WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative environmental impact

  1. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ?models? can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks ? one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact ? that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic i...

  2. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  3. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  4. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  5. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  6. 78 FR 8964 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FTA-2011-0056] RIN 2132-AB03 Environmental Impact and Related... an environmental impact statement. DATES: Effective on February 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... the list of project types that normally result in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement...

  7. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  8. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  9. 78 FR 11593 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... (EA) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under 23 CFR part 771, the repair or reconstruction of... unusual circumstances include significant environmental impacts, substantial controversy on environmental... the action normally has significant environmental impacts either individually or cumulatively and may...

  10. 78 FR 20074 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FHWA-2013-0007] FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction The correction that appeared on page 15925, Wednesday, March 13...

  11. 78 FR 15925 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FHWA-2012-2013] FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction In proposed rule document 2013-4678 beginning on page 13609 in...

  12. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also seek... kinds of projects and activities described in this paragraph and the environmental impacts of such...

  13. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  14. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person

  15. Facilitating relative comparisons of health impacts from postulated accidents in environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Current US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance on the performance of accident analyses supported an environmental impact statement (EIS) stresses a graded approach that emphasizes the most important risks, calls for the evaluation of frequencies as well as consequences for severe accident scenarios, and discourages the use of bounding analyses that confound risk comparisons among EIS alternatives. This paper discusses methods in probabilistic risk analysis that were developed and applied in defining accidents and generating radiological source terms for the DOE Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS); publication of the Final WM PEIS is due in late summer 1996. The strengths and shortcomings of the cited probabilistic risk analysis methods used to evaluate facility accidents are addressed, both as they relate to the WM PEIS and as they relate to more general EIS applications. Key guidance is discussed that was developed by DOE and used in shaping the techniques cited herein for application in an EIS. Related perceptions on accidents observed from the public comment process for the WM PEIS are cited. Finally, recommendations are made on the basis of needs as well as lessons learned in implementing the accident analysis for the WM PEIS

  16. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input-output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are examined with regression analysis, and are compared and interpreted on the basis of insight at the product level. With data from the Netherlands in the year 2000, we find that environmental impact increases with increasing household expenditures, although the degree to which the environmental impact increases differs per impact category. Climate change and eutrophication increase less than proportionally with increasing expenditures. Acidification increases nearly proportionally with increasing expenditures, whereas smog formation increases more than proportionally. It appears that the mix of necessities and luxuries to which an environmental impact is related is essential in explaining the relationship. (author)

  17. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  18. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within...

  19. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  20. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures : An input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input–output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are

  1. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S; Galatioto, Fabio; Thorpe, Neil; Namdeo, Anil K; Davies, Richard J; Bird, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to sanctioning the technique to provide additional security over the future supply of domestic energy. However, relatively high population densities in many countries and the potential negative environmental impacts that may be associated with fracking operations has stimulated controversy and significant public debate regarding if and where fracking should be permitted. Road traffic generated by fracking operations is one possible source of environmental impact whose significance has, until now, been largely neglected in the available literature. This paper therefore presents a scoping-level environmental assessment for individual and groups of fracking sites using a newly-created Traffic Impacts Model (TIM). The model produces estimates of the traffic-related impacts of fracking on greenhouse gas emissions, local air quality emissions, noise and road pavement wear, using a range of hypothetical fracking scenarios to quantify changes in impacts against baseline levels. Results suggest that the local impacts of a single well pad may be short duration but large magnitude. That is, whilst single digit percentile increases in emissions of CO2, NOx and PM are estimated for the period from start of construction to pad completion (potentially several months or years), excess emissions of NOx on individual days of peak activity can reach 30% over baseline. Likewise, excess noise emissions appear negligible (fracking water and flowback waste requirements. The TIM model is designed to be adaptable to any geographic area where the required input data are available (such as fleet characteristics, road type and quality), and we suggest could be deployed as a

  2. Discussion of some issues in assessing nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and in related assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses some noticeable issues in drafting assessment report of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and relevant aspects needed to be considered from the point of view of comprehensive environmental assessment. The considerable issue are principles of radioactive waste management, optimization of radiation protection and collective dose, and uncertainty of the assessment. Implementing reporting system on assessment of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts would improve environmental protection for nuclear and radiation facilities. However, trade's, regional , country and global assessment of environmental impacts has to be enhanced. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop methodology of qualitative and quantitative comprehensive assessment

  3. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA, there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  4. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  5. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  6. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  7. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

  8. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  9. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...

  10. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  11. Change detection with remote sensing : relating NOAA-AVHRR to environmental impact of agriculture in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural production in the European Union sharply rose during the second half of the 20 thcentury. As a side-effect environmental impact increased as well, and resulted in widespread environmental problems, which policymakers now seek to reduce. Therefore,

  12. Modelling approaches to thermal pollution in inland aquatic systems and issues related to its environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.N.; Nair, R.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Guidelines for the safe discharge of thermal effluents in aquatic environmental systems both surface water and marine coastal out falls has become very relevant to Indian environmental conditions with its rich biodiversity. While aquatic ecology may form the basis for such guidelines, the need for regulatory approach to the related issues has become the prime mover in thermal discharge problems. This is more so since the impacts considered are under short term and long term exposure conditions where the bio acclimatization and thermal stress factors may come to cross roads. Constant temperatures and cyclic temperature elevations also causes differential thermal stress which could be site specific. The recent notification by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) revising the temperature limit for discharge of condenser cooling water from thermal power plants into coastal areas using sea water from 5 deg to 7 degC over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies. Discussions on whether the limiting temperature is to be achieved at the point of discharge or within a specified zone of the thermal plume is currently being debated. The act also stipulates installation of cooling towers using water from rivers, lakes and reservoirs irrespective of the plant location and capacity. For existing thermal plants the rise in temperature of the condenser cooling water from inlet to the let of the condenser shall not be more than 10 degC. (author)

  13. Relation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and the Importance of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Landscape Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem CENGİZ GÖKÇE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in the countries which have not completed their development progress is industrialization and development just as soon as possible. Therefore, negative effects of industrialization and development on envi ronment and/or nature cannot be mostly discussed adequately. One of the planning approach instruments that targets sustainability, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA is used in many countries effectively. But in recent years, that has understood; EIA is an impact assessment instrument that contains defensive preventions only on the basis of projects and this situation has caused some concerns against EIA. In this direction, Strategical Environmental Assessment (SEA exists as the final point of the instruments which are formed to provide sustainable development . In this study; the importance and the requirement of effectively taking a role of landscape architectures that have ecological based job, in the SEA workings which isn’t have got a legal status in Turkey yet, are emphasized by reviewing the relations between EIA and SEA concepts.

  14. Impact of long-term land application of broiler litter on environmentally related soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingery, W.L. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States); Wood, C.W.; Mullins, G.L. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The largest portion of Alabama`s rapidly growing poultry industry is geographically concentrated in the Sand Mountain region of northern Alabama. The result is that large amounts of waste are applied to relatively small areas of agricultural soils. A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term broiler waste (litter) application on environmentally related soil conditions in the region. The region has an average annual rainfall of 1325 mm, which is evenly distributed throughout the year, a thermic temperature regime, and soils in the region are of the Ultisol order. In each of four major broiler-producing counties, three pairs of sites consisting of long-term (15-28 yr) littered and nonlittered fields on matching soil series and maintained under perennial tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were sampled. Soil cores were taken to 3 m or lithic contact and depth-incremented samples (0-15, 15-30, and each subsequent 30-cm interval) were analyzed for organic C, total N, NO{sub 3}-N, pH, electrical conductivity, and acid-extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Co, and Zn. Litter application increased organic C and total N to depths of 15 and 30 cm, respectively, as compared with nonlittered soils, whereas pH was 0.5 units higher to a depth of 60 cm under littered soils. Significant accumulation of NO{sub 3}N was found in littered soils to or near bedrock. Extractable P concentrations in littered soils were more than six times greater than in nonlittered soils to a depth of 60 cm. Elevated levels of extractable K, Ca, and Mg to depths greater than 60 cm also were found as a result of long-term litter use. Extractable Cu and Zn had accumulated in littered soils to a depth of 45 cm. These findings indicate that long-term land application of broiler litter, at present rates, has altered soil chemical conditions and has created a potential for adverse environmental impacts in the Sand Mountain region of Alabama. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Implementation strategy to reduce environmental impact of energy related activities in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 UNEP-Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UNEP-CCEE), Denmark and Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe, prepared a country report for Zimbabwe on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Abatement Costing. Abatement technologies for both supply and demand side were identified in order to reduce GHG emission. The present study addresses environmental impacts of the entire energy cycle focusing on coal use in industry and power generation. Zimbabwe has proven coal reserves of more than 700 million tonnes, and the potential of geological coal resources is estimated beyond 30 billion tonnes. The conventional applications of coal include electricity generation, steam traction in railway transport, industrial boilers, tobacco curing and coking. As coal is the major source of energy for Zimbabwe, the present study aims at identification of environmental impacts of the entire coal cycle from mining to end-users of electrical energy. (EG)

  16. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  17. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wanderer@dlr.de; Herle, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.herle@rwth-aachen.de

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  18. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, Thomas; Herle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  19. Environmental Impact and Relative Invasiveness of Free-Roaming Domestic Carnivores—a North American Survey of Governmental Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lepe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the United States and Canadian governmental agencies investigated the environmental impact and relative invasiveness of free-roaming domestic non-native carnivores—dogs, cats, and ferrets. Agencies represented wildlife, fish, game, natural or environmental resources, parks and recreation, veterinary and human health, animal control, and agriculture. Respondents were asked to document the number and frequency of sightings of unconfined animals, evidence for environmental harm, and the resulting “degree of concern” in their respective jurisdictions. Results confirmed the existence of feral (breeding cats and dogs, documenting high levels of concern regarding the impact of these animals on both continental and surrounding insular habitats. Except for occasional strays, no free-roaming or feral ferrets were reported; nor were there reports of ferrets impacting native wildlife, including ground-nesting birds, or sensitive species. This is the first study to report the relative impact of free-roaming domestic carnivores. Dogs and cats meet the current definition of “invasive” species, whereas ferrets do not. Differences in how each species impacts the North American environment highlights the complex interaction between non-native species and their environment. Public attitudes and perceptions regarding these species may be a factor in their control and agency management priorities.

  20. Environmental impact assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, E. H.; Choi, K. S

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Environmental Impact Assessment Report which was made and submitted as one of the license documents for TRIGA Research Reactor D and D Project. The Environmental Impact Assessment Report includes introduction of decommissioning plan, status of reactors and environmental impact of surroundings. Also it was assessed and analyzed on radioactivity for environment, and the plan was established to minimize radioactive material release. Finally environmental monitoring plan was established to confirm whether contaminated or not from radioactivity during decommissioning period. According to the assessment results, the risk of excess exposure will be not on environment and public. The first Environmental Impact Assessment Report was submitted to the government for the license and reviewed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first Report was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

  1. Monitoring of urban growth and its related environmental impacts: Niamey case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela; Spadafora, Francesco; Yadji, Guero; Konaté, Moussa

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution is about a preliminary study of the evolution of Niamey city (Niger) during last decades. Such research is part of an UNICOO project (funded by the University of Turin) and connected to the Edulink Cooperation Project (R.U.S.S.A.D.E.), a multidisciplinary project between Italy, Niger, Burkina Faso and Tchad funded on ACP- EU cooperation program in Higher Education. Recent advances in remote sensing, both in satellite hardware technology (i.e. image availability) and image processing algorithm development, provide opportunities for collection and analysis of multitemporal information on urban form and size that can be useful for policy and planning. In spite of these developments, there are also limitations to remote sensing and its application in practice. Some opportunities for, and limitations on, monitoring urban growth using remote sensing data are shown in the present contribution; moreover examples of environmental impacts of urban growth, as monitored with remote sensing, are provided. Niamey is the capital of Niger and is the first city in the country in size and economic importance. Its population increased gradually, from about 3,000 units in 1930 to about 30,000 in 1960, rising to 250,000 in 1980 and, according to estimates, to 800,000 units in 2000. Its patterns of population distribution, livelihoods, and its dominant role within the national economy of Niger make it a good representative case study for West Africa. This case study will consider the recent historical context of continued urban growth and will assess potential future impacts of settlement patterns. The rapid growth of Niamey in the last decades brought relative prosperity but it certainly affected patterns of land use within the city and the emerging urban system. After a preliminary sketch of the georesources in the city (qualitative and quantitative characterization of the surface water and groundwater, and of aggregates), an analyses of the urban growth and

  2. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: j.a.sorialara@uva.nl; Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl; Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes.

  3. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A.; Bertolini, Luca; Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes

  4. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  5. Impact of environmental auditing on environmental pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental auditing on environmental pollution, sustainable development and healthy environment of some organizations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home ...

  6. The Impact of Environmental Factors in Influencing Epigenetics Related to Oxidative States in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative states exert a significant influence on a wide range of biological and molecular processes and functions. When their balance is shifted towards enhanced amounts of free radicals, pathological phenomena can occur, as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in tissue microenvironment or in the systemic circulation can be detrimental. Epidemic chronic diseases of western societies, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes correlate with the imbalance of redox homeostasis. Current advances in our understanding of epigenetics have revealed a parallel scenario showing the influence of oxidative stress as a major regulator of epigenetic gene regulation via modification of DNA methylation, histones, and microRNAs. This has provided both the biological link and a potential molecular explanation between oxidative stress and cardiovascular/metabolic phenomena. Accordingly, in this review, we will provide current insights on the physiological and pathological impact of changes in oxidative states on cardiovascular disorders, by specifically focusing on the influence of epigenetic regulation. A special emphasis will highlight the effect on epigenetic regulation of human’s current life habits, external and environmental factors, including food intake, tobacco, air pollution, and antioxidant-based approaches. Additionally, the strategy to quantify oxidative states in humans in order to determine which biological marker could best match a subject’s profile will be discussed.

  7. Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

  8. The application of the Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context to nuclear energy-related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context sets out the obligations to assess the environmental impact of certain activities at an early stage of decision making. It also lays down the general obligation for parties to notify and consult each other on all major projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse environmental impact across national borders. The Espoo Convention was adopted in 1991 and entered into force on 10 September 1997. There are currently 45 states party to the Espoo Convention, including 23 countries that are also members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It should be noted that the European Union (EU) is also a party to the Espoo Convention and has transposed the provisions related to the environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure in its legislation, thus imposing the Espoo Convention principles on all EU member states. The purpose of the Espoo Convention is to enhance international co-operation and allow environmentally sound decisions to be made, paying careful attention to minimising significant adverse impacts, particularly in a transboundary context. In order to do so, the Espoo Convention requires that an EIA be carried out for certain types of activities planned by a party, which are likely to have a significant environmental impact within an area under the jurisdiction of another party. The Espoo Convention specifies what must be considered at an early stage of the decision making and it lays down the obligation for countries to notify and consult each other and the public. It also requires that all comments received from the public and authorities, as well as the findings from the assessment, are taken into account when the final decision is made for the planned activity. In addition, the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment was adopted in Kiev in 2003. It entered into force in 2010 and currently

  9. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes - environmental impact statement. Volume II, comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133, and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community as soon as practicable. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition, three other reasonable alternatives and a No Action alternative are analyzed in detail, The sites for these three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity. This document contains comments recieved from meetings held regarding the site selection for isotope production

  10. Environment and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to in...

  11. Environmental impacts of divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Eunice; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is increasingly common around the world. Its causes, dynamics, and socioeconomic impacts have been widely studied, but little research has addressed its environmental impacts. We found that average household size (number of people in a household) in divorced households (households with divorced heads) was 27–41% smaller than married households (households with married heads) in 12 countries across the world around the year 2000 (between 1998 and 2002). If divorced households had combi...

  12. The inclusion of biodiversity in environmental impact assessment: Policy-related progress limited by gaps and semantic confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigard, Charlotte; Pioch, Sylvain; Thompson, John D

    2017-09-15

    Natural habitat loss and fragmentation, as a result of development projects, are major causes of biodiversity erosion. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the most commonly used site-specific planning tool that takes into account the effects of development projects on biodiversity by integrating potential impacts into the mitigation hierarchy of avoidance, reduction, and offset measures. However, the extent to which EIA fully address the identification of impacts and conservation stakes associated with biodiversity loss has been criticized in recent work. In this paper we examine the extent to which biodiversity criteria have been integrated into 42 EIA from 2006 to 2016 for small development projects in the Montpellier Metropolitan territory in southern France. This study system allowed us to question how EIA integrates biodiversity impacts on a scale relevant to land-use planning. We examine how biodiversity inclusion has changed over time in relation to new policy for EIA and how the mitigation hierarchy is implemented in practice and in comparison with national guidelines. We demonstrate that the inclusion of biodiversity features into EIA has increased significantly in relation to policy change. Several weaknesses nevertheless persist, including the continued absence of substitution solution assessment, a correct analysis of cumulative impacts, the evaluation of impacts on common species, the inclusion of an ecological network scale, and the lack of monitoring and evaluation measures. We also show that measures for mitigation hierarchy are primarily associated with the reduction of impacts rather than their avoidance, and avoidance and offset measures are often misleadingly proposed in EIA. There is in fact marked semantic confusion between avoidance, reduction and offset measures that may impair stakeholders' understanding. All in all, reconsideration of stakeholders routine practices associated with a more strategic approach towards impact anticipation

  13. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  14. Safety and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.; Kramer, W.

    1991-01-01

    By means of interpreting experimental results, and by means of conservative estimates, several fundamental statements can be made concerning the safety and environmental impacts of fusion plants. Relevant findings so far regarding normal operation and incidents as well as risks involved in raw material extraction and waste management are compiled. (DG) [de

  15. 78 FR 57587 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures-Programmatic Agreements and Additional Categorical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... resource; involve significant air, noise, or water quality impacts; have significant impacts on travel... time to time to reflect changes in their missions and programs, and to reflect experience that has been... of real property interests prior to completion of the NEPA review process for the transportation...

  16. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    ratoon cane cycle. In order to demonstrate the potential effect of avoided land use change by increased productivity, we calculated the avoided GHG emissions related to land use change in a hypothetical fertirrigation project over a ten-year period (2010-2020). A conservative scenario for increased demand for sugarcane was selected, assuming a 20% increase in total production over the ten-year period. The current area under sugarcane in the municipality of Jaú is 42,500 ha. A 5,000 ha fertirrigation project, assuming the 40% increase in sugarcane productivity described above for the IN treatment, would avoid the conversion of 2,000 ha of other land uses in to sugarcane. Landsat data covering the region in the 2008/2009 crop year demonstrated that most conversion occurred over pasture areas (91%), with the remaining being converted from annual crops. Using IPCC biomass and soil carbon stock change factors and emission factors, the LUC-related emissions avoided by the fertirrigation project in the period were calculated as 53,199 Mg CO2 eq. A more comprehensive life cycle assessment of both the fertirrigation system and the reference case would be necessary to evaluate the actual GHG mitigation potential, but the preliminary results indicate that the increased productivity will bring environmental benefits under these conditions.

  17. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  18. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Kroeze, C.; Seitzinger, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first describes the concept of, governance interest in, and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. These criticisms are then systematically evaluated. We argue that planetary N boundaries should include both the benefits and adverse impacts

  19. Environmental effects of large impacts on the earth; relation to extinction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Koschny, Detlef

    1988-01-01

    Since Alvarez et al., discovered a worldwide approx. cm-thick layer of fine sediments laden with platinum group elements in approximately chondritic proportions exactly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (C-T) boundary, and proposed bolide-impact as triggering mass extinctions, many have studied this hypothesis and the layer itself with its associated spherules and shocked quartz. At issue is whether the mass extinctions, and this horizon has an impact versus volcanic origin. A critical feature of the Alvarez hypothesis is the suggestion that the bolide or possibly a shower of objects delivered to the earth approx. 0.6 x 10 to the 18th power g of material which resulted in aerosol-sized ejecta such that global insolation was drastically reduced for significant periods. Such an event would lower temperatures on continents and halt photosynthesis in the upper 200 m of th eocean. The latter would strangle the marine food chain and thus produce the major marine faunal extinctions which mark the C-T boundary. Crucial issues examined include: What are the dynamics of atmospheric flow occurring upon impact of a large bolide with the earth; What is the size distributions of the very fine impact ejecta and how do these compare to the models of ejecta which are used to model the earth's radiative thermal balance. The flow field due to passage of a 10 km diameter bolide through an exponential atmosphere and the interaction of the gas flow and bolide with the solid ear was calculated. The CO2 released upon impact onto shallow marine carbonate sections was modeled and found that the mass of CO2 released exceeds the present 10 to the 18th power g CO2 budget of the earth's atmosphere by several times. Using the calculations of Kasting and Toon it was found that to compute the temperature rise of the earth's surface as a function of CO2 content, it was found that sudden and prolonged global increases are induced from impact of 20 to 50 km radius projectiles and propose that sudden

  20. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    they are an established practice, their associated environmental and economic trade-offs and conflicts have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively assess both economic and environmental impacts of hull management schemes on the operation of tanker vessels. After identifying induced...... and avoided costs and environmental impacts from the hull management system, we used both temporally and spatially distributed models to capture the degradation of the antifouling system as well as the global sailing profile of the vessels. Last, we analyzed how each of the modeled impacts varied...... of the service are likely to offset the savings—especially if fuel prices are low. In regards to climate change, avoided emissions due to fuel savings are likely to outweigh the limited impacts from the service itself. Last, while ecosystem impacts from marine, terrestrial, and freshwater eco-toxicity are likely...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protect the environment, it is imperative to conduct environmental impact assessment ... Ethiopia enacted the Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation in 2002 ... flora, fauna, soil, air, water, climate, natural or cultural heritage, other.

  2. Methodologies of environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroll, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction covering the objectives of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and sustainable development, before going on to describe the screening procedure to define the environmental and socio-economic impacts of projects. The EIA procedure outlined encompasses a description of the project, examination of all environmental effects (scoping), identification of existing and predicted environmental conditions and impacts, alternative measures and mitigating measures, co-ordination, with environmental regulations, public participation, and monitoring and approval of the EIA. (UK)

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  4. Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baroni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the most recent available scientific evidence, the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (USDA DG provide information and advice for choosing a healthy diet. To compare the environmental impacts of, respectively, omnivorous (OMN, lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV and vegan (VEG dietary patterns as suggested in the USDA DG, we analyzed the three patterns by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The presence of animal food in the diet was the main determinant of environmental impact. The major impact always stemmed from land and water use. The second largest impact came from energy use. Emission of toxic inorganic compounds into the atmosphere was the third cause of impact. Climate change and acidification/eutrophication represented other substantial impacts.

  5. Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Berati, Marina; Candilera, Maurizio; Tettamanti, Massimo

    2014-07-25

    Based on a review of the most recent available scientific evidence, the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (USDA DG) provide information and advice for choosing a healthy diet. To compare the environmental impacts of, respectively, omnivorous (OMN), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) and vegan (VEG) dietary patterns as suggested in the USDA DG, we analyzed the three patterns by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The presence of animal food in the diet was the main determinant of environmental impact. The major impact always stemmed from land and water use. The second largest impact came from energy use. Emission of toxic inorganic compounds into the atmosphere was the third cause of impact. Climate change and acidification/eutrophication represented other substantial impacts.

  6. Alcohol-related blackouts among college students: impact of low level of response to alcohol, ethnicity, sex, and environmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila D. Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how a genetically-influenced characteristic (the level of response to alcohol [LR], ethnicity, and sex relate to environmental and attitudinal characteristics (peer drinking [PEER], drinking to cope [COPE], and alcohol expectancies [EXPECT] regarding future alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs. Methods: Structural equation models (SEMs were used to evaluate how baseline variables related to ARB patterns in 462 college students over 55 weeks. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study of heavy drinking and its consequences at a U.S. university. Results: In the SEM analysis, female sex and Asian ethnicity directly predicted future ARBs (beta weights 0.10 and -0.11, respectively, while all other variables had indirect impacts on ARBs through alcohol quantities (beta weights ~ 0.23 for European American ethnicity and low LR, 0.21 for cannabis use and COPE, and 0.44 for PEER. Alcohol quantities then related to ARBs with beta = 0.44. The SEM explained 23% of the variance. Conclusion: These data may be useful in identifying college students who are more likely to experience future ARBs over a 1-year period. They enhance our understanding of whether the relationships of predictors to ARBs are direct or mediated through baseline drinking patterns, information that may be useful in prevention strategies for ARBs.

  7. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  8. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts of...

  9. Energy related environmental impact of buildings; Oekoinventar der Entsorgungsprozesse von Baumaterialien; Grundlagen zur Integration der Entsorgung in Oekobilanzen von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doka, G.

    2000-07-01

    Ecological assessments of buildings, constructions, and building materials are often focussed on the production and use phase. Disposal is mostly disregarded. This study within the IEA Annex 31 'Energy related environmental impact of buildings' shows that excluding disposal is not generally justified. A life cycle assessment of the disposal of various common building materials in Switzerland was conducted. It heeds energy consumption as well as directly or indirectly emitted pollutants. Valuation methods were Eco-indicator95+ and UBP (ecological scarcity). The study specifies disposal inventories for about 50 building materials. They are fit to complement inventory data for the production of materials. Unlike production, the disposal can only be assessed in the light of a specific building or construction. The potential for recycling is influenced by type of construction, application, and site-specific logistics. Durability of a material determines what proportion will be disposed of in renovation activities. Wherever possible and likely, disposal options with or without re-utilization are considered in the assessment. Building wastes are divided in construction wastes, renovation wastes, and demolition wastes, that can have quite different impact even for identical materials. The system boundary in the assessment includes expenditures on the building site like demolition energies, transports, expenditures in a sorting plant and the final disposal in an incinerator or landfill. According to the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, 46% of all burnable building wastes in Switzerland are disposed of illegally. Hence, in one scenario the disposal in an open fire was assessed for burnable wastes. The assessments of the disposal processes are material-specific, i.e. the post use-phase composition of the materials is heeded. The data applies to the situation in Switzerland. The results of the study are compared to the impacts of the

  10. The ability of environmental healthcare design strategies To impact event related anxiety in paediatric patients: A comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton-Westwood, Deborah; Pearson, Alan; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    Background Children's' hospitals are by definition hospitals specialized in all aspects of children's care, but are they and if so, how is that achieved? Are healthcare facilities more than a 'space' in which to ask medical questions, seek answers and obtain treatment? Some suggest that the very design of a space can positively or negatively impact healing, hence the term referred to by those in the architectural community as 'healing spaces'. To date empirical studies to provide evidence to this effect, although growing in number, are still few. What is known is that hospitals, doctor's offices and dental offices alike unintentionally create an atmosphere, particularly for children, that add to an already heightened level of anxiety and fear. Designing a children's hospital, unlike a generalist facility, presents a unique and significant challenge. Those involved in designing such hospitals are faced with the opportunity and responsibility to care for and respond to the needs of children across the age spectrum; infants to toddlers, school aged children to adolescents. As healthcare professionals and architects, it is our responsibility to create healthcare facilities that are of purposeful design; anticipating and alleviating children's anxiety and fear wherever possible.Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects of environmental design strategies in healthcare institutions such as hospitals and dental offices on event-related anxiety in the paediatric population.Inclusion Criteria This comprehensive systematic review involved children from the age of 1 to 18 years of age admitted to a healthcare facility with the primary outcomes of interest being four key design strategies: positive distraction; elimination of environmental stressors; access to social support and choice (control); and connection to nature.Search Strategy Using the Joanna Briggs defined three step search strategy, both published and unpublished studies were

  11. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  12. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  13. Evaluation of environmental impact predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.A.; Adams, S.M.; Kumar, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of the ecological monitoring program at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant showed that predictions of potential environmental impact made in the Final Environmental Statement (FES), which were based on generally accepted ecological principles, were not completely substantiated by environmental monitoring data. The Surry Nuclear Power Plant (Units 1 and 2) was chosen for study because of the facility's relatively continuous operating history and the availability of environmental data adequate for analysis. Preoperational and operational fish monitoring data were used to assess the validity of the FES prediction that fish would congregate in the thermal plume during winter months and would avoid the plume during summer months. Analysis of monitoring data showed that fish catch per unit effort (CPE) was generally high in the thermal plume during winter months; however, the highest fish catches occurred in the plume during the summer. Possible explanations for differences between the FES prediction and results observed in analysis of monitoring data are discussed, and general recommendations are outlined for improving impact assessment predictions

  14. Automobile - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, H.

    1993-01-01

    The way balances have been drawn up by business companies until now, they can be regarded as an attempt to develop an instrument for environmental management within the company that makes it possible to examine the ecological effects of the manufactured products during their life cycle. The strong points of such ecobalances can be put to use in the following areas in the future: Information on products and processes obtained through an analysis of the weakest points of the production process can be used for puposes of environmental management. With the aid of such examinations for weak points it then becomes possible to optimise products or processes. Comparative studies extending over years permit an assessment of corporate measures for environment protection and process adjustment. Moreover, ecobalances can serve as a guide for the selection of component concepts. The advantage of a balance related to the whole life cycle lies above all in the fact that the piecemeal studies on energy consumption and waste accumulation by stage can now be replaced by an integral, comprehensive registration of data and processes. (orig./UA) [de

  15. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS/EIS) for the Upper Truckee River Restoration and Marsh Restoration Project (Project). The California Tahoe Conservancy and the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, the other lead agencies for the Project, made the EIR/EIS/EIS available to the public on February 8, 2013.

  16. Environmental-impact appraisal related to special nuclear materials. License No. SNM-696; Docket No. 70-734

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This Environmental Impact Appraisal is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to an application by GA Technologies, Inc., (GA) for renewal of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) License No. SNM-696 covering plant operations at San Diego, California. The proposed action provides for continuing research, development, and production activities involving SNM, uranium enriched in the U-235 and U-233 isotopes, and plutonium

  17. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  18. What Are the Relative Macroeconomic Merits and Environmental Impacts of Direct Job Creation and Basic Income Guarantees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina R. Tcherneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a body of literature that favors universal and unconditional public assurance policies over those that are targeted and means-tested. Two such proposals—the basic income proposal and job guarantees—are discussed here. The paper evaluates the impact of each program on macroeconomic stability, arguing that direct job creation has inherent stabilization features that are lacking in the basic income proposal. A discussion of modern finance and labor market dynamics renders the latter proposal inherently inflationary, and potentially stagflationary. After studying the macroeconomic viability of each program, the paper elaborates on their environmental merits. It is argued that the “green” consequences of the basic income proposal are likely to emerge, not from its modus operandi, but from the tax schemes that have been advanced for its financing. By contrast, the job guarantee proposal can serve as an institutional vehicle for achieving various environmental goals by explicitly targeting environmental rehabilitation, conservation, and sustainability. Finally, in the hope of consensus building, the paper advances a joint policy proposal that is economically viable, environmentally friendly, and socially just.

  19. Environmental Impact Study - Impact Report on the Environment: analysis of the present legislation and the perspectives. An approach related to the electric sector; EIA - RIMA : analise atual legislacao e as perspectivas. Uma abordagem relativa ao setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Alessio Bento [Secretaria de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1994-07-01

    The present work analyze the present legal structure for environment protection considering the impacts to which the nature is submitted as consequence of the electric power generation transmission and distribution. The work evaluate the the legal directives for elaboration of environmental impact study, as far the pertinence and applicability related to the objectives to be attained is concerned.

  20. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oussanov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  1. Risks and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In environmental matters as in other fields, managing a crisis is always more perilous and the results more uncertain than taking preventive measures beforehand. Prevention in environmental matters involves far more than border controls, although those are essential. In New Caledonia perhaps more than elsewhere, an appropriate strategy would also involve monitoring contamination within the territory, particularly island-to-island transfers. Some species may be inoffensive in one part of the t...

  2. Environmental impact assessment. Investigation of marine mammals in relation to the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-15

    Elsamproject has decided to carry out an environmental impact assessment with the aim to investigate whether the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef may impact on breeding and non-breeding marine mammals, particularly harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and common seal Phoca vitulina. The marine mammals of the northern part of the German Bight can be characterised by a regular occurrence of harbour porpoise and common seal throughout the year, an irregular occurrence of grey seal Halichoerus grypus and white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and rare occurrences of white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas and killer whale Orcinus orca. The environment impact assessment therefore focuses on the evaluation of the possible effects on harbour porpoise and common seal. The investigation constitutes the first phase of a before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis of the occurrence of harbour porpoise before, during and after the construction of the wind farm. (au)

  3. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  4. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... significant impacts on the environment. When the applicant, after consultation with any project sponsor that...

  5. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Health Impacts of Environmental Mycobacteria†

    OpenAIRE

    Primm, Todd P.; Lucero, Christie A.; Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The health impacts of human-mycobacterial interactions are complex and likely much broader than currently recognized. Environmental mycobacteria preferentially survive chlorination in municipal water, using it as a vector to infect humans. Widespread chlorination of water has likely selected more resistant environmental mycobacteria species and potentially explains the shift from M. scrof...

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Roura, R.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    This publication focuses on the instrument of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that has been developed within the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) as one of the tools to promote environmental protection. The states involved in the ATS already recognized the importance of this instrument in 1975

  8. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  9. Environmental communication in business relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    in the way, in which a company organise, communicate and learn in order to succeed in business. The ambition level regarding environmental improvements in each strategy can differ. The three strategies are not mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they supplement and support each other. Empirical data...... is collected by means of environmental reports, qualitative questionnaires, and a case study at Grundfos A/S in Denmark. These data will be discussed in relation to the three strategies of environmental communication. Different trends in environmental communication practise are found, and on this basis......, recommendations are made in order to improve environmental communication in business relations....

  10. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities. 2 figs. 7 refs.

  11. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  12. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oussanov, V.I. [State Scientific Center Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  13. Environmental impact statement law and environmental impact statement administration regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution does not deal with the question - as might be suggested by the heading - that the execution of the environmental impact statement law might be uncertain if there are no further accompanying legal transformatory acts. Putting the environmental impact statements into action is concerned in partiuclar with procedural provisions regarding the Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Act. The author deals with aspects of the environmental impact statement law and the state-of-the-art achieved so far. He also deals with legislative intent, with further points of putting the law into practice, i.e. the information requirements in the administrative provisions and the integrating aspect, the amalgamating aspect, the requirements made on the state of the environment, and the significance of administrative provisions. Also treated are legal procedures in the Federal Laender and on an international level. (RST) [de

  14. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  15. 77 FR 74479 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9006-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/03/2012 Through... Transit Project, Construction-Related Potential Impacts on Business Revenue, St. Paul and Twin Cities...

  16. 77 FR 55213 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9004-9] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/27/2012 through... Conditions by Reducing Road-Related Impacts to Wildlife, Fish, Soil, and Water Resources and Restoration of...

  17. The environmental impacts of wind and water power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twidell, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The success of a typical renewable energy project depends about 40% on technology and about 60% on institutional factors. The latter include regulations, financing and environmental impact, with many of the regulations and some financial factors themselves relating to environmental impact. This paper attempts to define and categorize aspects of environmental impact, especially regarding wind and hydro power projects. (author)

  18. The methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities and activities. The stages of evaluation of environmental impacts are proved. The algorithm and technology of decision-making in the system of environmental impact assessments based on a multi-criteria utility theory are proposed.

  19. Social and environmental impact of volcaniclastic flows related to 472 AD eruption at Vesuvius from stratigraphic and geoarcheological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; de Vita, Sandro; Rucco, Ilaria; Bini, Monica; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Aurino, Paola; Cesarano, Mario; Ebanista, Carlo; Rosi, Mauro; Ricciardi, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing number of evidences in the surrounding plain of Somma-Vesuvius volcano which indicate that along with primary volcanic processes (i.e. fallout, pyroclastic density currents) the syn-eruptive and post-eruptive volcaniclastic remobilization has severely impacted the ancient civilizations, which flourished in the area. This represents an important starting point for understanding the future hazard related to a potential (and not remote) renewal of volcanic activity of the Campaniana volcanoes. We present geoarcheological and stratigraphic data obtained from the analysis of more than 160 sections in the Campanian plain showing the widespread impact of volcaniclastic debris flows and floods originated from the rapid remobilization of the products of the AD 472 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius, both on the environment and on the human landscape. This eruption was one of the two sub-Plinian historical events of Somma Vesuvius. This event largely impacted the northern and eastern territory surrounding the volcano with deposition of a complex sequence of pyroclastic-fallout and -current deposits. These sequences were variably affected by syn- and post-eruptive mobilization both along the Somma-Vesuvius slopes and the Apennine valleys with the emplacement of thick mud- and debris-flows which strongly modified the preexisting paleogeography of the Plain with irretrievable damages to the agricultural and urban landscape. The multidisciplinary approach to the study of the sequences permitted to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment before the eruption and the timing of the emplacement of both pyroclastic and volcanoclastic deposits. The preexisting landscape was characterized by intense human occupation, although showing strong evidences of degradation and abandonment due to the progressive decline of the Roman Empire. The impact of volcaniclastic flows continued for decades after the eruption as highlighted in the studied sequences by stratigraphic and archaeologic

  20. Environmental Impact Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris-Maxdoni-Kamil

    2001-01-01

    In general, EIA is assumed as one of documents needed to fulfill the requirement for operating an activity. In relation to EMS-ISO 14000, a good and high quality EIA is an asset for preparing and implementing the management system. Recently, some EIA's that have been prepared with low quality. Therefore, an evaluation of methodology of preparation an IEA should be conducted such that the quality can be improved. This paper describes the relationship between EIA and EMS-ISO 14000 such that the value of EIA can be more appreciated. (author)

  1. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed......One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... adaptation is absent. Also, the results show an emphasis on positive impacts in the reports, and in a few cases discussions of enhancements. Identification and assessment of negative climate change impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  2. Evaluation of the environmental impact in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, O.

    2004-01-01

    The present work, shows the origin and development of the evaluation of the environmental impact in Mexico, like juridical-environmental instrument, it is the environmental politics' s instrument that is relatively new, with the time it has suffered modifications of technical, administrative, law and conceptual nature. It has changed in substantial form, its importance inside the general outline of protection of the natural resources of Mexico, which is reflected in the structure of the organisms that are responsible for applying it. The objectives of the work embrace describing the antecedents of the evaluation of the environmental impact, to provide a reference mark, and to observe the evolution of this juridical instrument, as well as to summarize more outstanding aspects of the evaluation of the environmental impact; making emphasis in the form like it has been related with the environmental politics' s instruments; and to point out the changes that the procedure of evaluation of the environmental impact has fomented in the development outlines, in the technology and even in the human thought. The results of the evaluation and dictamination of the projects that entered to the procedure of environmental impact in the period 1995-2000 are observed that of the 6,100 entered projects, 5,533 were resolved, which means that answer was given to 91% of the total of projects that entered; of the work it can be concluded that this juridical-environmental instrument, it has evolved with the step of the time and it has left adapting according to the juridical, administrative procedures, technicians and of sustainable development of Mexico

  3. How environmental costs impact DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of environmental costs of electricity generation into utility planning of demand side management (DSM) programs. The topics include approach and assumptions, overview of spreadsheet approach, results of the analyses, and the application of this approach to other areas of utility management such as new generation projects, sales of new generation capacity, and utility liability and management prudency

  4. Environmental impact of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of articles offers answers to questions on the environmental consequences and impact on man of the power generation industry. Subjects discussed in detail include: (i) acid rain and climate change and how the generators of electricity have been expected to play a role disproportionate to their deleterious contributions in improving the situation; (ii) recently adopted air quality management approaches with regard to airborne emissions from power stations and motor vehicles; (iii) the evolution of the UK power industry towards sustainability through considerations for the environment and use of resources in a liberalised market; (iv) the Best Practicable Environmental Option approach to the design and siting of power stations; (v) the environmental impact of nuclear power generation and (vi) electromagnetic fields and the possible effects on man of transmitting electricity in overhead power lines

  5. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the site and proposed facility are described in this report

  6. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries management in lower ... Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of ... Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had ...

  7. Using a detailed inventory of a large wastewater treatment plant to estimate the relative importance of construction to the overall environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Serni; Corominas, Lluís; Rigola, Miquel; Poch, Manel; Comas, Joaquim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the relative contribution to the overall environmental impact of the construction phase compared to the operational phase for a large conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To estimate these environmental impacts, a systematic procedure was designed to obtain the detailed Life Cycle Inventories (LCI) for civil works and equipment, taking as starting point the construction project budget and the list of equipment installed at the Girona WWTP, which are the most reliable information sources of materials and resources used during the construction phase. A detailed inventory is conducted by including 45 materials for civil works and 1,240 devices for the equipment. For most of the impact categories and different life spans of the WWTP, the contribution of the construction phase to the overall burden is higher than 5% and, especially for metal depletion, the impact of construction reaches 63%. When comparing to the WWTP inventories available in Ecoinvent the share of construction obtained in this work is about 3 times smaller for climate change and twice higher for metal depletion. Concrete and reinforcing steel are the materials with the highest contribution to the civil works phase and motors, pumps and mobile and transport equipment are also key equipment to consider during life cycle inventories of WWTPs. Additional robust inventories for similar WWTP can leverage this work by applying the factors (kg of materials and energy per m 3 of treated water) and guidance provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Composition and structure of the larval fish community related to environmental parameters in a tropical estuary impacted by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloterdijk, Hans; Brehmer, Patrice; Sadio, Oumar; Müller, Hanno; Döring, Julian; Ekau, Werner

    2017-10-01

    Mangrove ecosystems have long been considered essential habitats and are commonly viewed and referred to as "nursery areas". They are highly sensitive to climate change, and environmental transformations in these ecosystems are expected. The Sine Saloum estuary is a case of a system affected by global climate change where reduced precipitation and temperature increase have resulted in an inversion of the salinity gradient. Within the estuary, the composition and structure of the larval fish community related to environmental parameters were investigated using neuston and ring trawl nets. Larval fishes were sampled at 16 stations distributed along a salinity and distance-to-the-sea gradient during four field campaigns (November 2013, February, June, and August 2014) covering an annual cycle. This is the first study documenting the spatial and temporal assemblages of fish larvae in an inverse estuary. The total of 41 taxa representing 24 families and 34 genus identified in this study was lower than that of other tropical estuaries. Clupeidae spp. was the dominant taxon, accounting for 28.9% of the total number of fish larvae caught, followed by Gerreidae spp. (21.1%), Hyporamphus picarti (18.8%), Diplodus bellottii (8.9%), Hypleurochilus langi (4.8%), Mugilidae spp. (4.4%), and Gobiidae sp.1 (3.5%). A total of 20 taxa were recorded within the upper estuary region, whereas 29 and 37 taxa were observed in the middle and lower reaches, respectively. While larval fish were captured at all sites and during all seasons, abundances and richness decreased with increasing salinity. Larval fish assemblages also showed a clear vertical structure corresponding to three distinct water strata. Salinity, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were the variables that best explained the spatial and temporal differences in larval fish assemblages. It is difficult to forecast the future situation for this system but so far, compared to other mangrove estuarine systems, we have

  9. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  10. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  11. The environmental impact of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummery, P.W.; Howells, H.; Scriven, A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; basis of hazard assessment (dose limits - ICRP recommendations; biological radiation effects); comparison of standards and practice in the UK and USA in the limitation of exposure of the public as a consequence of discharges of radioactive effluent to the environment; nature of reprocessing operations (Thermal Oxide Fuel Reprocessing Plant (THORP); storage ponds; fuel shearing; leaching; clarification; solvent extraction; finishing); waste management (liquids, solids, gases); waste discharges; environmental impact of normal operations (identification of the critical groups; exposure of critical groups; risks and exposures, occupational and collective); environmental impact of accidents (risk - probability multiplied by consequence of the event; types of accident considered); conclusion. (U.K.)

  12. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  13. 76 FR 45515 - Second Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Related to Two Joint State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ..., socioeconomics, tourism and recreation, environmental justice, cultural resources, human health, and cumulative... to determine if the actions may affect the human environment. The co-managers' Resource Management... Resource Management Plans for Puget Sound Hatchery Programs and Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY...

  14. Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mengshan; Keller, Arturo A.; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Den, Walter; Wang, Hongtao; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This study quantifies the nexus as energy intensity and greenhouse gas potential. •Baseline water stress and return flow ratio are identified as water risks. •Source water accessibility significantly contributes to variations in the nexus. •Water risks have little impact on the nexus of wastewater systems. •Study on the nexus is suggested to be conducted at regional levels. -- Abstract: The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great

  15. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little consideration has been given to the environmental impact of anaesthetic gas .... our practice to select gases with a lower environmental impact is also ... is used as raw material for new anaesthetics. ... none in the pipeline.1. Conclusion.

  16. Polychaete/amphipod ratio as an indicator of environmental impact related to offshore oil and gas production along the Norwegian continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Hector; Renaud, Paul E

    2011-12-01

    Benthic faunal data is regularly collected worldwide to assess the ecological quality of marine environments. Recently, there has been renewed interest in developing biological indices able to identify environmental status and potential anthropogenic impacts. In this paper we evaluate the performance of a general polychaete/amphipod ratio along the Norwegian continental shelf as an environmental indicator for offshore oil and gas impacts. Two main trends are apparent: first, a contamination gradient is discernible from where production takes place compared to stations 10,000 m away. Second, the quality of the marine environment has improved over time. These results are consistent with monitoring reports employing a combination of uni- and multi-variate statistics. Thus, we consider this ratio as a relatively simple, useful and potentially cost-effective complement to other more demanding assessment techniques. Because of its strong theoretical basis, it may also be useful for detecting ecological change as a result of other activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact...) for the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the disposition of the Bureau of Mines property...

  18. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section 266.19... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.19 Environmental impact. (a) General. The Administrator has determined that providing..., or other significant adverse environmental impact on any mode of transportation; (6) The action is...

  19. The EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) Process in Relation to the Proposed Naval Task Force at Everett, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    decision before filing the EA. Also, the transfer of fuel and arms and the change in economic and social enviromental effects warranted an EIS. Facts: The...must deal with many of the same environmental, social , and economic problems that are evident. The basing of a Naval Task Force in Puget Sound stems from...which involves unresolved conflicts e. V.V..4 President OMB Cirua * NEPA of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321) CEQ/EIS Guidelines 40 CFR 1500-1508 . 7 Excuiv Ordc

  20. Final Environmental Impact Statement Relating to the Operation and Maintenance of the Fox River, Wisconsin Navigation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    30 te1e i), ’Y , W.i sonsin 54305 X1 Tom Peters Dr. G. Fred Lee c/o CH2M Center for Environmental Studies 200 S.W. Market University of Texas at Dallas...0 A. 31 v. 0 4𔃻C . ~ 0. > -’ C 1 - UCg J- . 0 u m a) 0 mC-. 40vc C AC- J. CL -0 0WuIL m0C a- 1 .19 41’c 0 0 ’C’ , 0 C’ .11t t% * 0 0’N 41I.Z FN- It 0...later industrial products moved to markets in the east. Appleton, Kim- berly, Little Chute, Combined Locks, and Kaukauna developed and grew around sites

  1. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical......Environmental sustainability has become an issue of uttermost importance for business organisations. Therefore, the implementation of corporate environmental initiatives has been vigorously embraced by industry. Two decades ago, no clear picture of industry initiatives to reduce their environmental...... popularity of self-regulation, voluntary initiatives do not tend to be widely adopted by SMEs, stressing a need for a continuing regulation of industry’s behaviour in relation to environmental issues....

  2. Impact of Environmental Auditing on Environmental Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    and sustainable development, environmental pollution and healthy environment. To achieve the desired sustainable ... Dates: Received: 12February 2018; Revised: 08 April: 2018; Accepted: 16 April 2018 ..... Commerce (ICC), Paris. Lynn, R ...

  3. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  4. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use of various materials in laptop enclosures (excluding mounting hardware, internal components, and insulation) using screening-level life cycle assessment. The baseline material, is a fossil plastic blend of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Alternative materials include polylactic acid, bamboo, aluminum, and various combinations of these materials known to be currently used or being considered for use in laptops. The flame retardants considered in this study are bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, and borax-boric acid-phosphorous acid. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts v2.1 was used for the assessment of impacts related to climate change, human and ecological health, and resource use. The assessment demonstrates that plastics, relative to the other materials, are currently some of the better performing materials in terms of having the lowest potential environmental impact for a greater number of impact categories based on product life cycle models developed in this study. For fossil plastics, the material performance increases with increasing post-con

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of age-related environmental impact of biogenic hydraulic fluids; Life Cycle Assessment der alterungsbedingten Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogener Hydraulik-Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressling, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic hydraulic fluids, based on synthetic esters (category: HEES), have an excellent environmental profile in the unused state, so that they are typically classified into water hazard class 1 or as ''not hazardous to water''. During storage at room temperature and tribological application, occurring chemical and toxicological changes take no account in the classification of lubricants until now. However, the ageing and oxidation stability gets increasing importance, since it determines the service life of lubricants in tribological systems in addition to the storage time. Since it always comes to direct and uncontrolled entries into the environment in case of accidents or hydraulic leaks, it is essential to assess whether there is an environmental hazard by waste oils. With an increased use of biogenic hydraulic fluids in environmentally sensitive areas, thus the need for an appropriate monitoring and assessment approach as part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The aquatic and miniaturised test procedures applied in this work with the Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) concept, allows a simple and quick screening of age-related ecotoxic potential of lubricants by oxidative processes and tribological application. For detection of genotoxic potential the umu-test is a suitable indicator test to detect geno- and cytotoxic effects by oxidative reactions. The determination of biodegradability is essential for the assessment of the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids. The optimised biodegradability test system ''O2/CO2-Headspace Test'' has proved itself as a suitable procedure for the investigation of biogenic lubricants within the scope of a LCA and shows therefore a comparable method of the required test procedures for the assignment of ecolabels. In addition, the combination of biological test procedures and chemical analysis allows a comprehensive investigation of effects and causes of age-related changes of hydraulic

  7. Methodical approaches to managing risks for endocrine diseases evolvement in children related to impacts of environmental factors occuring on areas aimed for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Luzhetskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital to develop systems of preventing risk-associated pathology due to constantly high levels of endocrine diseases in children exposed to chemicals with trophic effects on endocrine system (lead, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, benzpyrene, chlorine-organic compounds, and nitrates. Applying risk management techniques is one of the most promising trends in prevention of diseases related to environmental impacts. We offer methodical approaches based on system combination of activities at various management levels aimed at improving risk-oriented model of surveillance and control. These approaches enable allowing for detected thropic risk factors in regional social-hygienic monitoring programs, implementing algorithms of case monitoring over exposed children population, and applying contemporary prevention technologies. Social-hygienic monitoring improvement at territorial level implies stricter control and more comprehensive lists of monitored components. This can be achieved by studying compounds which form risks for endocrine system, by working out scientific-methodological grounds for accounting chemical compounds which are trophic for endocrine system, as well as by refining volumes and contents of scheduled inspections performed at high risks objects together with laboratory examination of chemical compounds including those thropic for endocrine system. Local level includes algorithms and schemes of prevention activities aimed at early detection of endocrine disorders related to chemicals impacts. When we give grounds for personified technologies of endocrine diseases prevention (alimentary disorders, physical retardation and obesity related to impacts exerted by chemicals which are trophic for endocrine system we should remember that individual programs choice is based not only on their capacity to eliminate priority compounds determining total chemical load on a person faster but also on

  8. 76 FR 21345 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8996-4] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/04/2011 Through 04...

  9. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9010-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through...

  10. Environmental impact of climate change in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Raja, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change results in the increase or decrease in temperature and rainfall. These have significant impact on environment - impinge agricultural crop yields, affect human health, cause changes to forests and other ecosystems, and even impact our energy supply. Climate change is a global phenomenon and its impact can be observed on Pakistan's economy and environment. This paper contains details concerning the climate change and environmental impacts. It takes into account current and projected key vulnerabilities, prospects for adaptation, and the relationships between climate change mitigation and environment. The purpose of the study is to devise national policies and incentive systems combined with national level capacity-building programs to encourage demand-oriented conservation technologies. Recommendations are also made to abate the climate change related issues in country. (author)

  11. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  12. Methodological proposal for environmental impact evaluation since different specific methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego; Lopera Arango Gabriel Jaime

    1999-01-01

    Some conceptual and practical elements related to environmental impact evaluation are described and related to the preparation of technical reports (environmental impact studies and environmental management plans) to be presented to environmental authorities for obtaining the environmental permits for development projects. In the first part of the document a summary of the main aspects of normative type is made that support the studies of environmental impact in Colombia. We propose a diagram for boarding and elaboration of the evaluation of environmental impact, which begins with the description of the project and of the environmental conditions in the area of the same. Passing then to identify the impacts through a method matricial and continuing with the quantitative evaluation of the same. For which we propose the use of the method developed by Arboleda (1994). Also we propose to qualify the activities of the project and the components of the environment in their relative importance, by means of a method here denominated agglomerate evaluation. Which allows finding those activities more impacting and the mostly impacted components. Lastly it is presented some models for the elaboration and presentation of the environmental management plans. The pursuit programs and those of environmental supervision

  13. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the Commission's implementing regulations, and the Commission's April 27, 1981 Statement of Policy, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 NUREG-0683 (PEIS) is being supplemented. This supplement updates the environmental evaluation of accident-generated water disposal alternatives published in the PEIS, utilizing more complete and current information. Also, the supplement includes a specific environmental evaluation of the licensee's proposal for water disposition. Although no clearly preferable water disposal alternative was identified, the supplement concluded that a number of alternatives could be implemented without significant environmental impact. The NRC staff has concluded that the licensee's proposed disposal of the accident-generated water by evaporation will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Further, any impacts from the disposal program are outweighed by its benefits

  14. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  15. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation and California Department of Water Resources intend to prepare an environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the implementation of actions I.6.1 and I.7 identified in the National Marine Fisheries Service's 2009 Biological Opinion and Conference Opinion on the Long-term Operation of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project Reasonable and Prudent Alternative. These actions consist of salmonid habitat restoration efforts within the lower Sacramento River basin and fish passage through the Yolo Bypass. We are seeking suggestions and information on the alternatives and topics to be addressed and any other important issues related to the proposed action.

  16. Environmental impacts of construction materials use: a life cycle perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available of the environmental impacts of a product (or service). The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept previously known as Life Cycle Analysis has emerged as one of the most appropriate tools for assessing product-related environmental impacts and for supporting an effective...

  17. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  18. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology ... maze of pipelines, delivery lines, flow lines, canals and .... Toxic Materials and international waterways.

  19. Ports Primer: 7.1 Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  20. Ports Primer: 7.0 Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  1. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects offers an analysis of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of wind energy, along with an evaluation guide to aid decision-making about projects...

  2. Environmental impacts of energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian society today is concerned about the health and environmental risks of technologies. The major environmental issues of concern for technologies available for electricity generation are air emissions, management of wastes generated and land requirements. The production of electricity in India is primarily composed of a mix of thermal and hydroelectric power plants with nuclear energy currently contributing to an extent of slightly above 2.0%. For maintaining a decent living standard the present electricity generation has to be increased manifold and with the existing commercially available technologies this can lead to a greater impact on the environment in the immediate vicinity of plant unless a judicious mix is chosen. India which hardly contributed 1 of the global pollution in the year 1950 contributes about 20% now and with the growth in electricity generation its contribution will also be slightly increasing and hence environment will have to be one of the guiding factors in future choice of technologies for the growth of electric power generation. Indian coal has a very high ash content (30 - 50 %) and hence the fly ash problem in India can be severe. During the year 1993-94 approximately 33 million tonnes of fly ash was generated in India from the coal fired thermal power stations. The land requirement for disposal of this ash is continuously increasing. The disposal of fly ash near water bodies will also create difficulties as in addition to radionuclides, toxic trace elements may also get washed out. Pollution from the use of coal will have a definite effect on the environment in addition to depletion of the energy source

  3. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  4. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  5. Energetic technologies and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This monograph is a collective work by scientist from CIEMAT (Spanish centre for research on energy, environment and technology). By reviewing the central topics of their own work, the authors present a world-wide update of the state of the arts of the different technologies involved in energy production. The chapters fo through the more promising technologies related to the diverse energy sources, from the nuclear to the renewable and chemical a large gamut of energy supply ways is revised. The analysis of the production technologies is accompanied by considerations of the environmental implications, an aspect to wich a whole part of the volume is devoted. The book begins with a foreword by Dr. Felix Yndurain, former General Director of CIEMAT and follows with a general introduction to the main topics, that are presented in three parts, with specific introductions. There is also a closing fourth part that includes some additional activities where more basic and technical developments are included. The first part is devoted to energy of nuclear origin. In two separate sections, fission and fusion technologies are covered. The fission section points towards the present day problems of nuclear plants (ageing, accidents, risk analysis, etc.), reprocessing of the nuclear fuel, radioactive wastes and environmental radioactivity. The fusion section contains a critical account of the present and expected developments of the fusion reactors together with an exposition of the related plasma physics problems. The second part comprises two sections devoted to energy generation of renewable and chemical origin, respectively. Tehcnologies for solar, wind and biomass energies are thoroughly exposed along the renewable energy section whereas the chemical energy section is devoted to the modern technologies of clean fossil fuel combustion and gasification, as well as to the new appealing subject of direct electric generation with fuel cells. The main environmental and social

  6. Programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320): Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the Commission's implementing regulations and its April 27, 1981 Statement of Policy, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 NUREG-0683 (PEIS) is being supplemented. This draft supplement updates the environmental evaluation of accident-generated water disposal alternatives published in the PEIS, utilizing more complete and current information. Also, the draft supplement includes a specific environmental evaluation of the licensee's recently submitted proposal for water disposition

  7. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  8. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  9. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  10. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  11. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Environmental Management Act of 1996, Malawi has been using environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a tool for predicting and assessing the impact of development projects on the environment. This study assessed the extent of public participation in Malawi's EIA process. Desktop study of ...

  12. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Poroddsson, P.

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  13. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Santos, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship between climate change adaptation and environmental impact assessment, and the degree to which environmental impacts are included in climate change adaptation theory and practice. Our literature review showed that technical, social and economic perspectives on climate change adaptation receive much more attention than the environmental perspective. The scarce interest on the environmental impacts of adaptation may be attributed to (1) an excessive sectoral approach, with dominance of non-environmental perspectives, (2) greater interest in mitigation and direct climate change impacts rather than in adaptation impacts, (3) a tendency to consider adaptation as inherently good, and (4) subjective/preconceived notions on which measures are good or bad, without a comprehensive assessment. Environmental Assessment (EA) has a long established history as an effective tool to include environment into decision-making, although it does not yet guarantee a proper assessment of adaptation, because it is still possible to postpone or even circumvent the processes of assessing the impacts of climate adaptation. Our results suggest that there is a need to address adaptation proactively by including it in EA, to update current policy frameworks, and to demand robust and reliable evaluation of alternatives. Only through the full EA of adaptation measures can we improve our understanding of the primary and secondary impacts of adaptation to global environmental change. - Highlights: • Climate change adaptation may have undesirable environmental impacts. • The impacts of adaptation are yet poorly analysed in the literature. • There is an excessive sectoral approach to adaptation, mainly

  14. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)/Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 13, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, Maria J., E-mail: M.J.FerreiraDosSantos@uu.nl [Department of Innovation, Environmental and Energy Sciences, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3572 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship between climate change adaptation and environmental impact assessment, and the degree to which environmental impacts are included in climate change adaptation theory and practice. Our literature review showed that technical, social and economic perspectives on climate change adaptation receive much more attention than the environmental perspective. The scarce interest on the environmental impacts of adaptation may be attributed to (1) an excessive sectoral approach, with dominance of non-environmental perspectives, (2) greater interest in mitigation and direct climate change impacts rather than in adaptation impacts, (3) a tendency to consider adaptation as inherently good, and (4) subjective/preconceived notions on which measures are good or bad, without a comprehensive assessment. Environmental Assessment (EA) has a long established history as an effective tool to include environment into decision-making, although it does not yet guarantee a proper assessment of adaptation, because it is still possible to postpone or even circumvent the processes of assessing the impacts of climate adaptation. Our results suggest that there is a need to address adaptation proactively by including it in EA, to update current policy frameworks, and to demand robust and reliable evaluation of alternatives. Only through the full EA of adaptation measures can we improve our understanding of the primary and secondary impacts of adaptation to global environmental change. - Highlights: • Climate change adaptation may have undesirable environmental impacts. • The impacts of adaptation are yet poorly analysed in the literature. • There is an excessive sectoral approach to adaptation, mainly

  15. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...

  16. Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment : An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  17. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  18. Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen; Jones, Carys; Slinn, Paul; Wood, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The widespread experience of environmental impact assessment (EIA) as an anticipatory environmental management tool has generated a considerable debate over the extent to which it is achieving its purposes. This has been measured in terms of EIA 'effectiveness', especially as discussion has moved away from issues of procedural implementation, to the more substantive goals of EIA and its place within broader decision-making contexts. Empirical studies have revealed the relatively weak degree of influence on planning decisions that is being exerted by EIA, which is increasingly being attributed to its rationalist beginnings. This article seeks to direct this debate towards the founding political purposes of EIA which, it is argued, provide a neglected, yet strong, basis for EIA reform. A number of illustrative suggestions are made as a result of this redirection, to enable EIA to adopt a more determinative role in decision making and to contribute to more sustainable patterns of development planning

  19. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. E-IMPACT - A ROBUST HAZARD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHANDOKER A. HOSSAIN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hazard-based environmental impact assessment approach (E-Impact, for evaluating the environmental impact during process design and retrofit stages. E-Impact replaces the normalisation step of the conventional impact assessment phase. This approach compares the impact scores for different options and assigns a relative score to each option. This eliminates the complexity of the normalisation step in the evaluation phase. The applicability of the E-Impact has been illustrated through a case study of solvent selection in an acrylic acid manufacturing plant. E-Impact is used in conjunction with Aspen-HYSYS process simulator to develop mass and heat balance data.

  1. Evaluation Tools of nanomaterials environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology show an increasing spread thanks to the special properties of nanomaterials (NM). Knowledge of the NM behavior and interactions with the environment and human health is still insufficient to assess the impact of the NM. A multidisciplinary, multidimensional and systemic such as that of the life cycle (Life Cycle Thinking - LCT), applied through the tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is essential in environmental sustainability assessment of technologies, with some limitations that can be overcome through integration with other instruments such as, for example, non-linear models, analysis of flows of material, Risk Assessment (RA). This article offers a detailed analysis of the state and the main problems related to the application of LCA and RA to NM both separately and in combined use; They will then discuss the strategies and integrations needed to overcome the limitations of both methods and obtain robust assessments of the impacts on health and the environment [it

  2. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  3. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  4. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  5. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  6. Environmental impacts on technical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between an object and its environment is examined by methods of environment simulation. With regard to possible synergisms, technical considerations and holistic thinking are essential. Environmental simulation is mainly concerned with questions of ability to function and the service life of technical products in their environment. The environmental simulation is used to discover cause/effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Questions of artificial ageing and speeded up time tests play a great part here. (orig.) [de

  7. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars, and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. Methods/Design This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation. This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. Discussion This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter

  8. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Waters, Elizabeth; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; Gold, Lisa; Gussy, Mark; Scott, Anthony; Lacy, Kathleen; Virgo-Milton, Monica

    2011-06-27

    Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars), and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated) water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation). This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter social and environmental factors which predispose infants and

  9. Environmental impact of Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2005-01-01

    Environmental impact of the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) has been quantitatively evaluated in terms of the radiotoxicity of transuranic (TRU) and fission-product radionuclides existing in the environment after released from failed packages. Inventory abstraction has been made based on the data published in Final Environmental Impact Statement published by US DOE. Mathematical model and computation code have been developed based on analytical solutions. Environmental impact from the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) packages is about 90% of the total impact including the contribution from defense waste (DW) packages. Impacts due to isotopes of Cm, Am, Pu and Np, and their decay daughters are dominant, compared with those from fission-product nuclides. Numerical results show that reduction of the TRU nuclides by a factor of 100 makes the impact from CSNF smaller than that from DW. (author)

  10. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared in...

  11. Environmental impact assessment for the Nova projects (Building 391 complex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment of the Nova projects (Building 391 Complex) describes (1) the proposed actions, (2) the existing environment in and around the Livermore Valley, and (3) the potential environmental impacts from the construction and operation of these facilities. It shows that the proposed action does not conflict with any Federal, State, Regional, or Local Plans and Programs. Possible alternatives to the proposed action are discussed. However, it is concluded that the proposed actions were the most reasonable of the alternatives and would involve relatively minor adverse environmental impacts

  12. Impacts of Environmental Discourse on Environmental Art and its Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Plešivčnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the field of environmental art and assesses the impacts of the prevailing environmental discourse on environmental and ecological topics in the development of art. It shows how the popularization of environmental discourse and environmental themes encouraged the growth of art that is entirely focused on its ecological and environmental contexts. In the context of researching art in terms of promoting deep and positive changes in the appreciation of the environment and nature, this research also stresses the importance of the aesthetic experience of the environment in artistic creation. Exploring this approach reveals key differences between artists who focus on solving ecological problems and aesthetically engaged artists who adopt a deep and inclusive focus on the environment itself.

  13. Assigment of environmental aspect and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management system (EMS is a part of the management system that includes the organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. The EMS provides the order and consistency for organizations to adress environmental cocerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibilities, and the ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. The ISO 14001 requires the implementation of the EMS in accordance with defined, internationally recognized standards. The ISO standard specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy, determining environmental aspects & impacts of products (activities services, planning environmental objectives and measurable targets, implementation & operation of programs to meet objectives and targets, checking &corrective action, and management review. The Environmental aspect is an element of organization’s activities, product or services that can interact with the environment. A significant environmental aspect is that with a significant environmental impact. The environmental impact is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial wholly or partially resulting from an oranization’s activities, products or services.

  14. Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility impact gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility (AFETF) impact gun is a unique tool for impact testing 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat sources of up to 178-mm dia at velocities to 300 m/s. An environmentally-sealed vacuum chamber at the muzzle of the gun allows preheating of the projectile to 1,000 0 C. Immediately prior to impact, the heat source projectile is completely sealed in a vacuum-tight catching container to prevent escape of its radioactive contents should rupture occur. The impact velocity delivered by this gas-powered gun can be regulated to within +-2%

  15. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During project study and design, major environmental impacts of water ... should be identified and made available for decision makers and the public. ... remotely sensed data can be analysed in GIS environment to generate data and map the ...

  17. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  18. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  19. Environmental impacts of Proalcool: production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, A.; Nassi, C.D.; Barcellos, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by the Programa Nacional do Alcool -PROALCOOL - Brazil, are analysed. Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo States are studied, comparing the regional differences. The production and the consumption phases are analysed separately. (L.J.C.)

  20. Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Pek Yang; Henz, Martin; Weigl, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental benefits in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reductions, but energy inputs and materials impacts associated with the conversion of a CBEV are weighed against savings ...

  1. Final environmental statement related to operation of White Mesa Uranium Project, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental impact statements are presented under the following headings: the existing environment; mining and milling operations; air quality; land use; mineral resources; soils; radiological impacts; socioeconomic impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relation between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments

  2. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  3. The environmental impact of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, N; Langley, R; Reuter, G

    1998-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of disposable medical devices and other medical products brings major benefits to mankind. Furthermore there are potential opportunities to use the irradiation process to significantly improve our environment. Careful examination of the environmental impact of both electron beam and gamma irradiators confirms that these major benefits are not achieved at any significant environmental cost

  4. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  5. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  6. Environmental impact assessment - a selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography of literature relevant to the environmental impact assessment process is essentially a list of material dealing with the environmental impact assessment process held by Griffith University Library. The list is however well supplemented with citations of material not held in the Griffith University Library. Some economic and social impact assessment citations have been included in the bibliography, as the the environmental impact assessment concept has been interpreted very broadly. The citations are arranged according to broad subject areas, such as methodology, critical reviews, social impacts etc. Citations in each of these subject areas, which are listed in the table of contents, are identified by prefixes which are given in parentheses before the subjects headings. Within each subject area the citations are arragend in alphabetic author sequence

  7. Environmental impact statement - an effective tool for successful mine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Mining is a hazardous operation which must be designed to succeed under very unpredictable environmental, geological and marketing conditions over a committed life of thirty years or longer. It is well-established by now that mining has tremendous social, economic and environmental impacts on society in general and on local communities in particular. Mining's image has begun to improve with effective hazard controls and property reclamation through improved mine design and restoration plans. Much of the credit for this achievement should go to Environmental Impact Statement and related permitting requirements for mining projects. An Environmental Impact Statement with respect to almost every type of mining project is now frequently required by major banks, and other funding agencies, governmental agencies and/or citizen groups involved in the permitting process. This impact statement ensures that the proposed project has the potential to succeed under all foreseeable environmental, geological and marketing problems throughout its projected life and to guarantee the return of the initial capital with interest. In short, the impact statement offers assurance that the final project will culminate with positive environmental and social impacts. The relevance and contributions of Environmental Impact Statements in mine design, as well as their applications and development procedures are presented. 3 refs., 8 figs

  8. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King... prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Highway Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed...

  9. 77 FR 25782 - Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement...: The FHWA is issuing this notice of intent to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement... the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

  10. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement... Columbia, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact... agencies and the public that a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) will be prepared to assess the...

  11. North Central Transmission Line: Guidelines for the environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines that Manitoba Hydro must follow in the preparation of the environmental impact statement on the proposed North Central Transmission Line (TCTL) project are presented. The project consists of a 138 kV transmission line, two 25 kV distribution lines, and related ancillary structures and facilities. The review process must be sensitive to cultural and community needs and must involve those most directly affected, and should be grounded in the impacted northern communities. The review should include a project background, the proposal, a description of the existing natural and socio-economic environment, and must address employment, education and training, impacts on renewable resource harvesting, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts, legal/jurisdictional issues, infrastructure, mitigation and compensation, and environmental monitoring and follow-up. 1 fig., 20 tabs

  12. Environmental impact assessment relating to the proposed siting of the European Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (EDRP) at Dounreay, Caithness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This Report assesses the likely environmental impact of the European Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (EDRP) which the United Kingdom Atomic Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) are proposing to build at the Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment (DNE), Caithness and for which they have sought outline planning permission. The format of the report has been designed to meet the guidelines set out in the European Economic Community's Directive (85/337/EEC) concerning the assessment of the environmental effects of certain public and private projects. The Report is presented in four parts: Part A gives information on the present environment at DNE and explains in detail the environmental monitoring which has been carried out there since 1956. Part B describes the proposed development. Part C assesses the likely effects of the proposed development on the environment. Part D lists all the references quoted in this Report together with a bibliography of other sources of information relevant to the proposed development.

  13. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Alvaro; Diaz Sierra, R.; Martin-Aranda, Rosa; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship

  14. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  15. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  16. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a...

  17. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  18. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  19. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement. Supplemental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report contains supplemental information to the Environmental Impact Statement that was issued on the proposed second nuclear generating station Point Lepreau-2 in New Brunswick, Canada. Some issues dealt with here are the terrestrial and aquatic impacts of radioactive and thermal releases to the environment, radiation safety for the human population, socio-economic impacts on the region in regards to housing, social services and employment, and monitoring programs for all aspects of the development, construction and operation of the plant

  20. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlson, Mårten; Mörtberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  1. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  2. Environmental impact of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, Joel N.; McAlpin, Maria C.

    2006-01-01

    Restructuring of electric utilities affects environmental quality primarily through its effect on airborne emissions. We examine emissions from 1993 to 2002 and discuss possible explanatory factors. Annual NOx and SO 2 emissions fell nationally, mostly due to decreases in emission limits driven by state and Federal regulations. CO 2 emissions have increased almost proportionately with increased generation. Generation increased more than it would have, partly due to energy efficiency spending reductions that accompanied deregulation. The fuel mix shifted slightly from coal to gas, offsetting some CO 2 emissions increases and contributing to SO 2 and NOx emissions decreases. While the percentage share of generation from renewable sources remained at about 2%, recent and expected future increases in wind generating capacity promise future emissions reductions. Although deregulation lacks clear environmental advantages, the deregulation process creates an opportunity for implementation of state policies to reduce emissions. Regulated and deregulated states with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have a higher average percent of generation from renewable sources. Average energy efficiency savings are higher in regulated states, but slightly higher in deregulated states with a system benefits charge (SBC) than in regulated states without a SBC

  3. Environmental impact of hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malai, Marius

    1996-01-01

    The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

  4. The National Environmental Policy Act and DOE's programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisenbaker, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 requires that all agencies of the federal government prepare a detailed statement on any action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Such a statement must include the environmental impact of the proposed action, any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided should the proposed action be implemented, and alternatives to the proposed action. In requiring environmental statements, NEPA encourages viewing related actions collectively and looking at cumulative impacts. A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) is a broad environmental analysis of a program or policy prepared when actions are connected and may have cumulative environmental impacts. The PEIS benefits include providing input into an agency's planning and decision making, assessing potential environmental consequences of a wide range of alternatives before options have been foreclosed, and allowing consideration of systemwide impacts of various alternatives early in the decision-making process. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will prepare its PEIS on Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. The PEIS will consider programmatic issues and integrated approaches to the program; address national, program-wide alternatives rather than site-specific actions; and provide for subsequent NEPA documents of narrower scope to be prepared to address site-specific or project-specific actions

  5. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  6. Public understanding of environmental impacts of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Branden B.; Frank, Pamela G.

    2006-01-01

    Electricity deregulation has aroused concern that environmental quality might be harmed by consumer preferences for cheap, 'dirty' (e.g., coal) electricity products, despite the perhaps stronger influence of supply side policy on environmental impacts. This outcome depends on public understanding of the environmental impacts of their decisions, which this study explored with interviews, focus groups, and surveys in New Jersey. People had thought little about the topic, were unable to articulate how electricity production might affect the environment except in very general terms, and were mostly unwilling to guess whether deregulation's impacts would be negative, neutral or positive. Those who did guess expected negative impacts less than any other kind. Reactions to specific 'reasons' for expecting no, positive or negative impacts suggested that consumers had little structure to their mental models in this area; for example, people who thought positive-impact reasons were probably true were not necessarily likely to see negative-impact reasons as probably false. However, in the aggregate, people seemed to have a fairly consistent ranking of energy sources by expected negative environmental impacts. Earlier research found that consumers comparing two electricity products on environmental impacts reached different decisions if they had energy-source-only or energy-source-plus-emissions information. Although regulator-required 'environmental labels' for electricity products provide both source and emissions data, it is not clear that they do an adequate job of both alerting consumers to the possibility of negative environmental impacts and identifying the relative life-cycle impacts of different products so as to produce informed consumer decisions

  7. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-15

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  8. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  9. Environmental impact of population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond; Matson, Pamela

    Earth's population currently numbers 5.4 billion; even given optimistic assumptions for reduction in growth rates, the number will double by the middle of the next century with most of the increase in the developing countries. Rapid population growth in the developing world raises the fundamental dilemma of how to alleviate chronic hunger and poverty in the short run while preserving the atmosphere and ecosystem services required for long-term human and biospheric sustenance. This dilemma, and the compromises required to solve it, were discussed by twenty-five researchers from five countries at the Aspen Global Change Institute 1992 Summer Science Session III, Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible?, held from August 16 to 28, in Aspen, Colo.

  10. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  11. Environmental impact of ongoing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.C.

    1980-07-01

    Present technology in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes, coupled with appropriate site selection, quality construction and good operating procedures, can ensure that impacts on health, safety and the environment will be acceptably low over the period of operation. The methods of chemical and physical stabilization of the tailings and retention structures are also compatible with close-out procedures and will ensure that any releases to the environment will continue to be within the requirements, assuming the continued availability of surveillance

  12. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  13. Comparison of environmental impacts of electricity from different sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.

    1993-01-01

    For fossil fuel electricity generation the major environmental externalities result from acid deposition, tropospheric ozone and global warming. For nuclear power the main issues are major reactor accidents and long-term waste disposal. Some broad estimates of environmental externalities (in p/kWh) are given from each, based on available scientific evidence and valuation studies. The uncertainties and methodological problems associated with valuation prevent any reliable statement about the relative magnitudes of externalities resulting from fossil and nuclear generating options. In both cases, some of the impacts are incompatible with stricter interpretations of sustainability. The important environmental impacts of most renewable electricity generating options concern human amenity. (author)

  14. Life Cycle Environmental Impact Assessment of Local Wine Production and Consumption in Texas: Using LCA to Inspire Environmental Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Poupart, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The future viability of wine production is directly linked to its environmental impacts and conditions in which it is required to operate. The environmental impacts related to the production of a food product are directly influenced by the amount of materials, energy, waste and the emissions the product releases throughout the products life cycle. A life cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework that can identify a food products relative environmental impacts and provides insights into the ...

  15. Safety assessment and environmental impact assessment: Application to regulation of nuclear and radiation safety, with special consideration to Lepse related operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, V.G. [Gosatomnadzor (Russian Federation); Smith, G.M.; Stone, D.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    This report discusses the links between safety assessment and environmental impact assessment as applied to operations for unloading of spent nuclear fuel from the Lepse storage vessel. Regulatory responsibilities and regulatory requirements in these areas are under discussion and development in the Russian Federation and in other countries. The authors provide a briefing, based on inputs from Russian and western organisations, of their understanding of the situation at the time the work was done. They also make a variety of suggestions according to their perspectives. These suggestions should be relevant to the Lepse situation and to some other nuclear activities, bur do not represent the position of any particular organisation. Accordingly, this report is published by the SSI with the intention to promote discussion and interaction among relevant authorities.

  16. Safety assessment and environmental impact assessment: Application to regulation of nuclear and radiation safety, with special consideration to Lepse related operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, V.G.; Smith, G.M.; Stone, D.M.

    2000-11-01

    This report discusses the links between safety assessment and environmental impact assessment as applied to operations for unloading of spent nuclear fuel from the Lepse storage vessel. Regulatory responsibilities and regulatory requirements in these areas are under discussion and development in the Russian Federation and in other countries. The authors provide a briefing, based on inputs from Russian and western organisations, of their understanding of the situation at the time the work was done. They also make a variety of suggestions according to their perspectives. These suggestions should be relevant to the Lepse situation and to some other nuclear activities, bur do not represent the position of any particular organisation. Accordingly, this report is published by the SSI with the intention to promote discussion and interaction among relevant authorities

  17. Environmental impact statements: new legal technique for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M F

    1975-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has required Federal agencies to re-examine all their programs affecting the environment, to consider alternative policies, to coordinate their actions with other agencies, and to disclose their environmental analyses to the public. In short, it has attempted to change decision processes markedly, in order to respond to wide-spread public concern about a deteriorating natural and human environment. The mandates of the policy are listed, but knowing that these were not sufficient to change existing agency practices, Congress established what has been called an ''action-forcing mechanism.'' Each federal agency must ''include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official.'' This statement must cover the following five points as specified in Section 102(2)(c): the environmental impact of the proposed action; any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented; alternatives to the proposed action; the relationship between local and short-term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented. Section 102 has been considered the heart of the National Environmental Policy Act. The specific five-point environmental report--known as an environmental impact statement--is the visible evidence of an agency's compliance with the environmental policy articulated by Congress. (MCW)

  18. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Waters, Elizabeth; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; Gold, Lisa; Gussy, Mark; Scott, Anthony; Lacy, Kathleen; Virgo-Milton, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and freq...

  19. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  20. 76 FR 57720 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ...The Department of the Navy published a document in the Federal Register (76 FR 174) on September 8, 2011, concerning public scoping meetings to support the development of an Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement for the Mariana Islands Training and Testing Study Area. The document contained an incorrect scoping date.

  1. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  2. 76 FR 55703 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Notice of Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ..., and physical and cyber security systems. The new JOC also must meet State essential service criteria... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Notice of Public Meetings for the Joint Operations Center Relocation Project...

  3. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohocki, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  4. Final programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The appendices included in this report include the following: Comments on the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (A-1); Commission's Statement of Policy and Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (B-1); 'Final Environmental Assessment for Decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building Atmosphere, Final NRC Staff Report,' US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-0662, May 1980 (C-1); 'Environmental Assessment for Use of EPICOR-Il at Three Mile Island Unit 2,' US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-0591, October 3, 1979 (D-1); Fish and Fisheries of York Haven Pond and Conowingo Pond of the Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay (E1); Reuse of Accident Water (F-1); Engineering Considerations for Treatment of TMI-2 Accident-Generated Liquid Waste G-1); Engineering Considerations Related to Immobilization of Radioactive Wastes (H-1); Justification for Radiation Fields Used in Section 6 I-1); Economic Cost Basis (K-1); Average Individual Quarterly Dose Limits Used in Determinations of Work Force Estimates (L-1); 'Long-Term Environmental Radiation Surveillance Plan for Three Mile Island,' US Environmental Protection Agency, 1981 (M-1); Occupational Radiation Exposure during Onsite Waste Handling (N-1); Decontamination Status of Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings (0-1); Chemical Systems for Decontamination of Primary System Components (P-1); Onsite Storage Facility (Q-1); Proposed Additions to Technical Specifications for TMI-2 Cleanup Program (R-1); Calculations of Discharge of Processed Accident Water to the Atmosphere (S-1); The Behavior of Sorbable Radionuclides in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay (T-1); Decommissioning of TMI-2 (U-1); Assessment of Groundwater Liquid Pathway from Leakage of Containment Water at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (V-1); Calculation Models and Parameters Used in Estimating Doses, and Interpretation of Model Results (W-1); Contributors to the PEIS X-1); Scheduled

  5. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonefaes, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed [fr

  6. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grogan Sarah C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up. Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s; and the development of

  7. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Rachel C; Hurst, Gemma L; Smith, Graham R; Grogan, Sarah C; Kurth, Judy

    2011-09-12

    There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up). Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s) related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s); and the development of local systems for ongoing monitoring and evaluation

  8. 77 FR 14416 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Proposed California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan Amendment (PA)/Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Facility (OWEF) and by this notice is announcing the availability of the Proposed PA and Final EIS/EIR.

  9. Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Bosker, Thijs; Rodrigues, João F D; de Koning, Arjan; Tukker, Arnold

    2017-12-19

    Dietary choices drive both health and environmental outcomes. Information on diets come from many sources, with nationally recommended diets (NRDs) by governmental or similar advisory bodies the most authoritative. Little or no attention is placed on the environmental impacts within NRDs. Here we quantify the impact of nation-specific NRDs, compared with an average diet in 37 nations, representing 64% of global population. We focus on greenhouse gases (GHGs), eutrophication, and land use because these have impacts reaching or exceeding planetary boundaries. We show that compared with average diets, NRDs in high-income nations are associated with reductions in GHG, eutrophication, and land use from 13.0 to 24.8%, 9.8 to 21.3%, and 5.7 to 17.6%, respectively. In upper-middle-income nations, NRDs are associated with slight decrease in impacts of 0.8-12.2%, 7.7-19.4%, and 7.2-18.6%. In poorer middle-income nations, impacts increase by 12.4-17.0%, 24.5-31.9%, and 8.8-14.8%. The reduced environmental impact in high-income countries is driven by reductions in calories (∼54% of effect) and a change in composition (∼46%). The increased environmental impacts of NRDs in low- and middle-income nations are associated with increased intake in animal products. Uniform adoption of NRDs across these nations would result in reductions of 0.19-0.53 Gt CO 2 eq⋅a -1 , 4.32-10.6 Gt [Formula: see text] eq⋅a -1 , and 1.5-2.8 million km 2 , while providing the health cobenefits of adopting an NRD. As a small number of dietary guidelines are beginning to incorporate more general environmental concerns, we anticipate that this work will provide a standardized baseline for future work to optimize recommended diets further. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.23 Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  13. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Camille; Seconda, Louise; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Langevin, Brigitte; Pointereau, Philippe; Lairon, Denis; Baudry, Julia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Studies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption. Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED), and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA) at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age. Participants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile) were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissions Q5vsQ1  = 838/1,664 kg CO 2eq /year, -49.6%, P  impacts but only among participants with diets rich in plant-based products. Future field studies should endeavor to integrate all the components of a sustainable diet, i.e., both diet composition and production methods.

  14. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  16. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These include...

  17. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... project comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation...

  18. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  19. Wood fly ash used for nutrient compensation or as a construction material. Environmental impacts related to different management alternatives; Skogsbraensleaska som naeringsresurs eller konstruktionsmaterial. Miljoeeffekter av olika hanteringsalternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna; Kaerrman, Erik; Roennblom, Tobias; Erlandsson, Aasa (Ecoloop AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The Swedish Forest Agency recommends that wood ash should be recycled to forest land, if the ashes fulfil certain threshold values. But there is also an option to use the ashes as construction material in forest roads. In this project, an environmental systems analysis approach was developed in order to assess the environmental impact from different alternatives. Three alternatives were analysed for the handling of 1 tonnes wood ash (DM) generated at the municipality of Boraas in Sweden: 1) Spreading the ashes to forests, 2) Use the ashes as a construction material in roads and 3) disposal of the ashes. Both the recycling of wood ash on forests and use of the ash for road construction have benefits in terms of saving natural resources and energy compared to disposal on landfill. Forest-recycling is the most energy efficient alternative and saves most of the resources Zn, P and dolomite. The road construction as well as the landfill alternatives results in a net-removal of the heavy metals As, Cd and Pb from the forests in a 100-year perspective, assuming that the content of these substances in the recycled ash is the same as the amount removed through biomass harvesting. Critical parameters for the results were the assumption that nutrient compensation is needed if wood ashes not are used on forests and the system boundaries chosen for assessing the heavy metal leaching. If the nutrient compensation is not considered as necessary, the influence on the results of transports and maintenance increase. One possibility for further work is to use the developed method for various regions in Sweden. The local conditions vary between different regions in terms of ash production, need for nutrient compensation and potential to build gravel roads etc

  20. Is environmental impact assessment regulation a 'burden' to private firms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annandale, David; Taplin, Ross

    2003-01-01

    The impact of environmental regulation on macroeconomic performance has been studied in some depth over the last 15 years. Similarly, impact on profit performance, investment intention and location decisions of firms has also been studied, although in less depth. There has been less academic interest, however, in the impact that environmental regulation has on the strategic objectives of companies. This article reports on a research project that focused on the impact that environmental approvals regulation (predominantly environmental impact assessment, EIA) has on proposed new development in the international mining sector. Based on a large and externally valid survey of senior mining company executives in Australia and Canada in the late 1990s, the research indicated that a significant majority of firms consider the environmental approvals process to be an important determinant of investment strategy. An initial reaction to these figures might suggest that the majority of respondents believe the environmental approvals process to be a negative influence. However, further questioning indicated that only a small proportion of companies in both countries thought of the environmental approvals process as an impediment to development. Instead, it is clear that most firms see EIA as a catalyst for integrating environmental design into the early planning of a project, thereby alleviating the need to spend money on overcoming environmental problems once a poorly designed project has been commissioned. The somewhat surprising conclusion that companies see environmental approvals regulation as important, but as an encouragement to development rather than as an impediment, goes against much previous industry and academic comment and, at least in relation to the mining sector, refutes the idea that EIA is ''burdensome''

  1. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Eduardo M.; Monteiro, Iara A.

    1997-01-01

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  2. Environmental impact statement analysis: dose methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Standardized sections and methodologies are being developed for use in environmental impact statements (EIS) for activities to be conducted on the Hanford Reservation. Five areas for standardization have been identified: routine operations dose methodologies, accident dose methodology, Hanford Site description, health effects methodology, and socioeconomic environment for Hanford waste management activities

  3. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  4. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to be small when compared to gaseous emissions from industrial and agricultural sources, the actual percentage contribution to climate change is small. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental impact...

  6. Beverley project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Beverley deposit is located on the northern Lake Frome Plains, South Australia, 520km north of Adelaide. It is proposed to mine the deposit by in-situ leaching and to process the solution on the surface to produce an estimated 11,600t of yellowcake from about 6 million tonnes of 0.27% ore over approximately 23 years. The draft environmental impact statement is intended to cover all stages of the development from the pilot plant to final rehabilitation. Sections include the existing environment (geology, climate and meteorology, soils, hydrology, ecology, radionuclide base levels, land use, population and sites of Aboriginal and archaeological significance), the proposed development (solution mining, waste management, water management and mining and processing options), rehabilitation, environmental impact and environmental management and monitoring

  7. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared....... It is suggested that passive and semi-active fishing methods such as Danish seine, purse seine, gillnet and long line represent a significant improvement potential compared to trawl. And it is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced with a factor 15 by substituting beam trawl with Danish seine...

  8. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the proposed facility are described in this report

  9. Preliminary environmental impact statement for the Kvanefjeld uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilegaard, K.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental impacts of the mining and milling of uranium from the Kvanefjeld are assessed in order - to provide a general description of the Narssaq area, with special reference to the ecological aspects, - to identify potential pollutants, and if possible to quantify these, - to identify critical pathways and populations, - to evaluate the technical design of the mine and mill in relation to the environment, - to evaluate alternatives, - to provide guidelines for preoperational environmental studies. (EG)

  10. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document is updated on a quarterly basis

  11. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, Notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document will be updated on a quarterly basis

  12. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Cojocaru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a new graphical method to extend Rojanschi’s approach for the case of two environmental components. The proposed method avoids the average value of evaluation grades and uses only the graphical correspondence for calculation of the index of global pollution. A right-angle triangle graph methodology was proposed, where bases represented the values of evaluation grades. Thus, for the case of two environmental components, the index of global pollution was calculated as the relation between the ideal and real ecosystem states represented by the ratio between areas of external and enclosed right triangles. The developed graphical method was tested and validated for real case studies: the environmental impact assessment from a refinery located on the Romanian Black Sea Coast considering Air and Water environmental components and from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant from Eastern Romania regarding Air and Soil environmental components. In this way, it was provided a reliable and faster tool to be used for the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better decisions in risk management.

  13. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  14. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance...

  15. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA); the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended; and the California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA); the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Bishop Field Office, Bishop, California; the United States Forest Service (USFS) Inyo National Forest; and the Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (GBUAPCD) (a California state agency) have prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the proposed Casa Diablo IV Geothermal Development Project near the Town of Mammoth Lakes in Mono County, California. This notice announces the opening of the public comment period.

  16. 76 FR 381 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) have prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and Draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) as a joint environmental analysis document for the Iberdrola Renewable/Pacific Wind Development Tule Wind Project (Tule Project) and the San Diego Gas and Electric's (SDG&E) East County Substation Project (ECO Project) and by this notice are announcing the opening of the comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR.

  17. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  18. Environmental impact statement requirements for CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurciolo, Melisa N.; Mender, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the legal framework on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regarding the activities of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), and particularly, the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements of CNEA (PN-PR-027). According to the distribution of powers stated in article 41 of the National Constitution, the environmental legal framework is constituted by National minimum standards for environmental protection and complementary provincial and municipal regulations. As a result, the EIA legal framework is not uniform across the Nation, and therefore, it differs according to the jurisdiction in which the activity subject to EIA is developed. Notwithstanding, the General Statute of the Environment (25.675) requires EIA for any project or activity developed in the National territory, which may cause a significant degradation to the environment, any of its components, or affect the populations' quality of life in a significant way. Since CNEA develops activities along the National territory, it is not possible to determine a uniform legal EIA framework for the entire Institution. Consequently, the binding requirements for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of CNEA activities differ among the activities developed in the different locations and atomic centers. In order to achieve a uniform environmental performance in CNEA, it has been considered necessary to uniform, in the internal sphere, the binding requirements for EIS, by means of a procedure written within the framework of the Environmental Management System of the Institution. The purpose of the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements is to determine the requirements to be complied by the atomic centers, locations and enterprises associated with CNEA, regarding EIS Management. This Procedure shall apply to those projects and activities subjected to EIA, according to a

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement Resource Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    BPA's preferred alternative is the Emphasize Conservation Alternative. System and environmental costs are low. Environmental impacts from conservation are minimal. This alternative is cost-effective and environmentally responsible; only the High Conservation Alternative has lower costs and fewer environmental impacts. However, there is some concern about the cost-effectiveness, reliability, and commercial availability of the high conservation resources. If the supply of the additional conservation potential was confirmed and it became cost-effective, the High Conservation Alternative would be preferred. The Draft Resource Programs EIS was released for public review during the summer of 1992. Comments received by letter or in the public hearing held June 16, 1992, were used to revise and update data and analyses of the EIS (public comments and BPA's responses are contained in Volume III of the Final EIS). In addition, a number of revisions were made in the Chapter 3 material describing each resource type, and in Chapter 4 and the Summary, to assure consistency with the modeling and analysis in Chapter 5. Additional information about the capacity aspects of each resource type and alternative has been added, and the material on conservation and its impacts has been reorganized

  20. SITO, Environmental Impact of Major Industrial Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; Oriolo, F.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITO evaluates the impact of major industrial activities on the environment. The method applied accounts for the alterations of ecological, physico-chemical, aesthetical and social values caused by the development of the considered activity. Such values are usually considered as not quantifiable but very important for the quality of the environment. 2 - Method of solution: The territory affected by the industrial project is described in a one-dimensional (for example a coast development) or two-dimensional representation as a lattice of square meshes of equal size. A major feature of the model is that the impact factors are considered with reference to each single mesh. The following vectors and matrices are evaluated: a) Matrix of environmental quality characteristics. It is the product of the environmental quality index matrix and the vector of weighting factors. b) Vector of the initial environmental values. It is the sum of the columns of matrix (a). c) Matrix obtained when the environmental quality characteristics matrix is multiplied by the vector of project action factors, taking into account distance effects. d) Vector of the final environmental values. This is the sum of columns of matrix (c)

  1. Resource Programs: Final Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Every two years, BA prepares a Resource Program, which identifies the resource actions BA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Programs Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document that will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to this EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. The alternatives represent the range of actions BA could take to meet its load obligations. Each of the alternatives allows BA to meet the almost 5,000 average megawatt load increase that could occur with high load growth, or an equivalent need for resources caused by a combination of load growth and any future loss of resources

  2. Environmental and Social Impact Study: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    The tsetse control project (commonly known as tsetse flies) is an initiative of the Directorate of Livestock (project coordinating institution) and the ISRA (Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute) Accompaniment and diagnosis of the project. It is part of the cooperation between Senegal and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).The method of control that will be applied is the technique of sterile males.This technique of sterile males, however, is coupled with the use of deltamethrin (D6), a neurotoxic chemical (in adult insects) that is fast and fairly rapidly biodegradable in the environment.This study is carried out with the aim of taking good account of the environmental impacts of the various activities envisaged by the project. Its objective is to assess the biophysical, social and economic impacts of the project and to propose measures to mitigate or compensate for negative impacts and to reinforce positive impacts within the framework of an Environmental Management Plan and (ESMP). It also presents an environmental and social monitoring and monitoring plan to assess the effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures.

  3. 40 CFR 6.207 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 6.207... ACTIONS EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.207 Environmental impact statements. (a) The Responsible Official will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) (see 40 CFR 1508.11) for major...

  4. 76 FR 53453 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8998-7] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 08/15/2011 through... Lease Sale 193, Revised Information, Analyzing the Environmental Impact of Natural Gas Development and...

  5. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  6. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  7. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.63 Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (a) Initial determination. OJP will determine...

  8. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action involving...

  9. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance with...

  10. Uranium mining: Environmental and health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is important not only to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity in the coming decades - particularly in the developing world - enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This was the objective of a recent NEA report entitled Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining, providing a non-technical overview of the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that it was first mined for military purposes until today. (author)

  11. Environmental impact of high voltage substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, C.; Popadiuc, S.; Drobota, C.; Marza, F.

    2004-01-01

    The first Romanian methodology for simultaneous environmental and human risk evaluation in case of HV installations within substations pertaining to nuclear power stations, based on EU regulation is now applicable in Cernavoda substation. High voltage substations are zones where the environmental impact is focused on electromagnetic field that's causes particular effects in living tissues (human being included). That is the reason why is necessary to identify the potential risk sources, the asses including the way to correct them and to dissimulate the results to the staff and the operational personal.(author)

  12. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The

  13. Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments: Open techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is virtually unavoidable in environmental impact assessments (EIAs). From the literature related to treating and managing uncertainty, we have identified specific techniques for coping with uncertainty in EIAs. Here, we have focused on basic steps in the decision-making process that take

  14. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  15. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  16. Environmental impact of high voltage aerial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P.; Mouallen, M.C.; Quintella, S.E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The identification of environmental impacts caused by the aerial transmission lines and the measures for reducing these impacts are discussed, considering the impact over the soil in different areas, biological effects caused by delayed exposure and visual impacts due to the line structures. A methodology for the impact evaluation and the aspects of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Report are also studied. (C.G.C.). 2 refs, 1 fig

  17. Environmental impact of atomic minerals exploration and exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial radiation in the earth's environment is existing since its formation and is shared by all types of rocks, minerals, gases, and water, and to some extent aided by the interstellar radiation. Environmental radiation is ubiquitous and the man and other living beings have been living in such environment for thousands of years. Today they are much concerned about health and environmental risks so that a balance must be achieved between the activities that promote economic growth and the preservation of the natural environment. Atomic minerals are one of the main sources of natural environmental radiation and they are being explored by Atomic Minerals Division (AMD). Mining and milling activities sometimes may cause some radiological impacts but proper monitoring and remedial measures keep them under check. Some of the important aspects related to environmental impacts of uranium exploration and exploitation are presented

  18. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of Environmental Impact...), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Adoption and Recirculation of Final Environmental Impact... Impact Statement (EIS) issued by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in 2004 for the construction of...

  19. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  20. Peat 1999. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    impact of peat harvesting represents a total destruction of the vegetation where all orig inal plants and animal life disappear. The quality of the drainage water changes as the transport of suspended materials increases in connection with the peat ditching. The pH-value and alkalinity also increase during this phase of preparation, but afterwards they often return to normal values. The concentration of sulphates increases in relation to the sulphur content in the peat during the drainage phase. The stream biota of algae and animals decreases or disappears totally. There is a risk in combustion that rather large quantities of sulphur (depending on the concentration in the peat) is emitted together with nitrogen oxides, all of which are acidifying. Radioactive substances exist naturally in the peat and are released during combustion and are also found together with heavy metals in the ashes. Research and development regarding peat has been initiated by the state and by peat producers. The state financed research is distributed among several universities. The development of methods and techniques by The Foundation of Swedish Peat Research has been financed by peat producers and other actors. The emphasis has been on machine development, but presently water analysis data for peat mines and other environmental issues are also covered. The Swedish National Energy Administration provided SEK 0.4 million out of a total budget of SEK 1 million for 1999. The general trend is to develop traditional peat harvesting methods and make them more efficient. In the future, peat will probably be mixed with other fuels, such as sawdust and other renewable energy sources. This may eventually improve combustion and emission

  1. Peat 2000. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    impact of peat harvesting represents a total destruction of the vegetation where all original plants and animal life disappear. The quality of the drainage water changes as the transport of suspended materials increases in connection with the peat ditching. The pH-value and alkalinity also increase during this phase of preparation, but afterwards they often return to normal values. The concentration of sulphates increases in relation to the sulphur content in the peat during the drainage phase. The stream biota of algae and animals decreases or disappears totally. There is a risk in combustion that rather large quantities of sulphur (depending on the concentration in the peat) is emitted together with nitrogen oxides, all of which are acidifying. Radioactive substances exist naturally in the peat and are released during combustion and are also found together with heavy metals in the ashes. Research and development regarding peat has been initiated by the state and by peat producers. The state financed research is distributed among several universities. The development of methods and techniques by The Foundation of Swedish Peat Research has been financed by peat producers and other actors. The emphasis has been on machine development, but presently water analysis data for peat mines and other environmental issues are also covered. The general trend is to develop traditional peat harvesting methods and make them more efficient. In the future, peat will probably be mixed with other fuels, such as sawdust and other renewable energy sources. This may eventually improve combustion and reduce emissions

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY: A SCOPING REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; De Angelis, Gino; Kaunelis, David; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2018-06-13

    The Health Technology Expert Review Panel is an advisory body to Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) that develops recommendations on health technology assessments (HTAs) for nondrug health technologies using a deliberative framework. The framework spans several domains, including the environmental impact of the health technology(ies). Our research objective was to identify articles on frameworks, methods or case studies on the environmental impact assessment of health technologies. A literature search in major databases and a focused gray literature search were conducted. The main search concepts were HTA and environmental impact/sustainability. Eligible articles were those that described a conceptual framework or methods used to conduct an environmental assessment of health technologies, and case studies on the application of an environmental assessment. From the 1,710 citations identified, thirteen publications were included. Two articles presented a framework to incorporate environmental assessment in HTAs. Other approaches described weight of evidence practices and comprehensive and integrated environmental impact assessments. Central themes derived include transparency and repeatability, integration of components in a framework or of evidence into a single outcome, data availability to ensure the accuracy of findings, and familiarity with the approach used. Each framework and methods presented have different foci related to the ecosystem, health economics, or engineering practices. Their descriptions suggested transparency, repeatability, and the integration of components or of evidence into a single outcome as their main strengths. Our review is an initial step of a larger initiative by CADTH to develop the methods and processes to address the environmental impact question in an HTA.

  3. Outline of environmental impact of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This document presents background information on the environmental impacts from the management and disposal of radioactive waste for seven reference fuel cycles selected by INFCE Working Group 7, but excluding the health and safety impact on man. The main factors considered were: use of natural resources, land, water, energy, labour and materials; effects of chemical and thermal effluents; effects of meteorology, hydrology and natural hazards; and social effects. The environmental impacts are generally largest for the once-through fuel cycles and smallest for the FBR and HWR U/Th cycles, due to the impacts being correlated to uranium requirements. The main impact is the use of land which varies from 0.1 - 1.6 ha/GWa with the FBR strategy requiring the smallest use of land and the LWR once-through strategy the largest. The land use for mill tailings is, except for the FBR and U/Th cycles, dominant compared to the land use for the rest of the fuel cycle

  4. Environmental impacts associated with Project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. Radiation and ground motion are unique to this type experiment while conventional activities would be associated with any type of resource development. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. (U.S.)

  5. Manual: environmental impact statement and intervention regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, K.

    1992-01-01

    In order to be able to fulfil also legally the important tasks of environmental protection and natural preservation in the last ten years numerous legal provisions have been issued. Many of these laws require that the environmental impact of projects and constructional measures is taken into account to a higher degree. Two important instruments in this connection are the impact statement and the intervention regulation of natural preservation. Their importance and consequences for the planning and realization of projects are until now not sufficiently know. This manual is to fill this gap. This booklet shall help builder-owners and investors to realize their building projects in a way which is compatible with the environment. For architects and planners information is given in this manual about the requirements to be fulfilled in the individual planning and licensing procedures. The booklet is structured in a way that builder-owners, consultants and authorities find quickly the information needed. (orig./KW) [de

  6. Aspects and environmental impacts associated with the production of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Navas de García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete plants are important to the economy of a country. However, this industry causes major environmental impacts in each of the steps involved in the manufacturing process of concrete production which are analyzed in this research. In addition, the perception of experts and workers in the area, about the environmental impacts associated with the activity of a producer of concrete was evaluated. The methodology used for the analysis of steps in the production process was as kind documentary. For to evaluate perception of environmental impacts the methodology used was descriptive non experimental, using interviews with workers related to the manufacturing process of the concrete. Among the major identified environmental impacts are dust emissions and improper handling of effluents, hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Among the proposals put forward to address these impacts include: installation of dust collectors, settling tanks, management plans for hazardous and non-hazardous materials, among others. An analysis of the results incorporating the principles of corporate social responsibility for improving or minimizing adverse impacts are detected proposed

  7. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...... the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession...

  8. Decision-making and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Elmquist, Helena; Lindgren, Urban; Mäkilä, Kalle

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an interdisciplinary study combining social sciences and natural sciences in an integrated simulation model. The integrated dynamic simulation model consists of the interplay between the decision-making farmer, the physical flows at the farm and the structural conditions that influence the business. The central question studied here concerned the energy use, environmental impacts and business economics of various decision models in comparison to different levels of envir...

  9. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts in 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    2017 was another successful year for Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts (ESPI); it saw the expansion of our Editorial team and publication of two excellent Themed Issues, all while maintaining our commitment to provide our authors with exceptional customer service and fast times to publication. Through this Editorial, we wish to reflect upon some of the highlights from 2017 and also take this opportunity to reveal further new additions to the ESPI team and our plans for 2018.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE DISCOURSE AND ISOMORPHISM IN HIGH ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPANIES LISTED ON BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Manoel do Nascimento Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are submitted to social pressure towards making decisions for the sake of more environmental responsibility. These organizations respond by adopting managing strategies, and by developing environmental policies whose results must be demonstrated to stakeholders. In this scenario, this study aims at analyzing the characteristics of environmental information presented in management reports, in explanatory notes and in balance sheets produced by companies with a high environmental impact listed on BM&FBovespa, identifying possible isomorphic behaviors. In order to reach that goal, a qualitative research was conducted with an analysis of management reports, balance sheets and explanatory notes for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 by 44 companies. Results provide evidence that companies present similar behavior concerning environmental issues. The management reports contain the largest amount of information related to the environment, the most highlighted categories were Environmental Policies, Product Impact, Processes and Other environmental information. Besides that, the segments that disclosed the most environmental information were Paper and Cellulose, Metalworking, Exploration and Refinement whereas the largest companies, evaluated by total assets, disclosed more environmental information.

  11. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...

  12. Environmental policy challenge crime in Republic Serbia and its impact on environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Vojislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law and ecological security representing nearly two related fields that have a scientific discipline in our legal security framework introduced in the first decade of this century. Despite this fact, the legal norms that regulate the protection and safety of the environment have been studied in the framework of other disciplines, and their etymology suggests that environmental regulations have existed in the ninth century, first as a prohibitive provision 'is prohibited'. It is known that environmental law to a certain extent based on criminal law norms and the norms of a protective object with the environment - Ekos. The fact of regulation of a large number of offenses in this field indicates the significance of the criminal policy which is in the field of environmental law and environmental security provides criminal protection. In this paper, in addition to general introductory remarks on environmental law, environmental safety and environmental tort, consider the area of combating environmental crime, the share of primary and secondary subjects of criminal procedural and international cooperation, particularly in combating transnational environmental crime. In the end, considering the environmental impact of crime on ecological security, clarifying the possible forms of threats and extent of the reaction.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  14. Environmental impact of power generation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo de

    1996-01-01

    The increasing worldwide concern about the planet health is reflected in the willing-to-pay behavior in face of environmentally sound products (the case of American unleaded gasoline) and also in the recently approved international standards as ISO-14000. Considering this, a comparison between major energy sources, like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear electricity, strictly in terms of environmental impact, becomes relevant. this paper intends to trace a critical analysis of the actual environmental impact occurred in the last 20 years, comparing it with the imagined impact that was foreseen 20 years ago, and making some comments about the future. What one sees nowadays is quite a different situation as it was seen by the environmentalists in Brazil at that time (1976). The cost of land around rivers has increased significantly; social problem with flooding land is even critical in several areas; forests are given higher value than ever; the CO 2 yield has become a world concern, as SOx and NOx as well; C H4 released from flooded forests is a powerful greenhouse gas; the safety of Nuclear Power Plants are still questioned, as well whether or not the uranium reserves are going to support an increasing demand for more 20 years; new standards in public acceptance of pollution has been established. A greater dose of rationale should be put into this discussion. (author)

  15. Critical factors in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creasey, R.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has shown that it is of proven benefit to the overall planning and environmental management of resource development projects, but certain elements within the application and practice of EIA remain problematic for proponents and regulatory decision makers alike. The use of the word 'critical' in the title of this paper suggests that if the components identified are not considered or implemented properly through the process of EIA, the product will be of less value to both the proponent and decision maker. In the context of EIA, the regulatory, financial, legal and social benefits that accrue make the need for good EIA practice even more imperative. A discussion is included that highlights a number of issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of EIA, a tool necessary to attaining provincial and federal regulatory approvals. To a large extent, the discussion reflects items of contemporary public concern, and those emerging issues of the scientific and regulatory community. At the same time, it needs to be realized that not all the identified items are necessarily new to the practice of impact assessment, but are nonetheless important to professional environmental impact assessment and decision making. Insight is also provided into the direction of decision making of the Energy and Utilities Board as it will affect the regulatory review and administration of resource development projects in the province of Alberta. 16 refs

  16. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  17. Transport-related lifestyle and environmentally-friendly travel mode choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2018-01-01

    . Finally, a multivariate GLM analysis reveals that three behavioral tendencies of importance for transport-related environmental impacts vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments: vehicle ownership, everyday travel-mode choice and environmentally-friendly transport innovativeness...

  18. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  19. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  20. 45 CFR 640.5 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental impact statement. 640.5 Section 640.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 640.5 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a) If...

  1. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft...

  2. Environmental impact statement 1987. Umweltgutachten 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In its third statement after 1974 and 1978 the Council of Environmental Experts describes the state of the environment and points out misdevelopments and ways of avoiding them. The subject's complexity defies the environmental impact statement's completeness. Other than the two preceding ones the 1987 statement focuses but on selected fields and aspects. In view of the fact that the environmental policy of the late eighties and of the nineties to come requires a general, transsectoral and balanced concept the statement puts much care into a comprehensive discussion of the basic traits of a general environmental policy. The characteristics worked out are applicable to any environmental sector and include man's consciousness of the environment and his behaviour towards it, active pollution abatement, economic aspects, and the structure of pollution sources in the Federal Republic of Germany. While the sectors of pollution control include ground and air pollution abatement the selected fields comprise environment and health, energy, transportation, regional planning, and recreation and tourism. (orig./HSCH).

  3. Environmental impacts of the Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillieul, T.A.; Hasselkus, W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, affectionately referred to as NEPA, is a simple piece of legislation with far-reaching implications. (a) It sets a requirement for Federal government decision makers to consider the environmental consequences of their actions before deciding on a course of action. (b) A decision maker is essentially anyone who causes something to happen; and the action can be just about anything. (c) NEPA comes into play at the point in time where a proposed action is matched to a physical location. (d) NEPA implementation is recorded in many ways. The DOE maintains a long list of categorical exclusions for actions which practice has shown to be inconsequential - such as processing records, or maintaining physical plants. However, in selecting a categorical exclusion for an action, the decision maker/project manager must at least think about the activity to be performed and its possible environmental consequences. (e) A large project like the SSC, involving an undeveloped site, automatically qualifies for the highest level of environmental analysis under NEPA - the Environmental Impact Statement (or EIS)

  4. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  5. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320). Final supplement dealing with occupational radiation dose. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Related to Decontamination and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Resulting from March 28, 1979 Accident Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 has been supplemented. The supplement was required because current information indicates that cleanup may entail substantially more occupational radiation dose to the cleanup work force than originally anticipated. Cleanup was originally estimated to result in from 2000 to 8000 person-rem of occupational radiation dose. Although nearly 2000 person-rem have resulted from cleanup operations performed up to now, current estimates now indicate that between 13,000 and 46,000 person-rem are expected to be required. Alternative cleanup methods considered in the supplement either did not result in appreciable dose savings or were not known to be technically feasible

  6. Programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320). Draft supplement dealing with occupational radiation dose. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Related to Decontamination and Disposal of Radioactive Waste for the 1979 Accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 has been supplemented. The supplement was required because current information indicates that cleanup will entail substantially more occupational radiation dose to the cleanup work force than originally anticipated. Cleanup was originally estimated to result in from 2000 to 8000 person-rem of occupational radiation dose. Although only 1700 person-rem have resulted from cleanup operations performed up to now, current estimates now indicate that between 13,000 and 46,000 person-rem are expected to be required. Alternate cleanup methods considered in the supplement either did not result in appreciable dose savings or were not known to be technically feasible

  7. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be...

  8. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale

  9. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: nathan.merchant@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  10. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcas, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.; Merchant, Nathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  11. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment of Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas projects in Nigeria ... natural, social and health components of the environment; Determination of issues ... of impact quantification through which the Environmental Management Plan ...

  12. 78 FR 46677 - Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement...: The Federal Highway Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed transportation project in Calcasieu Parish...

  13. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lacour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption.MethodsFood intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED, and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age.ResultsParticipants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissionsQ5vsQ1 = 838/1,664 kg CO2eq/year, −49.6%, P < 0.0001; CEDQ5vsQ1 = 4,853/6,775 MJ/year, −26.9%, P < 0.0001; land occupationQ5vsQ1 = 2,420/4,138 m2/year, −41.5%, P < 0.0001. Organic food consumption was also an important modulator of the relationship between provegetarian dietary patterns and environmental impacts but only

  14. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, Eckard; Marx, Patrick [Trier University of Applied Sciences, Birkenfeld (Germany). Institut fuer Angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)

    2012-12-15

    Electric vehicles have been identified as being a key technology in reducing future emissions and energy consumption in the mobility sector. The focus of this article is to review and assess the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of battery electric cars (BEV), which is the only technical alternative on the market available today to vehicles with internal combustion engine (ICEV). Electricity onboard a car can be provided either by a battery or a fuel cell (FCV). The technical structure of BEV is described, clarifying that it is relatively simple compared to ICEV. Following that, ICEV can be 'e-converted' by experienced personnel. Such an e-conversion project generated reality-close data reported here. Practicability of today's BEV is discussed, revealing that particularly small-size BEVs are useful. This article reports on an e-conversion of a used Smart. Measurements on this car, prior and after conversion, confirmed a fourfold energy efficiency advantage of BEV over ICEV, as supposed in literature. Preliminary energy efficiency data of FCV are reviewed being only slightly lower compared to BEV. However, well-to-wheel efficiency suffers from 47% to 63% energy loss during hydrogen production. With respect to energy efficiency, BEVs are found to represent the only alternative to ICEV. This, however, is only true if the electricity is provided by very efficient power plants or better by renewable energy production. Literature data on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by ICEV compared to BEV suffer from a 25% underestimation of ICEV-standardized driving cycle numbers in relation to street conditions so far. Literature data available for BEV, on the other hand, were mostly modeled and based on relatively heavy BEV as well as driving conditions, which do not represent the most useful field of BEV operation. Literature data have been compared with measurements based on the converted Smart, revealing a distinct GHG emissions

  16. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and final...

  17. 75 FR 39527 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8991-3] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements filed 06/28/2010 through... Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Final 20100230 filed with the Environmental Protection...

  18. 78 FR 75919 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9012-5] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/02/2013 through... Railroad Relocation Planning and Environmental Study, Review Period Ends: 01/13/2014, Contact: John Winkle...

  19. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statement... Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project is... and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. 77 FR 49792 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9004-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/06/2012 Through..., USFS, CA, On Top Hazardous Fuels Reduction Project, To Disclose the Environmental Effects of a Federal...

  1. Leading product-related environmental performance indicators: a selection guide and database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management and improvement approach employed in the product development process, which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during a product's life cycle and thus improve its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental...... in the selection and application of environmental performance indicators - a more structured approach is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made to identify and systematize existing leading product-related environmental performance indicators, based on a systematic literature review, and to develop...

  2. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  3. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2009-06-01

    A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In arid regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as well as for environmentally responsible value-chain management.

  4. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NRC staff will prepare a supplement to the final environmental impact statement on the construction... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.95...

  5. 77 FR 25165 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9002-7] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements filed 04/16/2012 through...-Specific Impacts Associated with the Plan of Operations, Sweetwater County, WY, Comment Period Ends: 06/11...

  6. 76 FR 53531 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...)] Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Department Of... that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Hancock... an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed widening and/or realignment of State Route...

  7. 77 FR 44234 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9004-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/16/2012 through... Analyze the Site-Specific Impacts Associated with the Plan of Operations, Sweetwater County, WY, Review...

  8. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement and...

  9. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an environmental impact statement is prepared, the following procedures must be followed to determine what issues...

  10. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los... to advise the public that a Draft Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed... prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure...

  11. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  12. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6...

  13. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement.... SUMMARY: The FHWA is rescinding the notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement for the... rescinding the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed...

  14. Evaluating California local land use plan's environmental impact reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhenghong; Bright, Elise; Brody, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Local land use planning has profound impacts on environmental quality; however, few empirical studies have been conducted to systematically measure local land use plans' environmental assessment quality and to identify the factors influencing it. This paper analyzes the quality of 40 Environmental Impact Reports (EIRs) of local jurisdictions' land use plans in California. A plan evaluation protocol defined by five core components and sixty-three indicators is developed to measure the quality of local land use plans' EIRs. The descriptive results indicate that the local jurisdictions produce relatively good quality on its EIRs, but there is still much room for improvement. There are large variations in the quality of EIRs across local jurisdictions. The regression results further highlight three major factors that can significantly influence local land use plan's EIR quality: number of planners, plan updating ability, and development pressure

  15. Environmental impact of solution mining for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunkin, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    Compared with most other mining systems, uranium solution mining has a negligible effect on such environmental factors as surface disturbance, interference with natural groundwater quality and distribution, and aerial discharge of radionuclides. The following topics are discussed: the process, personnel safety and health, tailings disposal, impact on groundwater, operating licenses and controls, legislation, and economics. It is concluded that engineered well systems and controlled input/production flow rates, combined with full recirculation systems that maintain constant fluid volumes in the mineralized formations, result in containment of leach solutions within the operating area. The very dilute leach solutions, compatible with natural groundwaters, ensure that no environmental damage results, even if a loss of control occurred. Reduction in the number of processing steps and virtual elimination of operator hazards, waste disposal and land rehabilitation costs help in reducing overall costs

  16. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  17. Citizens' actions and environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.

    1975-01-01

    Above all, two kinds of citizens' participation in environmental decisions are to be considered: on the one hand the suit for damages and compensation for the purpose of internalization of external effects, and on the other hand the actions with the aim to influence character and content of public final decision cases. This is where cooperation and contributions towards state activities with more concern for the environment come into it. This sphere is investigated. Combined are the possibility of judicially arranged citizens' participation and a modern instrument of public decision: environmental impact statements. At the moment these appear to become exclusively an instrument for internal administration management. However, it is possible - this can be confirmed in comparative law - to couple this for the purpose of administration created instrument of technology assessment with citizens' actions. Therefore, the article aims to point to a solution how modern administration management through judicial mediation can orientate itself according to citizens' interests. (orig./LN) [de

  18. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  19. 76 FR 65746 - Notice of Availability of Joint Final Environmental Impact Statement/Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) have prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR) as a joint environmental analysis document for Tule Wind, LLC's Tule Wind Project (Tule Project) and the San Diego Gas and Electric's (SDG&E) East County Substation Project (ECO Project) and by this notice are announcing the availability of the Final EIS/EIR. By this Notice the BLM is also segregating the public lands within the Tule Project application area from appropriation under the public land laws including the Mining Law, but not the Mineral Leasing or Material Sales Act, for a period of 2 years.

  20. 75 FR 2517 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ...The action being taken is the preparation of a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Lower San Joaquin River Feasibility Study (LSJRFS). The EIS/EIR will be prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) will serve as lead agency for compliance with NEPA, and the San Joaquin Area Flood Control Agency (SJAFCA) will serve as lead agency for compliance with CEQA. The LSJRFS will evaluate alternatives, including a locally preferred plan, for providing flood damage reduction and ecosystem restoration along the lower (northern) portion of the San Joaquin River system in the Central Valley of California. The approximate area of the proposed action and analysis is identified in Figure 1.

  1. 75 FR 8047 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District (USACE) intends to prepare a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Lower Walnut Creek General Reevaluation Report (LWCGRR). USACE will serve as lead agency for compliance with NEPA, and the Contra Costa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District (CCCFCWCD) will serve as lead agency for compliance with CEQA. The LWCGRR will evaluate alternatives, including a locally preferred plan, for providing flood risk management and ecosystem restoration along the northern portion of the Walnut Creek watershed in the Central Coast of California. The approximate drainage area of the proposed action and analysis is 180 square miles.

  2. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  3. Alternatives and implication in process of environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauš Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EIA is an interactive, rule-based expert system for the environmental impact assessment. It is designed for a screening level assessment of development projects at a pre-feasibility stage. Typical problems for the evaluation include: resettlement; watershed degradation; encroachment upon precious ecosystems; encroachment on historical/cultural values; watershed erosion; reservoir siltation; impairment of navigation; changes in groundwater hydrology, waterlogging; seepage and evaporation losses; migration of valuable fish species; inundation of mineral resources/forests; other inundation losses and adverse effects. It is important to prevent environmental pollution when carrying out large-scale development projects, such as artificial change of landscapes and building of certain structures that may cause a tremendous impact on the environment. In accordance with Cities Environmental Impact Assessment Departments it is necessary to provide project organisers with a necessary advice and instructions concerning the environmental impact assessment a survey to predict and evaluate environmental impact to be conducted by project organisers. Prior to offering the advice and instructions, cities need to hear the opinions of residents of the areas concerned, mayors of related municipalities and other opinion leaders, including specialists, to reflect their views in the environmental preservation. The first aspect in any quality assessment is to determine the representativeness of data both in terms of physical siting and data collected. It must be recognised the environment is a dynamic fluid; quality therefore varies over space and time. There will be locations in any community that experience poorer quality than recorded at a monitoring station. Likewise other sites will have a better quality. Most communities have only a single monitoring site. Therefore, the air quality monitors are sited to provide a representative estimate of the community exposure

  4. Environmental impact assessment applied to planning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismara, R.

    1994-01-01

    Object of EEC (European Economic Community) directive and italian law are certain public and private projects. However, more recent tendency are moving to an application on planning action too. There is no doubt that EIA (Environmental Impact Analysis) on project is very different than EIA on plans. Obviously EIA on a sectorial plan is not an addition of singular EIA on project. The new main objectives shall be: identification of critical areas; identification of interaction between different projects and between different factors; identification of critical project. A methodology to quantify these objectives in matricial form is presented

  5. Environmental impact due to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.; Balfanz, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact due to nuclear power plants is smaller than that due to fossil-fired power plants. The risks of the nuclear power plant operation are determined by the quantity and the probability of the release of radioactive materials. According to the value, the risks of normal operation can be compared to the accident risks. An attempt should be made to effectively reduce the remaining risk at unfavourable sites with the emphasis on accidents with larger effects than design basis accidents. (orig./LH) [de

  6. An Assessment of Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Masdiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in evaluating the planning project is a debatable issue among academics and practitioners, since EIA has been claimed to be unable to eliminate the environmental issues. Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the problems of EIA; the process of EIA should be clearly identified instead to maximise the effective use of EIA. It is important to note that the effective use of EIA, particularly on process-related issues could significantly minimise bad environmental effects. In summary, this study aims to explore and identify the effectiveness of EIA in the planning process and barriers to evaluate the environmental performance in Malaysia. The findings of this study could be a baseline for organisation to minimize emission, avoid the risk of prosecution and fines arising from potential environment breaches and cost reduction within the organisation.

  7. Environmental impact of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.; Balfanz, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Following a comparative consideration of the present and future environmental impact by coal, oil, and nuclear power plants, the special risks connected with the use of the latter are dealt with. A distinction is made in considering the risk between public exposure, in the environment of a plant due to operational leakage and radiation exposure in the plant under normal operation and in the case of an accident. The accident risk consideration is the basis of the Rasmussen study where the different containment construction of german plants as well as the higher population density for sites in the FRG are considered. Evaluation parameters are given to quantify the risks and using this, the risks of various cases of impact of nuclear power plants are compared. The comparison shows that the risks of nuclear power plant operation according to the value in normal operation are comparable to those in the case of an accident. (ORU/LH) [de

  8. Environmental impact and benefit from hydro-energy: Bulgarian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesselinov, V.; Iotova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The present hydro energy system in Bulgaria has been constructed mainly in the period 1950-1965. The currently utilized hydro-power potential, only 33% of the estimated technical potential, includes 87 HPP operating in 1991. A complex assessment of the environmental impact of the hydro energy objects as well as a comparative analysis of all energy sources in Bulgaria is made in the framework of Bulgarian Case Study of the DECADES Inter-Agency Project. The main types of environmental impact related to HPP operation are presented in 7 specific categories: land requirements, changes in the landscape, hydrological changes, micro-climatic changes, geodynamic changes, risk from man-made activities; generation of new ecosystems. A technique of expertise in ball is proposed as a suitable quantitative approach for more precise assessment of impact on climate factors from different energy sources. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  9. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  10. 76 FR 58833 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...The Department of the Interior and the California Department of Fish and Game have prepared a draft environmental impact statement and environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) evaluating the effects of removing four dams on the Klamath River in southern Oregon and northern California. These documents are one part of the total record that will inform the decision of the Secretary of the Interior on whether removing the dams will advance restoration of the fisheries of the Klamath River Basin and will be in the public interest.

  11. Environmental Performance and Financing Decisions Impact on Sustainable Financial Development of Chinese Environmental Protection Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Quan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection firms need to improve their ability to access financing while maintaining good economic performance under mounting environmental pressures. After the integration of trade-off and stakeholder theories, we have constructed a number of mathematical models to investigate the relationship among financing decisions, environmental performance (EP, and economic performance. Unbalanced panel data from environmental protection companies listed on Chinese stock exchanges from 2007 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Our results have confirmed that debt financing has a significant impact on short- and long-term economic performance. Firms prefer long-term debt over short-term debt to improve their financial sustainability. Internal financing is positively related to performance because the cost of financing is lower. Environmental performance can cause extra financial burden in the short run, but will improve stakeholder relations and profitability in the long run. Our study suggests that environmental performance affects the relationship between financing decisions and economic performance. When EP initiatives are high, debt financing has a greater negative influence on short-term performance, and the effect on long-term performance is mitigated. High EP also reduces the impact of internal financing on performance.

  12. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, ‘resources’ and ‘climate change’ categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  13. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, `resources' and `climate change' categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  14. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  15. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  16. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph B; Jackson, David; Gammie, Alistair; Badrick, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare is a significant contributor to environmental impact but this has received little attention. The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per unit area than the typical office building. There is a need to sensitise laboratories to the importance of adopting good environmental practices. Since this comes at an initial cost, it is vital to obtain senior management support. Convincing management of the various tangible and intangible benefits that can accrue in the long run should help achieve this support. Many good environmental practices do not have a cost but will require a change in the culture and mind-set of the organisation. Continuing education and training are important keys to successful implementation of good practices. There is a need to undertake a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of every change that is introduced in going green. The adoption of good practices can eventually lead to ISO certification if this is desired. This paper provides suggestions that will allow a laboratory to start going green. It will allow the industry to enhance its corporate citizenship whilst improving its competitive advantage for long-term.

  17. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and...

  18. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  19. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  20. Environmental impact assessment of NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following potential impacts of decommissioning of NPP are discussed: - Impacts on population; Impacts on natural environment; Land impacts; Impacts on urban complex and land utilisation; Possible impacts on area as a result of failure.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Tedesco, Doriana; Pretolani, Roberto; Ferrante, Valentina

    2018-09-01

    On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production. In this study, using the Life Cycle Assessment approach, the environmental impact of alfalfa hay production in Northern Italy was analyzed. More in detail, two production practices (without and with irrigation) were compared. The results show that alfalfa hay production in irrigated fields has a better environmental performance compared to non-irrigated production, mainly because of the yield increase achieved with irrigation. In particular, for the Climate Change impact category, the impact is equal to 84.54 and 80.21kgCO 2 /t of hay for the scenario without and with irrigation, respectively. However, for two impact categories (Ozone Depletion and Human Toxicity-No Cancer Effect), the impact of irrigation completely offsets the yield increase, and the cultivation practice without irrigation shows the best environmental performance. For both scenarios, the mechanization of harvest is the main environmental hotspot, mostly due to fuel consumption and related combustion emissions. Wide differences were highlighted by comparing the two scenarios with the Ecoinvent process of alfalfa hay production; these differences are mostly due to the cultivation practice and, in particular, to the more intensive fertilization in Swiss production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 37846 - Resource Management Plan/General Plan and Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation and the California Department of Parks and Recreation (CDPR) have prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area Resource Management Plan/General Plan (RMP/GP). The Final EIS/EIR describes and presents the environmental effects of the No Action/No Project Alternative and three Action Alternatives for implementing the RMP/GP. A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS/EIR was published in the Federal Register on August 3, 2012 (77 FR 46518). The comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on October 2, 2012. The Final EIS/EIR contains responses to all comments received and reflects comments and any additional information received during the review period.

  3. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  4. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  5. Environmental and Physiological Factors Affect Football Head Impact Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalik, Jason P; Sumrall, Adam Z; Yeargin, Susan W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; King, Kevin B; Trulock, Scott C; Shields, Edgar W

    2017-10-01

    Recent anecdotal trends suggest a disproportionate number of head injuries in collegiate football players occur during preseason football camp. In warmer climates, this season also represents the highest risk for heat-related illness among collegiate football players. Because concussion and heat illnesses share many common symptoms, we need 1) to understand if environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status affect head impact biomechanics; and 2) to determine if an in-helmet thermistor could provide a valid measure of gastrointestinal temperature. A prospective cohort of 18 Division I college football players (age, 21.1 ± 1.4 yr; height, 187.7 ± 6.6 cm; mass, 114.5 ± 23.4 kg). Data were collected during one control and three experimental sessions. During each session, the Head Impact Telemetry System recorded head impact biomechanics (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and severity profile) and in-helmet temperature. A wet bulb globe device recorded environmental conditions, and CorTemp™ Ingestible Core Body Temperature Sensors recorded gastrointestinal temperature. Our findings suggest that linear acceleration (P = 0.57), rotational acceleration (P = 0.16), and Head Impact Technology severity profile (P = 0.33) are not influenced by environmental or physiological conditions. We did not find any single or combination of predictors for impact severity. Rotational acceleration was approaching significance between our early experimental sessions when compared with our control session. More research should be conducted to better understand if rotational accelerations are a component of impact magnitudes that are affected due to changes in environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status.

  6. Environmental impacts of China's WTO-accession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemo, Haakon; Aunan, Kristin; Rypdal, Kristin; He, Jianwu; Li, Shantong; Hu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. We analyse the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favour of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO 2 also fall, but emissions of NO x and VOC rise. Since particle and SO 2 -emissions fall we estimate that public health improves. (author)

  7. Mining-related environmental impacts of carbon mitigation; Coal-based carbon capture and sequestration and wind-enabling transmission expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubert, Emily

    2010-09-15

    Carbon mitigation can occur by preventing generation of greenhouse gases or by preventing emissions from entering the atmosphere. Accordingly, increasing the use of wind energy or carbon capture and storage (CCS) at coal-fired power plants could reduce carbon emissions. This work compares the direct mining impacts of increased coal demand associated with CCS with those of increased aluminum demand for expanding transmission systems to enable wind power incorporation. Aluminum needs for expanded transmission probably represent a one-time need for about 1.5% of Jamaica's annual bauxite production, while CCS coal needs for the same mitigation could almost double US coal demand.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-11-01

    A methodology was developed for the assessment and comparison of the environmental impact of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A case study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the impact on the aquatic environment and the impact on human health. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Impact Statement: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary of the environmental impact statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the WIPP was published by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1979. This document was reviewed and commented on by members of the general public, private organizations, and governmental agencies. The Final Environmental Impact Statement was subsequently published in October, 1980. This summary is designed to assist decision-maker and interested individuals in reviewing the material presented in the environmental impact statement for the WIPP project. To make this material widely available, this summary is published in both Spanish and English. Additional, more detailed information concerning the environmental and safety consequences of the WIPP project is available in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. Written comments and public hearing comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement are available for review. 27 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Environmental regulations: their impact on the battery and lead industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, John R.

    This paper presents a general overview of the past and current position of the lead industry in relation to environmental legislation and its impact. The lead industry has watched environmental lead levels being steadily reduced down to levels that, ten years ago, would have been considered unachievable. Nevertheless, the industry has managed to survive the effect of the ever-increasing demands of environmental controls. During the last ten to twenty years, lead producers and users have had to assess their future positions, as the cost implications of environmental laws have had a significant impact on their bottom lines. Without doubt, this consideration most definitely affected the viability of many plants. The need to be aware of the existence of new and proposed legislation is of paramount importance, as the threat from the vast array of EEC legislation is ever apparent. Lead companies have all considered environmental legislation to have no more than a nuisance value, but it is of vital importance to the future of the industry that such legislation is approached in a positive and sensible way in order to demonstrate a full commitment to protecting both employees and the general environment. Lead must receive the credit that it so richly deserves.

  11. 78 FR 70041 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9012-2] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly Receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/11/2013 through 11/15/2013. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9....

  12. 78 FR 73524 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9012-4] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/25/2013 Through 11/29/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice...

  13. 78 FR 67140 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9011-8] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/28/2013 Through 11/01/2013, Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9....

  14. 78 FR 63977 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9011-6] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 09/30/2013 Through 10/18/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9....

  15. 78 FR 52524 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9010-7] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/12/2013 Through 08/16/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notic...

  16. 78 FR 69665 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9011-9] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 11/04/2013 through 11/08/2013. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9....

  17. 78 FR 16500 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9008-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 03/04/2013 Through...

  18. 78 FR 26027 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9008-9] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/22/2013 Through...

  19. 78 FR 21938 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9008-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/01/2013 Through...

  20. 78 FR 2397 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9007-1] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/31/2012 Through...

  1. 76 FR 14968 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8995-9] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly Receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 03/07/2011 Through.... McKoy 1-800-432-8330 Ext 4426. EIS No. 20110083, Final EIS, USFS, MT, Beaver Creek Landscape Management...

  2. 75 FR 63469 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8993-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/4/2010 through.../2010, Contact: David Arrasmith, 530-478- 6220. EIS No. 20100405, Draft EIS, USFS, MT, Beaver Creek...

  3. 77 FR 9652 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9001-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/06/2012 Through 02..., Development, and Production of Mineral and Energy Resources and Reclamation of Activities, Beaver, Garfield...

  4. 76 FR 65509 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8999-6] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 10/10/2011 Through... Mineral and Energy Resources and Reclamation of Activities, Beaver, Garfield, Iron, Juab, Millard, Piute...

  5. 77 FR 60986 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9005-4] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 09/24/2012 through... and Special-Use-Permit by AFS, Sevier, Millard, Iron, Beaver, and Washington Counties, UT, Review...

  6. 78 FR 43200 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9010-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/08/2013 Through...

  7. 76 FR 45554 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8998-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/18/2011 Through...

  8. 76 FR 62405 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8999-4] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Office of Federal Activities, EPA. General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 09/26/2011 Through 09...

  9. 76 FR 65775 - Environmental Impact Statement: Harris County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Harris... (TxDOT) are issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement (EIS) will..., Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) and the National Environmental Policy...

  10. 78 FR 78955 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9012-7] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/16/2013 through 12...

  11. 76 FR 63922 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8999-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/03/2011 Through...

  12. 77 FR 2060 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9001-1] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly Receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/03/2012 Through...

  13. 78 FR 32645 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9009-4] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/20/2013 Through...

  14. 75 FR 69434 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8993-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/01/2010 Through...

  15. 77 FR 793 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9000-9] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/27/2011 through...

  16. 77 FR 46433 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9004-3] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/23/2012 Through...

  17. 75 FR 65320 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8993-3] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/11/2010 Through...

  18. 77 FR 62235 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9005-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/01/2012 Through...

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things, the...

  20. 76 FR 76972 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9000-4] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 11/28/2011 through...

  1. 77 FR 56840 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9005-1] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 09/03/2012 Through...

  2. 78 FR 5439 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9007-3] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/14/2013 Through...

  3. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare and...

  4. 78 FR 20632 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9008-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 03/25/2013 Through...

  5. 78 FR 37539 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9009-7] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 06/10/2013 Through...

  6. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... Department of Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve.... SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental...

  7. 76 FR 80367 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9000-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/12/2011 Through...

  8. 78 FR 35928 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9009-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 06/03/2013 through...

  9. 75 FR 38517 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8991-2] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/21/2010 through...

  10. 78 FR 4586 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kake... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed transportation project to improve access to and from the... written comments on environmental concerns that should be addressed in the EIS. The public scoping...

  11. 76 FR 54767 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8998-8] Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly Receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 08/22/2011 Through... the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Project, To Address New Geologic Information...

  12. 76 FR 24021 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8996-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of....epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental. Impact Statements Filed 04/18/2011 Through..., Draft Supplement, NNSA, NM, Nuclear Facility of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement...

  13. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... prepare an environmental impact statement to examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass... of animal carcass management options used throughout the United States. The EIS will analyze and...

  14. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system of decision making for sustainable socioeconomic development, with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in order to implement the government policy of environmental protection and safety at the regional ...

  15. Carbon Capture and Sequestration. Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, P.; Santillo, D. [Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Over the last few years, understanding of the profound implications of anthropogenically driven climate change has grown. In turn, this has fuelled research into options to mitigate likely impacts. Approaches involving the capture of carbon dioxide and its storage in geological formations, or in marine waters, have generated a raft of proposed solutions. The scale of some of these proposals is such that they will exert impacts of global significance in their own right. Proposals fall into two broad categories: (1) storage of liquid CO2 or products of reacted CO2 into intermediate/deep oceanic waters. and (2) storage of liquid CO2 into sub-seabed or terrestrial geological formations. For the most part, while the technical feasibility of these schemata has been widely explored, the same is not true of their ecological implications. In the case of deep/intermediate oceanic waters, poor baseline understanding of the associated ecosystems is a considerable impediment to any reliable predictive assessment of likely impacts of carbon dioxide storage in these systems. Disruption of marine microbiological processes and degradation of benthic ecosystems, including those with high levels of endemicity, have been identified as potentially serious impacts. Similarly, the physiology, ecology and likely responses of micro-organisms present in targeted geological formations require evaluation prior to any consideration of the use of such formations for storage of CO2. In addition, the impacts of any leakage to surface need also to be considered. Accordingly this paper explores current uncertainties and detailed informational needs related to ocean and geological storage of fossil fuel-derived CO2. Particular emphasis is placed upon the ecological impacts of these proposals in relation to existing and emergent understanding of deep water/soil ecosystems and the indeterminacies attached to this understanding.

  16. Peat 2003. Production, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. Harvesting concessions must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the increased energy prices. In 2003, about 2,628,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in district heating plants. In 2003, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4,0 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,825,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2003, imports amounted to 382,3000 metric tons or 1.3 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 103,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy

  17. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  18. Final programmatic environmental impact statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979 accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) related to the decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-320) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to a directive issued by the Commission on November 21, 1979. This statement is an overall study of the activities necessary for decontamination of the facility, defueling, and disposition of the radioactive wastes. The available alternatives considered ranged from implementation of full cleanup to no action other than continuing to maintain the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. Also included are comments of governmental agencies, other organizations, and the general public on the Draft PEIS on this project, and staff responses to these comments. (author)

  19. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  20. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  1. Final environmental impact statement. Marquez uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    As one of many activities TVA has undertaken to ensure an adequate supply of uranium for these plants, TVA has proposed to underground mine, through its operator, the uranium deposits located in the Canon de Marquez in McKinley County, New Mexico. Construction and operation of the underground mine would be expected to have the following environmental effects: (a) a temporary change in land use for 48.5 hectares from wildlife habitat and recreation to mineral extraction; (b) a minor alteration in topography near the proposed pond sites due to reclamation of waste rock piles; (c) minimal impacts on land due to limited vehicular traffic and road construction; (d) temporary depression of ground water levels in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in the mine vicinity during mine life; (e) short-term project-induced impacts to surface water and shallow ground water quality; (f) a temporary decrease in air quality in the vicinity of the mining operations due to fugitive dust and exhaust emissions from combustion-driven mining and support vehicles and releases of radon and short-lived radon progeny from ventilation shafts and ore piles; (g) a temporary decrease of plant and animal species at the mine site; (h) a minor and temporary effect on aquatic systems downstream from the mine and settling ponds due to sedimentation; and (i) a minor increase of noise levels in the immediate vicinity of mine shafts and vents. The no action alternative and alternatives for securing uranium ore by other methods were considered but were found insufficient to meet TVA objectives. None of the alternatives explored were environmentally preferable. TVA also evaluated site specific alternatives including the following: different shaft and support building siting, mining techniques, and reclamation options. 25 figures, 20 tables

  2. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  3. Environmental impact of household activity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Choliz, Julio; Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo [Department of Economic Analysis University of Zaragoza Gran Via 2, 50005, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-04-20

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the environmental impacts of the Spanish economy by way of water and atmospheric pollution on the basis of a Spanish Accounting Matrix for 1999. Only households were taken as an exogenous account. The pollution measures are estimated for seven categories of pollution: three atmospheric pollutants (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}) and four indicators for water (waste water, nitrogen, metals and biological oxygen demand (BOD)). The environmental data base was obtained from the Spanish Statistical Institute. The analysis reveals that pollution in Spain is closely linked to food production, energy, extractive industries and paper manufacturing. We show that services, taken as a whole, are major polluters, though this is due to the volume of household expenditure they represent rather than their pollution potential as such. We also show that the Spanish economy avoids a great deal of pollution by importing inputs, which pollute where they are produced. Finally, the study also provides per capita pollution values for the aforementioned seven pollutants. (author)

  4. Environmental impact assessment of a turboprop engine with the aid of exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atılgan, Ramazan; Turan, Önder; Altuntaş, Önder; Aydın, Hakan; Synylo, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    To develop approaches that effectively reduce engine environmental effect of aircrafts, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that have enabled improvements in thermodynamic efficiency of aircraft engines. In the present work, a turboprop engine used in regional aircrafts that produces 1948 shp and 640 N.m torque is examined using exergo-environmental method. The results show compressor, combustion chamber, gas generator turbine, power turbine and exhaust nozzle create 9%, 69%, 13%, 7%, 2% of total environmental impact of the engine, respectively. According to rates, the compressor and gas turbine can be considered first to improve in case of component related environmental impact. Furthermore, total component related environmental impact for the turboprop engine is found to be 2.26 mPts/s for the constructional phase and 2.34 mPts/s for the operation/maintenance phases. Accordingly, it is suggested that, in order to estimate environmental impact metric of aircrafts, the exergo-environmental analysis can be employed for aircraft propulsion systems. - Highlights: • Evaluating the exergo-environmental aspects of the turboprop engine. • According to exergo-environmental results, the biggest candidate for improving is the combustion chamber. • Specific environmental impact dominates at engine exhaust outlet of the turboprop engine. • Greatest total component related environmental impact is found at the gas generator turbine of the turboprop engine

  5. Geospatial Technology In Environmental Impact Assessments – Retrospective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Laxmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessments are studies conducted to give us an insight into the various impacts caused by an upcoming industry or any developmental activity. It should address various social, economic and environmental issues ensuring that negative impacts are mitigated. In this context, geospatial technology has been used widely in recent times.

  6. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  7. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  8. Environmental problems relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The regulations of the mining and milling of uranium as they relate to the environment are discussed. The industry is primarily under the jurisdiction of the federal government and administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This authority can in some instances be relegated to the states. Certain areas of jurisdiction have been given over to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the courts. The Safe Drinking Water Act is discussed as it relates to in situ leach mining. The role of the Department of Interior in the regulating of uranium mining, as described in the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976, is discussed. The requirement for environmental impact statements prior to licensing by the NRC or the individual states is also discussed. Air quality and radioactive waste disposal as they relate to uranium mining are also discussed

  9. Knowledge gaps in relation to radionuclide levels and transfer to wild plants and animals, in the context of environmental impact assessments, and a strategy to fill them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.E. (ed.); Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Saxen, R.; Mattila, J. (STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    International activities with regards the development of methods for assessing impacts on the environment from ionising radiation have been substantial in recent years. In developing these methods, there are requirements (i) to determine the transfer of radionuclides within ecosystems and (ii) to determine background dose-rates arising from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides, in a satisfactory manner. It has quickly become evident that fulfilling these 2 requirements is not entirely straightforward reflecting a lack of data in many cases. This report specifies exactly where these data-gaps lie through analyses of data generated from the most recent studies conducted internationally on this topic. It is evident that information is limited for numerous radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 decay series and notably, in view of its importance as a contributor to dose-rates in plants and animals, Po-210. The simple way to rectify these data deficiencies is to organise target field campaigns focusing on particular species and radionuclides where information is lacking. To this end, field sampling has been conducted in a semi-natural mountain ecosystem in Norway and freshwater aquatic systems in Finland. It is envisaged that the data derived from the studies briefly described in this report will provide fundamental information for our understanding of the behaviour and fate of natural decay series radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems and provide the basis for more robust way. (au)

  10. Knowledge gaps in relation to radionuclide levels and transfer to wild plants and animals, in the context of environmental impact assessments, and a strategy to fill them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Saxen, R.; Mattila, J.

    2009-01-01

    International activities with regards the development of methods for assessing impacts on the environment from ionising radiation have been substantial in recent years. In developing these methods, there are requirements (i) to determine the transfer of radionuclides within ecosystems and (ii) to determine background dose-rates arising from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides, in a satisfactory manner. It has quickly become evident that fulfilling these 2 requirements is not entirely straightforward reflecting a lack of data in many cases. This report specifies exactly where these data-gaps lie through analyses of data generated from the most recent studies conducted internationally on this topic. It is evident that information is limited for numerous radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 decay series and notably, in view of its importance as a contributor to dose-rates in plants and animals, Po-210. The simple way to rectify these data deficiencies is to organise target field campaigns focusing on particular species and radionuclides where information is lacking. To this end, field sampling has been conducted in a semi-natural mountain ecosystem in Norway and freshwater aquatic systems in Finland. It is envisaged that the data derived from the studies briefly described in this report will provide fundamental information for our understanding of the behaviour and fate of natural decay series radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems and provide the basis for more robust way. (au)

  11. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  12. 78 FR 4143 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9007-2] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . [[Page 4144

  13. 75 FR 43160 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8991-6] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . [[Page 43161

  14. 76 FR 21790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... prepare a Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of... and Environmental Team Leader, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...: The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), in cooperation with the Virginia Department of...

  15. Ecological risk assessment as a framework for environmental impact assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments in South Africa are usually conducted according to the integrated environmental management (IEM) procedure. The preliminary investigation reported here, indicated that most of the ecological requirements specified...

  16. The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... use of antibiotics in animal farming and insecticides accounts for high incidences of food poisoning and deaths of unsuspecting consumers ...

  17. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Ecosystem Services: Case Study of Birdwatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The main reason for promoting the concept of ecosystem services lies in its potential to contribute to environmental conservation. Highlighting the benefits derived from ecosystems fosters an understanding of humans' dependence on nature, as users of ecosystem services. However, the act of using ecosystem services may not be environmentally neutral. As with the use of products and services generated within an economy, the use of ecosystem services may lead to unintended environmental consequences throughout the `ecosystem services supply chain.' This article puts forward a framework for analyzing environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services, indicating five categories of impact: (1) direct impacts (directly limiting the service's future availability); and four categories of indirect impacts, i.e., on broader ecosystem structures and processes, which can ultimately also affect the initial service: (2) impacts related to managing ecosystems to maximize the delivery of selected services (affecting ecosystems' capacity to provide other services); (3) impacts associated with accessing ecosystems to use their services (affecting other ecosystem components); (4) additional consumption of products, infrastructure or services required to use a selected ecosystem service, and their life-cycle environmental impacts; and (5) broader impacts on the society as a whole (environmental awareness of ecosystem service users and other stakeholders). To test the usefulness of this framework, the article uses the case study of birdwatching, which demonstrates all of the above categories of impacts. The article justifies the need for a broader consideration of environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services.

  18. Electromagnetic fields and health impact: measurements, monitoring and environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Vetromile, C.; Petraglia, A.; Racioppoli, M.; D'Onofrio, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the last 10 years there has been a remarkable growth of the attention for problems related to the electromagnetic pollution, motivated by the alert connected to potential risk for the health of persons and due to the increasing diffusion of Bats for mobile telecommunication as EMF sources. Many projects are being realized about the environmental and health impact of electromagnetic field and an important social role is played by specific actions to minimize the risk perception of the population. This study aims to find an innovative approach to these problems through the use of a system of continuous time monitoring of the electromagnetic fields and the individuation of appropriate environmental indicators. The proposed system monitors the electromagnetic fields continuously over time, and is already operating in many southern Italian cities. It works in a very efficient way as a mean for: a) Info to the citizens, thanks to diffusion of daily collected data on Internet Web; b) Control for local administrations and Authorities, due to capability of the system itself to alert when measured values exceed the limits reported by the Italian laws; c) Planning, for the implementation of : 1) New procedures agreed among local environmental control agency, local administrations and mobile Companies for network planning and management of alarm situations; 2) New local guidelines documents concerning the installation and operation of telecommunications apparatus. Moreover, starting from the general principles of the Strategic Environmental Evaluation (VAS), the environmental impacts of EMS field is studied. Based on the model DPSIR (Drivers, Pressure, State, Impacts, Responses), 12 environmental indicators have been chosen providing an immediate and understandable tool to obtain very important information on electromagnetic pollution generated by radio-telecommunication systems. The selected environmental indicators have been applied to 11 cities of the

  19. Methods and techniques for prediction of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the procedure that helps decision makers understand the environmental implications of their decisions. The prediction of environmental effects or impact is an extremely important part of the EIA procedure and improvements in existing capabilities are needed. Considerable attention is paid within environmental impact assessment and in handbooks on EIA to methods for identifying and evaluating environmental impacts. However, little attention is given to the issue distribution of information on impact prediction methods. The quantitative or qualitative methods for the prediction of environmental impacts appear to be the two basic approaches for incorporating environmental concerns into the decision-making process. Depending on the nature of the proposed activity and the environment likely to be affected, a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods is used. Within environmental impact assessment, the accuracy of methods for the prediction of environmental impacts is of major importance while it provides for sound and well-balanced decision making. Pertinent and effective action to deal with the problems of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources and sustainable development is only possible given objective methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impact. Therefore, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems, decided to set up a task force, with the USSR as lead country, on methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impacts in order to undertake a study to review and analyse existing methodological approaches and to elaborate recommendations to ECE Governments. The work of the task force was completed in 1990 and the resulting report, with all relevant background material, was approved by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems in 1991. The present report reflects the situation, state of

  20. Generic environmental impact statement for license renewal of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Volume 2 of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants contains the appendices. These include: (A) General characterisitics and environmental settings of domestic nuclear plants, (B) Definition of impact initiators, (C) Socioeconomics and case studies, (D) Aquatic organisms and human health, (E) Radiation protection considerations, (F) Methodology for assessing impacts to aquatic ecology and water resources, (G) Postulated accidents, and (H) Environmental statutes and regulations affecting license renewal

  1. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-01-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  2. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  4. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-01-01

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  5. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Brenner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame-retardants (FR are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs. Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  6. Advanced mixed waste treatment project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The AMWTP DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with four alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. Four alternatives were analyzed: The No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The proposed AMWTP facility would treat low-level mixed waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste in preparation for disposal. Transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approval disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socio-economics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment. The AMWTP DEIS identifies as the Preferred Alternative the Proposed Action, which is the construction and operation of the AMWTP facility

  7. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivalent to, or even higher than that of cars running on internal combustion engines.4,5 In this study, the environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa were investigated. We found that, as the bulk of South Africa’s electricity is generated from relatively low-quality coal and the advanced exhaust clean up technologies are not implemented in the current coal-fired power plants, the use of electric vehicles in South Africa would not help to cut greenhouse gas emissions now (2010 or in the future (in 2030 using the IRP 2010 Revision 2, policy-adjusted IRP scenario, and actually would lead to higher SOx and NOx emissions.

  8. Regional environmental impacts of methanol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belian, T.; Morris, R.E.; Ligocki, M.P.; Whitten, G.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to obtain, through simulation modeling, preliminary estimates of the regional environmental impacts methanol-fueled vehicles and to estimate the sensitivity of the model to important parameters and assumptions that affect the calculation of the impacts. The regional environmental effects of the use of M85 fuel (85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline) and M100 (neat methanol) relative to gasoline (an indoline blend) were estimated using a Lagrangian (trajectory) acid deposition model. The Comprehensive Chemistry Acid Deposition Model (CCADM), contains a detailed treatment of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry and associated mass transfer, but provides for a less comprehensive representation of advection and diffusion. Two different meteorological regimes were analyzed: clear sky conditions and cloudy skies with a rain event. The study also included a review of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, with particular emphasis on methanol. The CCADM chemical mechanism was updated to include state-of-the-science (as of 1990) gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry including methanol chemistry. The CCADM was then used to analyze the regional environmental impacts from the use of methanol fuels. In performing such an analysis it was necessary to make several assumptions. The sensitivity of the analysis was examined through a series of simulations that varied key input parameters within their ranges of uncertainty

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and Sustainability in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Sanguinetto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at conducting a bibliographical research on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and their relation to the Ecological Economic Zoning (EEZ in the state of Minas Gerais. It is believed that the EIA is subject to failures as it does not take into account larger impacts upon space, time, cumulative and synergistic effects, whereas reflecting a reductionist point of view of the undertaking to the detriment of a broader, systemic, holistic perspective. With a view to compensate for such failure, the SEA is seen as an appropriate tool for the evaluation of political impacts, plans and programs which, conversely, guides the implementation of projects in an more integrated manner. Therefore, two EIAs can be used as reference; one refers to a rural electrification program in the state of Minas Gerais and the other approaches the integration planning of water sources in the metropolitan area of the state of São Paulo. While planning the Ecological Economic Zoning of the state, Minas Gerais takes a decisive step forward the reduction of conflicts related with multiple interests of economic development, providing and forming the basis for the essential balance among profit, preservation and environmental conservation, social justice, respect and cultural diversity, political and institutional maturation, ethic and plurality, which splash the sustainability colors on the canvas of the future.

  10. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    soil surface and is less demanding on machinery and fuel. Besides that, it represents an economic and environmental costly technique. Among interviewed milk producers, 77.2% adopted no-tillage technique and 75.9% made use of plot rotation. Other practices were less used by milk producers, such as agroecology system (12.6% of sample; 20.2% informed to adopt technique to reduce water consumption, such as the collection of roof water and the construction of cisterns. Finally, 12.6% of producers adopted energy saving practices. We concluded that practices adopted by great number of producers can be more related to economic and quality variables, with an indirect effect on environmental factors. It means that, although practices can help to reduce negative environmental impact, there are still many possibilities to increase environmental sustainable competitiveness in dairy cattle in Paraná.

  11. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  12. Economic and environmental impacts of alternative transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project has focused on comparing alternative transportation technologies in terms of their : environmental and economic impacts. The research is data-driven and quantitative, and examines the : dynamics of impact. We have developed new theory an...

  13. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  14. Progress in reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, D; Candler, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:Over the past several years, great progress has been made in understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes. Our understanding of sea floor impacts has been helped along by new environmental assessment tools such us computer modeling of sea floor deposition of drilling discharges, sediment profile imaging, and in situ sediment toxicity bioassays. To further reduce environmental impacts, new pollution prevention technologies have been developed that can shrink the environmental footprint of offshore drilling. These technologies reduce the total amount of drilling wastes discharged and include cuttings dryers and centrifuges that can reduce the drilling fluid content of drill cuttings to below 10 percent. In conclusion, the oil and gas industry is adopting more environmentally compatible drilling fluids, new environmental assessment tools and pollution prevention technologies that dramatically reduce the amount of drilling wastes discharged. Together, all of these elements have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of offshore drilling

  15. A statistical proposal for environmental impact assessment of development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas C, Julian A; De J Lema T, Alvaro; Leon P, Juan Diego

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment of development projects is a fundamental process, which main goal is to avoid that their construction and functioning, lead to serious and negative consequences on the environment. Some of the most important limitations of the models employed to assess environmental impacts, are the subjectivity of its parameters and weights, and the multicolineality among the variables, which represent high quantities of similar information. This work presents a multivariate statistical-based method that tries to diminish such limitations. For this purpose, environmental impact assessment, is valuated through different environmental impact attributes and environmental elements, synthesized in an environmental quality index (ICA in Spanish). ICA can be applied at different levels, such as at a project level, or applied only at a partial level on one or some environmental components.

  16. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  17. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains Appendices A--I which contain the following: glossary/abbreviations; scoping report; structure coordinate summary; air quality; biological resources; geology; noise; visual contrast rating forms; and cultural resources

  18. Peat 2002. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur (1 USD approx. 7.8 SEK). Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2002, about 2,885,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2001, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4.1 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,800,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2001, imports amounted to 329,311 metric tons or 1.1 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 91,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. Fuel peat is used at district heating power plants. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy sources. Some companies are privately owned, while others are owned by municipalities, which also manage district heating plants and thereby integrate

  19. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  20. Wildlife mitigation program. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  1. Wildlife mitigation program final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and improvement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative, i.e., not to establish program-wide standards. Five standardizing (action) alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  2. Matrix of Aspects and Environmental Impacts as a Tool of Disclosure of Environmental Contingencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diene Hellmann Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies that, as a result of their activities, cause an impact on the environment may incur environmental contingencies. Depending on the extent of the impact and the likelihood of future monetary obligations, accounting standards determine situations in which the company shall disclose such events in the explanatory notes. To contribute to this topic, this article aims to verify how a matrix of aspects and environmental impacts can contribute to the accounting disclosure of environmental contingencies for resellers in gas stations. To achieve this, this study used a matrix formed by information regarding the aspects and environmental impacts, in which were considered the scope, severity, and frequency of occurrence of each analyzed situation. The results show that instances of environmental impact in the business environment might be followed through the matrix of environmental aspects and impacts, and that this tool can help in judging which information is subject to disclosure in the notes.

  3. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia at Bogotá (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [National University of Colombia at Bogotá, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (Colombia); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  4. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown

  5. Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments: Open techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Ibsen C., E-mail: c.cardenas@utwente.nl [IceBridge Research Institutea, Universiteit Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Halman, Johannes I.M., E-mail: J.I.M.Halman@utwente.nl [Universiteit Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Uncertainty is virtually unavoidable in environmental impact assessments (EIAs). From the literature related to treating and managing uncertainty, we have identified specific techniques for coping with uncertainty in EIAs. Here, we have focused on basic steps in the decision-making process that take place within an EIA setting. More specifically, we have identified uncertainties involved in each decision-making step and discussed the extent to which these can be treated and managed in the context of an activity or project that may have environmental impacts. To further demonstrate the relevance of the techniques identified, we have examined the extent to which the EIA guidelines currently used in Colombia consider and provide guidance on managing the uncertainty involved in these assessments. Some points that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in impact assessments in Colombia have been identified. These include the management of stakeholder values, the systematic generation of project options, and their associated impacts as well as the associated management actions, and the evaluation of uncertainties and assumptions. We believe that the relevant and specific techniques reported here can be a reference for future evaluations of other EIA guidelines in different countries. - Highlights: • uncertainty is unavoidable in environmental impact assessments, EIAs; • we have identified some open techniques to EIAs for treating and managing uncertainty in these assessments; • points for improvement that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in EIAs in Colombia have been identified; • the paper provides substantiated a reference for possible examinations of EIAs guidelines in other countries.

  6. Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments: Open techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Ibsen C.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is virtually unavoidable in environmental impact assessments (EIAs). From the literature related to treating and managing uncertainty, we have identified specific techniques for coping with uncertainty in EIAs. Here, we have focused on basic steps in the decision-making process that take place within an EIA setting. More specifically, we have identified uncertainties involved in each decision-making step and discussed the extent to which these can be treated and managed in the context of an activity or project that may have environmental impacts. To further demonstrate the relevance of the techniques identified, we have examined the extent to which the EIA guidelines currently used in Colombia consider and provide guidance on managing the uncertainty involved in these assessments. Some points that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in impact assessments in Colombia have been identified. These include the management of stakeholder values, the systematic generation of project options, and their associated impacts as well as the associated management actions, and the evaluation of uncertainties and assumptions. We believe that the relevant and specific techniques reported here can be a reference for future evaluations of other EIA guidelines in different countries. - Highlights: • uncertainty is unavoidable in environmental impact assessments, EIAs; • we have identified some open techniques to EIAs for treating and managing uncertainty in these assessments; • points for improvement that should be considered in order to provide greater robustness in EIAs in Colombia have been identified; • the paper provides substantiated a reference for possible examinations of EIAs guidelines in other countries.

  7. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    OpenAIRE

    Corneliu Cojocaru; Diana Mariana Cocârţă; Irina Aura Istrate; Igor Creţescu

    2017-01-01

    One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP) proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components....

  8. The environmental impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, Z.J.

    1975-01-01

    The major environmental hazards associated with nuclear power stations are outlined. The environmental and biological effects of air pollution, thermal pollution, radioactive effluent from power stations and fuel reprocessing plants, and radioactive waste disposal are dealt with, and the safety of nuclear power stations is discussed. In addition, some comparisons are made of the environmental hazards associated with alternative methods of power generation. (author)

  9. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavelli, C.M.; Sartori, S.

    1993-06-01

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  10. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  11. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  12. 77 FR 59180 - Withdrawal of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...The Los Angeles District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) published a Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Ballona Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study in the Federal Register on September 20, 2005 (70 FR 55116). The study's purpose is to evaluate structural and non-structural means of restoring diminished ecosystem functions and services within the lower reach of Ballona Creek including coastal wetlands. Santa Monica Bay Restoration Commission (SMBRC) is the local sponsor for the cost-shared study. On September 29, 2005, a public scoping meeting was held pursuant to requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and Engineer Regulations 1105-2-100. Baseline conditions portions of the EIS/EIR have been completed as of January, 2012. On July 17, 2012, the SMBRC requested the Corps terminate the study. Therefore, the Corps is withdrawing the Notice of Intent to Prepare a draft EIS/EIR.

  13. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction.

  14. Spatial variation of environmental impacts of regional biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, van der F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Dam, van J.M.C.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Verweij, P.A.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  15. Spatial variation in environmental impacts of bioenergy supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Dam, J.M.C. van; Verweij, P.A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    In this study, the spatial variation of potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crops is quantitatively assessed. The cultivation of sugar beet and Miscanthus for bioethanol production in the North of the Netherlands is used as a case study. The environmental impacts included are greenhouse gas

  16. Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.; Chen, W.

    2011-01-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based

  17. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  18. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary

    Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments

    Angela N. Mwenda

    Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that

  19. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  20. Decreasing the overall environmental impact of the Dutch diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Gerard F.H.; Tyszler, Marcelo; Veer, van 't Pieter; Blonk, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To find diets optimised on nutrition and environmental impact close to the current Dutch diet and to identify the most effective and acceptable options for mitigating environmental impact. Design: Linear programming was used to optimise diets of Dutch men and women aged 9–69 years,

  1. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-01-01

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A program is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  2. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A programme is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  3. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.

    1977-07-01

    Generally, data used for the statement were those which had been accumulated through the calendar year 1973. Since 1973, Environmental Monitoring Reports have been published for calendar years 1974 and 1975. A review of these more recent documents reveals that the data contained therein lead to no significant change in the conclusions drawn in this Environmental Impact Statement. Past Laboratory operations were considered only insofar as they contribute to continuing environmental impacts. Environmental effects were considered solely with respect to off-site consequences, the only exception being those cases where on-site effects have had or will have an impact on the long-term productivity of the Laboratory site

  4. Stochastic models for predicting environmental impact in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart-Oaten, A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of stochastic predictions are discussed in relation to the environmental impacts of nuclear power plants on aquatic ecosystems. One purpose is to aid in making rational decisions about whether a power plant should be built, where, and how it should be designed. The other purpose is to check on the models themselves in the light of what eventually happens. The author discusses the role or statistical decision theory in the decision-making problem. Various types of stochastic models and their problems are presented. In addition some suggestions are made for generating usable stochastic models, and checking and improving on them. 12 references

  5. Environmental Methods Review: Retooling Impact Assessment for the New Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Environmental Assessment Research Council. Netherlands, Commission for Environmental Impact Assessment. 1993. Year book of the Commission for Environmental...professional standards. Currently. the main avenues to obtain information in order to maintain or improve competence include: • journals. books ...World Wide Web • professional associations and networks such as IAIA. All of these. however. rely on using the expertise of others secondhand . Who

  6. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  7. 75 FR 41163 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...Pursuant to section 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as implemented by the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Parts 1500- 1508), and Executive Order 12114, the Department of the Navy (DON) announces its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Overseas EIS (OEIS) to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with military readiness training and research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities (hereinafter referred to as ``training and testing'' activities) conducted within the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing (AFTT) study area. The AFTT study area includes the western North Atlantic Ocean along the east coast of North America (including the area where the Undersea Warfare Training Range will be used), the Chesapeake Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico. Also included are select Navy pierside locations and channels. The AFTT study area does not include the Arctic. This EIS and OEIS is being prepared to renew and combine current regulatory permits and authorizations; address current training and testing not covered under existing permits and authorizations; and to obtain those permits and authorizations necessary to support force structure changes and emerging and future training and testing requirements. The DON will invite the National Marine Fisheries Service to be a cooperating agency in preparation of this EIS and OEIS.

  8. Environmental impact of the NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    1996-01-01

    The Ministry of Economic Affairs has for six years now been monitoring the operation of the Krsko NPP (NEK) and its impact on the environment. A bulletin titled 'NEK - Energy and Environment' is being issued every three months. It contains information on operation of the Krsko NPP for the previous three months, a graph of duration of temperature increase of water in the Sava river (delta T) in that period, an assessment of the radiological impact of Krsko NPP on the environment through an equivalent dose cumulatively throughout the calendar year, and a short current text related to Krsko NPP. The Ministry of Economic Affairs organizes a press conference on every issue of the bulletin, as an attempt of introducing this subject to the media and to the public. This paper contains a review of information given in the NEK bulletin from 1990 to 1995 with a special emphasis on the contribution of the Krsko NPP to the artificially caused radiation on the border between the Republic of croatia and the Republic of Slovenia. (author)

  9. Environmental considerations. Environmental impacts of uranium mining in South Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallus, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    Recent investigations of uranium mining and milling activities in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico revealed serious environmental problems associated with these activities. An investigation was undertaken in the South Texas Uranium Belt to determine whether or not similar or other environmental problems existed. The study describes: (1) the history of uranium mining and milling in South Texas, (2) the area economy and demography, (3) the occurrence of uranium ore and (4) the regulatory aspects of uranium mining and milling in South Texas. The commercial recovery and processing of uranium in this area is described in some detail. Exploration, open pit mining, in-situ solution mining and processing techniques for ''yellowcake'' (U 3 O 8 ), the uranium product of the area, are discussed. The state and federal regulations pertinent to uranium mining and milling are summarized. Finally, the environmental effects of these activities are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are drawn

  10. Potential of mediation for resolving environmental disputes related to energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This study assesses the potential of mediation as a tool for resolving disputes related to the environmental regulation of new energy facilities and identifies possible roles the Federal government might play in promoting the use of mediation. These disputes result when parties challenge an energy project on the basis of its potential environmental impacts. The paper reviews the basic theory of mediation, evaluates specific applications of mediation to recent environmental disputes, discusses the views of environmental public-interest groups towards mediation, and identifies types of energy facility-related disputes where mediation could have a significant impact. Finally, potential avenues for the Federal government to encourage use of this tool are identified.

  11. Griffith energy project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. The existing environmental resource conditions in the Project area and the potential impacts on the resources by the proposed action and alternatives are described. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management

  12. Mitigating Dam Impacts Using Environmental Flow Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ecologically disruptive impacts of dams is their alteration of natural river flow variability. Opportunities exist for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. This presentation will highlight a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the suggested strategies for dam re-operation are predicated on changes in the end-use of the water, such as reductions in urban or agricultural water use during droughts, a systemic perspective of entire water management systems will be required to attain the fullest possible

  13. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  14. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-01

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (the Disko West Area). (au)

  15. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A; Boertmann, D; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  16. Environmental impact of low concentrated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barescut, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    A means to reduce the impact of a waste landfill is to limit its content so that after a reasonably short time, its radioactivity does not significantly exceed the natural level. For this means to be effective, it must be demonstrated that the system will not, in the long run, spontaneously evolve towards local sports of higher concentration. This process would require considerable converging migrations that would offer many opportunities for mixing and thus be inconsistent with concentration. Moreover, concentration is an energy-demanding process that will be limited by the availability of energy, especially in chemical form. For these reasons, it is wise to avoid placing a landfill where energy is likely to be more readily available than on the average. It is also advisable to avoid artificial protections, if their future evolution is not fully understood, since they necessarily contain an excess of energy relative to the undisturbed natural state. (author)

  17. Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holnicki, P. [Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland). Systems Research Inst.

    2004-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluation and comparison of environmental impact of emission sources in the case of a complex, multisource emission field. The analysis is based on the forecasts of a short-term, dynamic dispersion model. The aim is to get a quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the selected sources according to the predefined, environmental cost function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional-scale, multilayer dynamic model of SOx transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.

  18. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  19. Geomorphological hazards and environmental impact: Assessment and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    In five sections the author develops the methods for the integration of geomorphological concepts into Environmental Impact and Mapping. The first section introduces the concepts of Impact and Risk through the relationships between Geomorphological Environment and Anthropical Element. The second section proposes a methodology for the determination of Geomorphological Hazard and the identification of Geomorphological Risk. The third section synthesizes the procedure for the compilation of a Geomorphological Hazards Map. The fourth section outlines the concepts of Geomorphological Resource Assessment for the analysis of the Environmental Impact. The fifth section considers the contribution of geomorphological studies and mapping in the procedure for Environmental Impact Assessment.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartan Ayfer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS. The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.