further categorized into subtypes based on morphology and function. While previous studies of mammalian glial cells have demonstrated the presence of functional clocks in astrocytes and microglia, it is not known which glial cell types in Drosophila express clock proteins and how their expression may change in aged individuals. Here, we conducted immunocytochemistry experiments to identify which glial subtypes express PER protein suggestive of functional circadian clocks. Glial cell subtypes that showed night-time accumulation and day-time absence in PER consistent with oscillations reported in the pacemaker neurons were selected to compare the level of PER protein between young and old flies. Our data demonstrate that some glial subtypes show rhythmic PER expression and the relative PER levels become dampened with advanced age. Identification of glial cell types that display age-related dampening of PER levels may help to understand the cellular changes that contribute to the loss of homeostasis in the aging brain.

  6. Angiogenesis-related protein expression in bevacizumab-treated metastatic colorectal cancer: NOTCH1 detrimental to overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Tadeu Ferreira Jr.; Jesus, Victor Hugo Fonseca de; Marques, Raul Amorim; Costa, Alexandre André Balieiro Anastácio da; Macedo, Mariana Petaccia de; Peresi, Patricia Maria; Damascena, Aline; Rossi, Benedito Mauro; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Lima, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de

    2015-01-01

    The development of targeted therapies has undoubtedly broadened therapeutic options for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The use of bevacizumab to reduce angiogenesis has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, an urgent need for prognostic/predictive biomarkers for anti-angiogenic therapies still exists. Clinical data of 105 CRC patients treated with bevacizumab in conjunction with chemotherapy were analyzed. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, NOTCH1 receptor and its ligand DLL4 were determined by immunohistochemistry. Tumor samples were arranged on a tissue microarray. The association between protein expression and clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes was determined. Bevacizumab was administered as a first-line of treatment in 70.5 % of our cases. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.2 months. The median overall survival (OS) of the total cohort was 24.4 months. Bevacizumab, as the first-line of treatment, and the presence of liver metastasis were independently associated with objective response rate. Membrane VEGFR1 and VEGFR3 expressions were associated with the presence of lung metastasis; interestingly, VEGFR3 was associated with less liver metastasis. NOTCH1 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis. There was a trend toward association between improved PFS and lower NOTCH1 expression (p = 0.06). Improved OS was significantly associated with lower NOTCH1 expression (p = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) performance status, liver metastasis, histological grade, and NOTCH1 expression were independently associated with OS. Our findings illustrated the expression profile of angiogenesis-related proteins and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes. NOTCH1 expression is a detrimental prognostic factor in metastatic CRC patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. The online version of

  7. Expression of Leukemia/Lymphoma-Related Factor (LRF/POKEMON) in Human Breast Carcinoma and Other Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anshu; Hunter, William J.; Aggarwal, Himanshu; Silva, Edibaldo D.; Davey, Mary S.; Murphy, Richard F.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2010-01-01

    The POK family of proteins plays an important role in not only embryonic development and cell differentiation, but also in oncogenesis. Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) belongs to the POK family of transcriptional repressors and is also known as POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON), which binds to short transcripts of HIV-1 (FBI-1) and TTF-1 interacting peptide (TIP21). Its oncogenic role is known only in lymphoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and malignant gliomas. The functional expression of LRF in human breast carcinoma has not yet been confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the expression of LRF in human breast cancer tissues and other human tumors. The expression of LRF mRNA transcripts and protein was observed in twenty human benign and malignant breast biopsy tissues. Expression of LRF was observed in several formalin-fixed tissues by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. All malignant breast tissues expressed mRNA transcripts and protein for LRF. However, 40% and 15% benign breast biopsy tissues expressed LRF mRNA transcripts and protein, respectively. The overall expression of LRF mRNA transcripts and total protein was significantly more in malignant breast tissues than the benign breast tissues. LRF expression was also observed in the nuclei of human colon, renal, lung, hepatocellular carcinomas and thymoma tumor cells. In general, a significantly higher expression of LRF was seen in malignant tissues than in the corresponding benign or normal tissue. Further studies are warranted to determine the malignant role of LRF in human breast carcinoma. PMID:20471975

  8. Existence of a photoinducible phase for ovarian development and photoperiod-related alteration of clock gene expression in a damselfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Hada, Noriko; Imamura, Satoshi; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Bouchekioua, Selma; Takemura, Akihiro

    2015-10-01

    The sapphire devil, Chrysiptera cyanea, is a reef-associated damselfish and their ovarian development can be induced by a long photoperiod. In this study, we demonstrated the existence of a photoinducible phase for the photoperiodic ovarian development in the sapphire devil. Induction of ovarian development under night-interruption light schedules and Nanda-Hamner cycles revealed that the photoinducible phase appeared in a circadian manner between ZT12 and ZT13. To characterize the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression in the brain of this species, we determined the expression levels of the sdPer1, sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 clock genes under constant light and dark conditions (LL and DD) and photoperiodic (short and long photoperiods). The expression of sdPer1 exhibited clear circadian oscillation under both LL and DD conditions, while sdPer2 and sdCry1 expression levels were lower under DD than under LL conditions and sdCry2 expression was lower under LL than under DD conditions. These results suggest a key role for sdPer1 in circadian clock cycling and that sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 are light-responsive clock genes in the sapphire devil. After 1 week under a long photoperiod, we observed photoperiod-related changes in sdPer1, sdPer2, and sdCry2 expression, but not in sdCry1 expression. These results suggest that the expression patterns of some clock genes exhibit seasonal variation according to seasonal changes in day length and that such seasonal alteration of clock gene expression may contribute to seasonal recognition by the sapphire devil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The quality of intensive care unit nurse handover related to end of life: a descriptive comparative international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Endacott, Ruth; Chaboyer, Wendy; Benbinishty, Julie; Ben Nun, Maureen; Ryan, Helen; Schoter, Amanda; Boulanger, Carole; Chamberlain, Wendy; Spooner, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Quality ICU end-of-life-care has been found to be related to good communication. Handover is one form of communication that can be problematic due to lost or omitted information. A first step in improving care is to measure and describe it. The objective of this study was to describe the quality of ICU nurse handover related to end-of-life care and to compare the practices of different ICUs in three different countries. This was a descriptive comparative study. The study was conducted in seven ICUs in three countries: Australia (1 unit), Israel (3 units) and the UK (3 units). A convenience sample of 157 handovers was studied. Handover quality was rated based on the ICU End-of-Life Handover tool, developed by the authors. The highest levels of handover quality were in the areas of goals of care and pain management while lowest levels were for legal issues (proxy and advanced directives) related to end of life. Significant differences were found between countries and units in the total handover score (country: F(2,154)=25.97, p=studied. The total score was higher when quality of care might be deemed at greater risk (if the nurses did not know the patient or the patient was expected to die), indicating that nurses were exercising some form of discretionary decision making around handover communication; thus validating the measurement tool. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Developmental expression of "germline"- and "sex determination"-related genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Pang, Kevin; Martindale, Mark Q

    2016-01-01

    An essential developmental pathway in sexually reproducing animals is the specification of germ cells and the differentiation of mature gametes, sperm and oocytes. The "germline" genes vasa, nanos and piwi are commonly identified in primordial germ cells, suggesting a molecular signature for the germline throughout animals. However, these genes are also expressed in a diverse set of somatic stem cells throughout the animal kingdom leaving open significant questions for whether they are required for germline specification. Similarly, members of the Dmrt gene family are essential components regulating sex determination and differentiation in bilaterian animals, but the functions of these transcription factors, including potential roles in sex determination, in early diverging animals remain unknown. The phylogenetic position of ctenophores and the genome sequence of the lobate Mnemiopsis leidyi motivated us to determine the compliment of these gene families in this species and determine expression patterns during development. Our phylogenetic analyses of the vasa, piwi and nanos gene families show that Mnemiopsis has multiple genes in each family with multiple lineage-specific paralogs. Expression domains of Mnemiopsis nanos, vasa and piwi, during embryogenesis from fertilization to the cydippid stage, were diverse, with little overlapping expression and no or little expression in what we think are the germ cells or gametogenic regions. piwi paralogs in Mnemiopsis had distinct expression domains in the ectoderm during development. We observed overlapping expression domains in the apical organ and tentacle apparatus of the cydippid for a subset of "germline genes," which are areas of high cell proliferation, suggesting that these genes are involved with "stem cell" specification and maintenance. Similarly, the five Dmrt genes show diverse non-overlapping expression domains, with no clear evidence for expression in future gametogenic regions of the adult. We also

  11. Gradient phenomenon of multidrug resistance gene expression in breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy is related to disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Litviakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined 106 patients with breast cancer (BC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NАС. In the biopsy material, derived from primary tumor before NAC and surgical samples after chemotherapy the expression of 8 multidrug resistance genes (MDR ABCB1, АВСВ2, ABCC1, ABCC2, АВСС5, ABCG1, ABCG2 и MVP was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. During the NAC course 75 % of patients manifested gradient phenomenon for gene expression that means a unidirectional change in the expression of all five MDR genes ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1 и ABCG2 closely associated with the NAC efficacy: the reduction in MDR gene expression was related to good response to NAC while the expression increase associated with poor response to NAC. In 25% of patients there was no such change in studied gene expression that means the lack of a gradient phenomenon. The objective was to study whether gradient phenomenon for MDR gene expression during NAC is related to disease free survival in breast cancer patients. Five-year metastasis-free survival in patients having a gradient phenomenon was 73 % versus 39 % in patients who lack a gradient phenomenon (log-rank test p=0,0018. So, the presence of a gradient phenomenon in patients is appeared to be associated with a good disease prognosis. It is assumed that the gradiThe paper examined 106 patients with breast cancer (BC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NАС. In the biopsy material, derived from primary tumor before NAC and surgical samples after chemotherapy the expression of 8 multidrug resistance genes (MDR ABCB1, АВСВ2, ABCC1, ABCC2, АВСС5, ABCG1, ABCG2 и MVP was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. During the NAC course 75 % of patients manifested gradient phenomenon for gene expression that means a unidirectional change in the expression of all five MDR genes ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1 и ABCG2 closely associated with the NAC efficacy: the reduction in MDR gene expression was related to good

  12. Relations between sinkhole density and anthropogenic contaminants in selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between sinkhole density and water quality was investigated in seven selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States. Sinkhole density for these aquifers was grouped into high (>25 sinkholes/100 km2), medium (1–25 sinkholes/100 km2), or low (2) categories using a geographical information system that included four independent databases covering parts of Alabama, Florida, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Field measurements and concentrations of major ions, nitrate, and selected pesticides in samples from 451 wells and 70 springs were included in the water-quality database. Data were collected as a part of the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Areas with high and medium sinkhole density had the greatest well depths and depths to water, the lowest concentrations of total dissolved solids and bicarbonate, the highest concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and the lowest partial pressure of CO2 compared to areas with low sinkhole density. These chemical indicators are consistent conceptually with a conduit-flow-dominated system in areas with a high density of sinkholes and a diffuse-flow-dominated system in areas with a low density of sinkholes. Higher cave density and spring discharge in Pennsylvania also support the concept that the high sinkhole density areas are dominated by conduit-flow systems. Concentrations of nitrate-N were significantly higher (p sinkhole density than in low sinkhole-density areas; when accounting for the variations in land use near the sampling sites, the high sinkhole-density area still had higher concentrations of nitrate-N than the low sinkhole-density area. Detection frequencies of atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, prometon, and the atrazine degradate deethylatrazine indicated a pattern similar to nitrate; highest pesticide detections were associated with high sinkhole-density areas. These patterns generally persisted when analyzing the detection frequency by land

  13. Impact of role-, job- and organizational characteristics on Nursing Unit Managers' work related stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Martens, Daisy; Van Rompaey, Bart; Timmermans, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    To study the impact of role, job- and organizational characteristics on nurse managers' work related stress and well-being such as feelings of emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various studies investigated role-, job- and organizational characteristics influencing nurse-related work environments. Research on nurse managers' related work environments define influencing factors, but, a clear understanding of the impact of nurse-managers' work-environment characteristics on their work related stress and well-being is limited. A cross-sectional design with a survey. A cross-sectional survey (N = 365) was carried out between December 2011-March 2012. The questionnaire was based on various validated measurement instruments identified by expert meetings (e.g. staff nurses, nurse managers and executives and physicians). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed using emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions as outcome variables. Study results showed one out of six nursing unit managers have high to very high feelings of emotional exhaustion and two out of three respondents have high to very high work engagement. Hierarchical regression models showed that role conflict and role meaningfulness were strong predictors of nursing unit managers' work related stress and well-being, alongside with job- and organizational characteristics. Several risk factors and stimulating factors influencing nurse unit managers' work related stress and well-being were identified. Further challenges will be to develop proper interventions and strategies to support nursing unit managers and their team in daily practice to deliver the best and safest patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Expression of Tau Pathology-Related Proteins in Different Brain Regions: A Molecular Basis of Tau Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Yanchong; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in affected neurons in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. The tau pathology starts from the entorhinal cortex (EC), spreads to the hippocampus and frontal and temporal cortices, and finally to all isocortex areas, but the cerebellum is spared from tau lesions. The molecular basis of differential vulnerability of different brain regions to tau pathology is not understood. In the present study, we analyzed brain regional expressions of tau and tau pathology-related proteins. We found that tau was hyperphosphorylated at multiple sites in the frontal cortex (FC), but not in the cerebellum, from AD brain. The level of tau expression in the cerebellum was about 1/4 of that seen in the frontal and temporal cortices in human brain. In the rat brain, the expression level of tau with three microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau) was comparable in the hippocampus, EC, FC, parietal-temporal cortex (PTC), occipital-temporal cortex (OTC), striatum, thalamus, olfactory bulb (OB) and cerebellum. However, the expression level of 4R-tau was the highest in the EC and the lowest in the cerebellum. Tau phosphatases, kinases, microtubule-related proteins and other tau pathology-related proteins were also expressed in a region-specific manner in the rat brain. These resu