WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative emission intensities

  1. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  2. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  3. Emission line relative intensity variations in the symbiotic stars: CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliversen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution spectra (lambda 3800 to lambda 5900) are presented of the symbiotic stars CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni, which were obtained with the Washburn Observatory Boller and Chivens cassegrain spectrograph and intensified Reticon. The spectra were obtained as part of a monitoring program covering 36 months since November 1978. The nebular electron temperature and density are derived from the [O III] lambda 5007 and lambda 4363 emission lines and the uv intercombination lines of lambda 1661 and lambda 1667. Relative emission line intensity variations were observed in all four stars. The relative emission line changes correlated with photometric minima for CI Cyg, AX Per and possibly BF Cyg. These changes are interpreted as due to a red giant eclipsing a nebula surrounding the exciting source. Based on the [O III] line ratio change, the nebular density of V1016 Cyg has continued to decline since 1978. The thesis also contains a discussion of the use of the emision lines of [Ne III] lambda 3869, [O III] lambda 5007, lambda 4363 and He lambda 5876 to derive nebular electron temperature and density. A decline in the intensity ratios of I(lambda 3869)/(lambda 5007) and I(lambda 5876)/I(lambda 5007) were observed during the 1980 minimum of CI Cyg. The observed I(lambda 3869)/I(lambda 5007) decline was too large to be explained by temperature or density changes. The [Ne III] and He II regions in CI Cyg are therefore closer to the hot source than the more extended (o III] emission region. Contained within the appendix is a discussion of a graphical method of solution ot the nebular temperature and density, which is based on the emission lines of [Ne III], [O III] and He I

  4. Decomposition of intensity of energy-related CO_2 emission in Chinese provinces using the LMDI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Ke; Zhou, Dequn; Zhang, Wenrui; Gao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the driving factors of CO_2 emission intensity declining is important for China. This paper improves the logarithmic mean Divisia index technique, which includes energy density and energy consumption intensity, to explore the driving factors of carbon emission intensity (CI) in 29 Chinese provinces from 1995–2012. The main results are: (1) energy consumption intensity plays a more important role than carbon emission density (CD) for a rapid decrease in CI during the research period, so a much room is left for a significant CD reduction through carbon emission reduction technology, energy structural reduction, and energy consumption proportional reduction. (2) The decrease in energy consumption technology and energy structure in secondary industries contributes the most reduction in energy consumption intensity. (3)The energy consumption proportions of secondary and tertiary industries are the two most important drivers to decrease CD. (4) During the research period, the energy consumption proportions of secondary industries result in the most decrease in CD, whereas the energy consumption proportions of tertiary industries cause the most increase in CD. - Highlights: •Carbon emission intensity decreased rapidly from 1995 to 2012. •Energy intensity is the more significant driver for decrease of carbon intensity. •The most contribution of EI's decrease came from secondary industries. •The most contribution of CD's decrease came from secondary and tertiary industries. •Several policies of reducing carbon emission intensity in China have been raised.

  5. Driving forces behind the stagnancy of China's energy-related CO2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: the relative importance of structural change, intensity change and scale change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, S.; Matsuoka, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is noteworthy that income elasticity of energy consumption in China shifted from positive to negative after 1996, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO 2 emissions. This paper therefore investigate the evolution of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1985 to 1999 and the underlying driving forces, using the newly proposed three-level 'perfect decomposition' method and provincially aggregated data. The province-based estimates and analyses reveal a 'sudden stagnancy' of energy consumption, supply and energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1996 to 1999. The speed of a decrease in energy intensity and a slowdown in the growth of average labor productivity of industrial enterprises may have been the dominant contributors to this 'stagnancy'. The findings of this paper point to the highest rate of deterioration of state-owned enterprises in early 1996, the industrial restructuring caused by changes in ownership, the shutdown of small-scale power plants, and the introduction of policies to improve energy efficiency as probable factors. Taking into account the characteristics of those key driving forces, we characterize China's decline of energy-related CO 2 emissions as a short-term fluctuation and incline to the likelihood that China will resume an increasing trend from a lower starting point in the near future. (author)

  6. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

  7. Does uncertainty justify intensity emission caps?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies often set 'relative' or 'intensity' emission caps, i.e. emission limits proportional to the polluting firm's output. One of the arguments put forth in favour of relative caps is based on the uncertainty on business-as-usual output: if the firm's production level is higher than expected, so will be business-as-usual emissions, hence reaching a given level of emissions will be more costly than expected. As a consequence, it is argued, a higher emission level should be allowed if the production level is more important than expected. We assess this argument with a stochastic analytical model featuring two random variables: the business-as-usual emission level, proportional to output, and the slope of the marginal abatement cost curve. We compare the relative cap to an absolute cap and to a price instrument, in terms of welfare impact. It turns out that in most plausible cases, either a price instrument or an absolute cap yields a higher expected welfare than a relative cap. Quantitatively, the difference in expected welfare is typically very small between the absolute and the relative cap but may be significant between the relative cap and the price instrument. (author)

  8. A partial life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy intensity and related greenhouse gas emission in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Murgia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is constantly evolving towards more intensive levels of mechanization and automation which demand more energy consumption and result in higher economic and environmental costs. The usage of fossil energy in agricultural processes contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to the use of grid power. As a consequence, a more efficient use of fossil resources together with an increased use of renewable energies can play a key role for the development of more sustainable production systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the energy requirements (fuels and electricity in dairy farms, define the distribution of the energy demands among the different farm operations, identify the critical point of the process and estimate the amount of CO2 associated with the energy consumption. The inventory of the energy uses has been outlined by a partial Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, setting the system boundaries at the farm level, from cradle to farm gate. All the flows of materials and energy associated to milk production process, including crops cultivation for fodder production, were investigated in 20 dairy commercial farms over a period of one year. Self-produced energy from renewable sources was also accounted as it influence the overall balance of emissions. Data analysis was focused on the calculation of energy and environmental sustainability indicators (EUI, CO2-eq referred to the functional units. The production of 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM required on average 0.044 kWhel and 0.251 kWhth, corresponding to a total emission of 0.085 kg CO2-eq. The farm activities that contribute most to the electricity requirements were milk cooling, milking and slurry management, while feeding management and crop cultivation were the greatest diesel fuel consuming operation and the largest in terms of environmental impact of milk production (73% of

  9. Changes in CO2 emission intensities in the Mexican industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Domingo; Martínez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A CO 2 emission intensity analysis in the Mexican industry from 1965 to 2010 is carried out by taking into consideration four stages: 1965–1982, 1982–1994, 1994–2003, and 2004–2010. Based on the LMDI decomposition methodology, three influencing factors are analyzed: energy intensity, CO 2 coefficient, and structure in terms of their contributions of each individual attributes to the overall percent change of them as it was proposed in Choi and Ang (2011). The energy intensity effect was the driving factor behind the main decreases of CO 2 intensity, the CO 2 coefficient effect contributed to less extent to mitigate it, and the structure effect tended to increased it. It is observed that CO 2 intensity declined by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003, but it increased by 10.1% from 2004 to 2010. In addition, the move of Mexico from an economic model based on import-substitution to an export-oriented economy brought more importance to the Mexican industry intended to export, thus maintaining high levels of activity of industries such as cement, iron and steel, chemical, and petrochemical, while industries such as automotive, and ‘other’ industries grown significantly not only as far their energy consumptions and related CO 2 emissions but they also increased their contributions to the national economy. - Highlights: ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was reduced by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003. ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was increased by 10.1% from 2003 to 2010. ► 1965–2003: Intensity effect took down CO 2 emission intensity. ► 2003–2010: Export-oriented industries raised CO 2 emission intensity.

  10. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)

  11. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngström, Sten

    1994-07-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics, electrodynamics, and statistical physics. Quantum rules lead to revision of the conventional principle of local thermal equilibrium of matter and radiation. Study of electrodynamics suggests absence of spectral emission from fractions of the numbers of atoms and ions in a plasma due to radiative inhibition caused by electromagnetic force fields. Statistical probability methods are extended by the statement: A macroscopic physical system develops in the most probable of all conceivable ways consistent with the constraining conditions for the system. The crucial role of statistical physics in transforming quantum logic into common sense logic is stressed. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence.

  12. Technology for Intensive Poultry Production as a Source of Odour Emissions with Time-Varying Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuneš Radim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology for intensive broiler breeding using deep litter method provides convenient conditions for production of odour substances inside the barn. As a consequence, there are relatively high odour emissions in the breeding area and its surrounding, which has significant impacts on the life quality of both people and animals. The amount of produced emissions increases in time because it is closely related to the amount of poultry droppings accumulated in litter inside the barn. This paper deals with changes in odour intensity depending on time measured since the beginning of broiler fattening. Odour intensity was measured by methods of dynamic olfactometry. The estimated values gradually increased from 45 ouE·m-3 to the highest value of 259 ouE·m-3, which was determined in the final fattening phase (broilers’ age 33 days. The calculated odour substances emission values were in range from 0.02 ouE·s-1·bird-1 at the beginning of fattening up to 0.10 ouE·s-1·bird-1 in the final fattening phase. Odour emissions increased five times during the fattening period.

  13. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study changes in the aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity at the global and country levels. The ACI is defined as the energy-related CO_2 emissions in electricity production divided by the electricity produced. It is a performance indicator since a decrease in its value is a desirable outcome from the environmental and climate change viewpoints. From 1990 to 2013, the ACI computed at the global level decreased only marginally. However, fairly substantial decreases were observed in many countries. This apparent anomaly arises from a geographical shift in global electricity production with countries having a high ACI increasingly taking up a larger electricity production share. It is found that globally and in most major electricity producing countries, reduction in their ACI was due mainly to improvements in the thermal efficiency of electricity generation rather than to fuel switching. Estimates of the above-mentioned effects are made using LMDI decomposition analysis. Our study reveals several challenges in reducing global CO_2 emissions from the electricity production sector although technically the reduction potential for the sector is known to be great. - Highlights: •Variations of aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity of world countries are analysed. •Main drivers of changes in ACI of major electricity producing countries are studied using index decomposition analysis. •Geographical shift in electricity production had a significant impact on global ACI. •Improvements in the thermal efficiency of generation were the main driver of reduction in ACI.

  14. Emissions intensity targeting: From China's 12th Five Year Plan to its Copenhagen commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yingying; Stegman, Alison; Cai, Yiyong

    2013-01-01

    China is currently the world's largest single source of fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. In response to pressure from the international community, and in recognition of its role in global climate change mitigation, the Chinese government has announced a series of climate policy commitments, in both the Copenhagen Accord and its domestic 12th 5 Year Plan, to gradually reduce emissions intensity by 2020. Emissions intensity reduction commitments differ significantly from emission level reduction commitments that are commonly adopted by developed economies. In this paper, we investigate the economic implications of China's recent commitments to reduce emissions intensity, and highlight the complexities involved in modelling intensity targets under uncertainty. Using G-Cubed, an intertemporal, computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, we show that China's emissions intensity targets could be achieved with a range of low and high growth emissions level trajectories corresponding to low and high growth GDP scenarios, which lead to different welfare consequences. - Highlights: • We investigate the economic implication of China's recent climate commitments. • We address the complexity of modelling reduction in emissions intensity. • The 2015 target gives China more flexibility towards its 2020 target. • The policy restriction is eased in high growth periods. • In low growth periods an intensity target places a further restriction on the economy

  15. Cigar burning under different smoking intensities and effects on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Ole; Mueller, Christian; Cahours, Xavier; Colard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    The effect of smoking intensity on cigar smoke emissions was assessed under a range of puff frequencies and puff volumes. In order to potentially reduce emissions variability and to identify patterns as accurately as possible, cigar weights and diameters were measured, and outliers were excluded prior to smoking. Portions corresponding to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the cigar, measured down to the butt length, were smoked under several smoking conditions, to assess nicotine, CO and water yields. The remaining cigar butts were analysed for total alkaloids, nicotine, and moisture. Results showed accumulation effects during the burning process having a significant impact on smoke emission levels. Condensation and evaporation occur and lead to smoke emissions dependent on smoking intensity. Differences were observed for CO on one side as a gas phase compound and nicotine on the other side as a particulate phase compound. For a given intensity, while CO emission increases linearly as the cigar burns, nicotine and water emissions exhibited an exponential increase. Our investigations showed that a complex phenomena occurs during the course of cigar smoking which makes emission data: difficult to interpret, is potentially misleading to the consumer, and inappropriate for exposure assessment. The results indicate that, tobacco content and physical parameters may well be the most robust basis for product characterisation and comparison rather than smoke emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Picosecond buildup and relaxation of intense stimulated emission in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L.; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the idea developed previously based on circumstantial evidence, we have found that stimulated emission emerges in GaAs and its intensity increases with a picosecond delay relative to the front of powerful picosecond optical pumping that produced a dense electron-hole plasma. The emission intensity relaxes with decreasing pumping with a characteristic time of ∼10 ps. We have derived the dependences of the delay time, the relaxation time, and the duration of the picosecond emission pulse on its photon energy. The estimates based on the fact that the relaxation of emission is determined by electron-hole plasma cooling correspond to the measured relaxation time.

  17. Emission intensity in New Zealand manufacturing and the short-run impacts of emissions pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartleet, Matthew; Iyer, Kris; Numan-Parsons, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the New Zealand (NZ) manufacturing sector at a combination of industry group and class levels (sub-sectors). The short-run impacts of a price on emissions are investigated with a focus on exporting activities. Sub-sectors that could be materially impacted by an expected range of emissions prices accounted for slightly over 9% of national gross domestic product. It is found that there is much variability of emission intensity within manufacturing and even within sub-sectors. An assessment of trade intensities further indicates that several emissions-intensive activities are also export-intensive. These activities are at most risk of losing competitiveness in the short-run if they are subjected to a price on GHG emissions that their competitors in other countries are not. Emissions reduction policies must take account of trade competitiveness imperatives if NZ is to meet its international GHG emissions target while maintaining manufacturing sector competitiveness. - Research Highlights: →Estimates initial short-term competitiveness impacts of ETS on NZ manufacturing. →Materiality of impacts determined based on firm level emissions and export intensity. →Results suggest that food processing sub-sectors are likely to be most impacted. →Iron and steel processing, and paper and pulp manufacture are impacted as well. →Cumulative GDP share of materially affected sub-sectors slightly over 9%.

  18. Dispersion relation and relative intensity for double-plasmon satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.S.; Shiv Singh; Harsh, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dispersion relation and the relative intensity of double-plasmon oscillations and satellites has been derived by extending the dispersion relation and the extended Bohm and Pines Hamiltonian to second order. The calculated value of the relative intensity of the double-plasmon satellite for Be agrees fairly well with the value observed experimentally by other workers. (orig.)

  19. Acoustic emission intensity analysis of corrosion in prestressed concrete piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion of steel strands in prestressed concrete (PC) bridges may lead to substantial damage or collapse well before the end of the design life. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a suitable nondestructive technique to detect and locate corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete, which is key to prioritize inspection and maintenance. An effective tool to analyze damage-related AE data is intensity analysis (IA), which is based on two data trends, namely Severity (average signal strength of high amplitude hits) and Historic Index (ratio of the average signal strength of the most recent hits to the average of all hits). IA criteria for corrosion assessment in PC were recently proposed based on empirical evidence from accelerated corrosion tests. In this paper, AE data from prestressed and non-prestressed concrete pile specimens exposed to salt water wet-dry cycling for over 600 days are used to analyze the relation between Severity and Historic Index and actual corrosion. Evidence of corrosion is gained from the inspection of decommissioned specimens. The selection of suitable J and K parameters for IA is discussed, and an IA chart with updated corrosion criteria for PC piles is presented.

  20. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Yan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  1. Asymmetries in angular distributions of nucleon emission intensity in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Asymmetry in nucleon emission intensity angular distributions relatively to the hadron deflection plane and to two planes normal to it and related to it uniquely is analyzed, using appropriate experimental data on pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. Quantative characteristics of the asymmetries found are presented in tables and on figures

  2. Aspects related to 'emission trading'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, Ovidiu

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the aspects of international GHG (greenhouse gases) emission trading, such as: quality of GHG emission data, possible partners, monitoring activity, market mechanisms and difficulties. The following conclusions are drown: - debates on international trade with GHG emissions are currently in a very early stage; - actions are possible and feasible, particularly after Kyoto Conference, as versatile mechanism (besides the Joint Implementation Projects) which have in view the lowering of the global emission costs in different zones of the planet; - difficulties concerning monitoring, reporting and verification, practically preclude implementing a system of emission trading covering all the GHG, all the sources and reservoirs; - an international viable system of emission trading could initiate with a limited number of participants and consideration of only emission categories easy to be confined and surveyed; - existence of a national market and corresponding institutions for monitoring which could booster an international system development

  3. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  4. Essays on the Determinants of Energy Related CO2 Emissions =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor Manuel Ferreira

    emissions intensity is negative. The percentage of fossil fuels used reacts positively to the economic structure and to carbon intensity, i. e., the more the economic importance of the sector, the more it uses fossil fuels, and when it raises its carbon intensity, in the future the use of fossil fuel may rise. On the other hand, positive shocks on energy intensity tend to reduce the percentage of fossil fuels used. In fourth essay, we conducted an analysis to identify the effects that contribute to the intensity of GHG emissions (EI) in agriculture as well as their development. With that aim, we used the 'complete decomposition' technique in the 1995-2008 periods, for a set of European countries. It is shown that the use of Nitrogen per cultivated area is an important factor of emissions and in those countries where labour productivity increases (the inverse of average labour productivity in agriculture decreases), emissions intensity tends to decrease. These results imply that the way to reduce emissions in agriculture would be to provide better training of agricultural workers to increase their productivity, which would lead to a less need for energy and use of Nitrogen. The purpose of the last essay is to examine the long and short-run causality of the share of renewable sources on the environmental relation CO2 per KWh electricity generation- real GDP for 20 European countries over the 2001-2010 periods. It is important to analyze how the percentage of renewable energy used for electricity production affects the relationship between economic growth and emissions from this sector. The study of these relationships is important from the point of view of environmental and energy policy as it gives us information on the costs in terms of economic growth, on the application of restrictive levels of emissions and also on the effects of the policies concerning the use of renewable energy in the electricity sector (see for instance European Commission Directive 2001/77/EC, [4

  5. Impact of subclinical mastitis on greenhouse gas emissions intensity and profitability of dairy cows in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan Gülzari, Şeyda; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Stott, Alistair W

    2018-02-01

    Impaired animal health causes both productivity and profitability losses on dairy farms, resulting in inefficient use of inputs and increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per unit of product (i.e. emissions intensity). Here, we used subclinical mastitis as an exemplar to benchmark alternative scenarios against an economic optimum and adjusted herd structure to estimate the GHG emissions intensity associated with varying levels of disease. Five levels of somatic cell count (SCC) classes were considered namely 50,000 (i.e. SCC50), 200,000, 400,000, 600,000 and 800,000cells/mL (milliliter) of milk. The effects of varying levels of SCC on milk yield reduction and consequential milk price penalties were used in a dynamic programming (DP) model that maximizes the profit per cow, represented as expected net present value, by choosing optimal animal replacement rates. The GHG emissions intensities associated with different levels of SCC were then computed using a farm-scale model (HolosNor). The total culling rates of both primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows for the five levels of SCC scenarios estimated by the model varied from a minimum of 30.9% to a maximum of 43.7%. The expected profit was the highest for cows with SCC200 due to declining margin over feed, which influenced the DP model to cull and replace more animals and generate higher profit under this scenario compared to SCC50. The GHG emission intensities for the PP and MP cows with SCC50 were 1.01kg (kilogram) and 0.95kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e) per kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), respectively, with the lowest emissions being achieved in SCC50. Our results show that there is a potential to reduce the farm GHG emissions intensity by 3.7% if the milk production was improved through reducing the level of SCC to 50,000cells/mL in relation to SCC level 800,000cells/mL. It was concluded that preventing and/or controlling subclinical mastitis consequently reduces the GHG

  6. Distributions of emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, G A; Takahashi, T; Orr, R J; Harris, P; Lee, M R F

    2018-01-10

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of livestock production systems is often based on inventory data for farms typical of a study region. As information on individual animals is often unavailable, livestock data may already be aggregated at the time of inventory analysis, both across individual animals and across seasons. Even though various computational tools exist to consider the effect of genetic and seasonal variabilities in livestock-originated emissions intensity, the degree to which these methods can address the bias suffered by representative animal approaches is not well-understood. Using detailed on-farm data collected on the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) in Devon, UK, this paper proposes a novel approach of life cycle impact assessment that complements the existing LCA methodology. Field data, such as forage quality and animal performance, were measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions and directly transferred into LCA processes. This approach has enabled derivation of emissions intensity for each individual animal and, by extension, its intra-farm distribution, providing a step towards reducing uncertainty related to agricultural production inherent in LCA studies for food. Depending on pasture management strategies, the total emissions intensity estimated by the proposed method was higher than the equivalent value recalculated using a representative animal approach by 0.9-1.7 kg CO 2 -eq/kg liveweight gain, or up to 10% of system-wide emissions. This finding suggests that emissions intensity values derived by the latter technique may be underestimated due to insufficient consideration given to poorly performing animals, whose emissions becomes exponentially greater as average daily gain decreases. Strategies to mitigate life-cycle environmental impacts of pasture-based beef productions systems are also discussed.

  7. The dynamic intensity of CO 2 emissions: empirical evidence for the 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The debate around the economic growth and environmental degradation is the hot topic among academics. However, up to a point, all of them embrace the uncontroversial view that tells us that anthropic factors have leverage on global climate. It happens that the so-called greenhouse effect is closely related to the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, whose original source comes from productive sectors. Thus, our purpose in this article is to estimate the rate of emission intensity - here we mean the ratio between CO2 emissions and GDP - which has increased since the early part of the 20th century. To support that idea, this study reports on data from 24 different countries. In terms of C02 emission, the results undoubtedly show that United Kingdom and the United States highlight a negative picture, particularly when both are compared to India. It should be noted the presence of structural changes, which coincide with three major historical events: the World War I (1914-1918, the Great Depression in the 1930s, and finally the Oil-price shocks in the 1970s. As the result of the analysis demonstrates, the amount of emission produced by developing countries is surprisingly low. That the technology reveals its relative merit for reducing the overall emission intensity is transparently obvious.

  8. A novel approach to obtain highly intense self-activated photoluminescence emissions in hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Thales R. [CDMF-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); QIO-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Sczancoski, Júlio C. [CDMF-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Beltrán-Mir, Héctor [QIO-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Nogueira, Içamira C. [PPGEM-IFMA, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Maranhão, 65030-005 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Li, Máximo S. [IFSC-USP, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Andrés, Juan [QFA-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Cordoncillo, Eloisa [QIO-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Longo, Elson, E-mail: elson.liec@gmail.com [CDMF-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Defect-related photoluminescence (PL) in materials have attracted interest for applications including near ultraviolet (NUV) excitable light-emitting diodes and in biomedical field. In this paper, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] nanorods with intense PL bands (bluish- and yellowish-white emissions) were obtained when excited under NUV radiation at room temperature. These nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical precipitation at 90 °C followed by distinct heat treatments temperatures (200–800 °C). Intense and broad emission profiles were achieved at 350 °C (380–750 nm) and 400 °C (380–800 nm). UV–Vis spectroscopy revealed band gap energies (5.58–5.78 eV) higher than the excitation energies (~3.54 and ~2.98 eV at 350 and 415 nm, respectively), confirming the contribution of defect energy levels within the forbidden zone for PL emissions. The structural features were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. By means of these techniques, the relation between structural order-disorder induced by defects, chemical reactions at both lattice and surface of the materials as well as the PL, without activator centers, was discussed in details. - Graphical abstract: The self-activated photoluminescence emissions of chemically precipitated hydroxyapatite nanorods were improved by different heat treatment temperatures. - Highlights: • HA nanorods were synthesized with improved self-activated PL at room temperature. • PL profile and intensity dependents on the temperature of posterior heat treatments. • Bluish- and yellowish-white emissions under NUV excitation (350 and 415 nm). • Broad and intense profiles achieved at 350 °C (380–750 nm) and 400 °C (380–800 nm). • PL from the e′–h{sup •} recombination between defect energy levels within the band gap.

  9. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Doh, Jeung-Hwan, E-mail: j.doh@griffith.edu.au [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models.

  10. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki; Doh, Jeung-Hwan; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak

    2014-01-01

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models

  11. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF4:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Han; Cao, Wenbing; Huang, Qingming; Ma, En; Zhang, Xinqi; Yu, Jianchang

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF 4 synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF 4 :Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY 4 to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF 4 : Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY 4

  12. EU energy-intensive industries and emissions trading: losers becoming winners?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettestad, Joergen

    2008-11-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) initially treated power producers and energy-intensive industries similarly, despite clear structural differences between these industries regarding pass through of costs and vulnerability to global competition. Hence, the energy-intensive industries could be seen as losing out in the internal distribution. In the January 2008 proposal for a reformed ETS post-2012, a differentiated system was proposed where the energy-intensive industries come out relatively much better. What is the explanation for the change taking place? Although power producers still have a dominant position in the system, the increasing consensus about windfall profits has weakened their standing. Conversely, the energy-intensive industries have become better organised and more active. This balance shift is first and foremost noticeable in several important EU-level stake holder consultation processes. Energy-intensive industries have, however, also successfully utilised the national pathway to exert influence on Brussels policy-making. Finally, growing fear of lax global climate policies and related carbon leakage has strengthened the case of these industries further. The latter dimension indicates that although energy-intensive industries have managed to reduce internal distribution anomalies, external challenges remain. (author). 9 refs

  13. A methodology framework for weighting genetic traits that impact greenhouse gas emission intensities in selection indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Hely, F S; Quinton, C D; Cromie, A R

    2018-01-01

    A methodological framework was presented for deriving weightings to be applied in selection indexes to account for the impact genetic change in traits will have on greenhouse gas emissions intensities (EIs). Although the emission component of the breeding goal was defined as the ratio of total emissions relative to a weighted combination of farm outputs, the resulting trait-weighting factors can be applied as linear weightings in a way that augments any existing breeding objective before consideration of EI. Calculus was used to define the parameters and assumptions required to link each trait change to the expected changes in EI for an animal production system. Four key components were identified. The potential impact of the trait on relative numbers of emitting animals per breeding female first has a direct effect on emission output but, second, also has a dilution effect from the extra output associated with the extra animals. Third, each genetic trait can potentially change the amount of emissions generated per animal and, finally, the potential impact of the trait on product output is accounted for. Emission intensity weightings derived from this equation require further modifications to integrate them into an existing breeding objective. These include accounting for different timing and frequency of trait expressions as well as a weighting factor to determine the degree of selection emphasis that is diverted away from improving farm profitability in order to achieve gains in EI. The methodology was demonstrated using a simple application to dairy cattle breeding in Ireland to quantify gains in EI reduction from existing genetic trends in milk production as well as in fertility and survival traits. Most gains were identified as coming through the dilution effect of genetic increases in milk protein per cow, although gains from genetic improvements in survival by reducing emissions from herd replacements were also significant. Emission intensities in the Irish

  14. CO2 emissions and economic activity: Short- and long-run economic determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Fredrik N.G.; Karpestam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the short-term and the long-term determinants of energy intensity, carbon intensity and scale effects for eight developed economies and two emerging economies from 1973 to 2007. Our results show that there is a difference between the short-term and the long-term results and that climate policy are more likely to affect emission over the long-term than over the short-term. Climate policies should therefore be aimed at a time horizon of at least 8 years and year-on-year changes in emissions contains little information about the trend path of emissions. In the long-run capital accumulation is the main driver of emissions. Productivity growth reduces the energy intensity while the real oil price reduces both the energy intensity and the carbon intensity. The real oil price effect suggests that a global carbon tax is an important policy tool to reduce emissions, but our results also suggest that a carbon tax is likely to be insufficient decouple emission from economic growth. Such a decoupling is likely to require a structural transformation of the economy. The key policy challenge is thus to build new economic structures where investments in green technologies are more profitable. - Highlights: • We model determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity. • Using band spectrum regressions, we separate between short and long run effects. • Different economic variables affect emission in the short and long run. • CO 2 reducing policies should have a long run horizon of (at least 8 years). • A low carbon society requires a structural transformation of the economy

  15. Positron emission intensities in the decay of 64Cu, 76Br and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Bisinger, T.; Hilgers, K.; Nayak, D.; Coenen, H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The relatively long-lived positron emitters 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.7 h), 76 Br (t 1/2 = 16.2 h) and 124 I (t 1/2 = 4.18 d) are finding increasing applications in positron emission tomography (PET). For precise determination of their positron emission intensities, each radionuclide was prepared via a charged particle induced reaction in a ''no-carrier-added'' form and with high radionuclidic purity. It was then subjected to γ-ray and X-ray spectroscopy as well as to anticoincidence beta and γγ-coincidence counting. The positron emission intensities measured were: 64 Cu (17.8 ± 0.4)%, 76 Br (58.2 ± 1.9)% and 124 I (22.0 ± 0.5)%. The intensity of the weak 1346 keV γ-ray emitted in the decay of 64 Cu was determined as (0.54 ± 0.03)%. Some implications of the precisely determined nuclear data are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Simulations of bremsstrahlung emission in ultra-intense laser interactions with foil targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskočil, Jiří; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Bremsstrahlung emission from interactions of short ultra-intense laser pulses with solid foils is studied using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A module for simulating bremsstrahlung has been implemented in the PIC loop to self-consistently account for the dynamics of the laser–plasma interaction, plasma expansion, and the emission of gamma ray photons. This module made it possible to study emission from thin targets, where refluxing of hot electrons plays an important role. It is shown that the angular distribution of the emitted photons exhibits a four-directional structure with the angle of emission decreasing with the increase of the width of the target. Additionally, a collimated forward flash consisting of high energy photons has been identified in thin targets. The conversion efficiency of the energy of the laser pulse to the energy of the gamma rays rises with both the driving pulse intensity, and the thickness of the target. The amount of gamma rays also increases with the atomic number of the target material, despite a lower absorption of the driving laser pulse. The angular spectrum of the emitted gamma rays is directly related to the increase of hot electron divergence during their refluxing and its measurement can be used in experiments to study this process.

  17. Hydroxyl (6−2 airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Lowe

    Full Text Available OH(6–2 Q1/P1 and R1/P1 airglow emission intensity ratios, for rotational states up to j' = 4.5, are measured to be lower than implied by transition probabilities published by various authors including Mies, Langhoff et al. and Turnbull and Lowe. Experimentally determined relative values of j' transitions yield OH(6–2 rotational temperatures 2 K lower than Langhoff et al., 7 K lower than Mies and 13 K lower than Turnbull and Lowe.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora; pressure, density and temperature

  18. Sky-distribution of intensity of synchrotron radio emission of relativistic electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko V.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculations of synchrotron radio emission intensity from Van Allen belts with Gaussian space distribution of electron density across L-shells of a dipole magnetic field, and with Maxwell’s relativistic electron energy distribution. The results of these calculations come to a good agreement with measurements of the synchrotron emission intensity of the artificial radiation belt’s electrons during the Starfish nuclear test. We have obtained two-dimensional distributions of radio brightness in azimuth — zenith angle coordinates for an observer on Earth’s surface. The westside and eastside intensity maxima exceed several times the maximum level of emission in the meridian plane. We have also constructed two-dimensional distributions of the radio emission intensity in decibels related to the background galactic radio noise level. Isotropic fluxes of relativistic electrons (Е~1 MeV should be more than 107 cm–2s–1 for the synchrotron emission intensity in the meridian plane to exceed the cosmic noise level by 0.1 dB (riometer sensitivity threshold.

  19. The odd couple: The relationship between state economic performance and carbon emissions economic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsdottir, B.; Fisher, M.

    2011-01-01

    Historical time trends indicate that both carbon and energy intensity have declined in the United States over the last several decades, while economic performance, as measured by per capita GSP, has improved. This observation indicates that it may be possible to reduce carbon intensity without a reduction in economic performance. This paper assesses using panel analysis, the empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance, and examines the direction of causality between the two variables. Data for the analysis covered 48 states, excluding Hawaii, Alaska, and Washington DC, from 1980 to 2000. The results indicate significant bi-directional relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance, both using an aggregate indicator for carbon emissions intensity, decomposed using Laspeyres indexes and disaggregated by sector. This implies that it should be possible to implement statewide and sector-specific policies to reduce energy and carbon intensity and at the same time improve economic performance. - Highlights: → The empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance is assessed → The direction of causality between the two variables is examined. → Results indicate significant relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance. → Relationship is bi-directional, and holds for both aggregate analysis and by sector. → It is possible to implement policies to reduce carbon intensity and improve economic performance.

  20. Comparison of neighborhood-scale residential wood smoke emissions inventories using limited and intensive survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    Emission inventory based estimations of pollutants resulting from residential combustion of wood are typically determined by collecting survey data that represent a single but relatively large area. While the pollutants in wood smoke emissions may represent a relatively low fraction (<10%) of an area's total annual emissions mass inventory, they can concentrate within the specific neighborhood areas where emitted. Thus, while the representativeness of a large-area survey approach is valid and useful, its application for estimating wood smoke pollutant levels within any particular neighborhood may be limited. The ability to obtain a better estimation of pollutant levels for evaluating potential health-related impacts within neighborhoods where wood smoke pollutants can concentrate requires survey data more representative of the particular area. This study compares residential wood combustion survey data collected from six residential neighborhoods in the metropolitan area of Flagstaff, Arizona. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the ability of data collected from a limited neighborhood-scale survey effort to represent that neighborhood's wood fuel consumption characteristics and wood smoke emissions. In addition, the variation that occurs between different neighborhoods regarding residential consumption of wood is also evaluated. Residential wood combustion survey data were collected compare wood burning device distribution, wood types and quantities burned, and emission rates. One neighborhood was surveyed once at approximately a 10% distribution rate and again at a 100% distribution rate providing data for evaluating the ability of a limited-effort survey to represent a more intensive survey. Survey methodology, results and recommendations are presented

  1. Quenching and blue shift of UV emission intensity of hydrothermally grown ZnO:Mn nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Junaid Bushiri, M., E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Achary, Sreekumar Rajappan; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de FisicaAplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Single crystalline ZnO:Mn nanorods. • Reduced optical active defects. • Quenching and blue shift of UV emission. - Abstract: ZnO:Mn alloyed nanorods (Mn nominal concentration – 3–5 wt%) were synthesized by using hydrothermal process at an optimized growth temperature of 200 °C and a growth time of 3 h. The XRD, SEM and Raman, FTIR investigations reveal that ZnO:Mn (Mn – 3–5 wt%) retained hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with nanorod morphology. The HRTEM and SAED analysis confirm the single crystalline nature of hydrothermally grown ZnO and ZnO:Mn (5 wt%) nanorods. The ZnO:Mn nanorods (Mn – 0–5 wt%) displayed optical band gap in the range 3.23–3.28 eV. The blue shift of UV emission peak (PL) from 393 (ZnO) to 386 nm and quenching of photoluminescence emission in ZnO:Mn is due to the Mn incorporation in ZnO lattice. Relative increase in intensity of Raman band at 660 cm{sup −1} with nominal doping of Mn 3–5 wt% in ZnO indicate that defects are introduced in ZnO:Mn system as a result of doping that leads to the quenching of photoluminescence emission at 393 nm.

  2. Does extreme precipitation intensity depend on the emissions scenario?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline; Lehner, Flavio; Sanderson, Benjamin; Xu, Yangyang

    2016-04-01

    The rate of increase of global-mean precipitation per degree surface temperature increase differs for greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings, and therefore depends on the change in composition of the emissions scenario used to drive climate model simulations for the remainder of the century. We investigate whether or not this is also the case for extreme precipitation simulated by a multi-model ensemble driven by four realistic emissions scenarios. In most models, the rate of increase of maximum annual daily rainfall per degree global warming in the multi-model ensemble is statistically indistinguishable across the four scenarios, whether this extreme precipitation is calculated globally, over all land, or over extra-tropical land. These results indicate that, in most models, extreme precipitation depends on the total amount of warming and does not depend on emissions scenario, in contrast to mean precipitation.

  3. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    and taxes on the trends in CO2 emissions on the basis of a novel method that relies on sector-specific energy prices. Whereas previous research has been unable to account for the implications of complex tax exemptions and price discounts, the present report bridges the gap and provides innovative estimates....... This finding suggests that price increases, whether induced by taxes or market fluctuations, can be effective in curbing CO2 emissions when they accurately reflect the CO2 burden. It also suggests that CO2-specific taxes on fuels are more effective than end-user electricity taxes which do not reflect actual...

  4. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry.

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse

  5. The influencing factors of CO2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xingle; Luo, Yusen; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Jijian

    2018-05-01

    In China, agriculture produces the greatest chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions in wastewater and the most methane (CH 4 ) emissions. It is imperative that agricultural pollution in China be reduced. This study investigated the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014. We analyzed the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity through the first-stage least-square regression. We also analyzed determinants of innovation through the second-stage least-square regression. We found that innovation negatively affected the CO 2 emission intensity in the model of the nation. FDI positively affected innovation in China. It is important to enhance indigenous innovation for green agriculture through labor training and collaboration between agriculture and academia.

  6. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design,

  7. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and, in case of mechanically ventilated animal houses, the application of end-of-pipe air treatment, viz acid scrubbers and bioscrubbers. Air treatment techniques can achieve very high emission red...

  8. Price-related sensitivities of greenhouse gas intensity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Benito; Muller-Furstenberger, Georg

    2003-12-01

    Greenhouse gas intensities are an appealing tool to foster abatement without imposing constraints on economic growth. This paper shows, however, that the computation of intensities is subject to some significant statistical and conceptual problems which relate to the inflation proofing of GDP growth. It is shown that the choice of price-index, the updating of quantity weights and the choice of base year prices can have a significant impact upon the commitment of intensity targets

  9. 124Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chauvenet, B.

    2009-07-01

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of 124 Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4πγ method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  10. Linkage between N2O emission and functional gene abundance in an intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ju, Xiaotang

    2017-02-01

    The linkage between N2O emissions and the abundance of nitrifier and denitrifier genes is unclear in the intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soils of the North China Plain. We investigated the abundance of bacterial amoA for nitrification and narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ for denitrification by in situ soil sampling to determine how the abundance of these genes changes instantly during N fertilization events and is related to high N2O emission peaks. We also investigated how long-term incorporated straw and/or manure affect(s) the abundance of these genes based on a seven-year field experiment. The overall results demonstrate that the long-term application of urea-based fertilizer and/or manure significantly enhanced the number of bacterial amoA gene copies leading to high N2O emission peaks after N fertilizer applications. These peaks contributed greatly to the annual N2O emissions in the crop rotation. A significant correlation between annual N2O emissions and narG, nirS, and nirK gene numbers indicates that the abundance of these genes is related to N2O emission under conditions for denitrification, thus partly contributing to the annual N2O emissions. These findings will help to draw up appropriate measures for mitigation of N2O emissions in this ‘hotspot’ region.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensities for the Livestock Sector in Indonesia, Based on the National Specific Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eska Nugrahaeningtyas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to calculate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and to identify the trends of GHG emission intensity, based on meat production from the livestock sector in Indonesia, which had not been done before. The total emissions from the livestock sector from 2000 to 2015 in Indonesia were calculated using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guideline (2006 IPCC GL using Tier 1 and Tier 2, with its default values and some of the country specific data that were found in the grey literature. During 2000 to 2015, the change from the Tier 1 to Tier 2 methods resulted in an approximately 7.39% emission decrease from enteric fermentation and a 4.24% increase from manure management, which resulted in a 4.98% decrease in the total emissions. The shared emission from manure management increased by about 9% and 6% using Tier 1 and Tier 2, respectively. In contrast with the total emissions, the overall emission intensity in Indonesia decreased (up to 60.77% for swine, showing that the livestock productivity in Indonesia has become more efficient. In order to meet the meat demand with less GHG emissions, chicken farming is one option to be developed. The increased emission and share from manure management indicated that manure management system needs to be of concern, especially for beef cattle and swine.

  12. CO2 emission related to energy combustion in the world in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    After a brief comment of the evolution of CO 2 emissions due to transports, housing and office buildings, industry and agriculture, electrical plants, and other energetic activities in France in 2007 in comparison with previous years, this article comments the global increase of CO 2 emissions related to energy in the world (figures and graphs are given for some countries of all continents, notably for China, the United States, France, the European Union, the United Kingdom and Germany). These emissions are then assessed in terms of ratio between emission intensity and GDPs or population. Emissions per inhabitant display a 1 to 20 ratio between the USA and Africa

  13. K and L X-ray emission intensities of some radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, H R; Pal, D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1985-01-01

    The K and L x-ray emission intensities per 100 disintegrations have been calculated for some radionuclides using the latest adopted data for gamma-ray intensities, electron capture and internal conversion coefficients for the parent nuclides, fluorescence yield values, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, average total number of primary L shell vacancies produced in the decay of K shell vacancies and emission rates for various shells and subshells for the daughter nuclei. The results are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental values for the K x-ray intensities. There are no experimental results available to compare with the present calculations for the L x-ray intensities; however, there is a marked discrepancy in the L..cap alpha.. and L..beta.. intensities available on the basis of theoretical estimates.

  14. Simultaneous reconstruction, segmentation, and edge enhancement of relatively piecewise continuous images with intensity-level information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.; Johnson, V.

    1991-01-01

    A multinomial image model is proposed which uses intensity-level information for reconstruction of contiguous image regions. The intensity-level information assumes that image intensities are relatively constant within contiguous regions over the image-pixel array and that intensity levels of these regions are determined either empirically or theoretically by information criteria. These conditions may be valid, for example, for cardiac blood-pool imaging, where the intensity levels (or radionuclide activities) of myocardium, blood-pool, and background regions are distinct and the activities within each region of muscle, blood, or background are relatively uniform. To test the model, a mathematical phantom over a 64x64 array was constructed. The phantom had three contiguous regions. Each region had a different intensity level. Measurements from the phantom were simulated using an emission-tomography geometry. Fifty projections were generated over 180 degree, with 64 equally spaced parallel rays per projection. Projection data were randomized to contain Poisson noise. Image reconstructions were performed using an iterative maximum a posteriori probability procedure. The contiguous regions corresponding to the three intensity levels were automatically segmented. Simultaneously, the edges of the regions were sharpened. Noise in the reconstructed images was significantly suppressed. Convergence of the iterative procedure to the phantom was observed. Compared with maximum likelihood and filtered-backprojection approaches, the results obtained using the maximum a posteriori probability with the intensity-level information demonstrated qualitative and quantitative improvement in localizing the regions of varying intensities

  15. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  16. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry. Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction from animal houses include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and the application o...

  17. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  18. Energy intensity, CO{sub 2} emissions and the environmental Kuznets curve. The Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, J. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Teoria Economica; Alcantara, V. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Economia Aplicada

    2001-06-01

    This article analyses the role of energy intensity and the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and primary energy in order to explain the evolution of CO{sub 2} emissions by unit of real GDP. It also distinguishes two different meanings of CO{sub 2} emissions Kuznets curve hypothesis: the weak and the strong sense. It considers the case of Spain in the period 1972-1997 as an example in which there is not any evidence supporting this hypothesis in either sense. (author)

  19. How to restrain electroplex emission and enhance red emission intensity of Eu 3+ complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujun; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Huang, Jinzhao; Yuan, Guancai; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Xu, Xurong

    2007-11-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) of lanthanide complex profits from the intramolecular energy transfer from the triplet state of ligand to Ln (III) ions, but electroplex emission between ligand and host material may occur when the energy transfer is inefficient. The electroplex emission is completely restrained when 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7,-tetramethyljulolidy-9-enyl)-4Hpyran (DCJTB) and Eu(o-BBA)3(phen) are co-doped in poly (N-vinycarbzaole) (PVK). There are great spectra overlapping between electroplex emission and the excitation of DCJTB. The chromaticity coordinates of EL of co-doped device is kept constant (x = 0.55, y = 0.37) under different driving voltage.

  20. Effect of turbulence intensity on PM emission of heavy duty diesel trucks - Wind tunnel studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littera, D.; Cozzolini, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Gautam, M.

    2017-08-01

    increases with increase in distance away from tailpipe. Also indicating the cooling and dilution of the exhaust begins at close vicinity to the tailpipe. The rate of cooling and dilution are greatest in early stages of the dilution process for the areas with high turbulence intensity (TI), where strong mixing phenomena occurs, leading to the formation of a predominant nucleation mode. On the other hand, the core of the plume observes a slower cooling and dilution rate. This difference is reflected in the PM formation and evolution of these two distinct regions, as shown by the particle size distributions and number concentrations. Continuous mixing will tend to mellow those differences, but its ;final; result is related to the dilution history.

  1. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  2. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Han, E-mail: fjfzyh@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Cao, Wenbing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Huang, Qingming [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, En [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Xinqi [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yu, Jianchang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY{sub 4} to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF{sub 4}: Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY{sub 4}.

  3. Investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects effective role on producing intense red emission in ZnO:Eu nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Mehrdad, E-mail: najafi@shahroodut.ac.ir; Haratizadeh, Hamid

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective role of defects on producing red emission at indirect excitation. • V{sub Zn} and V{sub O} defects have important role on energy transfer. • Mg related defects and Zn{sub i} defects were responsible for blue emission. • Extrinsic and intrinsic defects mediated energy transfer to sensitize Eu{sup 3+} ions. • Decrease of red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. - Abstract: Europium doped ZnO nanorads and nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Effects of Mg doping, morphology and annealing in oxygen ambient on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermo gravimetry (DTG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). This study recommends that both of intrinsic and extrinsic defects facilitate energy transfer (ET) from the ZnO host to Eu{sup 3+} ions and consequently have efficient role on producing intense red emission at indirect excitation. The results also showed that annealing process improved the crystal structure of ZnO nanosheets due to decrease of surface defects; however decreased ET and red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. In addition in ZnO nanorods sample with more surface area in comparison with ZnO nanosheets sample deep level emissions are enhanced.

  4. Modification of emission properties of (BaSr)O by high intensity ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.; Mozhaev, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Investigation of irradiation effects on emission shows the increase in oxide cathode emission current immediately after its treatment with accelerated electrons. A model permittivity to explain the phenomenon on the basis of the known relation between the degree of oxide nonstoichiometry and concentration of lattice defects is suggested. The growth of nonstoichiometry degree results in the increase of metal concentration in near the surface layer and growth of emission current. Experimental results are adequately explained by the model suggested. (author)

  5. Modification of (BaSr)O emission properties by highly intensive ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.; Mozhaev, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of irradiation effects on emission shows the increase in oxide cathode emission current immediately after its treatment with accelerated electrons. A model permittivity to explain the phenomenon on the basis of the known relation between the degree of oxide nonstoichiometry and concentration of lattice defects is suggested. The growth of nonstoichiometry degree results in the increase of metal concentration in near the surface layer and growth of emission current. Experimental results are adequately explained by the model suggested

  6. Factor Decomposition Analysis of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tianjin is the largest coastal city in northern China with rapid economic development and urbanization. Energy-related CO2 emissions from Tianjin’s production and household sectors during 1995–2012 were calculated according to the default carbon-emission coefficients provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We decomposed the changes in CO2 emissions resulting from 12 causal factors based on the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index. The examined factors were divided into four types of effects: energy intensity effect, structure effect, activity intensity effect, scale effect and the various influencing factors imposed differential impacts on CO2 emissions. The decomposition outcomes indicate that per capita GDP and population scale are the dominant positive driving factors behind the growth in CO2 emissions for all sectors, while the energy intensity of the production sector is the main contributor to dampen the CO2 emissions increment, and the contributions from industry structure and energy structure need further enhancement. The analysis results reveal the reasons for CO2 emission changes in Tianjin and provide a solid basis upon which policy makers may propose emission reduction measures and approaches for the implementation of sustainable development strategies.

  7. An intensity map of hydrogen 21-cm emission at redshift z approximately 0.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Bandura, Kevin; Peterson, Jeffrey B

    2010-07-22

    Observations of 21-cm radio emission by neutral hydrogen at redshifts z approximately 0.5 to approximately 2.5 are expected to provide a sensitive probe of cosmic dark energy. This is particularly true around the onset of acceleration at z approximately 1, where traditional optical cosmology becomes very difficult because of the infrared opacity of the atmosphere. Hitherto, 21-cm emission has been detected only to z = 0.24. More distant galaxies generally are too faint for individual detections but it is possible to measure the aggregate emission from many unresolved galaxies in the 'cosmic web'. Here we report a three-dimensional 21-cm intensity field at z = 0.53 to 1.12. We then co-add neutral-hydrogen (H i) emission from the volumes surrounding about 10,000 galaxies (from the DEEP2 optical galaxy redshift survey). We detect the aggregate 21-cm glow at a significance of approximately 4sigma.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  9. Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, A.

    1990-11-01

    In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Pulsar Emission: Is It All Relative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-five years after the discovery of pulsars, we still do not understand the fundamentals of their pulsed emission at any wavelength. The fact that even detailed pulse profiles cannot identlfy the origin of the emission in a magnetosphere that extends fiom the neutron star surface to plasma moving at relativistic speeds near the light cylinder compounds the problem. I will discuss the role of special and general relativistic effects on pulsar emission, fiom inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics.

  11. Effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Choi, Ohkyung; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-06-15

    This study examines the effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bench-scale intensive aquaculture system rearing Koi fish. The water temperature varied from 15 to 24 °C at interval of 3 °C. Both volumetric and specific rate for nitrification and denitrification declined as the temperature decreased. The concentrations of ammonia and nitrite, however, were lower than the inhibitory level for Koi fish regardless of temperature. The effects of temperature on N2O emissions were significant, with the emission rate and emission factor increasing from 1.11 to 1.82 mg N2O-N/d and 0.49 to 0.94 mg N2O-N/kg fish as the temperature decreased from 24 to 15 °C. A global map of N2O emission from aquaculture was established by using the N2O emission factor depending on temperature. This study demonstrates that N2O emission from aquaculture is strongly dependent on regional water temperatures as well as on fish production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensities of the Venusian N2 electron-impact excited dayglow emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; F. Hać, Nicholas E.

    2013-12-01

    Dayglow emissions are signatures of both the energy deposition into an atmosphere and the abundances of the species from which they arise. The first N2 dayglow emissions from Mars, the (0,5) and (0,6) bands of the N2 Vegard-Kaplan band system, were detected by the Spectroscopy for Investigations of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) UV spectrometer on board the Mars Express spacecraft. The Vegard-Kaplan band system arises from the transition from the lowest N2 triplet state (A3Σu+;v') to the electronic ground state (X1Σg+;v″). It is populated by direct electron-impact excitation and by cascading from higher triplet states. The Venus UV dayglow is currently being probed by an instrument similar to SPICAM, the Spectroscopy for the Investigations of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) UV spectrometer on Venus Express, but no N2 emissions have been detected. Because the N2 mixing ratios in the Venus thermosphere are larger than those in the thermosphere of Mars and the solar flux is greater at the orbit of Venus than that at Mars, we expect the Venus N2 emissions to be significantly more intense than those of Mars. A prediction of the intensities of various N2 emissions from Venus could be used to guide observations by the SPICAV and other instruments that are used to measure the Venus dayglow. Employing updated data, we here construct models of the low and high solar activity thermospheres of Venus, and we compute the integrated overhead intensities of 17 N2 band systems and limb profiles of the Vegard-Kaplan bands. The ratios of the predicted intensities of the various N2 bands at Venus to those at Mars are in the range 5.5-9.5.

  13. Thermal runaway of metal nano-tips during intense electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyritsakis, A.; Veske, M.; Eimre, K.; Zadin, V.; Djurabekova, F.

    2018-06-01

    When an electron emitting tip is subjected to very high electric fields, plasma forms even under ultra high vacuum conditions. This phenomenon, known as vacuum arc, causes catastrophic surface modifications and constitutes a major limiting factor not only for modern electron sources, but also for many large-scale applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although vacuum arcs have been studied thoroughly, the physical mechanisms that lead from intense electron emission to plasma ignition are still unclear. In this article, we give insights to the atomic scale processes taking place in metal nanotips under intense field emission conditions. We use multi-scale atomistic simulations that concurrently include field-induced forces, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that when a sufficiently high electric field is applied to the tip, the emission-generated heat partially melts it and the field-induced force elongates and sharpens it. This initiates a positive feedback thermal runaway process, which eventually causes evaporation of large fractions of the tip. The reported mechanism can explain the origin of neutral atoms necessary to initiate plasma, a missing key process required to explain the ignition of a vacuum arc. Our simulations provide a quantitative description of in the conditions leading to runaway, which shall be valuable for both field emission applications and vacuum arc studies.

  14. Sputtering and emission intensity of cast irons with different metallurgical structures in a Grimm glow lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, M.; Kashima, J.; Naganuma, K.

    1981-01-01

    The cathodic sputtering and emission intensities for the white, gray and malleable cast irons in the Grimm glow lamp are discussed. The intensities of the Fe 247.98-nm line for the samples of the three types depend linearly on the electrical power but the slopes of the plots differ. The intensity of the carbon line at 247.86 nm for malleable cast iron is weaker than those for the others. Sputtering is influenced by the form of the graphite, which can lead to distortion of the electrical field. Graphite on malleable cast iron is sputtered not only as atomic carbon but also as moieties containing several carbon atoms. The higher the supplied voltage, the shorter the time for the intensities of the Fe I and C I lines to reach constant values. (Auth.)

  15. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  16. Fatigue in Intensive Care Nurses and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sevim; Taşdemir, Nurten; Kurt, Aylin; İlgezdi, Ebru; Kubalas, Özge

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue negatively affects the performance of intensive care nurses. Factors contributing to the fatigue experienced by nurses include lifestyle, psychological status, work organization and sleep problems. To determine the level of fatigue among nurses working in intensive care units and the related factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 102 nurses working in intensive care units in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey. Data were collected between February and May 2014 using a personal information form, the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. The intensive care nurses in the study were found to be experiencing fatigue. Significant correlations were observed between scores on the VAS-F Fatigue and anxiety (p=0.01), depression (p=0.002), and sleep quality (pnurses' levels of fatigue. These results can be of benefit in taking measures which may be used to reduce fatigue in nurses, especially the fatigue related to work organization and social life.

  17. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebohon, Obas John; Ikeme, Anthony Jekwu

    2006-01-01

    intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO 2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO 2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO 2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

  18. Intensity of noise in the classroom and analysis of acoustic emissions in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Filho, Nelson de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise-induced hearing loss is a sensorineural hearing loss, usually bilateral, irreversible and progressive with time of exposure. As the noise made by children in school may be considered detrimental, the study looks of their occurrence in Taubaté's schools. Objective: To determine if students are exposed to noise intensity affecting the cochlea, define the profile of these schoolchildren, demonstrating the occurrence of changes in cochlear activity following exposure to noise in a day of class. Method: Study's way prospective transversal cross sectional cut with 28 elementary school students in the first half of 2009. Questionnaires for assessing preexisting cochlear damage . Evaluation of cochlear function by analysis of acoustic emissions evoked distortion product, made before the students come into class and immediately after the end of these. Measurement of noise inside the classrooms and recreation areas during the interval. Results: 57.1% accused some hearing loss in the examinations before class. By day's end, 04 girls and 03 boys had worsened in relation of the first examination. The noise reached levels higher than recommended at the three class rooms. The largest number of students with worsening, belong to the class room with higher noise level. The noise during the intervals is also excessive. Conclusions: The noise in this school is above the limit. 42.85% of students who had experienced worsening had school performance inadequate. 25% had worse after noise exposure in a school day.

  19. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    )% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization efficiency among components of interstellar dust (e.g., carbon versus silicate grains). Our observational results provide inputs to quantify and optimize......Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We use these data to characterize the frequency dependence of dust emission. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them...... of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably...

  20. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system. © 2013.

  1. Emission spectra from super-critical rippled plasma density profiles illuminated by intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondarza R, R.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    High-order harmonic emission from the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with super-critical plasmas characterized by a rippled density profile at the vacuum-plasma interface has been observed from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A plasma simulation box several laser wavelengths in extent was prepared with a rippled density of a fraction of a laser wavelength. Emission spectra at the very initial stage of the interaction were recorded with spectral characteristics dissimilar to those previously reported in the literature. The reflected light spectra were characterized by a strong emission at the plasma line and by a series of harmonics at multiples of the ripple frequency. Harmonic spectra were obtained for different values of the plasma ripple frequency. In all cases the harmonics were emitted at the precise multiple harmonic number of the ripple frequency. Another important feature apparent from the simulations was that the emission peaks appeared to havea complex structure as compared with those for unrippled plasmas. For the cases when the plasma was rippled the peaks that corresponded to the multiples of the rippled density typically showed a double peak for the first few harmonics. The reflected emission plots for the main laser pulse showed strong emission at the plasma frequency and at multiples of that frequency as reported by the authors in the literature. (Author)

  2. Intense green emission from Tb3+- doped Teo2-Wo3-Geo2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Tallam; Gopal, Kotalo Rama; Suvarna, Reniguntla Padma; Jamalaiah, Bungala Chinna

    2018-04-01

    Tb3+ -doped oxyfluoro tellurite (TWGTb) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied to evaluate the Ωλ (λ=2,4,6) intensity parameters. The TWGTb glasses exhibit 5D3 → 7F5-3 and 5D4 → 7F6-0 transitions when excited at 316 nm wavelength. The variation of intensity of 5D4 → 7F5 (Green) and 5D3 → 7F4 (Blue) transitions and the green to blue (IG/IB) intensity ratios were studied as a function of Tb3+ ions concentration. The laser characteristic parameters such as effective bandwidth (Δλeff), stimulated emission cross-section (σe), gain bandwidth (σe×Δλeff) and optical gain (σe×τR) were determined using the emission spectra and radiative parameters. The luminescence decay profiles exhibit single-exponential nature for all the samples. Based on the experimental results we suggest that the 1.0 mol% of Tb3+-doped TWGTb glass could be the suitable laser host materials to emit intense green luminescence at 545 nm.

  3. Grey relation performance correlations among economics, energy use and carbon dioxide emission in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the inter-relationships among economy, energy and CO 2 emissions of 37 industrial sectors in Taiwan in order to provide insight regarding sustainable development policy making. Grey relation analysis was used to analyse the productivity, aggregate energy consumption, and the use of fuel mix (electricity, coal, oil and gas) in relation to CO 2 emission changes. An innovative evaluative index system was devised to explore grey relation grades among economics, energy and environmental quality. Results indicate that a rapid increase in electricity generation during the past 10 years is the main reason for CO 2 emission increase in Taiwan. The largest CO 2 emitting sectors include iron and steel, transportation, petrochemical materials, commerce and other services. Therefore, it is important to reduce the energy intensity of these sectors by energy conservation, efficiency improvement and adjustment of industrial structure towards high value-added products and services. Economic growth for all industries has a more significant influence, than does total energy consumption, on CO 2 emission increase in Taiwan. It is also important to decouple the energy consumption and production to reduce the impacts of CO 2 on economic growth. Furthermore, most of the sectors examined had increased CO 2 emissions, except for machinery and road transportation. For high energy intensive and CO 2 intensive industries, governmental policies for CO 2 mitigation should be directed towards low carbon fuels as well as towards enhancement of the demand side management mechanism, without loss of the nation's competitiveness

  4. Milk metabolome relates enteric methane emission to milk synthesis and energy metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Fernandes, E C; van Gastelen, S; Dijkstra, J; Hettinga, K A; Vervoort, J

    2016-08-01

    Methane (CH4) emission of dairy cows contributes significantly to the carbon footprint of the dairy chain; therefore, a better understanding of CH4 formation is urgently needed. The present study explored the milk metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (milk volatile metabolites) and nuclear magnetic resonance (milk nonvolatile metabolites) to better understand the biological pathways involved in CH4 emission in dairy cattle. Data were used from a randomized block design experiment with 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows and 4 diets. All diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 80:20 (dry matter basis) and the roughage was grass silage (GS), corn silage (CS), or a mixture of both (67% GS, 33% CS; 33% GS, 67% CS). Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as CH4 yield (per unit of dry matter intake) and CH4 intensity (per unit of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). No volatile or nonvolatile metabolite was positively related to CH4 yield, and acetone (measured as a volatile and as a nonvolatile metabolite) was negatively related to CH4 yield. The volatile metabolites 1-heptanol-decanol, 3-nonanone, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran were positively related to CH4 intensity. None of the volatile metabolites was negatively related to CH4 intensity. The nonvolatile metabolites acetoacetate, creatinine, ethanol, formate, methylmalonate, and N-acetylsugar A were positively related to CH4 intensity, and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-hexose B and citrate were negatively related to CH4 intensity. Several volatile and nonvolatile metabolites that were correlated with CH4 intensity also were correlated with FPCM and not significantly related to CH4 intensity anymore when FPCM was included as covariate. This suggests that changes in these milk metabolites may be related to changes in milk yield or metabolic processes involved in milk synthesis. The UDP-hexose B was correlated with FPCM, whereas citrate was not. Both metabolites were

  5. How to reduce emissions related to consumption: which public policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to consumption in the world. It examines which are currently the world emission flows which come with trade exchanges (intermediate and final goods) between countries. The first part tries to highlight hidden emissions present in our imports and exports. It presents the different methods of greenhouse gas accounting, discusses the emission flows at the planet level, and the challenge of the limitation of 'carbon leaks', and discusses what makes a country a net emission importer or exporter. The second part discusses how France can reduce its consumption-based emissions, how to reach a factor 4 of reduction on these emissions, how to act against leaks and inflows of emissions through measures at the world level (international agreement, reduction of emissions by sea and air transport, reduction of industry emissions) or at the national level (relocation of polluting industries in France or Europe, promotion of short circuits, eco-design, changes in consumption modes, measures on groups of products which import emissions)

  6. Cosmology on ultralarge scales with intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission: limits on primordial non-Gaussianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Stefano; Santos, Mário G; Ferreira, Pedro G; Ferramacho, Luís

    2013-10-25

    The large-scale structure of the Universe supplies crucial information about the physical processes at play at early times. Unresolved maps of the intensity of 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen HI at redshifts z=/~1-5 are the best hope of accessing the ultralarge-scale information, directly related to the early Universe. A purpose-built HI intensity experiment may be used to detect the large scale effects of primordial non-Gaussianity, placing stringent bounds on different models of inflation. We argue that it may be possible to place tight constraints on the non-Gaussianity parameter f(NL), with an error close to σ(f(NL))~1.

  7. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan, E-mail: wyn3615@126.com; Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  8. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions

  9. Theoretical study of amplified spontaneous emission intensity and bandwidth reduction in polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, A.; Sarikhani, S.

    2015-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), including intensity and bandwidth, in a typical example of BuEH-PPV is calculated. For this purpose, the intensity rate equation is used to explain the reported experimental measurements of a BuEH-PPV sample pumped at different pump intensities from I p = 0.61 MW/cm 2 to 5.2 MW/cm 2 . Both homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened transition lines along with a model based on the geometrically dependent gain coefficient (GDGC) are examined and it is confirmed that for the reported measurements the homogeneously broadened line is responsible for the light–matter interaction. The calculation explains the frequency spectrum of the ASE output intensity extracted from the sample at different pump intensities, unsaturated and saturated gain coefficients, and ASE bandwidth reduction along the propagation direction. Both analytical and numerical calculations for verifying the GDGC model are presented in this paper. Although the introduced model has shown its potential for explaining the ASE behavior in a specific sample it can be universally used for the ASE study in different active media. (paper)

  10. On the interpretation of the intense emission of tungsten ions at about 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonauskas, V; Kucas, S; Karazija, R

    2007-01-01

    The origin of the intense emission band at about 5 nm, dominating the emission spectra of tungsten ions in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak and EBIT, is discussed. It is shown that the emission spectra of various ions calculated taking into account only the excitations from the ground level agree fairly well with the results obtained in the collisional-radiative model; thus, the contribution of the excitations from the other levels is small. Though the excitation spectrum for all sequence of ions W 29+ -W 37+ corresponds to the same transitions 4p 6 4d N → 4p 5 4d N+1 + 4p 6 4d N-1 4f, its energetic width essentially changes going on from the charge of ion q = 34 to q = 35. It is caused by the appearance of the excitations 4p 1/2 -4d 3/2 to the open 4d N 3/2 subshell, which are not quenched by configuration mixing. The satellite line at about 4.5 nm is explained by the transitions of the same type, although between configurations with one spectator 5s electron. The existence of one more group of intense lines in the region of 2 nm, corresponding to 5s-4p transitions, is predicted

  11. Long-term Modulation of Cosmic Ray Intensity in relation to Sunspot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it should be more closely connected with cosmic ray modulation than with other solar characteristics (sunspot numbers or coronal emission intensity). The intensity of galactic cosmic rays varies inversely with sunspot numbers, having their maximum intensity at the minimum of the 11-year sunspot cycle (Forbush 1954, 1958) ...

  12. Energy intensity and greenhouse gas emission of a purchase in the retail park service sector: An integrative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farreny, Ramon; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the energetic metabolism of a retail park service system under an integrative approach. Energy flow accounting was applied to a case study retail park in Spain, representative of the sector across Europe, after redefining the functional unit to account for both direct energy use (buildings, gardens and outdoor lighting) and indirect energy use (employee and customer transportation). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was then undertaken to determine energy global warming potential (GWP) and some energy intensity and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission indicators were defined and applied. The results emphasise the importance of service systems in global warming policies, as a potential emission of 9.26 kg CO 2 /purchase was obtained for the case study, relating to a consumption of 1.64 KOE of energy, of which 21.9% was spent on buildings and 57.9% on customer transportation. Some strategies to reduce these emissions were considered: increased supply, energy efficiency, changes in distribution of modes of transport, changes in location and changes in the mix of land uses. A combination of all of these elements in a new retail park could reduce GHG emissions by more than 50%, as it is planning strategies, which seem to be the most effective. (author)

  13. Aqueous based synthesis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals with intense blue emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, Ehsan; Sahraei, Reza; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    In this work a very simple reflux route for preparation of ZnSe nanocrystals with minor modification and faster preparation over conventional ones is introduced. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnSe nanocrystals have a cubic structure. The complete disappearance of the S-H band in FT-IR spectrum of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals was an indication over formation of Zn-thiol covalent bonds at the surface of the nanocrystals which results in passivation of small nanocrystals. The strong size-quantization regime was responsible of significant blue shift in absorption/emission spectra. Using the well-known calculations, band gap and Urbach energy of the ZnSe nanocrystals were measured and their average size was estimated optically to be around 4.6 nm along with the TEM image. A dark blue emission with higher relative intensity of excitonic to trap emissions (compared to conventional method), very narrow excitonic emission peak of about 16 nm and remarkable stability was obtained from the ZnSe nanocrystals.

  14. A time-series analysis of energy-related carbon emissions in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki-Hong Choi; Ang, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions and their relationships with energy consumption and GNP in Korea are studied from 1961 to 1998. The ratio of carbon emissions to GNP is expressed as the product of the aggregate carbon factor and the energy intensity. Changes in the aggregate carbon factor are decomposed into the impacts associated with the fuel carbon factor and the fuel mix, using the Divisia index approach. The analysis is carried out using two sets of data, with and without wood consumption as an energy source, and very different results are obtained. This shows that carbon emission studies for developing countries based on commercial energy consumption only may have to be interpreted with caution. Our analysis also reveals that the impact of the energy intensity on carbon emissions is greater than that of the aggregate carbon factor. This finding supports the assertion made in earlier studies that the energy intensity is a more meaningful indicator than the aggregate carbon factor in the study of climate change resulting from energy-related emissions. (author)

  15. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  16. Unpaid ecological costs related to emissions in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Nauroy, Frederic; Boitard, Corinne; Bird, Geoffrey; David, Michel; Greffet, Pierre; Mordant, Guillaume; Moreau, Sylvain; Nirascou, Francoise; Le Moullec, Aurelie; Berthier, Jean-Pierre; Hassan, Marie-Elizabeth; Curri-Lemaitre, Elen; Lagarenne, Christine; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Puydarrieux, Philippe; Vanoli, Andre; Schucht, Simone

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an analysis of unpaid ecological terms based on the use of new economic indicators related to sustainable development (going beyond the GDP, adjusted accounting aggregates, accounting unpaid ecological costs), an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to climate change (context, used results and data, definitions of trajectories associated with greenhouse gas emissions, cost to be applied to emissions to get rid of, assessment of unpaid ecological costs), and an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to air pollution (objectives, standard to be adopted, towards more ambitious emission reduction and re-assessed costs, unpaid ecological costs in 2010)

  17. Decoupling of industrial energy consumption and CO2-emissions in energy-intensive industries in Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Ryelund, Anders V.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2007-01-01

    As methodology the ex-post analysis deserves more attention as a device to calibrate energy sector models. This paper studies the impact of energy prices and taxes on energy efficiency and carbon emissions of ten industrial sectors in the three Scandinavian countries. A database with sector-specific energy prices and taxes has been established, which allows the analysis to take various price reductions and tax exemptions better into account. A translog factor demand system estimation for a cross industry pooled model is explored and fixed effects across industries and time is estimated. The findings here confirm recent analyses which indicate higher long-term elasticities for industries than normally assumed in Scandinavian energy-sector models. With the observations on differences in energy-intensities among sectors and countries the findings allow for some optimism as to the opportunities for further decoupling between trends in gross value added, carbon emissions and energy consumption

  18. Impacts of EU carbon emission trade directive on energy-intensive industries. Indicative micro-economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The cost impacts from the European emission trading system (ETS) on energy-intensive manufacturing industries have been investigated. The effects consist of direct costs associated to the CO 2 reduction requirements stated in the EU Directive, and of indirect costs of comparable magnitude that originate from a higher electricity price triggered by the ETS in the power sector. The total cost impacts remain below 2% of the production value for most industries within the ETS in the Kyoto period. In the post-Kyoto phase assuming a 30% CO 2 reduction, the total cost impact may raise up to 8% of production value in the heaviest industry sectors. In steel and cement industries the cost impacts are 3-4 fold compared to the least affected pulp and paper and oil refining. Electricity-intensive industries outside the ETS will also be affected, for example in aluminum and chlorine production the indirect cost impacts from ETS could come up to 10% of production value already in the Kyoto period. As industry sectors are affected differently by the ETS some correcting mechanisms may be worthwhile to consider in securing the operation of the most electricity-intensive sectors, e.g. balancing taxation schemes that may include as income source a levy on the wind-fall profits of the power sector due to ETS. A future improvement in ETS for industries within the scheme could be scaling of the emission reduction requirement so that the relative total emission reduction costs are at about the same level. (author)

  19. Urinary catheter related nosocomial infections in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. The objective was to determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms responsible for urinary catheter related infections (UCRI. Colonization and/or bacteriuria was labelled as urinary catheter related infection (UCRI. Forty-four patients with 51 urinary catheters were studied. Incidence of UCRI was 47.06%. Age, female sex and immunocompromised status did not increase the risk of UCRI. Duration of catheter in-situ and duration of stay in the PICU were associated with higher risk of UCRI. The mortality was not increased by UCRI. Commonest organism isolated in UCRI was E. coli, which had maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin.

  20. Plasma ion emission from high intensity picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fews, A.P.; Norreys, P.A.; Beg, F.N.; Bell, A.R.; Dangor, A.E.; Danson, C.N.; Lee, P.; Rose, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The fast ion emission from high intensity, picosecond laser plasmas has been measured to give the characteristic ion energy and the amount of laser energy transferred to ions with energies ≥100 keV/nucleon as a function of incident intensity. The characteristic ion energy varies from 0.2 to 1.3 MeV over the range 2.0x10 17 --2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Ten percent of the laser energy is transferred into MeV ions at 2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Calculations of stopping power in high density materials are presented that show that fast ions cannot be ignored in modeling fast ignitor schemes

  1. Full-profile fitting of emission spectrum to determine transition intensity parameters of Yb3+:GdTaO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingli; Sun Guihua; Ning Kaijie; Liu Wenpeng; Sun Dunlu; Yin Shaotang; Shi Chaoshu

    2016-01-01

    The Judd–Ofelt theoretic transition intensity parameters of luminescence of rare-earth ions in solids are important for the quantitative analysis of luminescence. It is very difficult to determine them with emission or absorption spectra for a long time. A “full profile fitting” method to obtain in solids with its emission spectrum is proposed, in which the contribution of a radiative transition to the emission spectrum is expressed as the product of transition probability, line profile function, instrument measurement constant and transition center frequency or wavelength, and the whole experimental emission spectrum is the sum of all transitions. In this way, the emission spectrum is expressed as a function with the independent variables intensity parameters , full width at half maximum (FWHM) of profile functions, instrument measurement constant, wavelength, and the Huang–Rhys factor S if the lattice vibronic peaks in the emission spectrum should be considered. The ratios of the experimental to the calculated energy lifetimes are incorporated into the fitting function to remove the arbitrariness during fitting and other parameters. Employing this method obviates measurement of the absolute emission spectrum intensity. It also eliminates dependence upon the number of emission transition peaks. Every experiment point in emission spectra, which usually have at least hundreds of data points, is the function with variables and other parameters, so it is usually viable to determine and other parameters using a large number of experimental values. We applied this method to determine twenty-five of Yb 3+ in GdTaO 4 . The calculated and experiment energy lifetimes, experimental and calculated emission spectrum are very consistent, indicating that it is viable to obtain the transition intensity parameters of rare-earth ions in solids by a full profile fitting to the ions’ emission spectrum. The calculated emission cross sections of Yb 3+ :GdTaO 4 also indicate

  2. Energy intensity, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and economic assessment of liquid biofuel pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; Zilberman, David

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum fuels are predominantly transported domestically by pipelines, whereas biofuels are almost exclusively transported by rail, barge, and truck. As biofuel production increases, new pipelines may become economically attractive. Location-specific variables impacting pipeline viability include construction costs, availability and costs of alternative transportation modes, electricity prices and emissions (if priced), throughput, and subsurface temperature. When transporting alcohol or diesel-like fuels, pipelines have a lower direct energy intensity than rail, barge, and trucks if fluid velocity is under 1 m/s for 4-inch diameter pipelines and 2 m/s for 8-inch or larger pipelines. Across multiple hypothetical state-specific scenarios, profit-maximizing design velocities range from 1.2 to 1.9 m/s. In costs and GHG emissions, optimized pipelines outperform trucks in each state and rail and barge in most states, if projected throughput exceeds four billion liters/year. If emissions are priced, optimum design diameters typically increase to reduce pumping energy demands, increasing the cost-effectiveness of pipeline projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A hybrid method for provincial scale energy-related carbon emission allocation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongtao; Zhang, Yingxuan; Wang, Huizhi; Huang, Yanying; Xu, He

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of carbon emission reduction targets proposed by national governments relies on provincial/state allocations. In this study, a hybrid method for provincial energy-related carbon emissions allocation in China was developed to provide a good balance between production- and consumption-based approaches. In this method, provincial energy-related carbon emissions are decomposed into direct emissions of local activities other than thermal power generation and indirect emissions as a result of electricity consumption. Based on the carbon reduction efficiency principle, the responsibility for embodied emissions of provincial product transactions is assigned entirely to the production area. The responsibility for carbon generation during the production of thermal power is borne by the electricity consumption area, which ensures that different regions with resource endowments have rational development space. Empirical studies were conducted to examine the hybrid method and three indices, per capita GDP, resource endowment index and the proportion of energy-intensive industries, were screened to preliminarily interpret the differences among China's regional carbon emissions. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of this method are also provided herein.

  4. Intensities of the Martian N2 electron-impact excited dayglow emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; Hać, Nicholas E. F.

    2013-06-01

    The first N2 emissions in the Martian dayglow were detected by the SPICAM UV spectrograph on board the Mars Express spacecraft. Intensities of the (0,5) and (0,6) Vegard-Kaplan bands were found to be about one third of those predicted more than 35 years ago. The Vegard-Kaplan band system arises from the transition from the lowest N2 triplet state (A3Σu+;v') to the electronic ground state (X1Σg+;v″). It is excited in the Martian dayglow by direct electron-impact excitation of the ground N2(X) state to the A state and by excitation to higher triplet states that populate the A state by cascading. Using revised data, we compute here updated intensities of several of the bands in the N2 triplet systems and those involving the a1Πg state, the upper state of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands. We find that the predicted limb intensities for the (0,5) and (0,6) Vegard-Kaplan bands are consistent with the measured values.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  6. Energy-related CO_2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The research focuses on agricultural sectors of the eighteen European countries. • The main drivers of energy-related CO_2 emission are quantified by means of IDA. • The slack-based DEA model is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency. • Shadow prices of carbon emission are analysed. • Energy efficiency remains the primary means for increasing environmental efficiency. - Abstract: Climate change mitigation is a key issue in formulating global environmental policies. Energy production and consumption are the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Energy consumption and energy-related GHG emissions from agriculture are an important concern for policymakers, as the agricultural activities should meet food security goals along with proper economic, environmental, and social impacts. Carbon dioxide (CO_2) emission is the most significant among energy-related GHG emissions. This paper analyses the main drivers behind energy-related CO_2 emission across agricultural sectors of European countries. The analysis is based on aggregate data from the World Input-Output Database. The research explores two main directions. Firstly, Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), facilitated by the Shapley index, is used to identify the main drivers of CO_2 emission. Secondly, the Slack-based Model (SBM) is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency of European agricultural sectors. By applying frontier techniques, we also derive the measures of environmental efficiency and shadow prices, thereby contributing to a discussion on CO_2 emission mitigation in agriculture. Therefore, the paper devises an integrated approach towards analysis of CO_2 emission based upon advanced decomposition and efficiency analysis models. The research covers eighteen European countries and the applied methodology decomposes contributions to CO_2 emission across of regions and factors. Results of IDA suggest that decreasing energy intensity is the main factor

  7. Top-down Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Intensities and Emissions for Individual Oil Sands Facilities in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S. M.; Staebler, R. M.; Hayden, K. L.; Mittermeier, R. L.; McLaren, R.; Baray, S.; Darlington, A.; Worthy, D.; O'Brien, J.

    2017-12-01

    The oil sands (OS) region of Alberta contributes approximately 10% to Canada's overall anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Such emissions have traditionally been estimated through "bottom-up" methods which seek to account for all individual sources of GHGs within a given facility. However, it is recognized that bottom-up approaches for complex industrial facilities can be subject to uncertainties associated with incomplete or inaccurate emission factor and/or activity data. In order to quantify air pollutant emissions from oil sands activities an aircraft-based measurement campaign was performed in the summer of 2013. The aircraft measurements could also be used to quantify GHG emissions for comparison to the bottom up emissions estimates. Utilizing specific flight patterns, together with an emissions estimation algorithm and measurements of CO2 and methane, a "top-down" estimate of GHG intensities for several large surface mining operations was obtained. The results demonstrate that there is a wide variation in emissions intensities (≈80 - 220 kg CO2/barrel oil) across OS facilities, which in some cases agree with calculated intensities, and in other cases are larger than that estimated using industry reported GHG emission and oil production data. When translated to annual GHG emissions, the "top-down" approach results in a CO2 emission of approximately 41 Mega Tonnes (MT) CO2/year for the 4 OS facilities investigated, in contrast to the ≈26 MT CO2/year reported by industry. The results presented here highlight the importance of using "top-down" approaches as a complimentary method in evaluating GHG emissions from large industrial sources.

  8. Decomposition Analysis of the Factors that Influence Energy Related Air Pollutant Emission Changes in China Using the SDA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We decompose factors affecting China’s energy-related air pollutant (NOx, PM2.5, and SO2 emission changes into different effects using structural decomposition analysis (SDA. We find that, from 2005 to 2012, investment increased NOx, PM2.5, and SO2 emissions by 14.04, 7.82 and 15.59 Mt respectively, and consumption increased these emissions by 11.09, 7.98, and 12.09 Mt respectively. Export and import slightly increased the emissions on the whole, but the rate of the increase has slowed down, possibly reflecting the shift in China’s foreign trade structure. Energy intensity largely reduced NOx, PM2.5, and SO2 emissions by 12.49, 14.33 and 23.06 Mt respectively, followed by emission efficiency that reduces these emissions by 4.57, 9.08, and 17.25 Mt respectively. Input-output efficiency slightly reduces the emissions. At sectoral and sub-sectoral levels, consumption is a great driving factor in agriculture and commerce, whereas investment is a great driving factor in transport, construction, and some industrial subsectors such as iron and steel, nonferrous metals, building materials, coking, and power and heating supply. Energy intensity increases emissions in transport, chemical products and manufacturing, but decreases emissions in all other sectors and subsectors. Some policies arising from our study results are discussed.

  9. Sectoral analysis of energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Finland 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirjavainen, M.; Tamminen, E.

    2002-03-01

    This study describes the development of energy consumption and energy related CO 2 emissions in Finland between 1990-1999. For better understanding of the factors behind the development in main sectors, special indicators are calculated to evaluate how the overall development of the sector is affected by the general activity of the sector, changes in sectoral structure and changes in end-use intensities within the sector. The specific energy consumption of space heating reduced especially during the first half of the decade. Also the total CO 2 emissions caused by space heating reduced, in spite of the increase in the building stock. The main reason for this has been the reduction in specific CO 2 emissions in production of district heat. Regardless of the increased traffic and slightly increased use of passenger cars over public transport, the total energy consumption as well as total CO 2 emissions in passenger transport reduced during the decade. The main reason for this is that the specific fuel consumption of passenger cars has reduced significantly. Volumes in freight traffic increased rapidly after the recession, and as no significant changes have occurred in either specific consumptions or in shares of different transport modes, the total energy use as well as total CO 2 emissions of freight transport have increased. The major factors affecting the energy use and CO 2 emissions of the manufacturing sector have been changes in production volumes. After the recession, growth has been rapid and that has resulted in increased total energy use and CO 2 emissions. Anyway, the especially rapid growth of the less energy intensive electronics industry has resulted in downward overall energy intensity within manufacturing sector. Major factors affecting the specific CO 2 emissions in energy production have been changes in the primary energy supply mix. In electricity production, the major factors have been the increase in nuclear capacity and the variation in net

  10. The impact of fiscal and other measures on new passenger car sales and CO2 emissions intensity. Evidence from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Lisa; Convery, Frank; Ferreira, Susana

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of national fiscal measures in the EU (EU15) on passenger car sales and the CO 2 emissions intensity of the new car fleet over the period 1995-2004. CO 2 emissions and energy consumption from road transport have been increasing in the EU and as a result since 1999 the EU has attempted to implement a high profile policy strategy to address this problem at European level. Less prominent is the fact that Member States apply vehicle and fuel taxes, which may also be having an impact on the quantity of passenger cars sold and their CO 2 emissions intensity. Diesel vehicle sales have increased appreciably in many countries over the same period and this study makes a first attempt to examine whether Member State fiscal measures have influenced this phenomenon. This work uses a panel dataset to investigate the relationship between national vehicle and fuel taxes on new passenger car sales and the fleet CO 2 emissions intensity in EU15 over a 10-year period. Our results show that national vehicle and fuel taxes have had an impact on passenger car sales and fleet CO 2 emissions intensity and that different taxes have disparate effects. (author)

  11. Atmospheric stabilization of CO2 emissions: Near-term reductions and absolute versus intensity-based targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes CO 2 emissions reduction targets for various countries and geopolitical regions by the year 2030 to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 at 450 ppm (550 ppm including non-CO 2 greenhouse gases) level. It also determines CO 2 intensity cuts that would be required in those countries and regions if the emission reductions were to be achieved through intensity-based targets without curtailing their expected economic growth. Considering that the stabilization of CO 2 concentrations at 450 ppm requires the global trend of CO 2 emissions to be reversed before 2030, this study develops two scenarios: reversing the global CO 2 trend in (i) 2020 and (ii) 2025. The study shows that global CO 2 emissions would be limited at 42 percent above 1990 level in 2030 if the increasing trend of global CO 2 emissions were to be reversed by 2020. If reversing the trend is delayed by 5 years, global CO 2 emissions in 2030 would be 52 percent higher than the 1990 level. The study also finds that to achieve these targets while maintaining expected economic growth, the global average CO 2 intensity would require a 68 percent drop from the 1990 level or a 60 percent drop from the 2004 level by 2030

  12. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  13. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, A.; Roussos, D.; Menegaki, M.; Damigos, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  14. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...

  15. Parametric investigations on the saturation intensity of Coumarin 102 for stimulated emission depletion application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H-Y; Zhao, W-X; Zhao, W; Zhang, C; Feng, X-Q; Liu, S-P; Wang, K-G

    2018-04-23

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy performed using continuous-wave (CW) lasers has been investigated and developed by Willig et al. (Nature Methods, 2007, 4(11):915) for nearly a decade. Kuang et al. (Review of Scientific Instruments, 2010, 81:053709) developed the CW STED microscopy technique with 405 nm excitation and 532 nm depletion beams. In their research, Coumarin 102 dye was adopted and was found to be depletable. In this study, a parametric investigation of the depletion of Coumarin 102 dye is carried out experimentally. The influence of the excitation and depletion beam intensities and dye concentrations on the depletion efficiency are studied in detail. The results indicate the following: (1) The highest depletion occurs for the 100 μM Coumarin 102 solution, with a 1.4 μW excitation beam and a 115.3 mW depletion beam. (2) The minimum saturation intensity (Is) of STED, that is 13 MW cm -2 , is observed when the Coumarin 102 solution concentration is 10 μM. (3) Is values calculated directly from the depletion power derived with the cross-sectional area due to the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the depletion beam show poor accuracy, where Is may be overestimated. Thus, a correction factor for the cross-sectional area is proposed. We also find that Is is not exactly constant for a fixed excitation beam power and dye concentration. This trend indicates that the conventional suppression function η(x)=e- ln (2)ISTED(x)/Is derived from picosecond STED may cause errors in evaluating the depletion process in CW STED microscopy. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Inventories and reduction scenarios of urban waste-related greenhouse gas emissions for management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Xu, Lingxing; Gao, Xueli; Guo, Qinghai; Huang, Ning

    2018-06-01

    Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO 2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO 2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling lifestyle effects on energy demand and related emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.

    2000-01-01

    An approach to analyse and quantify the impact of lifestyle factors on current and future energy demand is developed. Thereby not only directly environmentally relevant consumer activities such as car use or heating have been analysed, but also expenditure patterns which induce environmental damage through the production of the consumed goods. The use of household survey data from the national statistical offices offers the possibility to cover this wide range of activities. For the available social-economic household characteristics a variety of different behavioural patterns have been observed. For evaluating the energy and emission consequences of the consumed goods enhanced input-output models are used. The additions implemented - a mixed monetary-energetic approach for inter-industry flows and a separate treatment of transport -related emissions - improve the reliability of the obtained results. The developed approach has been used for analysing current emissions profiles and distributions in West Germany, France and the Netherlands as well as scenarios for future energy demand and related emissions. It therefore provides a comprehensive methodology to analyse environmental effects in a consumer and citizen perspective and thus contributes to an increase transparency of complex economic and ecological interconnections. (author)

  18. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Eckard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq. intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively, whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively. Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  19. Substantial enhancement of red emission intensity by embedding Eu-doped GaN into a microcavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inaba, T.; Lee, D.-G.; Wakamatsu, R.; Kojima, T.; Mitchell, B.; Capretti, A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate resonantly excited photoluminescence from a Eu,O-codoped GaN layer embedded into a microcavity, consisting of an AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector and a Ag reflecting mirror. The microcavity is responsible for a 18.6-fold increase of the Eu emission intensity at ∼10K, and a

  20. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Experimental study of lead emission intensity dependence on the wavelengths and sample matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli S, V; Martinez L, M A; Fernandez C, A J [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Laser, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, DC 1020 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, J J; Mao, X L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Russo, R.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: RERusso@lbl.gov

    2009-02-15

    Lead (Pb) emission intensity (atomic line 405.78 nm) dependence on the sample matrix (metal alloy) was studied by means of collinear double pulse (DP)-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The measurement of the emission intensity produced by three different wavelength combinations (i.e. I:532 nm-II:1064 nm, I:532 nm-II:532 nm, and I:532 nm-II:355 nm) from three series of standard reference materials showed that the lead atomic line 405.78 nm emission intensity was dependent on the sample matrix for all the combination of wavelengths, however reduced dependency was found for the wavelength combination I:532 nm-II:355 nm. Two series of standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and one series from the British Chemical Standards (BCS) were used for these experiments. Calibration curves for lead ablated from NIST 626-630 ('Zn{sub 95}Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 1}') provided higher sensitivity (slope) than those calibration curves produced from NIST 1737-1741 ('Zn{sub 99.5}Al{sub 0.5}') and with the series BCS 551-556 ('Cu{sub 87}Sn{sub 11}'). Similar trends between lead emission intensity (calibration curve sensitivities) and reported variations in plasma temperatures caused by the differing ionization potentials of the major and minor elements in these samples were established.

  1. Relative Contribution of Odour Intensity and Valence to Moral Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Parma, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analytic evidence showed that the chemical senses affect moral decisions. However, how odours impact on morality is currently unclear. Through a set of three studies, we assess whether and how odour intensity biases moral choices (Study 1a), its psychophysiological responses (Study 1b), as well as the behavioural and psychophysiological effects of odour valence on moral choices (Study 2). Study 1a suggests that the presence of an odour plays a role in shaping moral choice. Study 1b reveals that of two iso-pleasant versions of the same neutral odour, only the one presented sub-threshold (vs. supra-threshold) favours deontological moral choices, those based on the principle of not harming others even when such harm provides benefits. As expected, this odour intensity effect is tracked by skin conductance responses, whereas no difference in cardiac activity - proxy for the valence dimension - is revealed. Study 2 suggests that the same neutral odour presented sub-threshold increases deontological choices even when compared to iso-intense ambiguous odour, perceived as pleasant or unpleasant by half of the participants, respectively. Skin conductance responses, as expected, track odour pleasantness, but cardiac activity fails to do so. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms alternative to disgust induction underlying moral choices.

  2. The relation between rumination and temporal features of emotion intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Verleysen, Gregory; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe; Verduyn, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2). In addition, trait (Study 1 & 2), and state (Study 2) usage of a set of emotion regulation strategies was assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that trait rumination (especially the brooding component) was positively associated with emotion accumulation (Study 1 & 2). State rumination was also positively associated with emotion accumulation and, to a lesser extent, with emotion explosiveness (Study 2). These results provide support for emotion regulation theories, which hypothesise that rumination is a central mechanism underlying the maintenance of negative emotions.

  3. The Physical Relation between Disc and Coronal Emission in Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Lusso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modified version of the observed non-linear relation between the X-ray (2 keV and the ultraviolet (2,500 Å emission in quasars (i.e., LX∝LUVγ which involves the full width at half-maximum, FWHM, of the broad emission line, i.e., LX∝LUVγ^ FWHMβ^. By analyzing a sample of 550 optically selected non-jetted quasars in the redshift range of 0.36–2.23 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey cross matched with the XMM-Newton catalog 3XMM-DR6, we found that the additional dependence of the observed LX − LUV correlation on the FWHM of the Mgii broad emission line is statistically significant. Our statistical analysis leads to a much tighter relation with respect to the one neglecting FWHM, and it does not evolve with redshift. We interpret this new relation within an accretion disc corona scenario where reconnection and magnetic loops above the accretion disc can account for the production of the primary X-ray radiation. For a broad line region size depending on the disc luminosity as Rblr∝Ldisc0.5, we find that LX∝LUV4/7 FWHM4/7, which is in very good agreement with the observed correlation.

  4. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms. Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area. For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. We would like to emphasize the need to include in the "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (as defined in Directive 91/676/CEE [1]), all areas where there are intensive farming of fish with open-system type of water use. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater.

  5. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...... observation period. Side effects were evaluated clinically. No tumors appeared in untreated control mice or in just IPL-treated mice. Skin tumors developed in UV-exposed mice independently of IPL treatments. The time it took for 50% of the mice to first develop skin tumor ranged from 47 to 49 weeks...... in preoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.94) and from 22 to 23 weeks in pre- and postoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.11). IPL rejuvenation of lightly pigmented skin did not induce pigmentary changes (p=1.00). IPL rejuvenation of UV-pigmented skin resulted in an immediate increased skin pigmentation and a subsequent...

  6. Relating Solar Energetic Particle Event Fluences to Peak Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; Ling, Alan G.

    2018-02-01

    Recently we (Kahler and Ling, Solar Phys. 292, 59, 2017: KL) have shown that time-intensity profiles [I(t)] of 14 large solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be fitted with a simple two-parameter fit, the modified Weibull function, which is characterized by shape and scaling parameters [α and β]. We now look for a simple correlation between an event peak energy intensity [Ip] and the time integral of I(t) over the event duration: the fluence [F]. We first ask how the ratio of F/Ip varies for the fits of the 14 KL events and then examine that ratio for three separate published statistical studies of SEP events in which both F and Ip were measured for comparisons of those parameters with various solar-flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters. The three studies included SEP energies from a 4 - 13 MeV band to E > 100 MeV. Within each group of SEP events, we find a very robust correlation (CC > 0.90) in log-log plots of F versus Ip over four decades of Ip. The ratio increases from western to eastern longitudes. From the value of Ip for a given event, F can be estimated to within a standard deviation of a factor of {≤} 2. Log-log plots of two studies are consistent with slopes of unity, but the third study shows plot slopes of { 10 MeV to {>} 100 MeV. This difference is not explained.

  7. The regulatory role of endogenous iron on greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Liangsheng; Wang, Yakun; Chen, Zhuowei; Wu, Laosheng

    2018-05-01

    Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and NO 3 - -N dynamics and N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N 2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg -1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N 2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1. However, N application enhanced CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from the red soils slightly but inhibited the emissions from paddy soils. The maximal CH 4 and CO 2 emission fluxes occurred in DP soil without N input. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations (P greenhouse gas emissions mainly through the involvement in denitrification. The proportion of the electrons donated by Fe 2+ used for N 2 O production in denitrification in DP soil was approximately 37.53%. Moreover, positive correlations between Fe 2+ and CH 4 , CO 2 were found in both DR and QP soils, suggesting that endogenous iron might regulate the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon to CH 4 and CO 2 in the two soils. Soil pH was also an important factor controlling greenhouse gas emissions by affecting endogenous iron availability and C and N transformation processes.

  8. Modelling the impacts of a carbon emission-differentiated vehicle tax system on CO2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, S.; McNabola, A.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on the environment and the economic pressure on oil supply has focused international attention on reducing CO 2 emissions and energy usage across all sectors. In order to meet their Kyoto protocol commitments and in line with European Union policy, the Irish government has introduced a carbon-based tax system for new vehicles purchased from the 1st of July 2008. This new legislation aims to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector, a sector which is responsible for a significant proportion of both. This paper presents the results of the development, calibration, and application of a car choice model which predicts the changes in CO 2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases as a result of the changes in vehicle tax policy and fuel price in Ireland. The model also predicts the impact of such changes on tax revenue for the Irish government and the changes in the split between the number of diesel and petrol vehicles purchased. The investigation found that the introduction of these new carbon-based taxes in Ireland will result in a reduction of 3.6-3.8% in CO 2 emissions intensity and a reduction in annual tax revenue of EUR191 M. (author)

  9. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  10. 40 CFR 51.125 - Emissions reporting requirements for SIP revisions relating to budgets for SO2 and NOX emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP revisions relating to budgets for SO2 and NOX emissions. 51.125 Section 51.125 Protection of... SIP revisions relating to budgets for SO2 and NOX emissions. (a) For its transport SIP revision under § 51.123 and/or 51.124, each State must submit to EPA SO2 and/or NOX emissions data as described in...

  11. Factors Related to Burnout in the Neonatal Intensive Care Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    stages of psychosocial development , intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus...1983) eluded can be related to one’s attempt to master the psychosocial stages of development utilizing Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development ...early adulthood one must work through Erikson’s stage of 9 intimacy versus isolation. It is during this stage that one develops "the capacity

  12. Substantial enhancement of red emission intensity by embedding Eu-doped GaN into a microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Inaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate resonantly excited photoluminescence from a Eu,O-codoped GaN layer embedded into a microcavity, consisting of an AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector and a Ag reflecting mirror. The microcavity is responsible for a 18.6-fold increase of the Eu emission intensity at ∼10K, and a 21-fold increase at room temperature. We systematically investigate the origin of this enhancement, and we conclude that it is due to the combination of several effects including, the lifetime shortening of the Eu emission, the strain-induced piezoelectric effect, and the increased extraction and excitation field efficiencies. This study paves the way for an alternative method to enhance the photoluminescence intensity in rare-earth doped semiconductor structures.

  13. Development of a high energy resolution magnetic bolometer for the determination of photon emission intensities by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this research thesis, a first chapter describes the metrological difficulties for the determination of radionuclide photon emission intensities. Then, it discusses the understanding and the required tools for the computing of a magnetic bolometer signal with respect to the different operation parameters and to the sensor geometry. The author describes the implementation of the experimental device and its validation with a first sensor. The new sensor is then optimised for the measurement of photon emission intensities with a good efficiency and a theoretical energy resolution less than 100 eV up to 200 keV. The sensor's detection efficiency and operation have been characterized with a 133 Ba source. The author finally presents the obtained results

  14. Analysis of influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong: evidence from regional China based on the input-output and structural decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinlin; Deng, Haijun

    2017-11-01

    It is important to analyze the influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions from a regional perspective to effectively achieve reductions in energy consumption and carbon emissions in China. Based on the "energy-economy-carbon emissions" hybrid input-output analysis framework, this study conducted structural decomposition analysis (SDA) on carbon emissions influencing factors in Guangdong Province. Systems-based examination of direct and indirect drivers for regional emission is presented. (1) Direct effects analysis of influencing factors indicated that the main driving factors of increasing carbon emissions were economic and population growth. Carbon emission intensity was the main contributing factor restraining carbon emissions growth. (2) Indirect effects analysis of influencing factors showed that international and interprovincial trades significantly affected the total carbon emissions. (3) Analysis of the effects of different final demands on the carbon emissions of industrial sector indicated that the increase in carbon emission arising from international and interprovincial trades is mainly concentrated in energy- and carbon-intensive industries. (4) Guangdong had to compromise a certain amount of carbon emissions during the development of its export-oriented economy because of industry transfer arising from the economic globalization, thereby pointing to the existence of the "carbon leakage" problem. At the same time, interprovincial export and import resulted in Guangdong transferring a part of its carbon emissions to other provinces, thereby leading to the occurrence of "carbon transfer."

  15. Tomographic intensity mapping versus galaxy surveys: observing the Universe in H α emission with new generation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B. Marta; Zaroubi, Saleem; Kooistra, Robin; Cooray, Asantha

    2018-04-01

    The H α line emission is an important probe for a number of fundamental quantities in galaxies, including their number density, star formation rate (SFR), and overall gas content. A new generation of low-resolution intensity mapping (IM) probes, e.g. SPHEREx and CDIM, will observe galaxies in H α emission over a large fraction of the sky from the local Universe till a redshift of z ˜ 6 - 10, respectively. This will also be the target line for observations by the high-resolution Euclid and WFIRST instruments in the z ˜ 0.7-2 redshift range. In this paper, we estimate the intensity and power spectra of the H α line in the z ˜ 0-5 redshift range using observed line luminosity functions (LFs), when possible, and simulations, otherwise. We estimate the significance of our predictions by accounting for the modelling uncertainties (e.g. SFR, extinction, etc.) and observational contamination. We find that IM surveys can make a statistical detection of the full H α emission between z ˜ 0.8 and 5. Moreover, we find that the high-frequency resolution and the sensitivity of the planned CDIM surveys allow for the separation of H α emission from several interloping lines. We explore ways to use the combination of these line intensities to probe galaxy properties. As expected, our study indicates that galaxy surveys will only detect bright galaxies that contribute up to a few per cent of the overall H α intensity. However, these surveys will provide important constraints on the high end of the H α LF and put strong constraints on the active galactic nucleus LF.

  16. The implications of the historical decline in US energy intensity for long-run CO2 emission projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue Wing, Ian; Eckaus, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of the long-run decline in US energy intensity on projections of energy use and carbon emissions to the year 2050. We build on our own recent work which decomposes changes in the aggregate US energy-GDP ratio into shifts in sectoral composition (structural change) and adjustments in the energy demand of individual industries (intensity change), and identifies the impact on the latter of price-induced substitution of variable inputs, shifts in the composition of capital and embodied and disembodied technical progress. We employ a recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy to analyze the implications of these findings for future energy use and carbon emissions. Comparison of the simulation results against projections of historical trends in GDP, energy use and emissions reveals that the range of values for the rate of autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) conventionally used in CGE models is consistent with the effects of structural changes at the sub-sector level, rather than disembodied technological change. Even so, our results suggest that US emissions may well grow faster in the future than in the recent past

  17. Intense Non-Linear Soft X-Ray Emission from a Hydride Target during Pulsed D Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved.

  18. Intense non-linear soft X-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm 2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm 2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved. (author)

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable cropping system in Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Feifei; Jiang Rongfeng; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo; Su Fang

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from a typical greenhouse vegetable system in Northern China were measured from February 2004 to January 2006 using a close chamber method. Four nitrogen management levels (NN, MN, CN, and SN) were used. N 2 O emissions occurred intermittently in the growing season, strongly correlating with N fertilization and irrigation. No peak emissions were observed after fertilization in the late Autumn season due to low soil temperature. 57-94% of the seasonal N 2 O emissions came from the initial growth stage, corresponding to the rewetting process in the soil. The annual N 2 O emissions ranged from 2.6 to 8.8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 , accounting for 0.27-0.30% of the annual nitrogen input. Compared with conventional N management, site-specific N management reduced N fertilization rate by 69% in 2004 and by 76% in 2005, and consequently reduced N 2 O emissions by 51% in 2004 and 27% in 2005, respectively. - High N 2 O emissions coming from the initial growth stage can be attributed to the rewetting process in the greenhouse soil.

  20. Relative strength of second harmonic and 3/2 omega emissions from long-scale-length laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.K.; Kumbhare, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the planar slab targets of carbon, aluminum, and copper, using a 1.0641 μm laser, at laser intensities varying from 2 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/. The laser had a fluorescent linewidth of 4.5 A. Spectral profiles of parametrically modulated second harmonic as well as 3/2/ω/sub 0/ emissions have been measured for the long-scale-length plasmas so generated. Relative strengths of three emissions with respect to peak signal intensity and spectral energy content as a function of laser intensity are graphically reported. Results are discussed on the basis of two plasmon and parametric decay instabilities

  1. A comparative analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions intensity of wheat and beef in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Kelly Twomey; Webber, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    The US food system utilizes large quantities of liquid fuels, electricity, and chemicals yielding significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are not considered in current retail prices, especially when the contribution of biogenic emissions is considered. However, because GHG emissions might be assigned a price in prospective climate policy frameworks, it would be useful to know the extent to which those policies would increase the incremental production costs to food within the US food system. This analysis uses lifecycle assessment (LCA) to (1) estimate the magnitude of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions from typical US food production practices, using wheat and beef as examples, and (2) quantify the cost of those emissions in the context of a GHG-pricing regime over a range of policy constructs. Wheat and beef were chosen as benchmark staples to provide a representative range of less intensive and more intensive agricultural goods, respectively. Results suggest that 1.1 ± 0.13 and 31 ± 8.1 kg of lifecycle CO 2 e emissions are embedded in 1 kg of wheat and beef production, respectively. Consequently, the cost of lifecycle CO 2 e emissions for wheat (i.e. cultivation, processing, transportation, storage, and end-use preparation) over an emissions price range of $10 and $85 per tonne CO 2 e is estimated to be between $0.01 and $0.09 per kg of wheat, respectively, which would increase total wheat production costs by approximately 0.3–2% per kg. By comparison, the estimated lifecycle CO 2 e price of beef over the same range of CO 2 e prices is between $0.31 and $2.60 per kg of beef, representing a total production cost increase of approximately 5–40% per kg based on average 2010 food prices. This range indicates that the incremental cost to total US food production might be anywhere between $0.63–5.4 Billion per year for grain and $3.70 and $32 Billion per year for beef based on CO 2 e emissions assuming that total production

  2. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Katoch, Amit; Roberts, William L.; Kumar, Sudarshan

    2014-01-01

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot '''= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2014-06-21

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot \\'\\'\\'= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. IMF control of cusp proton emission intensity and dayside convection: implications for component and anti-parallel reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We study a brightening of the Lyman-a emission in the cusp which occurred in response to a short-lived south-ward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during a period of strongly enhanced solar wind plasma concentration. The cusp proton emission is detected using the SI-12 channel of the FUV imager on the IMAGE spacecraft. Analysis of the IMF observations recorded by the ACE and Wind spacecraft reveals that the assumption of a constant propagation lag from the upstream spacecraft to the Earth is not adequate for these high time-resolution studies. The variations of the southward IMF component observed by ACE and Wind allow for the calculation of the ACE-to-Earth lag as a function of time. Application of the derived propagation delays reveals that the intensity of the cusp emission varied systematically with the IMF clock angle, the relationship being particularly striking when the intensity is normalised to allow for the variation in the upstream solar wind proton concentration. The latitude of the cusp migrated equatorward while the lagged IMF pointed southward, confirming the lag calculation and indicating ongoing magnetopause reconnection. Dayside convection, as monitored by the SuperDARN network of radars, responded rapidly to the IMF changes but lagged behind the cusp proton emission response: this is shown to be as predicted by the model of flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992. We use the numerical cusp ion precipitation model of Lockwood and Davis (1996, along with modelled Lyman-a emission efficiency and the SI-12 instrument response, to investigate the effect of the sheath field clock angle on the acceleration of ions on crossing the dayside magnetopause. This modelling reveals that the emission commences on each reconnected field line 2–2.5 min after it is opened and peaks 3–5 min after it is opened. We discuss how comparison of the Lyman-a intensities with oxygen emissions observed simultaneously by the SI-13

  6. IMF control of cusp proton emission intensity and dayside convection: implications for component and anti-parallel reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available We study a brightening of the Lyman-a emission in the cusp which occurred in response to a short-lived south-ward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during a period of strongly enhanced solar wind plasma concentration. The cusp proton emission is detected using the SI-12 channel of the FUV imager on the IMAGE spacecraft. Analysis of the IMF observations recorded by the ACE and Wind spacecraft reveals that the assumption of a constant propagation lag from the upstream spacecraft to the Earth is not adequate for these high time-resolution studies. The variations of the southward IMF component observed by ACE and Wind allow for the calculation of the ACE-to-Earth lag as a function of time. Application of the derived propagation delays reveals that the intensity of the cusp emission varied systematically with the IMF clock angle, the relationship being particularly striking when the intensity is normalised to allow for the variation in the upstream solar wind proton concentration. The latitude of the cusp migrated equatorward while the lagged IMF pointed southward, confirming the lag calculation and indicating ongoing magnetopause reconnection. Dayside convection, as monitored by the SuperDARN network of radars, responded rapidly to the IMF changes but lagged behind the cusp proton emission response: this is shown to be as predicted by the model of flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992. We use the numerical cusp ion precipitation model of Lockwood and Davis (1996, along with modelled Lyman-a emission efficiency and the SI-12 instrument response, to investigate the effect of the sheath field clock angle on the acceleration of ions on crossing the dayside magnetopause. This modelling reveals that the emission commences on each reconnected field line 2–2.5 min after it is opened and peaks 3–5 min after it is opened. We discuss how comparison of the Lyman-

  7. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of auroral emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric auroral emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been found in nightglow emissions from photometer measurements and in the spectrochemical field from studies of optical light sources. Linear graphs have been obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. This new effect has been studied with a spectrophotometer in auroral emissions, where linear graphs have been obtained on different auroral occasions. By doing such studies of auroral light it is possible to see the importance of the inelastic scattering cross section between electrons - atoms and electrons - molecules. In this way it has shown to be possible to determine the mean energy of the interacting thermal electrons that are active in the different auroral phases. (author)

  8. Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity. (Author)

  9. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.; Nonhebel, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total

  10. CO2 emissions abatement in the Nordic carbon-intensive industry – An end-game in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootzén, Johan; Johnsson, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Analysing different future trajectories of technological developments we assess the prospects for Nordic carbon-intensive industries to significantly reduce direct CO 2 emissions in the period 2010–2050. This analysis covers petroleum refining, integrated iron and steel production, and cement manufacturing in the four largest Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Our results show that the implementation of currently available abatement measures will not be enough to meet the ambitious emissions reduction targets envisaged for the Year 2050. We show how an extensive deployment of CCS (carbon capture and storage) could result in emissions reductions that are in line with such targets. However, large-scale introduction of CCS would come at a significant price in terms of energy use and the associated flows of captured CO 2 would place high requirements on timely planning of infrastructure for the transportation and storage of CO 2 . Further the assessment highlights the importance of, especially in the absence of successful deployment of CO 2 capture, encouraging increased use of biomass in the cement and integrated iron and steel industries, and of promoting the utilisation of alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing to complement efforts to improve energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Scenarios exploring the potential for reducing CO 2 emissions in Nordic industry. • Current measures not sufficient to comply with stringent emission reduction targets. • CCS enables carbon-intensive industries to comply with stringent reduction targets. • CCS would come at a high price in terms of energy use. • Without CO 2 capture increased use of biomass and alternative raw materials vital

  11. Assessing and evaluating urban VOC emissions in mid-latitude megacities from intensive observations in Paris and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; McKeen, S. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Gros, V.; Gaimoz, C.; Beekmann, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) affect urban air quality and regional climate change by contributing to ozone formation and the build-up of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Quantification of VOC emissions is a first critical step to predict VOC environmental impacts and to design effective abatement strategies. Indeed, the quality of ozone and SOA forecasts strongly depends on an accurate knowledge of the primary VOC emissions. However, commonly used bottom-up approaches are highly uncertain due to source multiplicity (combustion processes, storage and distribution of fossil fuels, solvent use, etc.) because of numerous controlling factors (driving conditions, fuel type, temperature, radiation, etc.), and their great variability in time and space. Field observations of VOC and other trace gases can provide valuable top-down constraints to evaluate VOC emission inventories at urban scales. In addition, the implementation of emission reduction measures raises the question of the increasing importance of VOC sources other than traffic. Here, we will evaluate VOC emissions of two mid-latitude megacities in the Northern Hemisphere: the Greater Paris area (Europe) and Los Angeles (USA). In 2009 and 2010, three intensive field campaigns took place in Paris and Los Angeles in the framework of the MEGAPOLI (EU FP7) and CalNex-2010 projects, respectively. Very detailed measurements of aerosol composition and properties, and their gaseous VOC precursors were carried out at ground-based sites (urban center and suburban) and on various mobile platforms. This contribution uses a comprehensive suite of VOC measurements collected by GC-MS/FID techniques at ground-based sites in both cities by a source-receptor methodology. First, emission ratios were estimated from the observations (uncertainty of ± 20%) and compared regarding regional characteristics and European vs. Californian control policies. Then, determined emission ratios were used to assess the accuracy of up

  12. Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xianshuo; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Kang, Jidong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors impacting China’s emissions from a sectoral perspective. • Sector-specific policies and measures for emissions mitigation were evaluated. • Economic growth dominantly increased the emissions in the economic sectors. • Energy intensity decrease primarily reduced the emissions in the economic sectors. • Residential emissions growth was mainly driven by increase in per-capita energy use. - Abstract: In order to better understand sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, this study utilized a logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to study emission changes from a sectoral perspective. Based on the decomposition results, recently implemented policies and measures for emissions mitigation in China were evaluated. The results show that for the economic sectors, economic growth was the dominant factor in increasing emissions from 1996 to 2011, whereas the decline in energy intensity was primarily responsible for the emission decrease. As a result of the expansion of industrial development, economic structure change also contributed to growth in emissions. For the residential sector, increased emissions were primarily driven by an increase in per-capita energy use, which is partially confirmed by population migration. For all sectors, the shift in energy mix and variation in emission coefficient only contributed marginally to the emissions changes. The decomposition results imply that energy efficiency policy in China has been successful during the past decade, i.e., Top 1000 Priorities, Ten-Key Projects programs, the establishment of fuel consumption limits and vehicle emission standards, and encouragement of efficient appliances. Moreover, the results also indicate that readjusting economic structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is urgently required in order to further mitigate emissions in China

  13. Sputtering and emission intensity of copper alloys in a Grimm glow lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Kashima, J.; Naganuma, K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the metallurgical structure and the aluminium content of copper-aluminium alloy (1-12% Al) on the sputtering and intensities of spectral lines in the Grimm glow lamp are reported. The electrical current and sputtering yield decreased linearly with increasing aluminium content; the intensities of the Al I lines depended linearly on the amount of aluminium in the sputtering yield at a fixed voltage and argon pressure. The structure affected the intensities of the Al I and Cu I lines but not the intensity ratio (Al I/Cu I) for about 100 s after burn-off. Working curves for aluminium for samples of different structure were very similar. (Auth.)

  14. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198

  15. SU-E-J-149: Secondary Emission Detection for Improved Proton Relative Stopping Power Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, J; Musall, B; Erickson, A [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Georgia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This research investigates application of secondary prompt gamma (PG) emission spectra, resulting from nuclear reactions induced by protons, to characterize tissue composition along the particle path. The objective of utilizing the intensity of discrete high-energy peaks of PG is to improve the accuracy of relative stopping power (RSP) values available for proton therapy treatment planning on a patient specific basis and to reduce uncertainty in dose depth calculations. Methods: In this research, MCNP6 was used to simulate PG emission spectra generated from proton induced nuclear reactions in medium of varying composition of carbon, oxygen, calcium and nitrogen, the predominant elements found in human tissue. The relative peak intensities at discrete energies predicted by MCNP6 were compared to the corresponding atomic composition of the medium. Results: The results have shown a good general agreement with experimentally measured values reported by other investigators. Unexpected divergence from experimental spectra was noted in the peak intensities for some cases depending on the source of the cross-section data when using compiled proton table libraries vs. physics models built into MCNP6. While the use of proton cross-section libraries is generally recommended when available, these libraries lack data for several less abundant isotopes. This limits the range of their applicability and forces the simulations to rely on physics models for reactions with natural atomic compositions. Conclusion: Current end-of-range proton imaging provides an average RSP for the total estimated track length. The accurate identification of tissue composition along the incident particle path using PG detection and characterization allows for improved determination of the tissue RSP on the local level. While this would allow for more accurate depth calculations resulting in tighter treatment margins, precise understanding of proton beam behavior in tissue of various

  16. Mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions from intensive rice production systems in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, Azeem; Vu, Quynh Duong; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2017-01-01

    -growing seasons in northern Vietnam, to evaluate the effectiveness of drainage patterns on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions under farmers’ variable conditions. Two improved drainage practices (pre-planting plus midseason [PM] drainage and early-season plus midseason [EM] drainage) were compared...... with local practices of water management (midseason drainage [M] and conventional continuous flooding (control) [C]) with full residue [F] and reduced residue [R] (local practice of residue management) incorporation. The GHG mitigation potential of water regimes was tested in two water management systems...... (efficient field water management [EWM] system and inefficient field water management [IWM] system). In EWM system, EM resulted an average 14% and 55% reduction in CH4 emissions compared to M with R and F respectively. The EM lowered the CH4 emissions by 67% and 43% compared to C in the EWM and IWM...

  17. Coalfire related CO2 emissions and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, P.K.

    2008-06-11

    Subsurface and surface coalfires are a serious problem in many coal-producing countries. Combustion can occur within the coal seams (underground or surface), in piles of stored coal, or in spoil dumps at the surface. While consuming a non renewable energy source, coalfires promote several environmental problems. Among all GHGs that are emitted from coalfires, CO2 is the most significant because of its high quantity. In connection to this environmental problem, the core aim of the present research is to develop a hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer based model that is able to estimate CO2 concentration (ppmv) from coalfires. Since 1960s remote sensing is being used as a tool to detect and monitoring coalfires. With time, remote sensing has proven a reliable tool to identify and monitor coalfires. In the present study multi-temporal, multi-sensor and multi-spectral thermal remote sensing data are being used to detect and monitor coalfires. Unlike the earlier studies, the present study explores the possibilities of satellite derived emissivity to detect and monitor coalfires. Two methods of emissivity extraction from satellite data were tested, namely NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived and TES (Temperature emissivity separation) in two study areas situated in India and China and it was observed that the satellite derived emissivity offers a better kinetic surface temperature of the surface to understand the spread and extent of the coalfires more effectively. In order to reduce coalfire related GHG emissions and to achieve more effective fire fighting plans it is crucial to understand the dynamics of coalfire. Multitemporal spaceborne remote sensing data can be used to study the migration and expresses the results as vectors, indicating direction and speed of migration. The present study proposes a 2D model that recognizes an initiation point of coalfire from thermal remote sensing data and considers local geological settings to

  18. Coalfires related CO2 emissions and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, P.K.

    2008-06-11

    Subsurface and surface coalfires are a serious problem in many coal-producing countries. Combustion can occur within the coal seams (underground or surface), in piles of stored coal, or in spoil dumps at the surface. While consuming a non renewable energy source, coalfires promote several environmental problems. Among all GHGs that are emitted from coalfires, CO2 is the most significant because of its high quantity. In connection to this environmental problem, the core aim of the present research is to develop a hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer based model that is able to estimate CO2 concentration (ppmv) from coalfires. Since 1960s remote sensing is being used as a tool to detect and monitoring coalfires. With time, remote sensing has proven a reliable tool to identify and monitor coalfires. In the present study multi-temporal, multi-sensor and multi-spectral thermal remote sensing data are being used to detect and monitor coalfires. Unlike the earlier studies, the present study explores the possibilities of satellite derived emissivity to detect and monitor coalfires. Two methods of emissivity extraction from satellite data were tested, namely NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived and TES (Temperature emissivity separation) in two study areas situated in India and China and it was observed that the satellite derived emissivity offers a better kinetic surface temperature of the surface to understand the spread and extent of the coalfires more effectively. In order to reduce coalfire related GHG emissions and to achieve more effective fire fighting plans it is crucial to understand the dynamics of coalfire. Multitemporal spaceborne remote sensing data can be used to study the migration and expresses the results as vectors, indicating direction and speed of migration. The present study proposes a 2D model that recognizes an initiation point of coalfire from thermal remote sensing data and considers local geological settings to

  19. Coalfire related CO2 emissions and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface and surface coalfires are a serious problem in many coal-producing countries. Combustion can occur within the coal seams (underground or surface), in piles of stored coal, or in spoil dumps at the surface. While consuming a non renewable energy source, coalfires promote several environmental problems. Among all GHGs that are emitted from coalfires, CO2 is the most significant because of its high quantity. In connection to this environmental problem, the core aim of the present research is to develop a hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer based model that is able to estimate CO2 concentration (ppmv) from coalfires. Since 1960s remote sensing is being used as a tool to detect and monitoring coalfires. With time, remote sensing has proven a reliable tool to identify and monitor coalfires. In the present study multi-temporal, multi-sensor and multi-spectral thermal remote sensing data are being used to detect and monitor coalfires. Unlike the earlier studies, the present study explores the possibilities of satellite derived emissivity to detect and monitor coalfires. Two methods of emissivity extraction from satellite data were tested, namely NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived and TES (Temperature emissivity separation) in two study areas situated in India and China and it was observed that the satellite derived emissivity offers a better kinetic surface temperature of the surface to understand the spread and extent of the coalfires more effectively. In order to reduce coalfire related GHG emissions and to achieve more effective fire fighting plans it is crucial to understand the dynamics of coalfire. Multitemporal spaceborne remote sensing data can be used to study the migration and expresses the results as vectors, indicating direction and speed of migration. The present study proposes a 2D model that recognizes an initiation point of coalfire from thermal remote sensing data and considers local geological settings to

  20. The CO2 emission in urbanic soils in the conditions of intensive technogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    Massive industrial pollution of the environment including soils leads to drastic changes in the vital activity of microorganisms, plants and animals. As objects of research was selected soils of the industrial and residential zones, farmland soils, forest soils. Comparative analysis showed that the emission of CO2 urbanizable increase compared to the suburban soils in recreational areas is 1.5 times, in the residential and industrial zones - in 3-5 times. In addition, identified a local point located in the vicinity of chemical plants, where soil CO2 emission increased up to 40 times compared to the suburban soils. Air technogenic pollution of soils by industrial emissions and transport enhances the mineralization of soil organic matter, increases its lability. These trends are associated with nonspecific adaptive reactions of the soil microbial complex in terms of pollution. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization may be due to the increase in the proportion of fungi in the microbial community. According to numerous reports they are more resistant to pollution compared to bacteria and actinomycetes. Admission to the soil organic matter of anthropogenic origin also increases the process of mineralization. According to the findings, low concentrations of petroleum products lead to increased "breathing" of the soil. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization and, consequently, of CO2 emissions, in the conditions of technogenic pollution of the soils identified in our studies, confirmed by numerous studies by other authors. According to reports in Russia the emission of CO2 from soils is 4.5 times higher than the industrial receipt of its atmosphere. The contribution of local anthropogenic CO2 emissions is not so significant compared to the indirect influence of soil pollution on increased CO2 emissions. Consequently, the expansion of technogenic contaminated soil is becoming a more significant factor adversely affecting the state of the atmosphere

  1. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  2. Multi-pulsed intense electron beam emission from velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes and dispenser cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liansheng; Yang Anmin; Chen Yi; Zhang Huang; Liu Xingguang; Li Jin; Jiang Xiaoguo; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun; Zhang Linwen

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results of studies of four kinds of cathode emitting intense electron beams are demonstrated under multi-pulsed mode based on an experimental setup including two multi-pulse high voltage sources. The tested cathodes include velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and dispenser cathodes. The results indicate that all four are able to emit multi-pulsed beams. For velvet, carbon fiber and CNTs, the electron induced cathode plasma emission may be the main process and this means that there are differences in beam parameters from pulse to pulse. For dispenser cathodes tested in the experiment, although there is a little difference from pulse to pulse for some reason, thermal-electric field emission may be the main process. (authors)

  3. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  4. The spatial intensity distribution of selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 - Comparison between theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that most of the spatial intensity distribution of 11 selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 (including the forbidden S II emission lines at 6731 A and 4069 A, the forbidden O III line at 5007 A, and the forbidden O II line at 3727 A) can be explained by a bow shock with a shock velocity of about 150-200 km/sec at the stagnation point, and under the assumption that the gas entering the shock is fully preionized. The results are based on three spectrograms (with a total exposure time of 180 min) obtained consecutively. Specifically, the ratios of each of the forbidden lines to H-alpha were studied, which permitted a critical test of the model. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations was found to be remarkable, considering the complex geometry that a bow shock could have. 38 refs

  5. Modulating emission intensity of GaN-based green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Jia, Haiqiang; Liu, Wuming; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric dual-wavelength (green/blue) coupled InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells were proposed to modulate the green emission intensity. Electroluminescent measurements demonstrate the conspicuous increment of the green light intensity by decreasing the coupled barrier thickness. This was partly attributed to capture of more carriers when holes tunnel across the thinner barrier from the blue quantum wells, as a hole reservoir, to the green quantum wells. While lower effective barrier height of the blue quantum wells benefits improved hole transportation from p-GaN to the active region. Efficiency droop of the green quantum wells was partially alleviated due to the enhanced injection efficiency of holes

  6. Eddy covariance measurements and parameterisation of traffic related particle emissions in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Mårtensson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban aerosol sources are important due to the health effects of particles and their potential impact on climate. Our aim has been to quantify and parameterise the urban aerosol source number flux F (particles m−2 s−1, in order to help improve how this source is represented in air quality and climate models. We applied an aerosol eddy covariance flux system 118.0 m above the city of Stockholm. This allowed us to measure the aerosol number flux for particles with diameters >11 nm. Upward source fluxes dominated completely over deposition fluxes in the collected dataset. Therefore, the measured fluxes were regarded as a good approximation of the aerosol surface sources. Upward fluxes were parameterised using a traffic activity (TA database, which is based on traffic intensity measurements. The footprint (area on the surface from which sources and sinks affect flux measurements, located at one point in space of the eddy system covered road and building construction areas, forests and residential areas, as well as roads with high traffic density and smaller streets. We found pronounced diurnal cycles in the particle flux data, which were well correlated with the diurnal cycles in traffic activities, strongly supporting the conclusion that the major part of the aerosol fluxes was due to traffic emissions. The emission factor for the fleet mix in the measurement area EFfm=1.4±0.1×1014 veh−1 km−1 was deduced. This agrees fairly well with other studies, although this study has an advantage of representing the actual effective emission from a mixed vehicle fleet. Emission from other sources, not traffic related, account for a F0=15±18×106 m−2 s−1. The urban aerosol source flux can then be written as F=EFfmTA+F0. In a second attempt to find a parameterisation, the friction velocity U* normalised with the average friction velocity has been included, F=EF . This parameterisation results in a somewhat reduced emission factor, 1.3×1014 veh

  7. The relative magnitude of the impacts and effects of GHG-related emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Urquizo, N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the current knowledge related to the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation was provided in this document. One of the benefits of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the reduction of other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. Since these pollutants have an effect on acid deposition, ozone depletion and air quality, the environment, social welfare and human health, this paper provided an initial outline of the complex processes, interactions and uncertainties associated with this issue. Fossil fuels represent the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The reduction of emissions of GHG could have an impact on the Long Range Transport of air toxic substances, would help increase oxygen concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead to less carbon monoxide being released in the atmosphere, among others effects. Reductions of GHG emissions would also have an impact on ecosystems by reducing ground-level ozone concentrations. There would be less acid deposition and more dissolved organic carbon, allowing less ultraviolet-B penetration in aquatic ecosystems. In the case of human health, improved air quality impacts on the avoidance of premature mortality and reduced morbidity. Numerous other co-benefits were listed and discussed in this document. The first section stated the purpose and objectives. In section 2, that authors described the science and policy context and discussed building an analytical framework in section 3. The impact of GHG emission reductions on atmospheric pollution and ecosystems was dealt with in section 4 and section 5 was devoted to providing an assessment of the relative magnitude of effects. In section 6, the significance of scope was reviewed, and the authors concluded with section 7 in which they discussed the next steps: phase II

  8. Theoretical calculations of L alpha one x-ray emission intensity ratios for uranium in various matrices: a comparison with experimental values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The U L/sub α1/ x-ray emission intensity ratios (I/sub lambda/sub L//I sub lambda/sub L/, sub 100 percent/sub UO 2 /) in various matrices were calculated using the fundamental parameters formula of Criss and Birks and mass absorption coefficients calculated from a formula developed by Dewey. The use of the intensity ratio made it unnecessary to know the fluorescence yield for the U L/sub III/ level, the probability of emission of the U L/sub α1/ line, and the jump ratios for the three absorption edges of uranium. Also, since an intensity ratio was used, the results are independent of the x-ray tube current and the spectral distribution of the x-ray tube. A method is presented to calculate the intensity ratios for x-ray tube voltages other than the value (45 kV) used in the calculations. The theoretical results are calculated and compared with the experimental results obtained for 141 matrices. Difficulties due to oxidation of some of the metal powders used in the sample preparation, to small concentrations of uranium, and to an excessively large number of elements present in some of the samples resulted in the invalidation of the experimental results for 91 of the matrices. For the remaining 50 matrices, the theoretical and experimental values agreed to within +-5 percent relative error for 36 matrices; to within +-5 percent to +- 10 percent for 7 matrices; to within +-10 percent to +-20 percent for 6 matrices; and was greater than +-20 percent for 1 matrix

  9. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil Production in the Eagle Ford Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sonia; Ghandi, Abbas; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Brandt, Adam R.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q.; Vafi, Kourosh; Reedy, Robert C.

    2017-01-30

    A rapid increase in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in shale and “tight” formations that began around 2000 has resulted in record increases in oil and natural gas production in the U.S. This study examines energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil and natural gas produced from ~8,200 wells in the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas from 2009 to 2013. Our system boundary includes processes from primary exploration wells to the refinery entrance gate (henceforth well-to-refinery or WTR). The Eagle Ford includes four distinct production zones—black oil (BO), volatile oil (VO), condensate (C), and dry gas (G) zones—with average monthly gas-to-liquids ratios (thousand cubic feet per barrel—Mcf/bbl) varying from 0.91 in the BO zone to 13.9 in the G zone. Total energy consumed in drilling, extracting, processing, and operating an Eagle Ford well is ~1.5% of the energy content of the produced crude and gas in the BO and VO zones, compared with 2.2% in the C and G zones. On average, the WTR GHG emissions of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel derived from crude oil produced in the BO and VO zones in the Eagle Ford play are 4.3, 5.0, and 5.1 gCO2e/MJ, respectively. Comparing with other known conventional and unconventional crude production where upstream GHG emissions are in the range 5.9–30 gCO2e/MJ, oil production in the Eagle Ford has lower WTR GHG emissions.

  10. Plasma emission spectroscopy of solids irradiated by intense XUV pulses from a free electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzelzainis, T.W.J.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Fajardo, M.; Fäustlin, R.; Heimann, P.A.; Hájková, Věra; Juha, Libor; Jurek, Karel; Khattak, F.Y.; Kozlová, Michaela; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Nagler, B.; Nelson, A.J.; Rosmej, F.B.; Soberierski, R.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Vinko, S.M.; Wark, J. S.; Whitcher, T.; Riley, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), 109-112 ISSN 1574-1818 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : XUV emission spectroscopy * free-electron laser * warm dense matter Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2010

  11. Acoustic emission measurements in petroleum-related rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, Tor Erling

    2002-07-01

    Acoustic emission activity in rock has usually been studied in crystalline rock, which reflects that rock mechanics has also mostly been occupied with such rocks in relations to seismology, mining and tunneling. On the other hand, petroleum-related rock mechanics focuses on the behaviour of sedimentary rock. Thus, this thesis presents a general study of acoustic emission activity in sedimentary rock, primarily in sandstone. Chalk, limestone and shale have also been tested, but to much less degree because the AE activity in these materials is low. To simplify the study, pore fluids have not been used. The advent of the personal computer and computerized measuring equipment have made possible new methods both for measuring and analysing acoustic emissions. Consequently, a majority of this work is devoted to the development and implementation of new analysis techniques. A broad range of topics are treated: (1) Quantification of the AE activity level, assuming that the event rate best represents the activity. An algorithm for estimating the event rate and a methodology for objectively describing special changes in the activity e.g., onset determination, are presented. (2) Analysis of AE waveform data. A new method for determining the source energy of an AE event is presented, and it is shown how seismic source theory can be used to analyze even intermediate quality data. Based on these techniques, it is shown that a major part of the measured AE activity originates from a region close to the sensor, not necessarily representing the entire sample. (3) An improved procedure for estimating source locations is presented. The main benefit is a procedure that better handles arrival time data with large errors. Statistical simulations are used to quantify the uncertainties in the locations. The analysis techniques are developed with the application to sedimentary rock in mind, and in two articles, the techniques are used in the study of such materials. The work in the first

  12. An expression for the atomic fluorescence and thermal-emission intensity under conditions of near saturation and arbitrary self-absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omenetto, N.; Winefordner, J.D.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    An expression for the effect of self-absorption on the fluorescence and thermal emission intensities is derived by taking into account stimulated emission. A simple, idealized case is considered, consisting of a two level atomic system, in a flame, homogeneous with respect to temperature and

  13. Overview of European and Netherlands' regulations on airborne emissions from intensive livestock production with a focus on the application of air scrubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is of major importance to the economies of many countries but is also connected with a number of environmental effects, including airborne emissions. Currently emission standards are becoming increasingly stringent in European countries and the livestock industry is

  14. Spectral intensities for stoichiometric elpasolites. I. Absorption and emission of Tm+3 in systems of the Cs2NaTmZ6 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, R; Poblete, V; Pozo, J; Elgueta, R; Tanner, P.A

    2000-01-01

    Based upon new experimental data for systems such as, Cs 2 NaTmZ 6 , where Z - =Cl - , F - [1-4], we have carried out a thorough study of the mechanistic factors related with the spectral intensities for both the absorptions and the emissions of the Cs 2 NaTmZ 6 system. For the above purposes, we have generalized our previous calculation models, and in this article we show novel results for the emissions 3 H 4 (Γ i )→ 3 F 4 (Γ j ) and for the absorptions 3 H 6 (A 1 )→ 3 F 4 (Γ i ), 1 G 4 (Γ i ), 3 H 5 (Γ i ), with Γ-k(k=i,j)=A 1 ,E,T 1 ,T 2 and Γ 1 =T a 1 , T b 1 , E, T 2 . The effects due to dispersion (essentially, electrostatic in character), details of the short range vibrational force field and Jahn-Teller distortion are discussed in the text. The agreement among experiment and theory is satisfactory and a generalized model with a few number of adjustable parameters is introduced to account for the observed spectral intensities

  15. Uncertainty in estimating and mitigating industrial related GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Zeinati, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Mezher, T.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change has been one of the challenging environmental concerns facing policy makers in the past decade. The characterization of the wide range of greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks as well as their behavior in the atmosphere remains an on-going activity in many countries. Lebanon, being a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is required to submit and regularly update a national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions sources and removals. Accordingly, an inventory of greenhouse gases from various sectors was conducted following the guidelines set by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory indicated that the industrial sector contributes about 29% to the total greenhouse gas emissions divided between industrial processes and energy requirements at 12 and 17%, respectively. This paper describes major mitigation scenarios to reduce emissions from this sector based on associated technical, economic, environmental, and social characteristics. Economic ranking of these scenarios was conducted and uncertainty in emission factors used in the estimation process was emphasized. For this purpose, theoretical and experimental emission factors were used as alternatives to default factors recommended by the IPCC and the significance of resulting deviations in emission estimation is presented. (author)

  16. Funding intensive care - approaches in systems using diagnosis-related groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Ettelt, S; Nolte, E

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews approaches to funding intensive care in health systems that use activitybased payment mechanisms based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to reimburse hospital care. The report aims to inform the current debate about options for funding intensive care services for adults, children and newborns in England. Funding mechanisms reviewed here include those in Australia (Victoria), Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United States (Medicare). Approaches to org...

  17. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-09-01

    To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors.

  18. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  19. Relating Emissions of Carbon to Characteristics of Consumption in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumati Dutta

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine how the average Indian’s emissions may be reduced, one needs to understand the consumption basket and the implications of various categories of household consumption (such as cereals or durables on emissions. With this in mind, this paper looks at consumption choices in India and calculates per capita carbon dioxide emissions of the different categories of consumption during 1987-1988 to 2007-2008. It is seen that both the increase in per person consumption and a change in the product basket have led to an increase in emissions per person. Further, the urban or higher class Indian emits more, not only because he consumes more of everything (compared, respectively, to the rural or lower class Indian, but also because of differences in the composition of consumption. Four products/product groups – fuel for cooking, fuel for lighting, durables and housing – are further explored to identify several problem products.

  20. Spectrum of harmonic emission by inhomogeneous plasma in intense electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum and angular distribution of the harmonics of arbitrary index emitted by a cold, inhomogeneous electron plasma subjected to a p-polarized electromagnetic wave have been studied analytically. The results are shown in graphical form. The intensity of the wave was varied over a wide range. At energy flux densities of the electromagnetic wave at which the inverse effect of the higher harmonics on the lower harmonics becomes appreciable, it becomes possible to observe a decay of the absolute value of the complex amplitude of a harmonic with increasing harmonic index in vacuum which is substantially slower than that predicted by the theory for a weak nonlinearity

  1. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Baiget

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2. Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy. Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25% was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in zone 2 (20 ± 21% and zone 3 (3 ± 5%. Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75, as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75. Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game.

  2. Cross-correlation cosmography with intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtsidou, A.; Bacon, D.; Crittenden, R.

    2015-11-01

    The cross-correlation of a foreground density field with two different background convergence fields can be used to measure cosmographic distance ratios and constrain dark energy parameters. We investigate the possibility of performing such measurements using a combination of optical galaxy surveys and neutral hydrogen (HI) intensity mapping surveys, with emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Using HI intensity mapping to probe the foreground density tracer field and/or the background source fields has the advantage of excellent redshift resolution and a longer lever arm achieved by using the lensing signal from high redshift background sources. Our results show that, for our best SKA-optical configuration of surveys, a constant equation of state for dark energy can be constrained to ≃8 % for a sky coverage fsky=0.5 and assuming a σ (ΩDE)=0.03 prior for the dark energy density parameter. We also show that using the cosmic microwave background as the second source plane is not competitive, even when considering a COrE-like satellite.

  3. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  4. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L.; Black, Mairi

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a ‘carbon debt’ with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC. PMID:22482030

  5. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  6. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.; Worrell, E.

    2004-12-01

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  7. [Decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Qing; Shi, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary industry has been developed in recent years. And it is very important to find the factors influenced the energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry. A decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions for China is set up by adopting logarithmic mean weight Divisia method based on the identity of carbon emissions. The model is adopted to analyze the influence of energy structure, energy efficiency, tertiary industry structure and economic output to energy-related carbon emissions in China from 2000 to 2009. Results show that the contribution rate of economic output and energy structure to energy-related carbon emissions increases year by year. Either is the contribution rate of energy efficiency or the tertiary industry restraining to energy-related carbon emissions. However, the restrain effect is weakening.

  8. Clinical Competence and Its Related Factors of Nurses in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Mirlashari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical competence of nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units together with advancements in medical science and technology increased the survival rate of newborns that need specialized care. To ensure the quality of care and provide the safety of patients, evaluating the clinical competence of nurses seems necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical competence of nurses in the neonatal intensive care units. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 117 nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by census method. The research tool was Development of Competency Inventory for Registered Nurses questionnaire which completed by self-assessment. The mean clinical competence scores of participants categorized into 3 levels: weak: 273. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using the Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The highest levels of competence were related to critical thinking and research attitude and interpersonal relationships, and the lowest level was related to training and mentoring. There was a direct statistically significant relationship between marital status, employment status, level of interest in working in the neonatal intensive-care units and the clinical competence of nurses. Conclusion: Since the clinical competence of nurses in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units is vital, some variables such as interest in the nursing profession, employment status, the neonatal intensive theoretical and practical training courses and the amount of overtime working hours should be taken into consideration.

  9. Emission spectra of photoionized plasmas induced by intense EUV pulses: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2017-03-01

    Experimental measurements and numerical modeling of emission spectra in photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible light (UV/Vis) range for noble gases have been investigated. The photoionized plasmas were created using laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The source was based on a gas puff target; irradiated with 10ns/10J/10Hz Nd:YAG laser. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The laser pulses were focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in a formation of low temperature photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the UV/Vis spectral range. Atomic photoionized plasmas produced this way consisted of atomic and ionic with various ionization states. The most dominated observed spectral lines originated from radiative transitions in singly charged ions. To assist in a theoretical interpretation of the measured spectra, an atomic code based on Cowan's programs and a collisional-radiative PrismSPECT code have been used to calculate the theoretical spectra. A comparison of the calculated spectral lines with experimentally obtained results is presented. Electron temperature in plasma is estimated using the Boltzmann plot method, by an assumption that a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition in the plasma is validated in the first few ionization states. A brief discussion for the measured and computed spectra is given.

  10. Issues of work intensity, pace, and sustainability in relation to work context and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which

  11. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  12. Effective mitigation of nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in intensive vegetable production systems using a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Min; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Changsheng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Di, Hong J. [Lincoln Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Center for Soil and Environment Research

    2011-07-15

    Vegetable production is one of the most intensive agricultural systems with high rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and irrigation, conditions conducive for nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) leaching, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), in decreasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions in vegetable production systems. Twenty-four undisturbed soil monolith lysimeters (610 mm in diameter; 700 mm in depth; surface area, 0.29 m{sup 2}) with two different soils, Huangzongrang (alfisol) and Chaotu (fluvisols), were collected and installed in a field lysimeter facility in Central China under irrigated vegetable production conditions. Urea fertilizer was applied at 650 kg N ha{sup -1}, and DCD was applied at 10 kg ha{sup -1} to the lysimeters planted with three kinds of vegetables (capsicum, Capsicum annuum L.; amaranth, Amaranthus mangostanus L.; radish, Raphanus sativus L.). The results showed that DCD reduced NO3- leaching by 58.5% and 36.2% and N{sub 2}O emissions factor by 83.8% and 72.7% in the two soils. The average NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N concentration in the drainage water was decreased from 4.9 mg NL{sup -1} to 2.3 mg NL{sup -1} and from 4.4 mg NL{sup -1} to 3.3 mg NL{sup -1}, in the Huangzongrang and Chaotu soils, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits, the use of DCD also increased the yields of capsicum and radish in alfisol soil significantly (P < 0.01); only the amaranth yield in fluvisol soil was declined (P < 0.01), and the other vegetables yields were not affected. Total N concentrations of the three vegetables were increased significantly (P < 0.01) with the application of DCD with urea compared with urea alone. These results showed that the nitrification inhibitor DCD has the potential to significantly reduce NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions and to make vegetable farming more environmentally

  13. 40 CFR 1042.235 - Emission testing related to certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES... certified. For Category 3 engines, you may use a single-cylinder version of the engine. Using good.... The engine you provide must include appropriate manifolds, aftertreatment devices, electronic control...

  14. Alexithymia Is Related to the Need for More Emotional Intensity to Identify Static Fearful Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Starita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of alexithymia, a personality trait marked by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented style of thinking, appear to require more time to accurately recognize intense emotional facial expressions (EFEs. However, in everyday life, EFEs are displayed at different levels of intensity and individuals with high alexithymia may also need more emotional intensity to identify EFEs. Nevertheless, the impact of alexithymia on the identification of EFEs, which vary in emotional intensity, has largely been neglected. To address this, two experiments were conducted in which participants with low (LA and high (HA levels of alexithymia were assessed in their ability to identify static (Experiment 1 and dynamic (Experiment 2 morphed faces ranging from neutral to intense EFEs. Results showed that HA needed more emotional intensity than LA to identify static fearful – but not happy or disgusted – faces. On the contrary, no evidence was found that alexithymia affected the identification of dynamic EFEs. These results extend current literature suggesting that alexithymia is related to the need for more perceptual information to identify static fearful EFEs.

  15. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE, the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Limpouch, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm) laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  17. Emission certificates. Legal, tax-related and practical aspects; Emissionszertifikate. Rechtliche, steuerliche und praktische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Christoph; Bartholl, Carsten; Hartmann, Astrid (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book discusses the issue of emission certificates from the view of public law, civil law and tax law, in consideration of practical experience with emission reduction projects. The subjects discussed range from emission trading from the view of public law to the civil law and regulatory law aspects of emission trading and taxation law. The legal situation in Germany is covered from the view of public and private law. The state of legislation on emission reduction in the USA is gone into, and practical experience relating to the Clean Development Mechanism is presented. (orig./RHM)

  18. The intensity-pitch relation revisited: monopolar versus bipolar cochlear stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldner, Christoph; Riss, Dominik; Kaider, Alexandra; Mair, Alois; Wagenblast, Jens; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstöttner, Wolfgang; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan

    2008-09-01

    The very high speech perception scores now being achieved with cochlear implants have led to demands for similar levels of achievement in music perception and perception in noisy environments. One of the crucial factors in these fields is pitch perception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which pitch perception is influenced by the intensity of the stimulus, through the use of different stimulation modes (monopolar, bipolar) and different electrodes (lateral and perimodiolar). Sixteen postlingually deafened patients with an average implant use of 3.1 years were included in this study. All patients were using a Cochlear (CI24M, CI24R, CI24RE) cochlear implant. Subjects were asked to compare the pitch of an intensity-constant reference tone with the pitch of a test tone of varying intensity. The test was repeated for apical, mediocochlear, and basal channel locations, and also for monopolar and bipolar stimulation. It was found that in monopolar stimulation 87.5% and in bipolar stimulation 85.7% of the patients perceived a clear pitch change with changing intensity of the stimulus (Spearman correlation coefficients r 0.3, respectively). A total of 73.1% of these patients perceived lower pitches with increasing intensity, 26.9% reported the opposite effect. No statistically significant difference in the intensity-pitch correlation could be found between mono- and bipolar stimulation. Neither the mean dynamic range nor the type of electrode used was found to be related to the correlation coefficient. Although the majority of today's cochlear implant recipients perform well and the intensity-pitch relation in cochlear implant recipients is still poorly understood, rising demands on speech-coding strategies may soon make a compensation of the pitch shifts desirable. Although the results of our study tend to argue against a peripheral mechanism, the exact origin of this phenomenon remains unclear.

  19. Accounting for adaptation and intensity in projecting heat wave-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Nordio, Francesco; Nairn, John; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D

    2018-02-01

    How adaptation and intensity of heat waves affect heat wave-related mortality is unclear, making health projections difficult. We estimated the effect of heat waves, the effect of the intensity of heat waves, and adaptation on mortality in 209 U.S. cities with 168 million people during 1962-2006. We improved the standard time-series models by incorporating the intensity of heat waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and estimating adaptation empirically using interactions with yearly mean summer temperature (MST). We combined the epidemiological estimates for heat wave, intensity, and adaptation with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model dataset to project heat wave-related mortality by 2050. The effect of heat waves increased with its intensity. Adaptation to heat waves occurred, which was shown by the decreasing effect of heat waves with MST. However, adaptation was lessened as MST increased. Ignoring adaptation in projections would result in a substantial overestimate of the projected heat wave-related mortality (by 277-747% in 2050). Incorporating the empirically estimated adaptation into projections would result in little change in the projected heat wave-related mortality between 2006 and 2050. This differs regionally, however, with increasing mortality over time for cities in the southern and western U.S. but decreasing mortality over time for the north. Accounting for adaptation is important to reduce bias in the projections of heat wave-related mortality. The finding that the southern and western U.S. are the areas that face increasing heat-related deaths is novel, and indicates that more regional adaptation strategies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  1. Causal relations between knowledge-intensive business services and regional employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, T.; Capasso, M.; Duschl, M.; Frenken, K.; Treibich, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the causal relations between regional employment growth in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and overall regional employment growth using German labour-market data for the period 1999-2012. Adopting a recently developed technique, we are able to estimate a structural

  2. Intensity, but not duration, of physical activities is related to cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Vanhees, Luc; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Aufdernkarnpe, Geert; Aleman, Andrie; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  3. Intensity, but not duration of physical activities is related to cognitive function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Aleman; Geert Aufdemkampe; H.J. Verhaar; W. Wendel-Vos; Drs. Maaike Angevaren; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; W.M. Verschuren

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  4. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as...

  5. Methods for measurements of energy and emissions related to motor vehicles: Identification of needs for improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl-Erik Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Technology; Karlsson, Hua L. [MTC AB, Haninge (Sweden); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-01-01

    The official methods in use today for emission testing of vehicles and engines were primarily developed for the characterisation of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles fuelled with petrol or diesel oil. The setting of new lower emission standards will make it difficult to obtain sufficient accuracy, using the present systems, for the quantification of exhaust emissions in the future. Development of new emission control technology and improved fuels has made it possible to meet these more stringent standards. Consequently new emission standards will lead to a need for new and improved methodologies and new instrumentation for the characterisation of the emissions from vehicles/engines/fuels. The present report comprises a discussion and comments on questions related to improved methods for emission measurements. The report is based on a study of the literature, site visits to laboratories and research institutes etc in the US and a meeting with representatives of the EU Commission, carried out during the spring of 2001. The conclusions and recommendations in the pre-study report are summarised in sub titles: General, regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, greenhouse gases and fuel consumption. Since the questions and problems discussed have an international connection they should be discussed in an international forum. However, before such discussions can be organised the problems related to measurement of emissions and fuel consumption must be more extensively studied than in this pre-study.

  6. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  7. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  8. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  9. Volkswagen Emission Crisis : Managing Stakeholder Relations on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Boyang; Veijalainen, Jari; Kotkov, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Organizations establish their own profiles at social media sites to publish pertinent information to customers and other stakeholders. During a long and severe crisis, multiple issues may emerge in media interaction. Positive responses and prompt interaction from the official account of e.g. a car manufacturer creates clarity and reduces anxiety among stakeholders. This research targets the Volkswagen 2015 emission scandal that became public on Sept. 18, 2015. We report its main p...

  10. Insects as emission-related pests. [Sacchiphantes abietis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1965-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid emissions from a brick kiln severely damaged young spruce forests in the vicinity of the kilns. Six years after start-up of the factory, the affected trees we also strongly affected by spruce gall lice (Sacchiphantes abietis L.). A close relationship was found between the degree of damage to the trees and gall infection. The highest infection stage (500-2000 galls/young spruce) occurred in the most severely damaged regions.

  11. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals......Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had...

  12. Analyzing the driving forces behind CO2 emissions and reduction strategies for energy-intensive sectors in Taiwan, 1996–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2006, CO 2 emissions in Taiwan increased by approximately 60%, with the industrial sector accounting for 50% of that increase. Among all industrial sectors, iron and steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp and paper and cement accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total industrial CO 2 emissions. Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions in these six sectors could be valuable for the development of effective environmental policy. This study used two-tier KLEM input–output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) to analyze the factors that lead to changes in CO 2 emissions. Empirical results obtained in Taiwan reveal that increased exports level and elevated domestic autonomous final demand level were the main reasons for increases in CO 2 emissions. Technological changes in materials and labor tended to decrease CO 2 emissions, while the power generation mix contributed significantly to the increase. Relevant strategies for reducing CO 2 emissions from energy-intensive sectors are also highlighted. - Highlights: • Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions is important. • This study uses two-tier KLEM I-O SDA to analyze the changes in CO 2 emissions. • Three issues are identified to achieve future CO 2 emissions reduction in Taiwan

  13. Increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Twining

    Full Text Available Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo. We found the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga had highest, albeit variable, occupancy in areas of low land use intensity and the Southeast Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator macromaculatus had highest occupancy in areas of high land use intensity. Land use had no effect on the combined occupancy of the two species. In high land use intensity sites, individual water monitors were larger and had better body condition, but at population level had a highly biased sex ratio with more males than females and increased signs of intraspecific conflict. We did not assess scavenging rate or efficiency as a process, but the high occupancy rates and apparent health of the scavengers in high land use intensity landscapes suggests this ecological process is robust to land use change.

  14. Dependence of upconversion emission intensity on Yb3+ concentration in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped flake shaped Y2(MoO4)3 phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weili; Cheng Lihong; Zhong Haiyang; Sun Jiashi; Wan Jing; Tian Yue; Chen Baojiu

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium molybdate phosphors with fixed Er 3+ and various Yb 3+ concentrations were synthesized via a co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and the morphology of the phosphor were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Under 980 nm excitation, red and green upconversion emissions centred at 660, 553 and 530 nm were observed. Quantitative analyses on the dependence of upconversion emission intensity on the working current of a laser diode (LD) indicated that two-photon processes are responsible for both red and green upconversion emissions in both cases of low and high Yb 3+ concentrations. The relationship between the emission intensity ratio of 2 H 11/2 → 4 I 15/2 to 4 S 3/2 → 4 I 15/2 and the working current of the LD was studied for the samples doped with low and high Yb 3+ concentrations. Finally, a set of rate equations was established based on the possible upconversion mechanism, and an empirical formula was proposed to describe the Yb 3+ concentration dependence of upconversion emission intensity; the empirical formula fits well with the experimental data.

  15. Exploring the relation between urbanization and residential CO2 emissions in China: a PTR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zongyi; Tang, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical work suggests that urbanization and residential CO2 emissions are related. This paper investigates the nonlinear impact of urbanization on residential CO2 emissions over the period 1997–2011 in China by applying the Candelon et al. (2012) methodology. The results show that the relationship between urbanization and residential CO2 emissions is negative over the sample which is inconsistent with the previous studies. In addition, we find the absolute difference of the estimated...

  16. Accessing the public MIMIC-II intensive care relational database for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Silva, Ikaro; Park, Shinhyuk; Moody, George B; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2013-01-10

    The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database is a free, public resource for intensive care research. The database was officially released in 2006, and has attracted a growing number of researchers in academia and industry. We present the two major software tools that facilitate accessing the relational database: the web-based QueryBuilder and a downloadable virtual machine (VM) image. QueryBuilder and the MIMIC-II VM have been developed successfully and are freely available to MIMIC-II users. Simple example SQL queries and the resulting data are presented. Clinical studies pertaining to acute kidney injury and prediction of fluid requirements in the intensive care unit are shown as typical examples of research performed with MIMIC-II. In addition, MIMIC-II has also provided data for annual PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenges, including the 2012 Challenge "Predicting mortality of ICU Patients". QueryBuilder is a web-based tool that provides easy access to MIMIC-II. For more computationally intensive queries, one can locally install a complete copy of MIMIC-II in a VM. Both publicly available tools provide the MIMIC-II research community with convenient querying interfaces and complement the value of the MIMIC-II relational database.

  17. Measurement of relative L X-ray intensity ratio following radioactive decay and photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, P. [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University, 24030 Erzincan (Turkey)], E-mail: pasayalcin@hotmail.com; Porikli, S.; Kurucu, Y.; Sahin, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-22

    The measurements of the L X-ray intensity ratio I(L{alpha})/I(L{beta}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{gamma}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{iota}), I(L{beta})/I(L{gamma}) and I(L{iota})/I(L{gamma}) for elements Dy, Ho, Yb, W, Hg, Tl and Pb were experimentally determined both by photon excitation, in which 59.5 keV {gamma}-rays from a filtered radioisotope {sup 241}Am was used, and by the radioactive decay of {sup 160}Tb, {sup 160}Er, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 182}Re, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 207}Bi. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Obtained values were compared with the calculated theoretical values. Theoretical values of the I(L{alpha}/L{beta}), I(L{alpha}/L{gamma}), I(L{alpha}/L{iota}), I(L{beta}/L{gamma}) and I(L{iota}/L{gamma}) intensity ratios were calculated using theoretically tabulated values of subshell photoionization cross-section, fluorescence yield, fractional X-ray emission rates, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. It was observed that present values agree with previous theoretical and other available experimental results.

  18. Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs emissions substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG emission reduction and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.

  19. Atmospheric Aerosol Emissions Related to the Mediterranean Seawater Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellegri, K.; Schwier, A.; Rose, C.; Gazeau, F. P. H.; Guieu, C.; D'anna, B.; Ebling, A. M.; Pey, J.; Marchand, N.; Charriere, B.; Sempéré, R.; Mas, S.

    2016-02-01

    Marine aerosols contribute significantly to the global aerosol load and consequently has an important impact on the Earth's climate. Different factors influence the way they are produced at the air/seawater interface. The sea state (whitecap coverage, temperature, etc. ) influence the size and concentration of primarily produced particles but also biogeochemical characteristics of the seawater influence both the physical and chemical primary fluxes to the atmosphere. An additional aerosol source of marine aerosol to the atmosphere is the formation of new particles by gaz-to-particle conversion, i.e. nucleation. How the seawater and surface microlayer biogeochemical compositions influences the aerosol emissions is still a large debate. In order to study marine emissions, one approach is to use semi-controlled environments such as mesocosms. Within the MedSea and SAM projects, we characterize the primary Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) during mesocosms experiments performed during different seasons in the Mediteranean Sea. Mesocosms were either left unchanged as control or enriched by addition of nutriments in order to create different levels of phytoplanctonic activities. The mesocosms waters were daily analyzed for their chemical and biological composition (DOC, CDOM, TEP, Chl-a, virus, bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations). SSA production by bubble bursting was daily simulated in a dedicated set-up. The size segregated SSA number fluxes, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties, and chemical composition were determined as a function of the seawater characteristics. We show that the SSA organic content was clearly correlated to the seawater Chl-a level, provided that the mesocosm was not enriched to create an artificial phytoplanctonic bloom. In our experiments, the enrichment of the seawater with natural surface microlayer did not impact the SSA organic content nor its CCN properties. At last, nucleation of secondary particles were observed to occur in

  20. Ca²⁺ signal contributing to the synthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zenghui; Li, Tianjiao; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Kai; He, Xiangfeng; Leng, Pingsheng

    2015-06-01

    The floral scent is an important part of plant volatile compounds, and is influenced by environmental factors. The emission of monoterpenes of Lilium 'siberia' is regulated by light intensity, but the mechanism is large unknown. In this study, the expression of Li-mTPS, a monoterpene synthase gene in the tepals of Lilium 'siberia', and net Ca(2+) flux were investigated after exposure to different levels of light intensity (0, 100, 300, 600, 1000, and 1500 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Moreover the effect of LaCl3 and ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) on the Li-mTPS expression, monoterpene emission, and net Ca(2+) flux were examined at 600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed that along with the enhancement of light intensity, the expression level of Li-mTPS increased gradually, and the net Ca(2+) influx was also enhanced showing a similar pattern. It was found that LaCl3 and EGTA effectively inhibited the increase in expression of Li-mTPS and the net Ca(2+) influx induced by light treatment. Moreover, the release amounts of monoterpenes decreased significantly after treatment with LaCl3 and EGTA. So it can be concluded that Ca(2+) signal contributed to the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia' tepals. The increased light intensity firstly triggered the Ca(2+) influx to cytoplasm, and then the gene expression of monoterpene synthases downstream was activated to regulate the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes. But in the signaling pathway other mechanisms were thought to be involved in the emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity, which need to be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Rational design of biophysical imaging protocols to measure the level of intensity of massive delocalized infections under severe HIV-induced immunodeficiency: configuration of novel radioimmunoscintigraphy modalities with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarea, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Severe immunosupression brought about by critical depletion of CD4 + -lymphocytes in individuals suffering from HIV infection leads inevitably to the onset of multiple-agent opportunistic infections (ARC: the AIDS-related complex). Such opportunistic infections eventually become heterogeneously delocalized (disseminated) and an idea f their variety and number can be gleaned from the listing under clinical category C of the 1993 CDC Revised Classification System for HIV infections. This causes widespread oxygen free radical (principally superoxide and hydroxyl free radical) burst due to the up-switching of the hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt as a result of the generalized activation, by the massive infection load, of NADPH oxidase, a constitutive enzyme that is present in the cell membranes of all granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytic cells. However the very short (reactive) lifetimes of superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals in the cellular milieu preclude their use as a convenient in vivo biomarkers if the level of phagocytosis (or HMP up-switching) were to be utilized as a correlative measure of the level of intensity of delocalized infections in ARC in any non-invasive whole-body imaging protocol. In the present contribution, we report a rational schema for a molecularly specific an self-consistent correlative measure of the intensity of multiple-agent, delocalized infections arising from severe HIV-induced immunodeficiency. The schema is based on the quantitative parametrization of the level of on-going degranulation activity of neutrophils in the granulocyte population. The rationally designed modalities rest on specificity inherent in radioimmunoscintigraphy, in particular on the ligand of radionuclide-tagged antibodies to the neutrophil proteinases HLE (human leukocytic elastase: EC.3.4.21.37) and cat G (cathepsin G: EC.3.4.21.20). In this work, these molecular probes are specifically configured to lend themselves as convenient in vivo biomarkers both in

  2. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  3. A prospective window into medical device-related pressure ulcers in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, Fiona M; Stotts, Nancy A; Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, location, aetiology, treatment and healing of medical device-related pressure ulcers (PUs) in intensive care patients for up to 7 days. A prospective repeated measures study design was used. Patients in six intensive care units of two major medical centres, one each in Australia and the USA, were screened 1 day per month for 6 months. Those with device-related ulcers were followed daily for up to 7 days. The outcome measures were device-related ulcer prevalence, pain, infection, treatment and healing. Fifteen of 483 patients had device-related ulcers and 9 of 15 with 11 ulcers were followed beyond screening. Their mean age was 60·5 years, and most were men, overweight and at increased risk of PU. Endotracheal (ET) and nasogastric (NG) tubes were the cause of most device-related ulcers. Repositioning was the most frequent treatment. Four of 11 ulcers healed within the 7-day observation period. In conclusion, device-related ulcer prevalence was 3·1%, similar to that reported in the limited literature available, indicating an ongoing problem. Systematic assessment and repositioning of devices are the mainstays of care. We recommend continued prevalence determination and that nurses remain vigilant to prevent device-related ulcers, especially in patients with NG and ET tubes. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Emissions trading and competitiveness: pros and cons of relative and absolute schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, Onno; Mulder, Machiel

    2004-01-01

    Emissions trading is a hot issue. At national as well as supranational levels, proposals for introduction of emissions trading schemes have been made. This paper assesses alternative emissions trading schemes at domestic level: (1) schemes where the total level of emissions is fixed (absolute cap-and-trade), (2) schemes where the allowable level of emissions per firm is related to some firm-specific indicator (relative cap-and-trade), and (3) mixed schemes which combine elements of the above alternatives. We present a quantitative assessment of these alternatives for climate change policy in the Netherlands. It is concluded that while relative cap-and-trade would avoid negative effects on competitiveness, it would not reduce emissions at the lowest costs. Besides, the addition of a trade system to existing relative standards does not result in additional emission reduction; it should be combined with other policy measures, such as energy taxes, in order to realise further reduction. Absolute cap-and-trade leads to efficient emissions reduction, but, implemented at the national level, its overall macroeconomic costs may be significant. The mixed scheme has as drawback that it treats firms unequal, which leads to high administrative costs. We conclude that none of the trading schemes is an advisable instrument for domestic climate policy

  5. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  6. Numerical modelling of the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An accurate numerical model to investigate the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer in two-pump fibre optical parametric amplifiers (2-P FOPAs) for low modulation frequencies is presented. Compared to other models in the field, this model takes into account the fibre loss, pump depletion as well as the gain ...

  7. Obstetric patients' health-related quality of life before and after intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Seppänen; Reijo, Sund; Tero, Ala-Kokko; Mervi, Roos; Jukka, Uotila; Mika, Helminen; Tarja, Suominen

    2018-03-23

    Intensive care admissions during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period are relatively well investigated. However, very little is known about these obstetric patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) before and after critical care. The objective of this study was to assess obstetric patients' HRQoL before intensive care admission (baseline) and at 6 months after discharge (follow-up) DESIGN: This was a retrospective database study. In a 5-year period, the data of all women admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during pregnancy, delivery, or up to 42 days postpartum were analysed. Four multidisciplinary ICUs of Finnish University hospitals participated. The HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) instrument with utility score (EQsum) and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). A total of 283 obstetric patients were identified from the clinical information system. Of these, 99 (35%) completed the EQ-5D questionnaires both at baseline and follow-up, and 65 of them (23%) completed EQ-VAS. The comparison of patients' EQsum scores before intensive care admission and after discharge showed that patients' HRQoL remained good (0.970 vs 0.972) (max 1.0) or increased (0.788 vs 0.982) in 80.8% of the patients. Patients reported improved overall health on the EQ-VAS at 6 months follow-up (EQ-VAS mean, 71.86 vs 88.20; p ≤ 0.001) (max 100). However, 19.2% of the patients had lower HRQoL (EQsum mean 0.987 vs 0.798) at follow-up. Following intensive care, 15% of the patients had more pain/discomfort, and 11% expressed more depression/anxiety. Multiparous patients were more likely to suffer from worsened depression/anxiety (p = 0.024). In the majority of the obstetric patients, HRQoL at 6 months follow-up remained good or had increased from baseline. However, nearly one-fifth of the patients had impaired HRQoL after discharge. Thus, intensive care management should take in to consideration follow-up program after intensive care of ICU-admitted obstetric

  8. Real world vehicle fleet emission factors: Seasonal and diurnal variations in traffic related air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jonathan M.; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Zimmerman, Naomi; Healy, Robert M.; Evans, Greg J.

    2018-07-01

    Temporal variations of vehicle emissions are affected by various compounding factors in the real world. The focus of this study is to determine the effects of ambient conditions and post-tailpipe changes on traffic emissions measured in the near-road region. Emission factors allowed for the isolation of the traffic signal and accounted for effects of local meteorology and dilution. Five month-long measurement campaigns were conducted at an urban near-road site that exhibited a broad range of ambient conditions with temperatures ranging between -18 and +30 °C. Particle number emission factors were 2.0× higher in the winter relative to the summer, which was attributed to changes in particles post-tailpipe. Conversely, toluene emissions were 2.5× higher in the summer relative to the winter, attributed to changes in fuel composition. Diurnal trends of emission factors showed substantial increases in emissions during the morning rush hour for black carbon (1.9×), particle number (2.4×), and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.0×), affected by fleet make-up. In contrast, particle number emission factors were highest midday with mean values 3.7× higher than at night. This midday increase was attributed to particle formation or growth from local traffic emissions and showed different wind direction dependence than regional events.

  9. Management accounting approach to analyse energy related CO2 emission: A variance analysis study of top 10 emitters of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, Ratnakar; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjaini

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertakes a decomposition study of carbon dioxide emission of the top ten emitting countries over the period 1980–2007 using variance analysis method, with the objectives of examining the relative importance of the major determining factors, the role of energy structure and impact of liberalisation on emission and exploring the possibilities of arresting emission with simultaneous rise in population and income. The major findings indicate that although rising income and population are the main driving forces, they are neither necessary nor sufficient for increasing emission, rather energy structure and emission intensities are the crucial determinants, pointing towards the fact that a country with higher income and population with proper energy policy may be a low emitter and vice-versa. Since modern energy-intensive production limits the scope of reduction in total energy use, it is necessary to decouple the quantum of energy use from emission through technological upgradation. The results indicate that liberalisation resulted in higher emission. The paper attempts to illustrate the required adjustments in energy structure and suggests necessary policy prescriptions.

  10. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. II. AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF DIFFUSE O VII AND O VIII EMISSION INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an all-sky catalog of diffuse O VII and O VIII line intensities, extracted from archival XMM-Newton observations. This catalog supersedes our previous catalog, which covered the sky between l = 120° and l = 240°. We attempted to reduce the contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission by excluding times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering, we were able to extract measurements from 1868 observations. With this filtering, nearly half of the observations became unusable, and only 1003 observations yielded measurements. The O VII and O VIII intensities are typically ∼2-11 and ∼ –2 s –1 sr –1 (line unit, L.U.), respectively, although much brighter intensities were also recorded. Our data set includes 217 directions that have been observed multiple times by XMM-Newton. The time variation of the intensities from such directions may be used to constrain SWCX models. The O VII and O VIII intensities typically vary by ∼ 10 L.U. were observed. We compared our measurements with models of the heliospheric and geocoronal SWCX. The heliospheric SWCX intensity is expected to vary with ecliptic latitude and solar cycle. We found that the observed oxygen intensities generally decrease from solar maximum to solar minimum, both at high ecliptic latitudes (which is as expected) and at low ecliptic latitudes (which is not as expected). The geocoronal SWCX intensity is expected to depend on the solar wind proton flux incident on the Earth and on the sightline's path through the magnetosheath. The intensity variations seen in directions that have been observed multiple times are in poor agreement with the predictions of a geocoronal SWCX model. We found that the oxygen lines account for ∼40%-50% of the 3/4 keV X-ray background that is not due to unresolved active galactic nuclei, in good agreement with a previous measurement. However, we found that this fraction is not easily explainable by a

  11. Empirical research on decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong province based on extended Kaya identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxiu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 10⁴ tC in 1995 to 14396 × 10⁴ tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996-2004 to expansive coupling in 2005-2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink.

  12. ALMA Reveals Weak [N II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z = 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smolčić, Vernesa

    2016-12-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [N II] 205 μm fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z = 5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [C II] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized interstellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]} ratio. We find extremely low [N II] emission compared to [C II] ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}={68}-28+200) from a “typical” ˜ {L}{UV}* star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}≲ 20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations in its ionized-gas fraction across an extended gas reservoir. The extreme SFR, warm and compact dusty starburst AzTEC-3 shows an ionized fraction higher than expected given its SFR surface density ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}=22+/- 8) suggesting that [N II] dominantly traces a diffuse ionized medium rather than star-forming H II regions in this type of galaxy. This highest redshift sample of [N II] detections provides some of the first constraints on ionized and neutral gas modeling attempts and on the structure of the interstellar medium at z = 5-6 in “normal” galaxies and starbursts.

  13. Quantifying the linear and nonlinear relations between the urban form fragmentation and the carbon emission distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S.; Dai, S.; Ren, Y.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Scientifically revealing the spatial heterogeneity and the relationship between the fragmentation of urban landscape and the direct carbon emissions are of great significance to land management and urban planning. In fact, the linear and nonlinear effects among the various factors resulted in the carbon emission spatial map. However, there is lack of the studies on the direct and indirect relations between the carbon emission and the city functional spatial form changes, which could not be reflected by the land use change. The linear strength and direction of the single factor could be calculated through the correlation and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) analysis, the nonlinear power of one factor and the interaction power of each two factors could be quantified by the Geodetector analysis. Therefore, we compared the landscape fragmentation metrics of the urban land cover and functional district patches to characterize the landscape form and then revealed the relations between the landscape fragmentation level and the direct the carbon emissions based on the three methods. The results showed that fragmentation decreased and the fragmented patches clustered at the coarser resolution. The direct CO2 emission density and the population density increased when the fragmentation level aggregated. The correlation analysis indicated the weak linear relation between them. The spatial variation of GWR output indicated the fragmentation indicator (MESH) had the positive influence on the carbon emission located in the relatively high emission region, and the negative effects regions accounted for the small part of the area. The Geodetector which explores the nonlinear relation identified the DIVISION and MESH as the most powerful direct factor for the land cover patches, NP and PD for the functional district patches, and the interactions between fragmentation indicator (MESH) and urban sprawl metrics (PUA and DIS) had the greatly increased explanation powers on the

  14. A comparative analysis of vehicle-related greenhouse gas emissions between organic and conventional dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggestam, Vivianne; Buick, Jon

    2017-08-01

    Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods. The findings show organic and conventional production methods have different vehicle-related emission outputs that vary according to a reliance on either road transportation or increased farmyard machinery use. Mechanical weeding is more fuel demanding than conventional agrichemical sprayers. However, artificial fertilising is one of the highest farmyard vehicle-related emitters. The general findings show organic milk production emits higher levels of farm vehicle-related emissions that fail to be offset by reduced emissions occurring from international transport emissions. This paper does not propose to cover a comprehensive supply chain carbon footprint for milk production or attempt to determine which method of production has the largest climatic impact. However, it does demonstrate that Sweden's legal requirements for organic producers to produce more feed on-farm to reduce transport emissions have brought emissions back within Sweden's greenhouse gas inventory and raises questions around the effectiveness of policies to reduce vehicle-related emissions. Further research is needed into the effectiveness of climate change mitigation on food production policies, in particular looking at various trade-offs that affects the entire food supply chain.

  15. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  16. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain – relation to pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke BM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenAims: To investigate pain intensity, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction in patients with injury-related chronic pain and to analyze differences in these variables regarding gender.Methods: Questionnaires addressing pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS], anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression [HAD] scale, posttraumatic stress (impact of event scale, disability (disability rating index, and life satisfaction [LiSat-11] were answered by 160 patients at assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden.Results: High level of pain intensity was scored on the VAS (mean value 64.5 ± 21.1 mm together with high levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Activity limitations in everyday life and decreased life satisfaction were reported, especially on the items physical health and psychological health. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant association between low scores on the overall life satisfaction on LiSat-11 and high scores on HAD-depression (odds ratio = 1.141, confidence interval 1.014–1.285. Few gender differences were found.Conclusion: These findings highlight the value of a broad screening in patients with injury-related chronic pain with respect to the relationship of life satisfaction with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and disability. In addition, these findings support the biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat these patients optimally.Keywords: whiplash injuries, depression, quality of life

  17. Temporal and Latitudinal Variations of the Length-Scales and Relative Intensities of the Chromospheric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K. P.

    2018-05-01

    The Calcium K spectroheliograms of the Sun from Kodaikanal have a data span of about 100 years and covers over 9 solar cycles. The Ca line is a strong chromospheric line dominated by chromospheric network and plages which are good indicators of solar activity. Length-scales and relative intensities of the chromospheric network have been obtained in the solar latitudes from 50 degree N to 50 degree S from the spectroheliograms. The length-scale was obtained from the half-width of the two-dimensional autocorrelation of the latitude strip which gives a measure of the width of the network boundary. As reported earlier for the transition region extreme ultraviolet (EUV) network, relative intensity and width of the chromospheric network boundary are found to be dependent on the solar cycle. A varying phase difference has been noticed in the quantities in different solar latitudes. A cross-correlation analysis of the quantities from other latitudes with ±30 degree latitude revealed an interesting phase difference pattern indicating flux transfer. Evidence of equatorward flux transfer has been observed. The average equatorward flux transfer was estimated to be 5.8 ms-1. The possible reasons of the drift could be meridional circulation, torsional oscillations, or the bright point migration. Cross-correlation of intensity and length-scale from the same latitude showed increasing phase difference with increasing latitude. We have also obtained the cross correlation of the quantities across the equator to see the possible phase lags in the two hemispheres. Signatures of lags are seen in the length scales of southern hemisphere near the equatorial latitudes, but no such lags in the intensity are observed. The results have important implications on the flux transfer over the solar surface and hence on the solar activity and dynamo.

  18. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C; Simpson, Ben M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h(-1) (D>14.4 km·h(-1)) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen's d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h(-1) (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h(-1) was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h(-1) increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in 'fitness' do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key pointsWhen playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a 'tolerable' relative exercise intensity.While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008).In the context of

  19. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth: The International Children's Accelerometry Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Corder

    2016-12-01

    Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5.0–5.9 y and larger negative annual differences.

  20. Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Mutapi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal experimental models, parasitic helminth infections can protect the host from auto-immune diseases. We conducted a population-scale human study investigating the relationship between helminth parasitism and auto-reactive antibodies and the subsequent effect of anti-helminthic treatment on this relationship. Levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA and plasma IL-10 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 613 Zimbabweans (aged 2-86 years naturally exposed to the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium. ANA levels were related to schistosome infection intensity and systemic IL-10 levels. All participants were offered treatment with the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel and 102 treated schoolchildren (5-16 years were followed up 6 months post-antihelminthic treatment. ANA levels were inversely associated with current infection intensity but were independent of host age, sex and HIV status. Furthermore, after allowing for the confounding effects of schistosome infection intensity, ANA levels were inversely associated with systemic levels of IL-10. ANA levels increased significantly 6 months after anti-helminthic treatment. Our study shows that ANA levels are attenuated in helminth-infected humans and that anti-helminthic treatment of helminth-infected people can significantly increase ANA levels. The implications of these findings are relevant for understanding both the aetiology of immune disorders mediated by auto-reactive antibodies and in predicting the long-term consequences of large-scale schistosomiasis control programs.

  1. Assimilation and water relations of dryland castor at different intensities of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Venkateswarlu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Primary racemes of dryland castor develop during later part of rainy season and secondaries and tertiaries develop during post-rainy season. The reproductive phase is therefore subjected to variation in soil moisture availability and solar radiation intensity. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of fluctuation in solar radiation intensity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transpiration efficiency, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential during early and late reproductive phase of castor. When photosynthetically active radiation was less than 1000 mu-mol m-2s-1, transpiration efficiency decreased because reduction in photosynthesis rate was more than that in transpiration rate. Transpiration efficiency also decreased, when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1 because of increase only in transpiration rate. Leaf water potential was higher during early than during late reproductive phase at similar radiation intensity. Transpiration rate was lower and transpiration efficiency was more during early phase when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1. Photosynthetically active radiation and leaf water potential were inversely related

  2. Star formation and its relation to free-free emission from ionized gas and far-infrared emission from dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews the physical state of the galactic disk and especially of the thin layer of interstellar matter (ISM) out of which stars form today. The characteristics of OB stars and the HII regions which these stars form are summarized. Dust emission characteristics are also summarized. The author shows how the Lyc photon production rate of all O stars, and the total IR luminosity of all dust grains in the galactic disk can be estimated from radio and FIR surveys of the galactic plane. Star formation rates are derived for a constant initial mass function. The concept of bimodal star formation, where about equal fractions of O stars form in spiral arms and interarm region but low mass stars form only in the interarm region, is introduced. The relation between the 2.4 μm emission from M giants and supergiants is discussed qualitatively, lending support to the process of bimodal star formation. (Auth.)

  3. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Liat; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2018-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD), and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187) self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy), stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78) reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming), emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in dissociation and

  5. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Aviram

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucid dreaming (LD is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD, and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187 self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy, stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78 reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming, emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in

  6. A model for the relation between stimulus frequency and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in lizard papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Hero P; van Dijk, Pim; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2012-11-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) have been described from lizard ears. Although there are several models for these systems, none has modeled the characteristics of both of these types of otoacoustic emissions based upon their being derived from hair cells as active oscillators. Data from the ears of two lizard species, one lacking a tectorial membrane and one with a chain of tectorial sallets, as described by Bergevin et al. ["Coupled, active oscillators and lizard otoacoustic emissions," AIP Conf. Proc. 1403, 453 (2008)], are modeled as an array of coupled self-sustained oscillators. The model, originally developed by Vilfan and Duke ["Frequency clustering in spontaneous otoacoustic emissions from a lizard's ear," Biophys. J. 95, 4622-4630 (2008)], well describes both the amplitude and phase characteristics of SFOAEs and the relation between SFOAEs and SOAEs.

  7. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. 600.510-12 Section 600.510-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF... Transportation. (iv) [Reserved] (2) Average carbon-related exhaust emissions will be calculated to the nearest...

  8. Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mengshan; Keller, Arturo A.; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Den, Walter; Wang, Hongtao; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This study quantifies the nexus as energy intensity and greenhouse gas potential. •Baseline water stress and return flow ratio are identified as water risks. •Source water accessibility significantly contributes to variations in the nexus. •Water risks have little impact on the nexus of wastewater systems. •Study on the nexus is suggested to be conducted at regional levels. -- Abstract: The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great

  9. Consistency of neutron and proton capture intensity standards new relative intensities for 56Co, 66Ga decay and 35Cl(n,γ) reaction gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Z.; Belgya, T.

    2000-01-01

    The equivalence of efficiency determination procedures based on neutron and proton capture lines has been verified and the deviation of high-energy efficiency from linearity confirmed. The new, accurate relative intensities for 56 Co and 66 Ga extend the range of secondary radioactive standards up to 4.8 MeV. Extreme care has to be taken with any high-energy intensity value obtained in the past with the help of 56 Co and 66 Ga calibration sources, and corrections have to be made using the present data of high accuracy. Relative intensities have also been improved for the 35 Cl(n,γ) reaction, a useful secondary standard in a wide energy range, between 0.3-8.5 MeV. The new data are supported by other most recent measurements of a slightly lower precision

  10. Role of soil biology and soil functions in relation to land use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Giulia; Wall, David; Bacher, Matthias; Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Graça, Jessica; Marongiu, Irene; Creamer, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The delivery of the ecosystem's functions is predominantly controlled by soil biology. The biology found in a gram of soil contains more than ten thousand individual species of bacteria and fungi (Torsvik et al., 1990). Understanding the role and the requirements of these organisms is essential for the protection and the sustainable use of soils. Soil biology represents the engine of all the processes occurring in the soil and it supports the ecosystem services such as: 1) nutrient mineralisation 2) plant production 3) water purification and regulation and 4) carbon cycling and storage. During the last years land management type and intensity have been identified as major drivers for microbial performance in soil. For this reason land management needs to be appropriately studied to understand the role of soil biology within this complex interplay of functions. We aimed to study whether and how land management drives soil biological processes and related functions. To reach this objective we built a land use intensity index (LUI) able to quantify the impact of the common farming practices carried out in Irish grassland soils. The LUI is derived from a detailed farmer questionnaire on grassland management practices at 38 farms distributed in the five major agro-climatic regions of Ireland defined by Holden and Brereton (2004). Soils were classified based on their drainage status according to the Irish Soil Information System by Creamer et al. (2014). This detailed questionnaire is then summarised into 3 management intensity components: (i) intensity of Fertilisation (Fi), (ii) frequency of Mowing (Mi) and (iii) intensity of Livestock Grazing (Gi). Sites were sampled to assess the impact of land management intensity on microbial community structure and enzyme behaviour in relation to nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycling. Preliminary results for enzymes linked to C and N cycles showed higher activity in relation to low grazing pressure (low Gi). Enzymes linked to P

  11. Electron emission of cathode holder of vacuum diode of an intense electron-beam accelerator and its effect on the output voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Bing Cheng; Jin-Liang Liu; Hong-Bo Zhang; Zhi-Qiang Hong; Bao-Liang Qian

    2011-01-01

    The vacuum diode which is used to generate relativistic electron beams is one of the most important parts of a pulsed-power modulator. In this paper, the electron emission of cathode holder of a vacuum diode and its effect on the output voltage is investigated by experiments on an intense electron-beam accelerator with 180 ns full width at half maximum and 200–500 kV output voltage. First, the field emission is analyzed and the electric field of the vacuum chamber is calculated. Then, the fla...

  12. The Relation Between Magnetic Fields and X-ray Emission for Solar Microflares and Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the result of a comparison between magnetic field parameters and the intensity of X-ray emission for solar microflares with Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) classes from A0.02 to B5.1. For our study, we used the monochromatic MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH), the Full-disk EUV Telescope (FET), and the Solar PHotometer in X-rays (SphinX) instruments onboard the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon CORONAS- Photon spacecraft because of their high sensitivity in soft X-rays. The peak flare flux (PFF) for solar microflares was found to depend on the strength of the magnetic field and on the total unsigned magnetic flux as a power-law function. In the spectral range 2.8 - 36.6 Å, which shows very little increase related to microflares, the power-law index of the relation between the X-ray flux and magnetic flux for active regions is 1.48 ±0.86, which is close to the value obtained previously by Pevtsov et al. ( Astrophys. J. 598, 1387, 2003) for different types of solar and stellar objects. In the spectral range 1 - 8 Å, the power-law indices for PFF(B) and PFF(Φ) for microflares are 3.87 ±2.16 and 3 ±1.6, respectively. We also make suggestions on the heating mechanisms in active regions and microflares under the assumption of loops with constant pressure and heating using the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling laws.

  13. The communication between patient relatives and physicians in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicekci, Faruk; Duran, Numan; Ayhan, Bunyamin; Arican, Sule; Ilban, Omur; Kara, Iskender; Turkoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Fatma; Hasirci, Ismail; Karaibrahimoglu, Adnan; Kara, Inci

    2017-07-17

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians. The questionnaire included three sub-dimensions: informing, empathy and trust. The study included 181 patient relatives and 103 ICU physicians from three different cities and six hospitals. Based on the results of the questionnaire, identification of the mutual expectations and substance of the messages involved in the communication process between the ICU patients' relatives and physicians was made. The gender and various disciplines of the physicians and the time of the conversation with the patients' relatives were found to affect the communication attitude towards the patient. Moreover, the age of the patient's relatives, the level of education, the physician's perception, and the contact frequency with the patient when he/she was healthy were also proven to have an impact on the communication attitude of the physician. This study demonstrates the mutual expectations and substance of messages in the informing, empathy and trust sub-dimensions of the communication process between patient relatives and physicians in the ICU. The communication between patient relatives and physicians can be strengthened through a variety of training programs to improve communication skills.

  14. The Impact of the EU Emissions Trading System on CO{sub 2} Intensity in Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerberg, Anna (Dept. of Economics, Goeteborgs Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden)); Wraake, Markus (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)). e-mail: markus.wrake@ivl.se

    2009-07-15

    Prior to the launch of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) in 2005, the electricity sector was widely proclaimed to have more low-cost emission abatement opportunities than other sectors. If this were true, effects of the EU ETS on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions would likely be visible in the electricity sector. Our study looks at the effect of the price of emission allowances (EUA) on CO{sub 2} emissions from Swedish electricity generation, using an econometric time series analysis for the period 2004-2008. We control for effects of other input prices and hydropower reservoir levels. Our results do not indicate any link between the price of EUA and the CO{sub 2} emissions of Swedish electricity production. A number of reasons may explain this result and we conclude that other determinants of fossil fuel use in Swedish electricity generation probably diminished the effects of the EU ETS

  15. Competitive state anxiety and self-confidence: intensity and direction as relative predictors of performance on a golf putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sean T; Hale, Bruce D

    2007-06-01

    This study considered relationships between the intensity and directional aspects of competitive state anxiety as measured by the modified Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory-2(D) (Jones & Swain, 1992) in a sample of 12 experienced male golfers. Anxiety and performance scores from identical putting tasks performed under three different anxiety-manipulated competitive conditions were used to assess both the predictions of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens et al., 1990) and the relative value of intensity and direction in explaining performance variance. A within-subjects regression analysis of the intra-individual data showed partial support for the three MAT hypotheses. Cognitive anxiety intensity demonstrated a negative linear relationship with performance, somatic anxiety intensity showed a curvilinear relationship with performance, and self-confidence intensity revealed a positive linear relation. Cognitive directional anxiety illustrated a positive linear relationship with putting performance. Multiple regression analyses indicated that direction (42% of variance) was a better predictor of performance than intensity (22%).

  16. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S.; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  17. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-25

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), which are key PM 2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NO x emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NO x under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NO x emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NO x emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  18. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band (<5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is -110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty ≤0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by ≤0.2 dB. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  19. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band ({lt}5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is {minus}110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty {le}0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by {le}0.2 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  20. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  1. Karoshi Related to Labor Intensity and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning-guo; Wang, Tao; Huang, Pingf; Qing, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Jian-hua; Chen, Yi-jiu

    2015-10-01

    Karoshi remains one of the most troublesome issues in forensic identification. It is rather a social medicine than a clinical disease. Japanese scholars pioneered examining the relation between sud- den cardiac death (SCD) and chronic fatigue from long time and/or high-tension work. In the current case, a 55-year-old man, whose job was loading and carrying heavy cement bags, was found dead after 11 days of continuous hard work. His family members sued the cement factory for his death and claimed for compensation. The problem was the difficulty of identifying the causative relation without the precedent or the relevant regulations. However, the forensic problems were finally acknowledged after autopsy and calculation of labor intensity. The lawsuit was won as the first case pertaining to Karoshi in the Chinese court.

  2. Product-related emissions of Mercury to Air in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, Karin; Munthe, John

    2007-06-15

    Mercury emissions to air from the use of mercury in products have been estimated for the EU for the year 2005. The consumption of mercury in the EU in 2005 was amounted to 125 tonnes in technical products. Estimates of emissions of mercury from dental amalgam were derived from information on cremations in European countries and average contents of amalgam fillings. Annual emissions of mercury to air from product use in EU27 have been estimated to be in the range 10-18 tonnes (best estimate 14 tonnes) from technical products and to 2-5 tonnes from cremation, in total 12-23 tonnes. Of the mercury consumed in technical products, 11% was calculated to be emitted to air, 31% to end up in safe storage while 58% would still be accumulated in society or disposed of in landfills. From the share still accumulated in society, as well as from the already land filled amounts, further emissions of mercury to air may occur in the longer term. Emissions from technical products are calculated based on the consumption of mercury in 2005. Emissions occurring in the same year but caused by consumption in the previous 10 years were derived using the consumption in 2005 and assuming the same patterns of distribution and emissions. The latest available estimates of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury in EU27 refer to the year 2000 and are in the order of 140-190 tonnes, probably to have declined to 2005. Based on these figures the contribution to anthropogenic mercury emissions to air in EU from product use and cremation in 2005 is at least 6-16%. In a previous report product related air emissions of 72 tonnes were estimated for Europe in the mid 1990s, corresponding to 18% of the total air emissions. A significant decrease of emissions has thus occurred which is in line with a decreasing use of mercury in technical products, more efficient collection of remaining products and better emission control. However, the calculations show that the use of mercury in products still

  3. The meaning and importance of vigilant attendance for the relatives of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Sotirios; Taket, Ann; Cant, Bob; Fouka, Georgia; Vardaki, Zambia

    2014-09-01

    To explore the meaning of vigilant attendance for relatives of critically ill patients in Greece. A plethora of international research has identified proximity to the patient to be a major concern for relatives of critically ill patients. Greece however follows a strict visiting policy in intensive care units (ICUs) so Greek relatives spend great amounts of time just outside the ICUs. This qualitative study adopted the social constructionist version of grounded theory. Data were collected from three ICUs in Athens through in depth interviews with 25 informants and approximately 10 h of observations outside the ICUs on 159 relatives. Vigilant attendance was one of the main coping mechanisms identified for relatives. Four subcategories were found to comprise vigilant attendance: (1) being as close as possible to feel relief, (2) being there to find out what is going on, (3) monitoring changes in the loved one and making own diagnosis and (4) interacting with the ICU professionals. Vigilant attendance describes the way in which relatives in Greece stayed outside the ICUs. Relatives felt satisfaction from being close as the best alternative for not actually being inside the ICU and they tried to learn what was going on by alternative methods. By seeing the patients, relatives were also able to make their own diagnoses and could therefore avoid relying solely on information given to them. However, a prerequisite for successful vigilant attendance was to get on well with doctors and nurses. Changes in visiting policies in Greece are needed to meet the needs of relatives adequately. Recommendations for changes with minimal investment of time and funding are made. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. LMDI Decomposition of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Based on Energy and CO2 Allocation Sankey Diagrams: The Method and an Application to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript develops a logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI decomposition method based on energy and CO2 allocation Sankey diagrams to analyze the contributions of various influencing factors to the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions on a national level. Compared with previous methods, we can further consider the influences of energy supply efficiency. Two key parameters, the primary energy quantity converted factor (KPEQ and the primary carbon dioxide emission factor (KC, were introduced to calculate the equilibrium data for the whole process of energy unitization and related CO2 emissions. The data were used to map energy and CO2 allocation Sankey diagrams. Based on these parameters, we built an LMDI method with a higher technical resolution and applied it to decompose the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China from 2004 to 2014. The results indicate that GDP growth per capita is the main factor driving the growth of CO2 emissions while the reduction of energy intensity, the improvement of energy supply efficiency, and the introduction of non-fossil fuels in heat and electricity generation slowed the growth of CO2 emissions.

  5. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2018-04-03

    The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm extension movements were associated with predictable and unpredictable electrocutaneous pain or its absence. During a subsequent test phase non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli with a high or low intensity were presented during movement execution. We used hierarchical drift diffusion modeling to examine the influence of expecting pain on the perceptual decision-making process underlying intensity perception of non-painful sensations. In the first experiment (n=36), the pain stimulus was never presented during the test phase after conditioning. In the second experiment (n=39), partial reinforcement was adopted to prevent extinction of pain expectations. In both experiments, movements that were associated with (un)predictable pain led to higher pain-expectancy, self-reported fear, unpleasantness and arousal, as compared to movements that were never paired with pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .119 - .557; all p-values threat of the pain US remained present - we found that the expectation of pain affected decision-making. Compared to the no pain condition, an a priori decision-making bias towards the high intensity decision threshold was found with the strongest bias during unpredictable pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .469 - .504; all p-values affects inferential processes for subsequent painful but also for non-painful bodily stimuli, with unpredictability moderating these effects, and only when the threat of pain remains present due to partial reinforcement.

  6. Revealing discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts: Line-intensity correlation analysis from laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Kyung-Sik [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun, E-mail: jyoo@appliedspectra.com [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models.

  7. Barbara's story: a thematic analysis of a relative's reflection of being in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Probst, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this reflective account is to provide a view of the intensive care unit (ICU) relative's experiences of supporting and being supported in the ICU. Understanding the relatives' experiences of ICU is important especially because a recent work has identified the potential for this group to develop post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition that is normally equated with the ICU survivor. A thematic analysis was used in identifying emerging themes that would be significant in an ICU nursing context. The incident took place in two 8-bedded ICUs (Private and National Health Service) in October. Two emergent themes were identified from the reflective story - fear of the technological environment and feeling hopeless and helpless. The use of relative stories as an insight into the live experiences of ICU relatives may give a deeper understanding of their life-world. The loneliness, anguish and pain of the ICU relative extends beyond the walls of the ICU, and this is often negated as the focus of the ICU team is the patient. Developing strategies to support relatives might include the use of relative diaries used concurrently with patient diaries to support this groups recovery or at the very least a gaining a sense of understanding for their ICU experience. Relative follow-up clinics designed specifically to meet their needs where support and advice can be given by the ICU team, in addition to making timely and appropriate referrals to counselling services and perhaps involving spiritual leaders where appropriate. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  8. SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEA-SALT EMISSIONS AS A FUNCTION OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This note presents a straightforward method to correct sea-salt-emission particle-size distributions according to local relative humidity. The proposed method covers a wide range of relative humidity (0.45 to 0.99) and its derivation incorporates recent laboratory results on sea-...

  9. Activities of four bus terminals of Semarang City gateway and the related GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Wardhana, I. W.; Sutrisno, E.; Wangi, L. S.; Lina, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    The activities of the bus terminal, including loading-unloading passengers, bus idling, and bus movements at the terminal, will emit GHG’s emission. This research analyzes GHG emission from four terminals, i.e., Mangkang, Terboyo, Penggaron, and Sukun in Semarang City. The emission was estimated by observing detail activities of public transport means, especially for moving and idling time. The emission was calculated by Tier 2 method based on the vehicle type as well as fuel consumption. The highest CO2e during vehicle movements at Sukun area was contributed by large bus about 2.08 tons/year, while at Terboyo terminal was contributed by medium bus about 347.97 tons/year. At Mangkang terminals, the highest emission for vehicle movements was attributed by medium bus as well of about 53.18 tons/year. At last, Penggaron terminal’s highest GHG emission was attributed by BRT about 26.47 tons/year. During idling time, the highest contributor to CO2e was the large bus at the three terminals, i.e., Sukun of 43.53 tons/year, Terboyo of 196.56 tons/year, and Mangkang of 84.26 tons/year, while at Penggaron, BRT dominated with CO2e of 26.47 tons/year. The management of public transport in terminals is crucial to mitigate the emission related to bus terminals activities.

  10. Tourism-Related CO2 Emission and Its Decoupling Effects in China: A Spatiotemporal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the tourism industry has been accompanied by an increase in CO2 emissions and has a certain degree of impact on climate change. This study adopted the bottom-up approach to estimate the spatiotemporal change of CO2 emissions of the tourism industry in China and its 31 provinces over the period 2000–2015. In addition, the decoupling index was applied to analyze the decoupling effects between tourism-related CO2 emissions and tourism economy from 2000 to 2015. The results showed that the total CO2 emissions of the tourism industry rose from 37.95 Mt in 2000 to 100.98 Mt in 2015 with an average annual growth rate of 7.1%. The highest CO2 emissions from the tourism industry occurred in eastern coastal China, whereas the least CO2 emissions were in the west of China. Additionally, the decoupling of CO2 emissions from economic growth in China’s tourism industry had mainly gone through the alternations of negative decoupling and weak decoupling. The decoupling states in most of the Chinese provinces were desirable during the study period. This study may serve as a scientific reference regarding decision-making in the sustainable development of the tourism industry in China.

  11. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Painting for Localized Prostate Cancer Using 11C-choline Positron Emission Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe H.; Lim Joon, Daryl; Lee, Sze Ting; Gong, Sylvia J.; Anderson, Nigel J.; Scott, Andrew M.; Davis, Ian D.; Clouston, David; Bolton, Damien; Hamilton, Christopher S.; Khoo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose painting using 11 C-choline positron emission tomography PET scans in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was an RT planning study of 8 patients with prostate cancer who had 11 C-choline PET scans prior to radical prostatectomy. Two contours were semiautomatically generated on the basis of the PET scans for each patient: 60% and 70% of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV 60% and SUV 70% ). Three IMRT plans were generated for each patient: PLAN 78 , which consisted of whole-prostate radiation therapy to 78 Gy; PLAN 78-90 , which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 78 Gy, a boost to the SUV 60% to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV 70% to 90 Gy; and PLAN 72-90 , which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 72 Gy, a boost to the SUV 60% to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV 70% to 90 Gy. The feasibility of these plans was judged by their ability to reach prescription doses while adhering to published dose constraints. Tumor control probabilities based on PET scan-defined volumes (TCP PET ) and on prostatectomy-defined volumes (TCP path ), and rectal normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were compared between the plans. Results: All plans for all patients reached prescription doses while adhering to dose constraints. TCP PET values for PLAN 78 , PLAN 78-90 , and PLAN 72-90 were 65%, 97%, and 96%, respectively. TCP path values were 71%, 97%, and 89%, respectively. Both PLAN 78-90 and PLAN 72-90 had significantly higher TCP PET (P=.002 and .001) and TCP path (P 78 . PLAN 78-90 and PLAN 72-90 were not significantly different in terms of TCP PET or TCP path . There were no significant differences in rectal NTCPs between the 3 plans. Conclusions: IMRT dose painting for localized prostate cancer using 11 C-choline PET scans is technically feasible. Dose painting results in higher TCPs without higher NTCPs.

  12. The relative-intensity method of X-ray fluorescence analysis and its application to soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, C.W.; Furkert, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative-intensity X-ray fluorescence method of analysis of rock and soil samples has been investigated and compared with the net-intensity method. Strong, coherently scattered radiation originating from the X-ray tube is shown to be preferable to background radiation as an internal standard, and scattered radiation measured at one wavelength can usefully be applied in the determination of several elements. When the concentrations of an element in two soil samples of different composition (for example concretions and the soil adjacent to them) are compared, the ratio of the relative intensities may be different from the ratio of net intensities by a factor of about two. The concentrations of manganese in thirteen standard rock samples determined by the relative-intensity method are within or very close to the ranges of values reported previously

  13. Coping With Staff Burnout and Work-Related Posttraumatic Stress in Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville, Gillian A; Smith, Jared G; Brierley, Joe; Citron, Kim; Nguru, Noreen M; Shaunak, Priyanka D; Tam, Olivia; Perkins-Porras, Linda

    2017-07-01

    To examine the associations with symptoms of 1) burnout and 2) work-related posttraumatic stress, in adult and pediatric intensive care staff, focusing on the particular contributions of resilience and coping strategies. Point prevalence cross-sectional study. Three adult ICUs and four PICUs. Three hundred seventy-seven ICU staff. None. Brief Resilience Scale, abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, Trauma Screening Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Prevalence of burnout (defined as high emotional exhaustion or high depersonalization) was 37%. Prevalence of clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms was 13%. There was a degree of overlap between burnout and other measures of distress, most notably for anxiety (odds ratio, 10.56; 95% CI, 4.12-27.02; p work-related distress (burnout: odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36-0.74; p stress: odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.46; p stress were less if staff used talking to seniors (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.92; p = 0.029) or hobbies (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23-0.93; p = 0.030) to cope with stress at work. Venting emotion (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.12-3.31; p = 0.018) and using alcohol (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.26-4.20; p = 0.006) were associated with a doubling in risk of reporting burnout. The use of particular coping strategies was systematically associated with symptoms of burnout and work-related posttraumatic stress in this group of intensive care staff, even after controlling for resilience and other factors. More research on how best to promote adaptive coping is needed in these challenging settings.

  14. Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Satomi; Takeda, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi; Carrara, Fernanda Souza Angotti; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; Zanei, Suely Sueko Viski; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium. Of the total 149 patients in the sample, 69 (46.3%) presented delirium during ICU stay, whose mean age, severity of illness and length of ICU stay were statistically higher. The factors related to delirium were: age, midazolam, morphine and propofol. Results showed high incidence of ICU delirium associated with older age, use of sedatives and analgesics, emphasizing the need for relevant nursing care to prevent and identify early, patients presenting these characteristics. Identificar a incidência de delirium, comparar as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes com e sem delirium e verificar os fatores relacionados ao delirium em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Coorte prospectiva, cuja amostra foi constituída de pacientes internados em UTI de um hospital universitário. Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e da avaliação com o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit para identificação de delirium foram processadas para análise univariada, e regressão logística para identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência do delirium. Do total de 149 pacientes da amostra, 69 (46,3%) apresentaram delirium durante a internação na UTI, observando-se que a média da idade, o índice de gravidade e o tempo de permanência nas UTI foram estatisticamente maiores. Os fatores relacionados ao delirium foram: idade, midazolam, morfina e propofol. Os

  15. Retention predictors related to intensive outpatient programs for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, L J; Remley, T P; Kippers, S M; Sorg, J D

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to expand knowledge in the current literature regarding treatment retention in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. The sample in this study participated in a hospital-based program accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation for Health Organizations (JCAHO) that utilized the Minnesota model. Specifically, this inquiry investigated whether treatment retention would be predicted by gender, age, employment status, number of problems on the treatment plan, whether the referral was related to driving while intoxicated (DWI), marital status, race, and whether each of the following substance problems was listed as the client's primary DSM-IV diagnosis: alcohol dependence, cocaine dependence, polysubstance dependence, opioid dependence, sedative/hypnotic dependence, cannabis dependence, other (or unknown) dependence, alcohol abuse, cannabis abuse, amphetamine abuse, and caffeine intoxication. Findings indicated that those retained in treatment, when compared to those who dropped out, had significantly more problems on their treatment plans, were more likely to be alcoholics, were less often cocaine addicts, and were more likely to be employed. The results of this study suggest that clients with this profile have increased likelihood of being retained in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

  16. Health-related quality of life after prolonged pediatric intensive care unit stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Niamh P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for patients requiring at least 28 days of pediatric intensive care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: A 21-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-three patients who spent 28 days or longer in the PICU between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds QL 4.0) parent-proxy version at 2 to 10 yrs after discharge. The PedsQL 4.0 is a modular measure of HRQOL, which is reliable in children aged 2 to 18 yrs. It generates a total score and physical, emotional, social, school, and psychosocial subscores. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 41 died during their PICU admission and 27 died between PICU discharge and follow-up. Quality of life questionnaires were posted to parents of 108 of the 125 survivors and 70 were returned completed. Forty children (57.1%) had scores indicating a normal quality of life, whereas 30 (42.9%) had scores indicating impaired HRQOL. Of these, 14 (20%) had scores indicating poor quality of life with ongoing disabling health problems requiring hospitalization or the equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while long PICU stay is associated with significant mortality, the long-term HRQOL is normal for the majority of surviving children.

  17. The Attachment Imperative: Parental Experiences of Relation-making in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navne, Laura E; Svendsen, Mette N; Gammeltoft, Tine M

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we explore how parents establish relations with extremely premature infants whose lives and futures are uncertain. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), we engage recent discussions of the limits of conventional anthropological thinking on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment. Such "cuts" in parent-infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as "maybe-lives" by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for "maybe-parents." © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  18. Plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry by group I and group II matrix-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Chan, W.-T.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Na, K, Ca and Ba matrices on the plasma excitation conditions in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were studied. Normalized relative intensity was used to indicate the extent of the plasma-related matrix effects. The group I matrices have no effects on the plasma excitation conditions. In contrast, the group II matrices depress the normalized relative intensities of some spectral lines. Specifically, the Group II matrices have no effects on the normalized relative intensity of atomic lines of low upper energy level (soft lines), but reduce the normalized relative intensity of some ionic lines and atomic lines of high energy level (hard lines). The Group II matrices seem to shift the Saha balance of the analytes only; no shift in the Boltzmann balance was observed experimentally. Moreover, for some ionic lines with sum of ionization and excitation potentials close to the ionization potential of argon (15.75 eV), the matrix effect is smaller than other ionic lines of the same element. The reduced matrix effects may be attributed qualitatively to charge transfer excitation mechanism of these ionic lines. Charge transfer reaction renders ionic emission lines from the quasi-resonant levels similar in characteristics of atomic lines. The contribution of charge transfer relative to excitation by other non-specific excitation mechanisms (via Saha balance and Boltzmann balance) determines the degree of atomic behavior of a quasi-resonant level. A significant conclusion of this study is that plasma-related matrix effect depends strongly on the excitation mechanism of a spectral line. Since, in general, more than one excitation mechanism may contribute to the overall excitation of an emission line, the observed matrix effects reflect the sum of the effects due to individual excitation mechanisms. Excitation mechanisms, in addition to the often-used total excitation energy, should be considered in matrix effect studies

  19. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  20. In-situ determination of cross-over point for overcoming plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel method is described for overcoming plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The method is based on measurement of the vertically resolved atomic emission of analyte within the plasma and therefore requires the addition of no reagents to the sample solution or to the plasma. Plasma-related matrix effects enhance analyte emission intensity low in the plasma but depress the same emission signal at higher positions. Such bipolar behavior is true for all emission lines and matrices that induce plasma-related interferences. The transition where the enhancement is balanced by the depression (the so-called cross-over point) results in a spatial region with no apparent matrix effects. Although it would be desirable always to perform determinations at this cross-over point, its location varies between analytes and from matrix to matrix, so it would have to be found separately for every analyte and for every sample. Here, a novel approach is developed for the in-situ determination of the location of this cross-over point. It was found that the location of the cross-over point is practically invariant for a particular analyte emission line when the concentration of the matrix was varied. As a result, it is possible to determine in-situ the location of the cross-over point for all analyte emission lines in a sample by means of a simple one-step sample dilution. When the original sample is diluted by a factor of 2 and the diluted sample is analyzed again, the extent of the matrix effect is identical (zero) between the original sample and the diluted sample at one and only one location - the cross-over point. This novel method was verified with several single-element matrices (0.05 M Na, Ca, Ba and La) and some mixed-element matrices (mixtures of Na-Ca, Ca-Ba, and a plant-sample digest). The inaccuracy in emission intensity due to the matrix effect could be as large as - 30% for conventional measurements in the

  1. Free allocations in EU ETS Phase 3: The impact of emissions performance benchmarking for carbon-intensive industry - Working Paper No. 2013-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecourt, S.; Palliere, C.; Sartor, O.

    2013-02-01

    From Phase 3 (2013-20) of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, carbon-intensive industrial emitters will receive free allocations based on harmonised, EU-wide benchmarks. This paper analyses the impacts of these new rules on allocations to key energy-intensive sectors across Europe. It explores an original dataset that combines recent data from the National Implementing Measures of 20 EU Member States with the Community Independent Transaction Log and other EU documents. The analysis reveals that free allocations to benchmarked sectors will be reduced significantly compared to Phase 2 (2008-12). This reduction should both increase public revenues from carbon auctions and has the potential to enhance the economic efficiency of the carbon market. The analysis also shows that changes in allocation vary mostly across installations within countries, raising the possibility that the carbon-cost competitiveness impacts may be more intense within rather than across countries. Lastly, the analysis finds evidence that the new benchmarking rules will, as intended, reward installations with better emissions performance and will improve harmonisation of free allocations in the EU ETS by reducing differences in allocation levels across countries with similar carbon intensities of production. (authors)

  2. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, H. van; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels. (author)

  3. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Biermann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels

  4. Open intensive care units: a global challenge for patients, relatives, and critical care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Elena; Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Milanesio, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the current status of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours policies internationally and to explore the influence of ICUs' open visiting policies on patients', visitors', and staff perceptions, as well as on patients' outcomes. A review of the literature was done through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. The following keywords were searched: "visiting," "hours," "ICU," "policy," and "intensive care unit." Inclusion criteria for the review were original research paper, adult ICU, articles published in the last 10 years, English or Italian language, and available abstract. Twenty-nine original articles, mainly descriptive studies, were selected and retrieved. In international literature, there is a wide variability about open visiting policies in ICUs. The highest percentage of open ICUs is reported in Sweden (70%), whereas in Italy there is the lowest rate (1%). Visiting hours policies and number of allowed relatives are variable, from limits of short precise segments to 24 hours and usually 2 visitors. Open ICUs policy/guidelines acknowledge concerns with visitor hand washing to prevent the risk of infection transmission to patients. Patients, visitors, and staff seem to be inclined to support open ICU programs, although physicians are more inclined to the enhancement of visiting hours than nurses. The percentages of open ICUs are very different among countries. It can be due to local factors, cultural differences, and lack of legislation or hospital policy. There is a need for more studies about the impact of open ICUs programs on patients' mortality, length of stay, infections' risk, and the mental health of patients and their relatives.

  5. Implications of emission inventory choice for modeling fire-related pollution in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplitz, S. N.; Nolte, C. G.; Pouliot, G.

    2017-12-01

    Wildland fires are a major source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), one of the most harmful ambient pollutants for human health globally. Within the U.S., wildland fires can account for more than 30% of total annual PM2.5 emissions. In order to represent the influence of fire emissions on atmospheric composition, regional and global chemical transport models (CTMs) rely on fire emission inventories developed from estimates of burned area (i.e. fire size and location). Burned area can be estimated using a range of top-down and bottom-up approaches, including satellite-derived remote sensing and on-the-ground incident reports. While burned area estimates agree with each other reasonably well in the western U.S. (within 20-30% for most years during 2002-2014), estimates for the southern U.S. vary by more than a factor of 3. Differences in burned area estimation methods lead to significant variability in the spatial and temporal allocation of emissions across fire emission inventory platforms. In this work, we implement fire emission estimates for 2011 from three different products - the USEPA National Emission Inventory (NEI), the Fire INventory of NCAR (FINN), and the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED4s) - into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to quantify and characterize differences in simulated fire-related PM2.5 and ozone concentrations across the contiguous U.S. due solely to the emission inventory used. Preliminary results indicate that the estimated contribution to national annual average PM2.5 from wildland fire in 2011 is highest using GFED4s emissions (1.0 µg m-3) followed by NEI (0.7 µg m-3) and FINN (0.3 µg m-3), with comparisons varying significantly by region and season. Understanding the sensitivity of modeling fire-related PM2.5 and ozone in the U.S. to fire emission inventory choice will inform future efforts to assess the implications of present and future fire activity for air quality and human health at national and global

  6. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Definition of dose intensity (DI), average relative DI and effective DI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, P.

    1995-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of cancer chemotherapy is related to the dose and to the amount of drug delivered per time unit. the significance of time in the effectiveness of a treatment program is frequently overlooked. The term of dose intensity (DI) is used to define the drug dose delivered per time unit and is expressed as mg/m 2 per week. A delay in the sequence of treatment cycles decreases the DI in the DI in the same proportion as a reduction of dose. Average relative DI corresponds to the mean DI of combined agents and is expressed as a fraction of a similar combination selected as a standard. Di is useful to compare the dose actually received with the prescribed dose. The relation of DI with tumor response or survival has not been fully demonstrated. A threshold DI level for therapeutic activity is evident. Above this threshold, a linear relationship of DI and effectiveness is not obvious, particularly regarding high-dose chemotherapy. The term of DI is more useful in its principle than in the significance of its calculated value. (authors). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. The relation between carbon monoxide emission and visual extinction in cloud L134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, K.D.; Dickman, R.L.; Encrenaz, P.J.; Kutner, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Emission from the J=1→0 transition of carbon monoxide has been mapped over an area of 40' x 55' in cloud L134, and visual extinctions over the entire cloud have been obtained by means of star counts. Line intensities of > or =2 K are observable down to an extinction level of about one magnitude. From observations of the J=1→0 transition of the 13 CO isotopic species at 18 locations in the cloud, we have found a linear correlation between the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) column densities of 13 CO and magnitudes of visual extinction

  9. A comparison of Latin American energy-related CO2 emissions from 1970 to 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntsi-Reunanen, E.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses CO 2 emission flows and energy use in the Latin American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela from the years 1971-2001. Results for the selected Latin American countries reveal that the changes in CO 2 intensities were quite similar in these countries. However, the energy use varied slightly, indicating differences in the energy utilization in the analysed countries. Examining the changes on energy use suggests that there were no significant changes in any of these countries' energy utilization during that period, but the energy markets are growing quite rapidly in all of these Latin American countries

  10. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  11. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  12. Counterbalancing work-related stress? Work engagement among intensive care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2018-07-01

    Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need

  13. Electron emission of cathode holder of vacuum diode of an intense electron-beam accelerator and its effect on the output voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The vacuum diode which is used to generate relativistic electron beams is one of the most important parts of a pulsed-power modulator. In this paper, the electron emission of cathode holder of a vacuum diode and its effect on the output voltage is investigated by experiments on an intense electron-beam accelerator with 180 ns full width at half maximum and 200–500 kV output voltage. First, the field emission is analyzed and the electric field of the vacuum chamber is calculated. Then, the flatness of the output voltage is discussed before and after adding an insulation plate when a water load is used. It is found that the electron emission at the edges of the cathode holder is the main reason to cause the change of the flatness. Last, a piece of polyester film is used as a target to further show the electron emission of the cathode holder. This analysis shows that decreasing the electron emission of the cathode holder in such a pulse power modulator could be a good way to improve the quality of the output voltage.

  14. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author)

  15. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K. (Ghana Univ., Legon (Ghana). Dept. of Physics)

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author).

  16. UV and visible photoluminescence emission intensity of undoped and In-doped ZnO thin film and photoresponsivity of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebbar, N., E-mail: nacbar2003@yahoo.fr [LCMS, Faculty of Physics, University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Chabane, L. [LCMS, Faculty of Physics, University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Gabouze, N. [CRTSE, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, BP 140, Algiers (Algeria); Kechouane, M. [LCMS, Faculty of Physics, University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Trari, M. [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Aida, M.S. [LCM et Interface, Faculty of Sciences, University of Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Belhousse, S. [CRTSE, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, BP 140, Algiers (Algeria); Hadj Larbi, F. [MEMS & Sensors, Division Microélectronique et Nanotechnologie, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées (CDTA), BP 17, Baba Hassen, Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-04-30

    Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium-doped (ZnO:In) thin films were grown at different temperatures (250–400 °C) on alkali-free borosilicate glass and n-Si (100) substrates by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method. The structural, compositional, optical and electrical properties of ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Rutherford Back Scattering Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and the four-point probe technique. The predominance of ultraviolet (UV) and blue emission intensities was found to be closely dependent on the resistivity of the film. The visible emission band (peaking at 432 nm) prevails for low film resistivity, ranging from 10{sup −2} to 1 Ω·cm. By contrast, for higher resistivity (> 1 Ω·cm), there is a predominance of the UV band (382 nm). The PL and photoresponsivity results of fabricated ZnO:In/n-Si(100) heterojunctions prepared at different temperatures are discussed. The maximum spectral response of the ZnO:8%In/Si heterojunction diode fabricated at 250 °C was about 80 mA/W at zero bias. The highlighted results are attractive for the optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • Properties of ZnO thin films grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis at 350 °C. • Photoluminescence emission intensity in undoped ZnO film: effect of the resistivity • Photoluminescence emission intensity of In-doped ZnO film is resistivity dependent. • The spectral response of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction deposited in the range (250–400 °C)

  17. UV and visible photoluminescence emission intensity of undoped and In-doped ZnO thin film and photoresponsivity of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebbar, N.; Chabane, L.; Gabouze, N.; Kechouane, M.; Trari, M.; Aida, M.S.; Belhousse, S.; Hadj Larbi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium-doped (ZnO:In) thin films were grown at different temperatures (250–400 °C) on alkali-free borosilicate glass and n-Si (100) substrates by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method. The structural, compositional, optical and electrical properties of ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Rutherford Back Scattering Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and the four-point probe technique. The predominance of ultraviolet (UV) and blue emission intensities was found to be closely dependent on the resistivity of the film. The visible emission band (peaking at 432 nm) prevails for low film resistivity, ranging from 10 −2 to 1 Ω·cm. By contrast, for higher resistivity (> 1 Ω·cm), there is a predominance of the UV band (382 nm). The PL and photoresponsivity results of fabricated ZnO:In/n-Si(100) heterojunctions prepared at different temperatures are discussed. The maximum spectral response of the ZnO:8%In/Si heterojunction diode fabricated at 250 °C was about 80 mA/W at zero bias. The highlighted results are attractive for the optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • Properties of ZnO thin films grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis at 350 °C. • Photoluminescence emission intensity in undoped ZnO film: effect of the resistivity • Photoluminescence emission intensity of In-doped ZnO film is resistivity dependent. • The spectral response of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction deposited in the range (250–400 °C)

  18. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  19. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile isotopic methane analysis based on Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Chris; Winkler, Renato; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Crosson, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the isotopic carbon signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of methane using a mobile spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Performance of the CRDS isotope analyzer is presented, including precision, calibration, stability, and the potential for measurement bias due to other atmospheric constituents. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to

  20. Nonadiabatic dynamics in intense continuous wave laser fields and real-time observation of the associated wavepacket bifurcation in terms of spectrogram of induced photon emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2016-11-14

    We propose a theoretical principle to directly monitor the bifurcation of quantum wavepackets passing through nonadiabatic regions of a molecule that is placed in intense continuous wave (CW) laser fields. This idea makes use of the phenomenon of laser-driven photon emission from molecules that can undergo nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and covalent potential energy surfaces like Li + F - and LiF. The resultant photon emission spectra are of anomalous yet characteristic frequency and intensity, if pumped to an energy level in which the nonadiabatic region is accessible and placed in a CW laser field. The proposed method is designed to take the time-frequency spectrogram with an appropriate time-window from this photon emission to detect the time evolution of the frequency and intensity, which depends on the dynamics and location of the relevant nuclear wavepackets. This method is specifically designed for the study of dynamics in intense CW laser fields and is rather limited in scope than other techniques for femtosecond chemical dynamics in vacuum. The following characteristic features of dynamics can be mapped onto the spectrogram: (1) the period of driven vibrational motion (temporally confined vibrational states in otherwise dissociative channels, the period and other states of which dramatically vary depending on the CW driving lasers applied), (2) the existence of multiple nuclear wavepackets running individually on the field-dressed potential energy surfaces, (3) the time scale of coherent interaction between the nuclear wavepackets running on ionic and covalent electronic states after their branching (the so-called coherence time in the terminology of the theory of nonadiabatic interaction), and so on.

  1. Relative signal intensity changes of frontal and occipital white matters on T 2 weighted axial MR image : correlation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Me; Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess relative signal intensity changes in frontal and occipital white matter with age, as seen on T 2 weighted axial MR images. Thirty eight normal adults (20-29 years old) and 114 children (0-11 years old) were investigated. All had nonspecific neurologic symptoms and their MR images, obtained using a 1.5 T system (Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.), appeared to be normal. The signal intensities of frontal and occipital white matter were evaluated on T2 weighted axial images at the level of the foramen of Monro. When the signal intensity of white matter was higher than that of gray matter, grade 0 was assigned; when the opposite situation pertained, this was graded I - III. Grade I indicated that the signal intensity of occipital white matter was lower than that of frontal white matter; grade II, that the signal intensity of white matter of both lobes was similar. When the signal intensity of frontal white matter was lower than that of occipital age, and by one year after 2 years of age, and then determined grade according to age, age distribution according to grade, and the ages at which signal intensities were similar to those of adults. On T2-weighted MR images, the signal intensity of frontal white matter ultimately shows a lower signal intensity than that of occipital white matter. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  2. Reduction of emission level in approach signals of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis): No evidence for a closed loop control system for intensity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Tobias; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Bats lower the emission SPL when approaching a target. The SPL reduction has been explained by intensity compensation which implies that bats adjust the emission SPL to perceive the retuning echoes at the same level. For a better understanding of this control mechanism we recorded the echolocation signals of four Myotis myotis with an onboard microphone when foraging in the passive mode for rustling mealworms offered in two feeding dishes with different target strength, and determined the reduction rate for the emission SPL and the increase rate for the SPL of the returning echoes. When approaching the dish with higher target strength bats started the reduction of the emission SPL at a larger reaction distance (1.05 ± 0.21 m) and approached it with a lower reduction rate of 7.2 dB/halving of distance (hd), thus producing a change of echo rate at the ears of + 4 dB/hd. At the weaker target reaction distance was shorter (0.71 ± 0.24 m) and the reduction rate (9.1 dB/hd) was higher, producing a change of echo rate of-1.2 dB/hd. Independent of dish type, bats lowered the emission SPL by about 26 dB on average. In one bat where the echo SPL from both targets could be measured, the reduction of emission SPL was triggered when the echo SPL surpassed a similar threshold value around 41-42 dB. Echo SPL was not adjusted at a constant value indicating that Myotis myotis and most likely all other bats do not use a closed loop system for intensity compensation when approaching a target of interest. We propose that bats lower the emission SPL to adjust the SPL of the perceived pulse-echo-pairs to the optimal auditory range for the processing of range information and hypothesize that bats use flow field information not only to control the reduction of the approach speed to the target but also to control the reduction of emission SPL.

  3. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  4. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  5. Virtual water flows related to land use in an intensive agriculture in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, A.; Schneider, K.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to low annual precipitation, agricultural production in Uzbekistan is depending on irrigation from the Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers to a great deal. One of the most important cash crops of the country is cotton. Current irrigation management leads to elevated groundwater levels, salinization of soils and to a degradation of soil and water resources. Through export of cotton and other crops, the problems related to water consumption and water management are transported beyond the producing country. The amount of water transported through production and export is referred to as virtual water. To distinguish between productive and unproductive partitioning of water flows, the terms green and blue water have been introduced. Information on virtual water flows due to crop production usually only exist on country level. To reduce uncertainties related to generalization, the effect of land management and environmental factors on the partitioning of water flows needs to be studied on smaller scales. The presented study analyzes water fluxes in an intensively used agricultural area in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. The study aims to a) quantify crop specific water consumption in agricultural production under current management and b) analyze water use efficiency as subject to land use and irrigation management. Based on crop production, irrigation management and environmental conditions in the study area, virtual water flows will be calculated on the level of agricultural collectives (Water Users Associations). In a further step, the partitioning of green and blue water fluxes will be quantified. Alternative scenarios for improved water management will be analyzed in a model study.

  6. [Post-traumatic stress disorder-related to intensive care stay: influence of sedation practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerheim, Nadège; Masseret, Elodie; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dequin, Pierre-François; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-03-01

    The stay in intensive care unit can be potentially traumatic at the origin of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms is linked to the intensity and the type of traumatic memories of the intensive care stay. Sedatives and analgesics given to ventilated patients in intensive care influence the traumatic memory. The level, the duration and the type of sedation-analgesia protocol are risk factors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Links between sedation, dissociative symptoms, delirium and post-traumatic stress symptoms are documented. Environmental and pharmacological measures are to be considered to reduce the traumatic potential risk of the intensive care. Intensive care caregivers, liaison-psychiatrist and general practitioner have each a specific role to play in the screening of the post-traumatic stress symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative work function of clean molybdenum single-crystal planes determined by field emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeret, G.; Abon, M.; Tardy, B.; Teichner, S.J.

    1974-01-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope was used to determine the work function of clean molybdenum single crystal planes relative to the average work function of the field emitter, assumed to be 4.20 eV. Results are compared with other available data

  8. Spectroscopic investigations of hard x-ray emission from 120 ps laser-produced plasmas at intensities near 1017 W cm-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Young, B.K.F.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Walling, R.S.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.

    1995-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the x-ray emission of plasmas heated by 120 ps, frequency doubled pulses from the JANUS Nd: glass laser are presented. High Z K-shell spectra emitted from slab targets heated to near 10 17 W cm -2 intensity are investigated. High resolution (γ/Δγ>5000) x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of H-like Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, and also H-like Sc in the spectral range 1.5--3.0 angstrom are obtained in single laser shots using a spherically bent Mica crystal spectrograph with a 186 mm radius of curvature. The spectra- have one dimensional spatial resolution of about 25μm and indicate that the size of the emission zone of the resonance, transitions is 2 keV and density∼10 22 cm -3 . These experiments demonstrate that with modest laser energy, plasmas heated by high-intensity 120 ps lasers provide a very bright source of hard ∼8 keV x-ray emission

  9. Effect of high-intensity statin therapy on atherosclerosis in non-infarct-related coronary arteries (IBIS-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Taniwaki, Masanori; Zaugg, Serge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition, and phen......AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition......-infarct-related epicardial coronary arteries (non-IRA) after successful primary PCI. Patients were treated with high-intensity rosuvastatin (40 mg/day) throughout 13 months and serial intracoronary imaging with the analysis of matched segments was available for 82 patients with 146 non-IRA. The primary IVUS end...

  10. Prospective study of device-related complications in intensive care unit detected by virtual autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, D; Heinemann, A; Zähler, S; Vogel, H; Höpker, W; Püschel, K; Kluge, S

    2018-06-01

    There has been increasing use of invasive techniques, such as extracorporeal organ support, in intensive care units (ICU), and declining autopsy rates. Thus, new measures are needed to maintain high-quality standards. We investigated the potential of computed tomography (CT)-based virtual autopsy to substitute for medical autopsy in this setting. We investigated the potential of virtual autopsy by post-mortem CT to identify complications associated with medical devices in a prospective study of patients who had died in the ICU. Clinical records were reviewed to determine the number and types of medical devices used, and findings from medical and virtual autopsies, related and unrelated to the medical devices, were compared. Medical and virtual autopsies could be performed in 61 patients (Group M/V), and virtual autopsy only in 101 patients (Group V). In Group M/V, 41 device-related complications and 30 device malpositions were identified, but only with a low inter-method agreement. Major findings unrelated to a device were identified in about 25% of patients with a high level of agreement between methods. In Group V, 8 device complications and 36 device malpositions were identified. Device-related complications are frequent in ICU patients. Virtual and medical autopsies showed clear differences in the detection of complications and device malpositions. Both methods should supplement each other rather than one alone for quality control of medical devices in the ICU. Further studies should focus on the identification of special patient populations in which virtual autopsy might be of particular benefit. NCT01541982. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is

  12. Localization of the relative position of two atoms induced by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Sun, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We reexamine the back-action of emitted photons on the wave packet evolution about the relative position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual atoms and their emitted photons. The obtained result provides a more realistic model for the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object

  13. A model to relate wind tunnel measurements to open field odorant emissions from liquid area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, F.; Capelli, L.; Busini, V.; Sironi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Waste Water Treatment Plants are known to have significant emissions of several pollutants and odorants causing nuisance to the near-living population. One of the purposes of the present work is to study a suitable model to evaluate odour emissions from liquid passive area sources. First, the models describing volatilization under a forced convection regime inside a wind tunnel device, which is the sampling device that typically used for sampling on liquid area sources, were investigated. In order to relate the fluid dynamic conditions inside the hood to the open field and inside the hood a thorough study of the models capable of describing the volatilization phenomena of the odorous compounds from liquid pools was performed and several different models were evaluated for the open field emission. By means of experimental tests involving pure liquid acetone and pure liquid butanone, it was verified that the model more suitable to describe precisely the volatilization inside the sampling hood is the model for the emission from a single flat plate in forced convection and laminar regime, with a fluid dynamic boundary layer fully developed and a mass transfer boundary layer not fully developed. The proportionality coefficient for the model was re-evaluated in order to account for the specific characteristics of the adopted wind tunnel device, and then the model was related with the selected model for the open field thereby computing the wind speed at 10 m that would cause the same emission that is estimated from the wind tunnel measurement furthermore, the field of application of the proposed model was clearly defined for the considered models during the project, discussing the two different kinds of compounds commonly found in emissive liquid pools or liquid spills, i.e. gas phase controlled and liquid phase controlled compounds. Lastly, a discussion is presented comparing the presented approach for emission rates recalculation in the field, with other approaches

  14. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lépicier, Véronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: ► The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. ► It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. ► We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. ► The indicator is a combination of pollutant emission, dispersion, exposition factor, and substance specific

  15. Driving forces in energy-related CO2 emissions in south and east coastal China: commonality and variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Liu, Y.; Jin, J.; Wei, T.

    2015-12-01

    East and south coastal China contributes to respectively about 30% and 8% of CO2 emissions in China and the world, and therefore play a critical role in achieving the national goal of emission reduction to mitigate the global warming. It also serves as a benchmark for the less developed regions of China, in terms of achieving the developed world's human development standard under lower per capita emissions. We analyze the driving forces of emissions in this region and their provincial characteristics by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method. Our findings show that emissions have been doubled during the period from 2000 to 2012, along with three and two folds increase in economy and energy consumption, respectively. This suggests a persistent lock between economic growth and emissions, even in this socioeconomically advanced region in China. Provincial difference in annual emission growth reveals three distinguished low-carbon developmental stages, owning mainly to the effectiveness of energy efficiency in reducing emission growth. This may explain why previous climate policies have aimed to reduce carbon intensity. These results indicate that targeted measures on enhancing energy efficiency in the short term and de-carbonization of both the economic and energy structure in the long term can lower the emission growth more effectively and efficiently. They also suggest that factor-driven emission reduction strategies and policies are needed in the geographically and socioeconomically similar regions.

  16. Correction factors for {gamma}-ray relative intensities in the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Chasteler, R.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Laymon, C.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Weller, H.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Moore, E.F. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Bybee, C.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Drake, J.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Tilley, D.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Vavrina, G. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Wallace, P.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-16

    We present here strong evidence that recently published values for the relative intensities of {gamma}-ray lines in the {sup 66}Ga({beta}{sup +}+EC){sup 66}Zn decay are incorrect at the higher energies ({proportional_to}30% too low at 4.8 MeV). In particular, we find that our current results are consistent with a set of correction factors which were first suggested 20 years ago, but have gone largely ignored until now. Our validation of these little known correction factors will have bearing on experiments which use the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope to extrapolate absolute detector efficiencies to higher energies. In particular, we discuss the conclusions of a recent D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment which will be strongly affected by our current results. The astrophysical S-factor data derived from this D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment are now seen to be systematically too low by {proportional_to}30%. (orig.).

  17. Consumer lifestyle approach to US energy use and the related CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Shui; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2005-01-01

    Historically, a sectoral approach (based on the industrial, transportation, commercial, and residential sectors) has shaped the way we frame and analyze issues of energy conservation and CO 2 mitigation. This sectoral categorization, however, is limited in its capacity to reveal the total impacts of consumer activities on energy use and its related environmental impacts. In this paper, we propose an alternative paradigm, called the Consumer Lifestyle Approach (CLA), to explore the relationship between consumer activities and environmental impacts in the US. Estimates based on our methodology reveal that more than 80% of the energy used and the CO 2 emitted in the US are a consequence of consumer demands and the economic activities to support these demands. Direct influences due to consumer activities (home energy use and personal travel) are 4% of the US GDP, but account for 28% and 41% of US energy use and CO 2 emissions, respectively. Indirect influences (such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, and apparel) involve more than twice the direct energy use and CO 2 emissions. Characterization of both direct and indirect energy use and emissions is critical to the design of more effective energy and CO 2 emission policies. It may also help erode the false dichotomy of 'them versus us' (industrial polluters versus consumers) references to the locus of responsibility for control of energy use and CO 2 emissions

  18. Consumer lifestyle approach to US energy use and the related CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, Shui; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2005-01-01

    Historically, a sectoral approach (based on the industrial, transportation, commercial, and residential sectors) has shaped the way we frame and analyze issues of energy conservation and CO 2 mitigation. This sectoral categorization, however, is limited in its capacity to reveal the total impacts of consumer activities on energy use and its related environmental impacts. In this paper, we propose an alternative paradigm, called the Consumer Lifestyle Approach (CLA), to explore the relationship between consumer activities and environmental impacts in the US. Estimates based on our methodology reveal that more than 80% of the energy used and the CO 2 emitted in the US are a consequence of consumer demands and the economic activities to support these demands. Direct influences due to consumer activities (home energy use and personal travel) are 4% of the US GDP, but account for 28% and 41% of US energy use and CO 2 emissions, respectively. Indirect influences (such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, and apparel) involve more than twice the direct energy use and CO 2 emissions. Characterization of both direct and indirect energy use and emissions is critical to the design of more effective energy and CO 2 emission policies. It may also help erode the false dichotomy of 'them versus us' (industrial polluters versus consumers) references to the locus of responsibility for control of energy use and CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  19. Variability of CO2 emissions during the rearing cycle of a semi-intensive shrimp farm in a mangrove coastal zone (New Caledonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Joanne; Allenbach, Michel; Bourgeois, Carine; Léopold, Audrey; Jacotot, Adrien; Vinh, Truong Van; Nho, Nguyen Thanh; Patrona, Luc Della; Marchand, Cyril

    2018-04-01

    In New Caledonia, shrimp ponds are built not on cleared mangroves but on salt flats behind the mangroves. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability of CO 2 fluxes from a semi-intensive shrimp pond during active and non-active periods of the farm and to determine the carbon dynamics from the upstream tidal creek to the downstream creek, which receives the farm's effluents. CO 2 emissions from the active pond were estimated at 11.1 ± 5.26 mmol CO 2  m -2  d -1 . By modifying the hydrodynamics of the creeks, farm practices also influenced CO 2 emissions from both the upstream and downstream creeks. After tillage, all the organic carbon deposited at the pond bottom during the active period was mineralized, resulting in CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere estimated at 7.9 TCO 2  ha -1 . Therefore, shrimp farming is an anthropogenic source of CO 2 to the atmosphere, but suitable and optimized rearing practices limit these emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can intensification reduce emission intensity of biofuel through optimized fertilizer use? Theory and the case of oil palm in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van Meine; Khasanah, Nimatul; Dewi, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    Closing yield gaps through higher fertilizer use increases direct greenhouse gas emissions but shares the burden over a larger production volume. Net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprints per unit product under agricultural intensification vary depending on the context, scale and accounting method.

  1. Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dot composite solid films exhibiting intense and tunable blue–red emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanling; Gan, Zhixing; Xu, Jiaqing; Wu, Xinglong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dots (PEG/CQDs) composite solid films exhibiting strong and tunable blue–red emission were prepared. Successful preparation of tunable emitting CQDs solid films can extend the application of carbon quantum dots in photoelectric devices. • The mechanism of the tunable emission from the PEG/CQDs composite solid films was discussed. • On the basis of the characteristics of the PL from solid films in this work, the complex PL origins of CQDs were further defined. The PL mechanism provides insights into the fluorescence mechanism of CQDs and may promotes their applications. • Poly(ethylene glycol); carbon quantum dots; Strong and tunable blue-red emission; The fluorescent quantum yield of 12.6%. - Abstract: Although carbon quantum dots (CQDs) possess excellent luminescence properties, it is a challenge to apply water-soluble CQDs to tunable luminescent devices. Herein, quaternary CQDs are incorporated into poly(ethylene glycol) to produce poly(ethylene glycol)/CQD composite solid films which exhibit strong and tunable blue–red emission. The fluorescent quantum yield reaches 12.6% which is comparable to that of many liquid CQDs and the photoluminescence characteristics are determined to elucidate the fluorescence mechanism. The CQD solid films with tunable optical properties bode well for photoelectric devices especially displays

  2. Study on the Influence of Velocity, Turbulence Intensity and Temperature on Ammonia Emission Rate in a Wind Tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, P V; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Odor emissions from manure in livestock buildings are an important issue which concerns the human health and air quality as well as animals. Ammonia is one of the most important odors in pig houses. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of local velocity, turbulence intensit...

  3. Effects of application of inhibitors and biochar to fertilizer on gaseous nitrogen emissions from an intensively managed wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tiehu; Liu, Deyan; Yuan, Junji; Luo, Jiafa; Lindsey, Stuart; Bolan, Nanthi; Ding, Weixin

    2018-07-01

    The effects of biochar combined with the urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, and nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, on gaseous nitrogen (N 2 O, NO and NH 3 ) emissions and wheat yield were examined in a wheat crop cultivated in a rice-wheat rotation system in the Taihu Lake region of China. Eight treatments comprised N fertilizer at a conventional application rate of 150kgNha -1 (CN); N fertilizer at an optimal application rate of 125kgNha -1 (ON); ON+wheat-derived biochar at rates of 7.5 (ONB1) and 15tha -1 (ONB2); ON+nitrification and urease inhibitors (ONI); ONI+wheat-derived biochar at rates of 7.5 (ONIB1) and 15tha -1 (ONIB2); and, a control. The reduced N fertilizer application rate in the ON treatment decreased N 2 O, NO, and NH 3 emissions by 45.7%, 17.1%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the CN treatment. Biochar application increased soil organic carbon, total N, and pH, and also increased NH 3 and N 2 O emissions by 32.4-68.2% and 9.4-35.2%, respectively, compared with the ON treatment. In contrast, addition of urease and nitrification inhibitors decreased N 2 O, NO, and NH 3 emissions by 11.3%, 37.9%, and 38.5%, respectively. The combined application of biochar and inhibitors more effectively reduced N 2 O and NO emissions by 49.1-49.7% and 51.7-55.2%, respectively, compared with ON and decreased NH 3 emission by 33.4-35.2% compared with the ONB1 and ONB2 treatments. Compared with the ON treatment, biochar amendment, either alone or in combination with inhibitors, increased wheat yield and N use efficiency (NUE), while addition of inhibitors alone increased NUE but not wheat yield. We suggest that an optimal N fertilizer rate and combined application of inhibitors+biochar at a low application rate, instead of biochar application alone, could increase soil fertility and wheat yields, and mitigate gaseous N emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Burnout in the neonatal intensive care unit and its relation to healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, D S; Sexton, J B; Kan, P; Sharek, P J; Nisbet, C C; Rigdon, J; Lee, H C; Profit, J

    2017-03-01

    To examine burnout prevalence among California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to test the relation between burnout and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Retrospective observational study of provider perceptions of burnout from 2073 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses and respiratory therapists, using a validated four-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relation between burnout and HAI rates among VLBW (<1500 g) neonates from each NICU was evaluated using multi-level logistic regression analysis with patient-level factors as fixed effects. We found variable prevalence of burnout across the NICUs surveyed (mean 25.2±10.1%). Healthcare-associated infection rates were 8.3±5.1% during the study period. Highest burnout prevalence was found among nurses, nurse practitioners and respiratory therapists (non-physicians, 28±11% vs 17±19% physicians), day shift workers (30±3% vs 25±4% night shift) and workers with 5 or more years of service (29±2% vs 16±6% in fewer than 3 years group). Overall burnout rates showed no correlation with risk-adjusted rates of HAIs (r=-0.133). Item-level analysis showed positive association between HAIs and perceptions of working too hard (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.28). Sensitivity analysis of high-volume NICUs suggested a moderate correlation between burnout prevalence and HAIs (r=0.34). Burnout is most prevalent among non-physicians, daytime workers and experienced workers. Perceptions of working too hard associate with increased HAIs in this cohort of VLBW infants, but overall burnout prevalence is not predictive.

  5. Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Gomez, A., E-mail: aherrera@qro.cinvestav.mx [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); Mani-Gonzalez, P.G.; Vazquez-Lepe, M.; Sanchez-Martinez, A.; Ceballos-Sanchez, O. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Wallace, R.M. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Conti, G.; Uritsky, Y. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Instrument geometrical-factors affecting the XPS angular dependence are described. {yields} The geometrical factors in XPS instruments are transferable to other systems. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of analysis area and volume. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of the X-ray beam spot. {yields} Practical protocols are described for assessing the manipulator's axis of rotation. - Abstract: The angular dependence of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) signal is influenced not only by the electron take-off angle, but also by instrument-related geometrical factors. The XPS signal is, in fact, integrated over the overlap between the X-ray beam, the spectrometer analysis volume, and the sample surface. This overlap depends on the size and shape of the spectrometer analysis volume and X-ray beam, as well as on their relative orientation. In this paper it is described the models and protocols for the characterization of the parameters defining the geometry of an XPS instrument. The protocols include practical methods for assessing the spectrometer analysis area and the X-ray beam spot dimension. Simple systems consisting of flat and 'thick' gold films on silicon wafers were employed. The parameters found with those samples are transferable to other more complex systems since they are geometrical in nature. The method allows for the prediction of the actual intensity of XPS peaks, hence removing the need of normalizing the peak areas to the area of a determined substrate peak. The associated reduction of the uncertainty in half is of special importance since the quantitative analysis of angle-resolved XPS data could be very sensitive to noise. Two rotating and one non-rotating XPS instruments are described. Some examples of the applications of the method are also provided.

  6. Nutritional decline in cystic fibrosis related diabetes: the effect of intensive nutritional intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, H

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that nutritional and respiratory decline occur up to four years prior to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Our aim was to establish whether intensive nutritional intervention prevents pre-diabetic nutritional decline in an adult population with CFRD. METHODS: 48 adult patients with CFRD were matched to 48 controls with CF, for age, gender and lung pathogen status. Nutritional and other clinical indices were recorded at annual intervals from six years before until two years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed to examine the impact of early and late acquisition of CFRD. RESULTS: No important differences in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lung function or intravenous treatment were found between groups in the six years prior to diagnosis, nor any significant deviation over time. In those who developed diabetes, use of overnight enteral tube feeding (ETF) was four times as likely at the time of diagnosis, compared to controls [ETF 43.8% (CFRD) v 18.8% (CF Controls), OR 4.0, CI 1.3 to 16.4, p=0.01]. Age at onset of CFRD played a significant role in determining the pre-diabetic clinical course. Younger diabetics with continued growth at study onset (n=17) had a lower BMI from 2 years prior to diagnosis compared to controls [BMI 18.9 kg\\/m(2) (CFRD) v 20.8 kg\\/m(2) (CF Controls), diff=1.9, CI -0.1 to 3.7 p=0.04]. The BMI of older diabetics (completed growth at study onset) was equal to that of controls throughout. CONCLUSION: Pre-diabetic nutritional decline is not inevitable in adults with CFRD, but is influenced by age of onset. In the group overall, those with CFRD are more likely to require ETF from 2 years prior to diagnosis. Despite intensive nutritional intervention, patients who continue to grow throughout the pre-diabetic years, show a level of nutritional decline absent in older adults.

  7. Avidity of anti-malarial antibodies inversely related to transmission intensity at three sites in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewanyana, Isaac; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Yeka, Adoke; Sullivan, Richard; Kamya, Moses R; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Drakeley, Chris; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tetteh, Kevin K A

    2017-02-10

    People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was added to measure the relative avidity of antibody responses by ELISA. Within a site, there were no significant differences in median antibody levels between the three age groups. Between sites, median antibody levels were generally higher in the higher transmission sites, with differences more apparent for AMA-1 and in ≥5 year group. Similarly, median avidity index (proportion of high avidity antibodies) showed no significant increase with increasing age but was significantly lower at sites of higher transmission amongst participants ≥5 years of age. Using 5 M GuHCl, the median avidity indices in the ≥5 year group at the highest and lowest transmission sites were 19.9 and 26.8, respectively (p = 0.0002) for MSP1-19 and 12.2 and 17.2 (p = 0.0007) for AMA1. Avidity to two different P. falciparum antigens was lower in areas of high transmission intensity compared to areas with lower transmission. Appreciation of the mechanisms behind these findings as

  8. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Weld County Colorado using δ13CH4 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Petron, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Forster et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying methane emissions becomes clear. Companion presentations at this meeting describe efforts to quantify the overall methane emissions in two separate gas producing areas in Colorado and Utah during intensive field campaigns undertaken in 2012. A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the δ13CH4 signature of natural gas (-37 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-50 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of δ13CH4 in Colorado in Weld County, a region of intense natural gas production, using a mobile δ13CH4¬ analyzer capable of high-precision measurements of the stable isotope ratio of methane at ambient levels. This analyzer was used to make stable isotope measurements at a fixed location near the center of the gas producing region, from which an overall isotope ratio for the regional emissions is determined. In addition, mobile measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total distance of 150 km throughout Weld County, allowing spatially resolved measurements of this isotope signature. Finally, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in this region, by making

  9. Energy consumption and related CO2 emissions in five Latin American countries: Changes from 1990 to 2006 and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Ruiz, Belizza J.; Ozawa, Leticia

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the primary energy consumption and energy-related CO 2 emissions in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela during the period 1990-2006. It also reviews important reforms in the energy sector of these countries as well as the promotion of energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES). Using a decomposition analysis, results indicate that even though significant reductions in energy intensity have been achieved in Colombia, Mexico and in a lesser extent in Brazil and Argentina, the reduction of CO 2 emissions in these countries has not been significant due to an increased dependence on fossil fuels in their energy mix. Although the Latin American region has an important experience in the promotion of EE programs and renewable sources, the energy agenda of the examined countries focused mostly on the energy reforms during the analyzed period. The policy review suggests that further governmental support and strong public policies towards a more sustainable energy path are required to encourage a low carbon future in the region.

  10. Age-Related Changes in Associations Between Reasons for Alcohol Use and High-Intensity Drinking Across Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Evans-Polce, Rebecca; Kloska, Deborah D; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2017-07-01

    Analyses focus on whether self-reported reasons for drinking alcohol change in their associations with high-intensity drinking across the transition to adulthood. Self-report data on high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) collected from the national Monitoring the Future study in 2005 to 2014 from those ages 18-26 were used (N = 2,664 [60% women] for all drinkers and 1,377 for heavy episodic [5+] drinkers; up to 6,541 person-waves). Time-varying effect modeling examined changes in the direction and magnitude of associations between eight reasons for drinking and high-intensity alcohol use across continuous age. Four reasons to drink showed quite stable associations with high-intensity drinking across age: drinking to get away from problems, to get high, to relax, and to sleep. Associations between two reasons and high-intensity drinking decreased with age: anger/frustration and to have a good time. The association between drinking because of boredom and high-intensity drinking increased with age. Drinking because it tastes good had a weak association with high-intensity drinking. Among heavy episodic drinkers, reasons for use also differentiated high-intensity drinking, with two exceptions: drinking to have a good time and to relax did not distinguish drinking 10+ drinks from drinking 5-9 drinks. Reasons for drinking are differentially associated with high-intensity drinking, compared with any other drinking and compared with lower intensity heavy drinking, across age during the transition to adulthood. Intervention programs seeking to mitigate alcohol-related harms should focus on reasons for use when they are the most developmentally salient.

  11. The intermediate polar GK Persei: An unstable relation of the X-ray and the optical intensities in a series of outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2015-03-01

    Context. GK Per is an intermediate polar that has been displaying dwarf nova outbursts since the middle of the twentieth century. Aims: I analyzed a series of such outbursts in the optical and X-ray bands. I pay attention to the relation of intensities of the optical and X-ray emissions, and its reproducibility in a series of these consecutive outbursts. Methods: This analysis uses the data from the BAT/Swift, ASM/RXTE, AAVSO, and AFOEV databases. It investigates the relation of the time evolution of the profiles of outbursts in the individual bands (hard X-ray, medium/hard X-ray, and optical). Results: This analysis shows that the X-ray intensity steeply rises only in the start of the optical outburst and steeply declines only when the optical outburst comes to its end. However, the 1.5-50 keV band intensity saturates and balances on a plateau during the outburst. (The longer the outburst, the longer its plateau.) The peak X-ray intensities of this series display a significantly narrower range than the optical ones (a factor of about two versus a factor of about eight). This implies a discrepancy between the mass flow through the disk and the production of the X-ray emission via bremsstrahlung at the polar caps of the white dwarf. This discrepancy is the largest in the time of the peak optical intensity when the whole disk (or at least its inner part) is in the hot state and the flow of matter through the disk is the greatest. This study shows that a series of outbursts constitutes more general properties of this discrepancy. I argue that the saturation of the X-ray luminosity in outburst cannot be caused by a dominant increase in X-ray absorption. In the interpretation, large structural changes of the accreting regions at the magnetic poles of the white dwarf occur during the outburst. A buried shock proposed by some authors for polars is also promising for explaining the X-ray light curves of outbursts of GK Per. This research made use of the BAT/Swift, ASM

  12. Fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deozyglucose positron emission tomography in recurrent rectal cancer: relation to tumour size and cellularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kengo; Kato, Takashi; Ohta, Tyohiro; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Nishino, Masanari; Ishigaki, Takeo; Ito, Katsuiki; Gambhir, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography in patients with recurrent rectal cancer, in relation to tumour size and cellularity. Thirty-seven patients (21 mean and 16 women; mean age, 55.4±9.58 years) with suspected recurrence of rectal cancer were studied. FDG uptake was quantified by the differential absorption ratio (DAR). In 29 patients magnetic resonance imaging was also performed. To evaluate the signal intensity of the lesion, the lesion to muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) were calculated on T2-weighted images. In seven patients who received surgical treatment the DAR and SIR were compared with the tumour cellularity. All 32 patients with confirmed recurrence showed increased FDG accumulation in the mass (DAR=4.57±1.89) in comparison with low FDG accumulation in five patients with scar (DAR=1.17±0.43). There was a significant correlation (r=0.661, P<0.001) between the DAR and the tumour diameter. There was no correlation between the DAR and SIR, whereas there was a significant correlation (r=0.565, P<0.01) between the DAR corrected using count recovery coefficient (DAR*) and SIR. In the histopathological findings there was a tendency for the DAR* and SIR to correlate with tumour cellularity. It is concluded that the DAR of recurrent rectal cancer should be evaluated taking into consideration the tumour size and cellularity. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    period a sudden decrease in stem diameter was observed, which we hypothesize could either indicate a decrease in the pressure of living cells in connection with stem VOC emissions, or result mechanically from exudation of oleoresin from the stem. We also found that the stem water stores and xylem water transport capacity increased during periods of VOC emissions, which indicates xylem embolism refilling during times of VOC emissions. A qualitative difference was found between VOC emissions from pine stem and thick branches, the stem emissions containing more sesquiterpenes. Most of the tree biomass is in the lower part of the stem, and as stem tissues are lacking green photosynthesizing tissue the emissions are supposed to be related to damage. Our results show that emissions from tree stems are connected to the tree water relations and that they are important during the period when the foliage still is rather inactive.

  14. Relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation in Singapore during 1980-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    Observed studies on inter-annual variation of precipitation provide insight into the response of precipitation to anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability. Inter-annual variation of precipitation results from the concurrent variations of precipitation frequency and intensity, understanding of the relative importance of frequency and intensity in the variability of precipitation can help fathom its changing properties. Investigation of the long-term changes of precipitation schemes has been extensively carried out in many regions across the world, however, detailed studies of the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation are still limited, especially in the tropics. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive framework to investigate the inter-annual variation of precipitation and the dominance of precipitation frequency and intensity in a tropical urban city-state, Singapore, based on long-term (1980-2013) daily precipitation series from 22 rain gauges. First, an iterative Mann-Kendall trend test method is applied to detect long-term trends in precipitation total, frequency and intensity at both annual and seasonal time scales. Then, the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inducing the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation total is analyzed using a dominance analysis method based on linear regression. The results show statistically significant upward trends in wet-day precipitation total, frequency and intensity at annual time scale, however, these trends are not evident during the monsoon seasons. The inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation intensity for most of the stations at annual time scale and during the Northeast monsoon season. However, during the Southwest monsoon season, the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation frequency. These results have

  15. On the multiphoton emission during U.V. and X-ray absorption by atoms in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, L.C.M.

    1981-09-01

    A discussion of the u.v. and x-ray absorption cross section by a hydrogen atom in the presence of an intense i.r. laser field is presented, taking into account the influence of laser field on the electronic states. (Author) [pt

  16. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Kotwicki: Relative light intensity collected during bottom trawl surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Assessing the effect of light intensity and light penetration on the distributionand behavior of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the eastern Bering Sea and...

  17. Laser polarization dependence of proton emission from a thin foil target irradiated by a 70 fs, intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumi, A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Daido, H.; Li, Z.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Kado, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, M.; Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.; Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Nayuki, T.; Fujii, T.; Noda, A.; Nakamura, S.

    2005-01-01

    A study of proton emission from a 3-μm-thick Ta foil target irradiated by p-, s-, and circularly polarized laser pulses with respect to the target plane has been carried out. Protons with energies up to 880 keV were observed in the target normal direction under the irradiation by the p-polarized laser pulse, which yielded the highest efficiency for proton emission. In contrast, s- and circularly polarized laser pulses gave the maximum energies of 610 and 680 keV, respectively. The difference in the maximum energy between the p- and s-polarized cases was associated with the difference between the sheath fields estimated from electron spectra

  18. Intense luminescence emission from rare-earth-doped MoO3 nanoplates and lamellar crystals for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M; Díaz-Guerra, C; Jerez, D; Piqueras, J; Lorenz, K; Alves, E

    2014-01-01

    Strong and stable room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) emission is achieved in MoO 3 nanoplates and lamellar crystals doped with Er and Eu by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Micro-Raman and PL spectroscopy reveal that optical activation of the rare earth ions and recovery of the original MoO 3 structure are achieved for shorter annealing treatments and for lower temperatures in nanoplates, as compared with lamellar crystals. Er seems to be more readily incorporated into optically active sites in the oxide lattice than Eu. The influence of the dimensionality of the host sample on the characteristics of the PL emission of both rare earth dopants is addressed. (paper)

  19. Memory in relation to depth of sedation in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Karin; Lundberg, Dag; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between memory and intensive care sedation. Design and setting: Prospective cohort study over 18 months in two general intensive care units (ICUs) in district university hospitals. Patients: 313 intubated mechanically ventilated adults admitted for more than 24 h, 250 of whom completed the study. Measurements: Patients (n = 250) were interviewed in the ward 5 days after discharge from the ICU using the ICU Memory Tool. Patient characteristics, doses ...

  20. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Dosio, Alessandro; Camia, Andrea; Hobourg, Rasmus; Houston-Durrant, Tracy; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Krasovskii, Andrey A.; Marcolla, Barbara; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Ward, Daniel S.; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  1. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  2. Is an increased elderly population related to decreased CO2 emissions from road transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the potential effects of an increase in the share of aged population on the environmental impacts of road transportation. In order to fill this gap in the literature, this paper empirically analyzes whether there is a relationship between the share of aged population and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from road transportation by applying a quadratic function. Using international panel data, it also addresses the level of the turning point in the relationships between the share of aged population and CO 2 emissions. The analysis in this paper uses a first-order differential equation to estimate an inverted U-shaped relationship between them in order to alleviate the unit roots issue. The results from 25 OECD countries, consisting mainly of European countries and Japan, indicate that there is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of aged population, and that the turning point is around 16 percent. The results also imply that a relative increase in the number of elderly people is associated with a decrease in CO 2 emissions per capita from the road sector when the share of aged population reaches more than 16 percent. - Highlights: ► I estimate the relationship between a country's share of elderly population and CO 2 emissions from road transport. ► In order to alleviate the unit roots issue, the analysis uses a first-order differential equation to estimate models. ► There is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of elderly. ► The level of the turning point in terms of the share of elderly in OECD European countries and Japan is around 16 percent.

  3. X-ray emission from high-intensity interaction of picosecond and subnanosecond laser pulses with solid targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Jabloňski, S.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Vankov, A. B.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Juha, Libor; Krása, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2002), s. 41-46 ISSN 0078-5466 Grant - others:KBN(PL) 2PO3B08219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : soft x-ray emission * laser produced plasma * 1-ps and 0.5ns laser pulses Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.291, year: 2002

  4. Decreased waterborne pathogenic bacteria in an urban aquifer related to intense shallow geothermal exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Gasco-Cavero, Samanta; Garrido, Eduardo; Mejías, Miguel; Epting, Jannis; Navarro-Elipe, Mercedes; Alejandre, Carmen; Sevilla-Alcaine, Elena

    2018-08-15

    The implications of intensive use of shallow geothermal energy resources in shallow urban aquifers are still not known for waterborne pathogens relevant to human health. Firstly, we hypothesized that waterborne enteric pathogens would be relatively increased in heated groundwater plumes. To prove this, microbiological sampling of 31 piezometers covering the domain of an urban groundwater body affected by microbiological contamination and energetically exploited by 70 groundwater heat pump systems was performed. Mean differences of pathogenic bacteria contents between impacted and non-impacted monitoring points were assessed with a two-tailed independent Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Surprisingly, the results obtained revealed a significant and generalized decrease in waterborne pathogen contents in thermally impacted piezometers compared to that of non-impacted piezometers. This decrease is hypothesized to be caused by a heat shock to bacteria within the heat exchangers. The statistically significant negative correlations obtained between waterborne pathogen counts and temperature could be explained by the spatial distribution of the bacteria, finding that bacteria start to recover with increasing distance from the injection point. Also, different behavior groups fitting exponential regression models were found for the bacteria species studied, justified by the different presence and influence of several aquifer parameters and major, minor and trace elements studied, as well as the coexistence with other bacteria species. The results obtained from this work reinforce the concept of shallow geothermal resources as a clean energy source, as they could also provide the basis to control the pathogenic bacteria contents in groundwater bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous Eddy Covariance Measurements of N2O Emissions and Controls from an Intensively Grazed Dairy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L. A.; Liang, L. L.; Wall, A.; Campbell, D.

    2017-12-01

    New Zealand's greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is disproportionally dominated by methane and nitrous oxide which account for 54% of emissions. These GHGs are derived from pastoral agriculture that supports dairying and meat production. To date, most studies on quantifying or mitigating agricultural N2O emissions have used flux chamber measurements. Recent advances in detector technology now means that routine field-to-farm scale measurements of N2O emissions might be possible using the eddy covariance technique. In late 2016, we established an eddy covariance tower that measured N2O emissions from a dairy farm under year-round grazing. An Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to measure N2O, CH4 and H2O concentration at 10 Hz and housed in a weatherproof and insulated enclosure (0.9 m ´ 1.2 m) and powered by mains power (240 VAC). The enclosure maintained a stable setpoint temperature (30±0.2°C) by using underground cooling pipes, fans and recirculating instrument heat. QCL (true 10 Hz digital) and CSAT3B sonic anemometer high frequency data are aligned using Network Time Protocol and EddyPro covariance maximisation during flux processing. Fluxes generally integrated over about 6-8 ha. Stable summertime baseline N2O fluxes (FN2O) were around 12-24 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1 (0.5-1.0 nmol N2O m-2 s-1). Grazing by cows during dry summer resulted in only modest increases in FN2O to 24-48 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1 (1.0-2.0 nmol N2O m-2 s-1). However, the first rain events after grazing resulted in large, short-lived (1-3 days) FN2O pulses reaching peaks of 144-192 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1 (6-8 nmol N2O m-2 s-1). During these elevated N2O emissions, FN2O displayed a significant diurnal signal, with peak fluxes mid-afternoon which was best explained by variation in shallow soil temperature in summer. In winter (both cooler and wetter) FN2O were not as easily explained on a daily basis but were generally greater than summer. Throughout the year, FN2O was strongly dependent on water filled

  6. Intensive care delirium - effect on memories and health-related quality of life - a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Tønnesen, Else K; Videbech, Poul

    2013-01-01

    after intensive care unit. Interviews were repeated after two and six months and supplemented with Short Form-36 and the Barthel Index. RESULTS: Delirium was detected in 60% of the patients in our study, and delirious patients had significantly fewer factual memories and more memories of delusion than...... than half of the patients in intensive care unit experience delirium, which is associated with fewer factual memories and more memories of delusions. Short Form-36 might not be sensitive to delirium-related outcomes. Future research should include the development of better assessment tools to determine...... the long-term consequences of intensive care unit delirium. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: We recommend regular assessment to prevent, detect and treat delirium. We also recommend an intensive care unit follow-up programme providing an opportunity for postintensive care unit patients, particularly...

  7. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  8. Multi-parameter spectroscopy of fission fragments and related emission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, A.; Jahnke, U.

    1993-01-01

    An exclusive measurement of the 252 C f(sf) fragment distribution in mass and energy in coincidence with the related emission products by combining a twin ionization chamber with a 4π-neutron tank, a n-γ-detector, and a solid-state detector telescope is presented. The experimental set-up, data handling and acquisition is described followed by a discussion of the raw data evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Method for Correction of Consequences of Radiation-Induced Heart Disease using Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Emission under Experimental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavrina, A P; Monich, V A; Malinovskaya, S L; Yakovleva, E I; Bugrova, M L; Lazukin, V F

    2015-05-01

    Effects of successive exposure to ionizing irradiation and low-intensity broadband red light on electrical activity of the heart and myocardium microstructure were studied in rats. Lowintensity red light corrected some ECG parameters, in particular, it normalized QT and QTc intervals and voltage of R and T waves. Changes in ECG parameters were followed by alterations in microstructure of muscle fi laments in the myocardium of treatment group animals comparing to control group.

  10. Iron solubility related to particle sulfur content in source emission and ambient fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, M; Ingall, E D; Lai, B; Shafer, M M; Hays, M D; Liu, Z G; Russell, A G; Weber, R J

    2012-06-19

    The chemical factors influencing iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) were investigated in source emission (e.g., biomass burning, coal fly ash, mineral dust, and mobile exhaust) and ambient (Atlanta, GA) fine particles (PM2.5). Chemical properties (speciation and mixing state) of iron-containing particles were characterized using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements. Bulk iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) of the samples was quantified by leaching experiments. Major differences were observed in iron solubility in source emission samples, ranging from low solubility (iron solubility did not correspond to silicon content or Fe(II) content. However, source emission and ambient samples with high iron solubility corresponded to the sulfur content observed in single particles. A similar correspondence between bulk iron solubility and bulk sulfate content in a series of Atlanta PM2.5 fine particle samples (N = 358) further supported this trend. In addition, results of linear combination fitting experiments show the presence of iron sulfates in several high iron solubility source emission and ambient PM2.5 samples. These results suggest that the sulfate content (related to the presence of iron sulfates and/or acid-processing mechanisms by H(2)SO(4)) of iron-containing particles is an important proxy for iron solubility.

  11. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  13. Relation between gamma-ray emission, radio bursts, and proton fluxes from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, V.V.; Chertok, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Data on solar gamma-ray flares, including 24 flares with gamma-ray lines, recorded up to June 1982, are analyzed. It is shown that from the point of view of radio emission the differences between flares with and without gamma-ray lines has a purely quantitative character: the former are accompanied by the most intense microwave bursts. Meter type II bursts are not a distinctive feature of flares with gamma-ray lines. Pulsed flares, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma-ray lines, are not accompanied by significant proton fluxes at the earth. On the whole, contrary to the popular opinion in the literature, flares with gamma-ray lines do not display a deficit of proton flux in interplanetary space in comparison with similar flares without gamma-ray lines. The results of quantitative diagnostics of proton flares based on radio bursts are not at variance with the presence of flares without detectable gamma-ray emission in lines but with a pronounced increase in the proton flux at the earth. 23 references

  14. International distortions of competition under emissions trading due to differences in national permit allocation. Theory and empirical analysis of the EU-energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockhagen, D.

    2004-03-01

    The first part develops a theory of distortions of competition among competing firms, induced by differences in the method and/or stringency of national allocation of greenhouse gas emission permits in an international emissions trading system. By applying neoclassical theory on output optimisation, price setting and other factors such as R and D expenditures, five potentially distorting effects are identified for perfect and imperfect markets,. The second part develops economic indicators and a two tier approach, which can be applied empirically, in order to test whether an industry is vulnerable to the potential effects found before. The third part applies the two tier approach empirically to four sectors of the energy intensive industry in the EU: steel making, cement, oil refining and electricity generation. The steel industry is the most vulnerable industry, followed by oil refining, whereas cement and electricity are not vulnerable. At a permit price of 20 euros/ton CO 2 , and with national allocations that differ more than 40% in terms of allowed emissions per ton product output, this thesis predicts that some steel makers would be forced out of the market. (author)

  15. Simulating secondary organic aerosol from missing diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound emissions during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ots

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present high-resolution (5 km  ×  5 km atmospheric chemical transport model (ACTM simulations of the impact of newly estimated traffic-related emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation over the UK for 2012. Our simulations include additional diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound (IVOC emissions derived directly from comprehensive field measurements at an urban background site in London during the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo campaign. Our IVOC emissions are added proportionally to VOC emissions, as opposed to proportionally to primary organic aerosol (POA as has been done by previous ACTM studies seeking to simulate the effects of these missing emissions. Modelled concentrations are evaluated against hourly and daily measurements of organic aerosol (OA components derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements also made during the ClearfLo campaign at three sites in the London area. According to the model simulations, diesel-related IVOCs can explain on average  ∼  30 % of the annual SOA in and around London. Furthermore, the 90th percentile of modelled daily SOA concentrations for the whole year is 3.8 µg m−3, constituting a notable addition to total particulate matter. More measurements of these precursors (currently not included in official emissions inventories is recommended. During the period of concurrent measurements, SOA concentrations at the Detling rural background location east of London were greater than at the central London location. The model shows that this was caused by an intense pollution plume with a strong gradient of imported SOA passing over the rural location. This demonstrates the value of modelling for supporting the interpretation of measurements taken at different sites or for short durations.

  16. Intense blue upconversion emission and intrinsic optical bistability in Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+ tridoped YVO4 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manglesh; Mondal, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Lakshmi; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+:yttrium metavanadate (YVO4) phosphors prepared through chemical coprecipitation and the solid state reaction method have been structurally characterized by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Photoluminescence study of the developed phosphors under ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) excitation has been performed. The excitation spectrum of the tetragonal zircon type YVO4 phosphors corresponding to the emission at ˜476 nm exhibits a broad excitation peak in the 250-350 nm region, which is due to charge distribution in the {{{{VO}}}4}3- group. Under 980 nm CW diode laser excitation, enhancements of about ˜3000 times and ˜40 times have been observed for the blue band in the tridoped Tm3+Yb3+Zn2+:YVO4 phosphors compared to those of the Tm3+:YVO4 singly and Tm3+/Yb3+:YVO4 codoped phosphors, respectively. A downconversion (DC) emission study shows an enhancement of about ˜50 times for the blue band in the tridoped phosphors compared to that of the singly doped phosphors. Optical bistability (OB) behavior of the developed phosphors has been also investigated upon 980 nm excitation. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (CIE) color coordinates lie in the blue region with 96.5% color purity under 980 nm excitation, having a color temperature of ˜3400 K. Our observations show that the developed phosphors may be suitably used in dual mode luminescence spectroscopy, display devices, and UV LED chips.

  17. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile δ13CH4 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Crosson, E.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.

    2013-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the δ13CH4 signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of mobile field δ13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to arrive at an overall isotope ratio for the region. (left panel) Distribution of oil and gas well pads (yellow) and landfills (blue) in the Dallas / Ft. Worth area. Mobile nocturnal measurements

  18. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These

  19. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  20. Tritium solid targets for intense D-T neutron production and its related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    This review paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, to attain an intense neutron production rate, the construction of a design with a higher tritium-containing surface and an effective cooling system like a rotating target device are discussed. The maximum attainable intensity based on tritium solid targets shall be estimated regarding planning for future D-T sources. Secondly, on the way to carry out some experiments, an absolute intensity calibration and an angular dependent neutron energy spectrum of the neutron source are essential parameters to analyse the results of the experiments. Sometimes the space dependent neutron spectrum is required as well as the space dependent neutron flux near the targets and irradiation samples. The measurement methods and their examples are reviewed for tritium solid targets. The third part is devoted to discuss the protection to tritium contamination problems due to unavoidable release of tritium gas from targets. Performance and effectiveness of tritium collection systems for intense D-T neutron sources shall be discussed in some examples. Tritium contamination incidents due to the faulted film powder of target surface are also reported in some real incident cases. (author). Abstract only

  1. Suppression of Helicobacter pylori infection during intensive care stay: related to stress ulcer bleeding incidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, P. H.; van der Hulst, R. W.; Zandstra, D. F.; Geraedts, A. A.; van der Ende, A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of active Helicobacter pylori infection in patients admitted to the intensive care unit, to determine the effect of selective gut decontamination on the persistence of this organism, and to explore the possible relationship between H. pylori infection and stress

  2. Energy and environmental policies relating to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions mitigation and energy conservation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.T.

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are becoming significant energy and environmental issues relating to energy consumption in Taiwan. The nation, although not a party to the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol, has diligently strived to mitigate the emissions and phase out use of the responsible materials. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are now mostly used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, are the main GHGs associated with strong global warming potential. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the industrial/commercial uses of HFCs in Taiwan. Because of their high impacts on climate change, the description is then centered on estimating the potential emissions of HFCs according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and the governmental organizations responses to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The regulatory systems relating to HFCs mitigation and energy conservation and energy policies and promotion measures for providing technological assistances and financial incentives in the energy management, resource recovery and HFCs reduction/recycling technologies are also addressed in the paper

  3. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha. These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites. For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century, and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data.

  4. Exploring driving factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in Chinese provinces: A case of Liaoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Yong; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Zhu; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Xi, Fengming

    2013-01-01

    In order to uncover driving forces for provincial CO 2 emission in China, a case study was undertaken to shed light on the CO 2 emission growth in such a region. Liaoning province was selected due to its typical features as one industrial province. The environmental input–output analysis and structure decomposing analysis have been conducted in order to provide a holistic picture on Liaoning's CO 2 emissions during 1997–2007. Research outcomes indicate that rapid increase of per capita consumption activities is the main driver for Liaoning to have a significant CO 2 emission growth, followed by consumption structure, production structure and population size. Energy intensity and energy structure partly offset the CO 2 emission increase. Electricity power and heat supply and construction sectors caused the most CO 2 emission, indicating that more specific mitigation policies for these two sectors should be prepared. From final demand point of view, it is clear that trade plays a leading role in regional CO 2 emission, followed by fixed capital investment and urban household consumption which become increasingly important over time. Consequently, in order to realize low carbon development, local governments should consider all these factors so that appropriate mitigation policies can be raised by considering the local realities. - Highlights: • Driving forces for Liaoning's CO 2 emission have been uncovered through the use of IO-SDA model. • Construction and electricity power/heat supply sectors have the highest embodied emissions. • Trade plays a key role on regional CO 2 emission in Chinese old industrial base. • Fixed capital investment and urban households generated more CO 2 emissions

  5. Forecasting Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Employing a Novel SSA-LSSVM Model: Considering Structural Factors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions forecasting is becoming more important due to increasing climatic problems, which contributes to developing scientific climate policies and making reasonable energy plans. Considering that the influential factors of CO2 emissions are multiplex and the relationships between factors and CO2 emissions are complex and non-linear, a novel CO2 forecasting model called SSA-LSSVM, which utilizes the Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA to optimize the two parameters of the least squares support sector machine (LSSVM model, is proposed in this paper. The influential factors of CO2 emissions, including the gross domestic product (GDP, population, energy consumption, economic structure, energy structure, urbanization rate, and energy intensity, are regarded as the input variables of the SSA-LSSVM model. The proposed model is verified to show a better forecasting performance compared with the selected models, including the single LSSVM model, the LSSVM model optimized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-LSSVM, and the back propagation (BP neural network model, on CO2 emissions in China from 2014 to 2016. The comparative analysis indicates the SSA-LSSVM model is greatly superior and has the potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of CO2 emissions forecasting. CO2 emissions in China from 2017 to 2020 are forecast combined with the 13th Five-Year Plan for social, economic and energy development. The comparison of CO2 emissions of China in 2020 shows that structural factors significantly affect CO2 emission forecasting results. The average annual growth of CO2 emissions slows down significantly due to a series of policies and actions taken by the Chinese government, which means China can keep the promise that greenhouse gas emissions will start to drop after 2030.

  6. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Eglington

    Full Text Available Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

  7. 20 CFR 652.208 - How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described in § 652.207(b)(2)? 652.208 Section 652.208 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND...

  8. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  9. The Impact of Intensive Vocation-Related Course Taking on Employment Outcomes for Individuals Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Wendel, Erica M.; Bond, Mark P.; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who are deaf have historically faced significant obstacles to equity in employment. This secondary analysis of data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2) examined (a) intensive vocation-related courses taken by students who are deaf and (b) their impact on long-term employment outcomes. Deaf students in general…

  10. Electronic diary assessment of pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Peters, M.L.; Patijn, J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vlaeyen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in daily life in patients with chronic low back pain. An experience sampling methodology was used in which electronic diary data were collected by means of palmtop computers from 40

  11. Importance of Sulfate Aerosol in Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Regional Emissions to the Historical Global Temperature Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronova, N.; Schlesinger, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol the delegation of Brazil presented an approach for distributing the burden of emissions reductions among the Parties based on the effect of their cumulative historical emissions on the global-average near-surface temperature. The Letter to the Parties does not limit the emissions to be considered to be only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, in this paper we explore the importance of anthropogenic SOx emissions that are converted to sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere, together with the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions, in attributing historical temperature change. We use historical emissions and our simple climate model to estimate the relative contributions to global warming of the regional emissions by four Parties: OECD90, Africa and Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Our results show that for most Parties the large warming contributed by their GHG emissions is largely offset by the correspondingly large cooling by their SOx emissions. Thus, OECD90 has become the dominant contributor to recent global warming following its large reduction in SOx emissions after 1980

  12. World relation per capita between income and emission of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Artico Bigarani1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to verify the existence of relation per capita between emission of carbon dioxide and the growth of the income. The used methodology is the exploratory analysis of space data for the years of 1994 and 2009. By means of maps and of the Index of Moran one searched to observe the existence of space autocorrelation enters carbonic gas emission the per capita and per capita Gross domestic product of the countries of the Europe and Africa and to verify the space existence of clusters. The analysis of the results presented significant space autocorrelation between the studied variable and allowed the space identification of clusters in the Europe and Africa. The conclusion confirms the theory of the Curve of Ambient Kuznets and also it was identified that the protocol of Kyoto was capable to promote alterations in univariate clusters analyzed in the period.

  13. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  14. Commentary Relative to the Emission Spectrum of the Solar Atmosphere: Further Evidence for a Distinct Solar Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The chromosphere and corona of the Sun represent tenuous regions which are characterized by numerous optically thin emission lines in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. When observed from the center of the solar disk outward, these emission lines experience modest brightening as the limb is approached. The intensity of many ultraviolet and X-ray emission lines nearly doubles when observation is extended just beyond the edge of the disk. These findings indicate that the solar body is opaque in this frequency range and that an approximately two fold greater region of the solar atmosphere is being sampled outside the limb. These observations provide strong support for the presence of a distinct solar surface. Therefore, the behavior of the emission lines in this frequency range constitutes the twenty fifth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter

  15. Dynamics of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980-2002: the relative importance of energy supply-side and demand-side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, Shinji; Matsuoka, Shunji

    2006-01-01

    Based on a newly developed model that integrates energy production, transformation and consumption processes, this paper compares the relative importance of some traditionally recognized factors operating on the energy demand side with a body of newly defined factors on the supply side, in terms of their contribution to trends in China's CO 2 emissions related to the total primary energy supply (C-TPES). Before 1996, changes in China's C-TPES were mainly driven by changes on the energy demand side. Factors operating on the energy supply side played trivial roles. During the period 1996-2000, however, increasing demand-side effects declined dramatically and at the same time decreasing effects from supply side expanded significantly. Such changes resulted directly in a decline in the C-TPES. The decreasing effects from international trade as well as statistical imbalances between supply and demand reinforced the declining trend. The shrinkage of demand side effects mainly arose from the slowdown of economic growth and speed of decrease in energy intensity. The expansion of supply-side effects was principally attributed to the speed of decrease in gross unit consumption in transformation sectors, especially in electricity sector. Therefore, the acceleration of efficiency improvements in end-use and transformation sectors accounted for the decline in the C-TPES over the period 1996-2000. (author)

  16. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Anne Sofie Bøgh; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2016-01-01

    , the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive...... antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development...

  17. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Heymach, John V.; Fossella, Frank V. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Omitting elective nodal irradiation from planning target volumes does not compromise outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, but whether the same is true for those with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to determine the clinical outcomes and the frequency of elective nodal failure in patients with LS-SCLC staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with involved-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2008, 60 patients with LS-SCLC at our institution underwent disease staging using positron emission tomography/computed tomography before treatment using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan in which elective nodal irradiation was intentionally omitted from the planning target volume (mode and median dose, 45 Gy in 30 fractions; range, 40.5 Gy in 27 fractions to 63.8 Gy in 35 fractions). In most cases, concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy was administered. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes to determine the overall survival, relapse-free survival, and failure patterns. Elective nodal failure was defined as recurrence in initially uninvolved hilar, mediastinal, or supraclavicular nodes. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median age of the study patients at diagnosis was 63 years (range, 39-86). The median follow-up duration was 21 months (range, 4-58) in all patients and 26 months (range, 4-58) in the survivors. The 2-year actuarial overall survival and relapse-free survival rate were 58% and 43%, respectively. Of the 30 patients with recurrence, 23 had metastatic disease and 7 had locoregional failure. We observed only one isolated elective nodal failure. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the outcomes in patients with LS-SCLC staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with definitive intensity

  18. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Heymach, John V.; Fossella, Frank V.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Omitting elective nodal irradiation from planning target volumes does not compromise outcomes in patients with non–small-cell lung cancer, but whether the same is true for those with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to determine the clinical outcomes and the frequency of elective nodal failure in patients with LS-SCLC staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with involved-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2008, 60 patients with LS-SCLC at our institution underwent disease staging using positron emission tomography/computed tomography before treatment using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan in which elective nodal irradiation was intentionally omitted from the planning target volume (mode and median dose, 45 Gy in 30 fractions; range, 40.5 Gy in 27 fractions to 63.8 Gy in 35 fractions). In most cases, concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy was administered. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes to determine the overall survival, relapse-free survival, and failure patterns. Elective nodal failure was defined as recurrence in initially uninvolved hilar, mediastinal, or supraclavicular nodes. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median age of the study patients at diagnosis was 63 years (range, 39–86). The median follow-up duration was 21 months (range, 4–58) in all patients and 26 months (range, 4–58) in the survivors. The 2-year actuarial overall survival and relapse-free survival rate were 58% and 43%, respectively. Of the 30 patients with recurrence, 23 had metastatic disease and 7 had locoregional failure. We observed only one isolated elective nodal failure. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the outcomes in patients with LS-SCLC staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with definitive

  19. Study related to the generation of the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oklah, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will answer on the following question: Are there any conditions on the chemical potential and temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when generating the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas, and will the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas be a Gibbs-process. The study shows that there should be no conditions on the chemical potential and thermodynamical temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when we generate the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas except that the fundamental conditions, the chemical potential is negative and the inverse temperature is positive. Thus the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas may only be a Gibbs-process, in the special case when the thermodynamical temperature of the ideal BOSE gas tends to the absolute zero. (author)

  20. Relative contributions of local wind and topography to the coastal upwelling intensity in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Hu, Jianyu; Chen, Ju; Zhuang, Wei; Zu, TingTing; Xu, Jindian

    2014-04-01

    Topographically induced upwelling caused by the interaction between large-scale currents and topography was observed during four cruises in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) when the upwelling favorable wind retreated. Using a high-resolution version of the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigate relative contributions of local wind and topography to the upwelling intensity in the NSCS. The results show that the topographically induced upwelling is sensitive to alongshore large-scale currents, which have an important contribution to the upwelling intensity. The topographically induced upwelling is comparable with the wind-driven upwelling at surface and has a stronger contribution to the upwelling intensity than the local wind does at bottom in the near-shore shelf region. The widened shelf to the southwest of Shanwei and west of the Taiwan Banks intensifies the bottom friction, especially off Shantou, which is a key factor for topographically induced upwelling in terms of bottom Ekman transport and Ekman pumping. The local upwelling favorable wind enhances the bottom friction as well as net onshore transport along the 50 m isobath, whereas it has less influence along the 30 m isobath. This implies the local wind is more important in upwelling intensity in the offshore region than in the nearshore region. The contribution of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity is comparable with that of topography along the 50 m isobath. The effects of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity are twofold: on one hand, the wind transports surface warm water offshore, and as a compensation of mass the bottom current transports cold water onshore; on the other hand, the wind enhances the coastal current, and the bottom friction in turn increases the topographically induced upwelling intensity.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions related to landscape elements in the subarctic environment at Churchill, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, J.; Tenuta, M.; Bello, R.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, landscape elements and major environmental regulators was studied. The hydrologic regimes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands are expected to change along with the extent of permafrost and composition of vegetation due to increased levels of GHGs associated with global warming. Two transects were created at a Polygonized-Peat Plateau (PPP) and a Spruce Forest (SF) site in 2005. A sub-set on 4 dominant landscape elements of each transect were used to estimate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitric oxide (N 2 O) on a weekly basis from June to August. In order to obtain a good sampling representation of environmental conditions and of the gradients in plant communities, the entire transect at PPP was sampled monthly. In order to examine the role of soil conditions on the production and consumption of GHG leading to surface fluxes, soil gas samplers were installed at 2 depths at both sites. N 2 O production and consumption were found to be inconsequential at both sites. However, high methane emissions were observed when the volumetric moisture content (VMC) rose higher than 80 per cent at the edge of the ponds. Methane consumption was found to be related to low VMC values (20-40 per cent) for the tops of peat polygons. Soil atmosphere concentrations for CO 2 and CH 4 at PPP were typically much higher at depths of 23-32 cm compared to depths of 5-9 cm. Some of the wettest landscape elements had very high CH 4 content, but had no corresponding CH 4 flux from the soil surface, suggesting that the gas was consumed under aerobic conditions at the soil surface. It was concluded that GHG emissions from both sites were altered by both landscape elements and environmental regulators such as temperature and moisture. Future work will focus on identifying the association of these relationships to processes responsible for GHG emissions in subarctic environments. The impact of global warming on these

  2. The relation between intensity and complexity of coronary artery lesion and oxidative stress in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Turhan; Menteşe, Ümit; Ağaç, Mustafa Tarık; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Kul, Selim; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Bektaş, Hüseyin; Korkmaz, Levent; Öztaş Menteşe, Seda; Dursun, İhsan; Çelik, Şükrü

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between oxidative stress and complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease is less clear. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between oxidative stress markers and the complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty-seven consecutive patients with an early phase of ACS (=22). Likewise patients were divided into two CAD severity groups according to the median Gensini score of 64: less intensive CAD with Gensini score (=64. Blood samples were taken in 1 hour within administration in order to measure total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by Erel method. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by TOS /TAC. There was no significant difference between the two SYNTAX groups for oxidative stress markers. Median TOS and OSI values were significantly high in the intensive CAD group (p=0.005, p=0.04, respectively). The Gensini score was positively correlated with TOS and OSI (p=0.003, p=0.02, respectively). Oxidative stress markers may be considered supportive laboratory parameters related to CAD intensity but not complexity in ACS patients.

  3. Dispersion Models to Forecast Traffic-related Emissions in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Scannapieco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Down the centuries, a direct link had been developed between increase in mobility and increase in wealth. On the other hand, air emission of greenhouse gases (GHG due to vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines can be regarded as a negative pressure over the environment. In the coming decades, road transport is likely to remain a significant contributor to air pollution in cities. Many urban trips cover distances of less than 6 km. Since the effectiveness of catalytic converters in the initial minutes of engine operation is small, the average emission per distance driven is very high in urban areas. Also, poorly maintained vehicles that lack exhaust aftertreatment systems are responsible for a major part of pollutant emissions. Therefore in urban areas, where higher concentrations of vehicles can be easily found, air pollution represents a critical issue, being it related with both environment and human health protection: in truth, research in recent decades consistently indicates the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on human health, and the evidence points to air pollution stemming from transport as an important contributor to these effects. Several institutions (EEA, USEPA, etc. focused their interest in dispersion models because of their potential effectiveness to forecast atmospheric pollution. Furthermore, air micropollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAH and Metallic Trace Elements (MTE are traffic-related and although very low concentrations their dispersion is a serious issue. However, dispersion models are usefully implemented to better manage this estimation problem. Nonetheless, policy makers and land managers have to deal with model selection, taking into account that several dispersion models are available, each one of them focused on specific goals (e.g., wind transport of pollutants, land morphology implementation, evaluation of micropollutants transport, etc.; a further aspect to be considered is

  4. Efficiency and abatement costs of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: A slacks-based efficiency measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yongrok; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We employ a slacks-based DEA model to estimate the energy efficiency and shadow prices of CO 2 emissions in China. ► The empirical study shows that China was not performing CO 2 -efficiently. ► The average of estimated shadow prices of CO 2 emissions is about $7.2. -- Abstract: This paper uses nonparametric efficiency analysis technique to estimate the energy efficiency, potential emission reductions and marginal abatement costs of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China. We employ a non-radial slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for estimating the potential reductions and efficiency of CO 2 emissions for China. The dual model of the slacks-based DEA model is then used to estimate the marginal abatement costs of CO 2 emissions. An empirical study based on China’s panel data (2001–2010) is carried out and some policy implications are also discussed.

  5. Are greenhouse gas emissions and cognitive skills related? Cross-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanbayev, Bekhzod; Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Lynn, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Are greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and cognitive skills (CS) related? We attempt to answer this question by exploring this relationship, using cross-country data for 150 countries, for the period 1997-2012. After controlling for the level of economic development, quality of political regimes, population size and a number of other controls, we document that CS robustly predict GHG. In particular, when CS at a national level increase by one standard deviation, the average annual rate of air pollution changes by nearly 1.7% (slightly less than one half of a standard deviation). This significance holds for a number of robustness checks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Become Related: FIAS, an Intensive Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Kievit, Esther; Spiegel, René; Dima, Diana; Goth, Kirstin; Schmeck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), impairments in fundamental social abilities and a lack of interest in social stimuli become apparent early in life. These impairments are thought to negatively affect further brain and behavioural development. Early intensive interventions can help to attenuate social-development and other risk factors and, thus, to ameliorate the deficits associated with ASDs. We present FIAS, an intensive early intervention approach for young children with ASD, which aims at developing children's social motivation. During 18 days, therapists work continuously for 6 h a day with the affected child, involving the whole family in a day care setting. Follow-up care at home over 1 year as well as fresh-up interventions and inclusion in kindergarten or a play group should stabilise the effects and help to respond to further challenges. Here, we present observations from the first 12 patients (25-48 months of age) treated according to the FIAS approach. We evaluated changes in core autistic symptoms and level of functioning after the 18 days of intensive intervention. Beyond standardised assessment, two innovative video-based instruments (Autism Behaviour Coding System and Evaluationsfragebogen) have been developed to assess autistic symptoms and interaction parameters during intervention. Improvements were noted in most core autistic symptom domains, with the highest effect sizes in domains like eye contact, communication, repetitive behaviour, imitation, motivation and reciprocity. In addition, the level of functioning significantly improved. The first evaluation of the FIAS approach shows promising results, as the FIAS intervention appears to improve core autistic symptom domains as well as the level of everyday functioning. Limitations of this study are the small sample size and the lack of a control group. A more comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation is in progress; this will focus on the stability of the observed effects and will attempt to

  7. Effects of competition on great and blue tit reproduction: intensity and importance in relation to habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, André A

    2010-01-01

    1. In studies on the effect of competition in plant communities two terms are used to describe its effects: the absolute reduction in growth of an individual as a consequence of the presence of another one is called intensity, while the relative impact of competition on an individual as a proportion of the impact of the whole environment is called importance. One school of thought is that the role of competition remains constant across productivity gradients, while the other is that it decreases with increasing severity. J.B. Grace (1991. A clarification of the debate between grime and tilman. Functional Ecology, 5, 583-587.) suggested that the apparent contradiction might be solved if we acknowledge that the two schools are discussing different aspects of competition: the intensity of competition might remain constant while its importance declines with increasing severity. 2. There are no studies that compare intensity and importance of competition in bird populations between areas that differ in quality or productivity and hence it is not possible to make predictions how intensity or importance of competition would vary between them. 3. I compared variation in intensity and importance of competition of three demographic variables between five plots that differ strongly in quality for great Parus major L. and blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.). 4. Both intensity and importance of competition are larger in great than in blue tit populations meaning that the effect of competition on demographic variables is stronger in great than in blue tits and that the contribution of competition to variation in these variables is relatively higher in great than in blue tits. 5. Intensity of competition is higher in low quality than in high quality plots for both species, a result not expected from studies in plant communities. 6. Importance of competition varies strongly between plots. It is larger in oak-dominated plots than in mixed deciduous plots. 7. In birds breeding density

  8. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jing; Lu Yonglong; Wang Tieyu; Giesy, John P.; Chen Chunli

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  9. Panel estimation for renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 emissions, the composite trade intensity, and financial openness of the commonwealth of independent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan; Saboori, Behnaz

    2018-04-13

    This article investigates the long-run and causal linkages between economic growth, CO 2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable (fossil fuels) energy consumption, the Composite Trade Intensity (CTI) as a proxy for trade openness, and the Chinn-Ito index as a proxy for financial openness for a panel of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan over the period of 1992-2015. It is the first time that CTI and the Chinn-Ito indexes are used in an economic-pollution model. Employing three panel unit root tests, panel cointegration estimation methods (DOLS and FMOLS), and two panel causality tests, the main empirical results provided evidence for the bidirectional long-run relationship between all the variables in all 12 sampled countries except for economic growth-renewable energy use linkage. The findings of causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional short-run panel causality running from economic growth, financial openness, and trade openness to CO 2 emissions and from fossil fuel energy consumption to renewable energy use.

  10. HONO and Inorganic Fine Particle Composition in Typical Monsoon Region with Intensive Anthropogenic Emission: In-situ Observations and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Nie, W.; Ding, A.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most typical monsoon area with probably the most largest population intensity in the world. With sharply economic development and the large anthropogenic emissions, fine particle pollution have been one of the major air quality problem and may further have impact on the climate system. Though a lot of control policy (sulfur emission have been decreasing from 2007) have been conducted in the region, studies showed the sulfate in fine particles still take major fraction as the nitrate from nitrogen oxides increased significantly. In this study, the role of inorganic chemical compositions in fine particles was investigated with two years in-situ observation. Sulfate and Nitrate contribute to fine particle mass equally in general, but sulfate contributes more during summer and nitrate played more important role in winter. Using lagrangian dispersion backward modeling and source contribution clustering method, the impact of airmass coming from different source region (industrial, dust, biogenic emissions, etc) on fine particle inorganic compositions were discussed. Furthermore, we found two unique cases showing in-situ implications for sulfate formation by nitrogen dioxide oxidation mechanisms. It was showed that the mixing of anthropogenic pollutants with long-range transported mineral dust and biomass burning plume would enhance the sulfate formation by different chemistry mechanisms. This study focus on the complex aspects of fine particle formation in airmasses from different source regions: . It highlights the effect of NOx in enhancing the atmospheric oxidization capacity and indicates a potentially very important impact of increasing NOx on air pollution formation and regional climate change in East Asia.

  11. High-intensity interval training for improving health-related fitness in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Lubans, D R

    2015-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a feasible and efficacious strategy for improving health-related fitness in young people. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the utility of HIIT to improve health-related fitness in adolescents and to identify potential moderators of training effects. Studies were considered eligible if they: (1) examined adolescents (13-18 years); (2) examined health-related fitness outcomes; (3) involved an intervention of ≥4 weeks in duration; (4) included a control or moderate intensity comparison group; and (5) prescribed high-intensity activity for the HIIT condition. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of HIIT on health-related fitness components using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software and potential moderators were explored (ie, study duration, risk of bias and type of comparison group). The effects of HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition were large, and medium, respectively. Study duration was a moderator for the effect of HIIT on body fat percentage. Intervention effects for waist circumference and muscular fitness were not statistically significant. HIIT is a feasible and time-efficient approach for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in adolescent populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Usefulness of creep work-time relation for determining stress intensity limit of high-temperature components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Ryu, Woo Seog; Lee, Kyung Yong

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine creep stress intensity limit of high-temperature components, the usefulness of the creep work and time equation, defined as W c t p = B (where W c = σ ε is the total creep work done during creep, and p and B are constants), was investigated using the experimental data. For this purpose, the creep tests for generating 1.0% strain for commercial type 316 stainless steel were conducted with different stresses; 160 MPa, 150 MPa, 145 MPa, 140 MPa and 135 MPa at 593 .deg. C. The plots of log W c - log t showed a good linear relation up to 10 5 hr, and the results of the creep work-time relation for p, B and stress intensity values showed good agreement to those of Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves (ISSC) presented in ASME BPV NH. The relation can be simply obtained with only several short-term 1% strain data without ISSC which can be obtained by long-term creep data. Particularly, this relation is useful in estimating stress intensity limit for new and emerging class of high-temperature creeping materials

  13. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koboroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development. We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  14. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboroff, A; Kaplan, G; Rogers, Lj

    2013-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian) known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development). We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping) were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  15. Memory in relation to depth of sedation in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Karin; Lundberg, Dag; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between memory and intensive care sedation. Prospective cohort study over 18[Symbol: see text]months in two general intensive care units (ICUs) in district university hospitals. 313 intubated mechanically ventilated adults admitted for more than 24 h, 250 of whom completed the study. Patients (n=250) were interviewed in the ward 5 days after discharge from the ICU using the ICU Memory Tool. Patient characteristics, doses of sedative and analgesic agents, and sedation scores as measured by the Motor Activity Assessment Scale (MAAS) were collected from hospital records after the interview. Patients with no recall (18%) were significantly older, had higher baseline severity of illness, and experienced fewer periods of wakefulness (median proportion of MAAS score 3; 0.37 vs. 0.70) than those who had memories of the ICU (82%). Multivariate analyses showed that increasing proportion of MAAS 0-2 and older age were significantly associated with having no recall. Patients with delusional memories (34%) had significantly longer ICU stay (median 6.6 vs. 2.2 days), higher baseline severity of illness, higher proportions of MAAS scores 4-6, and more administration of midazolam than those with recall of the ICU without delusional memories. Heavy sedation increases the risk of having no recall, and longer ICU stay increases the risk of delusional memories. The depth of sedation during total ICU stay as recorded with the MAAS may predict the probability of having memories of the ICU.

  16. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment ( N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment ( N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment ( p competitive races.

  17. On the possibility of the application of magnetoacoustic emission intensity measurements for the diagnosis of thick-walled objects in the industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, L; Augustyniak, B; Chmielewski, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of the magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) signal performed on thick-walled pipelines in the industrial environment, and discusses the possible ways of their further analysis. Even though the direct measurement of the MAE does not allow for the determination of the MAE intensity, the paper proves that it is possible to separate the useful signal from the background noise either by means of hardware analogue filtering or by the application of the numerical analysis of the signal. Both the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and wavelet analysis allow for the characterization of the MAE signal, the intensity of which can be much lower than the background noise level. Implementation of the hardware filtering, even though resulting in a lower signal-to-noise ratio, allows us to measure only the useful data, simplifying greatly the analysis needed. It should be emphasized that the application of software made with the help of the LabVIEW package allows for the implementation of the numerical analysis directly in the measuring set, enabling thus the direct assessment of the correctness of the obtained results during the tests in the industrial environment

  18. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity is related to Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Van Biesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ≤75 and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N= 36 and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N= 39, of which 47 were 400m runners (all male and 28 were 1500m-runners (15 male and 13 female. Pacing was analysed by means of 100m split times (for 400m races and 200m split times (for 1500m races. Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p<.05. Maximal velocity of elite 400m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ±0.2 m/s, and their overall pace was slower (F=120.7, p<.05. In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500m races. Whereas male 1500m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100m (7.2±0.1 m/s, slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6±0.1 m/s, and finished with an end sprint (+0.9±0.1 m/s; the 1500m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1±0.3 m/s, accelerated in the second segment (+ 0.2±0

  19. EPA Supersites Program-related emissions-based particulate matter modeling: initial applications and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Armistead G

    2008-02-01

    One objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Supersite Program was to provide data that could be used to more thoroughly evaluate and improve air quality models, and then have those models used to address both scientific and policy-related issues dealing with air quality management. In this direction, modeling studies have used Supersites-related data and are reviewed here. Fine temporal resolution data have been used both to test model components (e.g., the inorganic thermodynamic routines) and air quality modeling systems (in particular, Community Multiscale Air Quality [CMAQ] and Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions [CAMx] applications). Such evaluations suggest that the inorganic thermodynamic approaches being used are accurate, as well as the description of sulfate production, although there are significant uncertainties in production of nitric acid, biogenic and ammonia emissions, secondary organic aerosol formation, and the ability to follow the formation and evolution of ultrafine particles. Model applications have investigated how PM levels will respond to various emissions controls, suggesting that nitrate will replace some of the reductions in sulfate particulate matter (PM), although the replacement is small in the summer. Although not part of the Supersite program, modeling being conducted by EPA, regional planning organizations, and states for policy purposes has benefited from the detailed data collected, and the PM models have advanced by their more widespread use.

  20. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Ah Lee; Sungkyu Lee; Hong-Jun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an exper...

  1. Avian species richness in relation to intensive forest management practices in early seral tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D; Ellis, Tana M; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with

  2. Cocaine-related admissions to an intensive care unit: a five-year study of incidence and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, S

    2010-02-01

    Cocaine misuse is increasing and it is evidently considered a relatively safe drug of abuse in Ireland. To address this perception, we reviewed the database of an 18-bed Dublin intensive care unit, covering all admissions from 2003 to 2007. We identified cocaine-related cases, measuring hospital mortality and long-term survival in early 2009. Cocaine-related admissions increased from around one annually in 2003-05 to 10 in 2007. Their median (IQR [range]) age was 25 (21-35 [17-47]) years and 78% were male. The median (IQR [range]) APACHE II score was 16 (11-27 [5-36]) and length of intensive care stay was 5 (3-9 [1-16]) days. Ten patients died during their hospital stay. A further five had died by the time of follow-up, a median of 24 months later. One was untraceable. Cocaine toxicity necessitating intensive care is increasingly common in Dublin. Hospital mortality in this series was 52%. These findings may help to inform public attitudes to cocaine.

  3. Sub-core permeability and relative permeability characterization with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahasky, C.; Benson, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    This study utilizes preclinical micro-Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to image and quantify the transport behavior of pulses of a conservative aqueous radiotracer injected during single and multiphase flow experiments in a Berea sandstone core with axial parallel bedding heterogeneity. The core is discretized into streamtubes, and using the micro-PET data, expressions are derived from spatial moment analysis for calculating sub-core scale tracer flux and pore water velocity. Using the flux and velocity data, it is then possible to calculate porosity and saturation from volumetric flux balance, and calculate permeability and water relative permeability from Darcy's law. Full 3D simulations are then constructed based on this core characterization. Simulation results are compared with experimental results in order to test the assumptions of the simple streamtube model. Errors and limitations of this analysis will be discussed. These new methods of imaging and sub-core permeability and relative permeability measurements enable experimental quantification of transport behavior across scales.

  4. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilov, Gil; Schiel, David R

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat). Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs) is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  5. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rilov

    Full Text Available Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat. Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  6. Reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of energy intensive industries through decision support systems – An example of application to the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porzio, Giacomo Filippo; Fornai, Barbara; Amato, Alessandro; Matarese, Nicola; Vannucci, Marco; Chiappelli, Lisa; Colla, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We describe an application of decision-support system to iron and steel industries. • The realised tool is useful in monitoring energy and CO 2 performances of the plant. • Key processes are modelled through flowsheeting approach and included in the tool. • A mathematical optimisation model for the process gas management has been realised. • Implementation of the tool can help reducing plant costs and environmental impact. - Abstract: The management of process industries is becoming in the recent years more and more challenging, given the stringent environmental policies as well as raising energy costs and the always-present drive for profit. A way to help plant decision makers in their daily choices is to refer to decision-support tools, which can give advice on the best practices on how to operate a plant in order to reduce the energy consumption and the CO 2 emissions keeping at the same time the costs under control. Such an approach can be useful in a variety of industries, particularly the most energy-intensive ones such as iron and steel industries. In this paper, an approach to the realisation of a software system, which allows to generate internal reports on the plant performances, as well as to simulate the plant behaviour in different scenarios, is described. The main production processes (coke plant, blast furnace, steel shop, hot rolling mill) are described and simulated focusing on the prediction of products flow rates and composition, energy consumption and GHGs (Greenhouse Gases) emissions in different operating conditions. The importance of a correct management of the CO 2 within the plant is underlined, particularly with regard to the new EU Emission Trading System, which will be based on European benchmarks. The software tool is illustrated and a case study is included, which focuses on the simultaneous minimisation of the CO 2 emissions and maximisation of the profit through an optimised management of the by-product gases

  7. Energy efficiency and the influence of gas burners to the energy related carbon dioxide emissions of electric arc furnaces in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Risonarta, Victor; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Determining the complete energy balance of an electric arc furnace (EAF) provides an appropriate method to examine energy efficiency and identify energy saving potentials. However, the EAF energy balance is complex due to the combined input of electrical energy and chemical energy resulting from natural gas (NG) combustion and oxidation reactions in the steel melt. In addition, furnace off-gas measurements and slag analysis are necessary to reliably determine energy sinks. In this paper 70 energy balances and energy efficiencies from multiple EAFs are presented, including data calculated from plant measurements and compiled from the literature. Potential errors that can be incorporated in these calculations are also highlighted. The total energy requirement of these modern EAFs analysed ranged from 510 to 880 kWh/t, with energy efficiency values (η = ΔH Steel /E Total ) of between 40% and 75%. Furthermore, the focus was placed on the total energy related CO 2 emissions of EAF processes comprising NG combustion and electrical energy input. By assessing multiple EAF energy balances, a significant correlation between the total energy requirement and energy related specific CO 2 emissions was not evident. Whilst the specific consumption of NG in the EAF only had a minor impact on the EAF energy efficiency, it decreased the specific electrical energy requirement and increased EAF productivity where transformer power was restricted. The analysis also demonstrated that complementing and substituting electrical energy with NG was beneficial in reducing the total energy related CO 2 emissions when a certain level of substitution efficiency was achieved. Therefore, the appropriate use of NG burners in modern EAFs can result in an increased EAF energy intensity, whilst the total energy related CO 2 emissions remain constant or are even decreased.

  8. Pierce-type dispersion relation for an intense relativistic electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Pierce-type dispersion relation is derived for the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a cylindrical slow-wave structure of arbitrary corrugation depth. It is shown that near a resonance, the Pierce parameter can be expressed in terms of the vacuum dispersion function and the beam current. The dispersion relation is valid in both the low-current (Compton) regime and the high-current (Raman) regime. The dispersion characteristics of the interaction, such as the linear instability growth rate and bandwidth, are analyzed for both regimes

  9. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. (a) Fuel...

  11. Field Emission Property of Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes Related to Purification and Transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, KiTae; Jang, HyunChul; Hong, Wanshick; Park, Kyoungwan; Sok, Junghyun; Lyu, SeungChul; Lee, Hansung; Lee, Naesung; Han, Moonsup; Park, Yunsun

    2011-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with high purity were produced by the catalytic decomposition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) using a Fe-Mo/MgO catalyst at 800°C. The as-synthesized DWCNTs typically have catalytic impurities and amorphous carbon, which were removed by a two-step purification process consisting of acid treatment and oxidation. In the acid treatment, metallic catalysts were removed in HCl at room temperature for 5 hr with magnetic stirring. Subsequently, the oxidation, using air at 380°C for 5 hr in the a vertical-type furnace, was used to remove the amorphous carbon particles. The DWCNT suspension was prepared by dispersing the purified DWCNTs in the aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solution with horn-type sonication. This was then air-sprayed on ITO glass to fabricate DWCNT field emitters. The field emission properties of DWCNT films related to transmittance were studied. This study provides the possibility of the application of large-area transparent CNT field emission cathodes.

  12. Sulfur Emissions, Abatement Technologies and Related Costs for Europe in the RAINS Model Database

    OpenAIRE

    Cofala, J.; Syri, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the part of the Regional Pollution Information and Simulation (RAINS) model dealing with the potential and costs controlling emissions of sulfur dioxide. The paper describes the selected aggregation level of the emission generating activities and reviews the major options for controlling SO2 emissions. An algorithm for estimating emission control costs is presented. The cost calculation distinguishes 'general'(i.e., valid for all countries) and 'country-specific' paramete...

  13. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell x-rays in some high-Z elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Mittal, R; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1982-10-14

    The L-shell x-ray relative intensities I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(l)),I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(..beta..)) and I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(..gamma..)) for U, Th, Pb and ratios I(Lsub(..cap alpha..+l))/I(Lsub(..beta..)) and I(Lsub(..cap alpha..+l))/I(Lsub(..gamma..)) for W have been measured. The L-shell electrons are excited by 59.57 keV gamma rays from /sup 241/Am and the fluorescent L-shell x-ray intensities are measured with a Si(Li) detector. The experimental results are found to agree well with theory.

  14. How Nurse Work Environments Relate to the Presence of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-09-25

    Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is essential for families to participate in infant care and prepare them to transition from hospital to home. Nurses are the principal caregivers in the NICU. The nurse work environment may influence whether parents spend time with their hospitalized infants. To examine the relationship between the NICU work environment and parental presence in the NICU using a national data set. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of a national sample of 104 NICUs, where 6060 nurses reported on 15,233 infants cared for. Secondary analysis was used to examine associations between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) (subscale items and with a composite measure) and the proportion of parents who were present during the nurses' shift. Parents of 60% (SD = 9.7%) of infants were present during the nurses' shift. The PES-NWI composite score and 2 domains-Nurse Participation in Hospital Affairs and Manager Leadership and Support-were significant predictors of parental presence. A 1 SD higher score in the composite or either subscale was associated with 2.5% more parents being present. Parental presence in the NICU is significantly associated with better nurse work environments. NICU practices may be enhanced through enhanced leadership and professional opportunities for nurse managers and staff. Future work may benefit from qualitative work with parents to illuminate their experiences with nursing leaders and nurse-led interventions in the NICU and design and testing of interventions to improve the NICU work environment.

  15. A model for the relation between stimulus frequency and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in lizard papillae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Hero P.; van Dijk, Pim; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) have been described from lizard ears. Although there are several models for these systems, none has modeled the characteristics of both of these types of otoacoustic emissions based upon their being

  16. Validation of a 10-item care-related regret intensity scale (RIS-10) for health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine S; Cullati, Stéphane; Haller, Chiara S; Schmidt, Ralph E; Haller, Guy; Agoritsas, Thomas; Perneger, Thomas V

    2013-03-01

    Regret after one of the many decisions and interventions that health care professionals make every day can have an impact on their own health and quality of life, and on their patient care practices. To validate a new care-related regret intensity scale (RIS) for health care professionals. Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study with a 1-month follow-up (test-retest) in a French-speaking University Hospital. A total of 469 nurses and physicians responded to the survey, and 175 answered the retest. RIS, self-report questions on the context of the regret-inducing event, its consequences for the patient, involvement of the health care professionals, and changes in patient care practices after the event. We measured the impact of regret intensity on health care professionals with the satisfaction with life scale, the SF-36 first question (self-reported health), and a question on self-esteem. On the basis of factor analysis and item response analysis, the initial 19-item scale was shortened to 10 items. The resulting scale (RIS-10) was unidimensional and had high internal consistency (α=0.87) and acceptable test-retest reliability (0.70). Higher regret intensity was associated with (a) more consequences for the patient; (b) lower life satisfaction and poorer self-reported health in health care professionals; and (c) changes in patient care practices. Nurses reported analyzing the event and apologizing, whereas physicians reported talking preferentially to colleagues, rather than to their supervisor, about changing practices. The RIS is a valid and reliable measure of care-related regret intensity for hospital-based physicians and nurses.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  18. Detection of oxygen-related defects in GaAs by exo-electron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulluvarad, Shiva S.; Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2001-10-01

    The influence of intentional introduction of oxygen, at the surface of GaAs, on its native surface states was studied. Oxygen was made to interact with the surface of GaAs by three different means: (1) by growing native oxides, (2) exposing to oxygen plasma in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma reactor and by (3) high energy oxygen ion irradiation. Thermally stimulated exo-electron emission (TSEE) spectroscopy was used to estimate the relative densities and energies of the surface states induced by the three different modes of introducing oxygen. Out of the two native defect levels found in GaAs by TSEE; at 325 K (0.7 eV below Ec) and at 415 K (0.9 below Ec); the former is seen to get broadened or split into multiple peaks in each of the methods. Multiple peaks in TSEE signify the presence of a closely spaced band of defect levels. Therefore the results exclusively point out that oxygen-related complexes contribute to the formation of a band of defects centered at 325 K in TSEE which is correlated to an energy level 0.7 eV below Ec known as the EL2 defect level. The results reported in this paper thus confirm that the TSEE peak at 0.7 eV below Ec is related to oxygen induced defects whereas the peak at 0.9 eV is not affected by the presence of oxygen-related species.

  19. Impact of primary and secondary air supply intensity in stove on emissions of size-segregated particulate matter and carbonaceous aerosols from apple tree wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Yali; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Hongxia; Pan, Hua; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Renjian

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess emission factors (EF) more accurately from household biomass burning, a series of laboratory-controlled apple tree wood burning tests were conducted to measure the EFs of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous aerosols. The controlled burning experiments were conducted with designed primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) supply intensity. An optimum value of 7 m3·h- 1 was found for SA, resulting the highest modified combustion efficiency (92.4 ± 2.5%) as well as the lowest EFs of PM2.5 (0.13 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1), OC (0.04 ± 0.03 g·MJ- 1) and EC (0.03 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1). SA values of 7 and 10 m3·h- 1 resulted the lowest EFs for all the different PM sizes. In a test with PA of 6 m3·h- 1 and SA of 7 m3·h- 1, very low EFs were observed for OC1 (8.2%), OC2 (11.2%) and especially OP (Pyrolyzed OC) (0%, not detected), indicating nearly complete combustion under this air supply condition. Besides SA, higher PA was proved to have positive effects on PM and carbonaceous fraction emission reduction. For example, with a fixed SA of 1.5 m3·h- 1, EFs of PM2.5 decreased from 0.64 to 0.27 g·MJ- 1 when PA increased from 6 to 15 m3·h- 1 (P < 0.05). Similar reductions were also observed in EFs of OC, EC and size segregated PM.

  20. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2005-10-21

    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, gamma, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at gamma = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at gamma = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at gamma = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at gamma = 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s(-1), at gamma = 1, to 36 m s(-1), at gamma = 1.55. For gamma < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

  1. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, γ, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at γ = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at γ = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at γ = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at γ 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s -1 , at γ = 1, to 36 m s -1 , at γ = 1.55. For γ < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

  2. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation ... The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes (Ms ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the ... city and attenuation of strong seismic ground motion. ... Seismologists have benefitted from the development .... In that case, we inferred.

  3. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. METHODS: In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm

  4. Intensive care staff, the donation request and relatives' satisfaction with the decision: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vries, A. de; Hoedemaekers, C.W.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of the donation request is generally measured by consent rates, rather than by relatives' satisfaction with their decision. Our aim was to elicit Dutch ICU staffs' views and experiences with the donation request, to investigate their awareness of (dis)satisfaction with

  5. fMRI activation in relation to sound intensity and loudness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.; van Dijk, Pirn; Schoemaker, Esther S.; Backes, Walter H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this fMRI study was to relate cortical fMRI responses to both physical and perceptual sound level characteristics. Besides subjects with normal hearing, subjects with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss were included, as distortion of loudness perception is a characteristic of such

  6. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  7. pH-dependent optical properties of N-acetyl-L-cysteine-capped ZnSe(S) nanocrystals with intense/stable emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, Ehsan; Sahraei, Reza; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a series of aqueous-based ZnSe(S) nanocrystals (NCs) was prepared at different solution pH ranging from 8 to 11.9, and using N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as capping agent. In addition to zinc blende structure, the X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated the quantum size regime of the ZnSe(S) NCs. To gain further insight toward the influence of the quantum confinement and pH values on optical properties of the as-prepared NCs, their UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectra were systematically analyzed. The absorption spectra experienced a red shift from 340 to 382 nm as the pH increased from 8.0 to 11.9, indicating the growth of the as-prepared ZnSe(S) NCs. The emission spectra also show the obvious red shift and the relative area of excitonic to trap emission, firstly increases from pH = 8.0 to 10.7, and then decreases by further increasing of the solution pH. The initial behavior might be due to the improved surface passivation of the trap dangling states by better deprotonation of thiol groups in NAC, whereas at pH >10.7, the faster growth rate of the ZnSe(s) NCs may lead to the formation of many defect sites. All of these phenomena were combined in the scheme which displays the effect of quantum confinement and solution pH on variation of the excitonic and trap-related emissions.

  8. pH-dependent optical properties of N-acetyl-L-cysteine-capped ZnSe(S) nanocrystals with intense/stable emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soheyli, Ehsan [University of Arak, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahraei, Reza, E-mail: r.sahraei@ilam.ac.ir [University of Ilam, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nabiyouni, Gholamreza [University of Arak, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    In the present study, a series of aqueous-based ZnSe(S) nanocrystals (NCs) was prepared at different solution pH ranging from 8 to 11.9, and using N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as capping agent. In addition to zinc blende structure, the X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated the quantum size regime of the ZnSe(S) NCs. To gain further insight toward the influence of the quantum confinement and pH values on optical properties of the as-prepared NCs, their UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectra were systematically analyzed. The absorption spectra experienced a red shift from ~340 to ~382 nm as the pH increased from 8.0 to 11.9, indicating the growth of the as-prepared ZnSe(S) NCs. The emission spectra also show the obvious red shift and the relative area of excitonic to trap emission, firstly increases from pH = 8.0 to 10.7, and then decreases by further increasing of the solution pH. The initial behavior might be due to the improved surface passivation of the trap dangling states by better deprotonation of thiol groups in NAC, whereas at pH >10.7, the faster growth rate of the ZnSe(s) NCs may lead to the formation of many defect sites. All of these phenomena were combined in the scheme which displays the effect of quantum confinement and solution pH on variation of the excitonic and trap-related emissions.

  9. Self-focusing and its related interactions at very high laser intensities for fast ignition at Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.A.; Kodama, R.; Izumi, N.; Takahashi, K.; Heya, M.; Fujita, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Norimatsu, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Sunahara, A.; Takabe, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Koase, T.; Iwatani, T.; Ohtani, F.; Miyakoshi, T.; Habara, H.; Tanpo, M.; Tohyama, S.; Weber, F.A.; Barbee, T.W.; Dasilva, L.B.; Dasilva, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    At the Institute of Laser Engineering, various type of experiments related to fast ignition were performed with the 12-beam laser system GEKKO XII and the newly added 100 TW beams line. Using both X-ray and UV laser probes, drilling via ponderomotive laser light self-focusing was studied to show drilling well into the overdense plasma over a distance of 100 μm at a self-focused laser intensity of 10 18 W/cm 2 . This type of self-focusing accelerated electrons up to 0.1 to 1 MeV and was also applied to an imploding shell. (authors)

  10. Diffuse Intense {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake at PET in Unilateral Breast Related to Breastfeeding Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hye Kyoung [Department of Radiololgy, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Joo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    We present an interesting case of incidental diffuse fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at PET in her left breast, related to atypical breastfeeding practice. Clinically, differential diagnoses of diffuse intense FDG uptake in unilateral breast include advanced breast cancer, breast lymphoma and inflammatory condition. However, normal physiologic lactation may also show increased FDG uptake in the breasts. Therefore, if we encounter that finding in daily practice, we should question the patient regarding unilateral breastfeeding. In addition, mammography and ultrasound would be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.

  11. A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze, F.; Langer, S.H.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, O.; Ress, D.; Rosen, M.D.; Suter, L.J.; Wallace, R.J.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of experiments that compare the x-ray emission from a laser spot in a radiation-filled hohlraum to that from a similar laser spot on a simple disk target. The studies were done using the Nova laser facility [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] in its 0.35 μm wavelength, 1 ns square pulse configuration. Focal spot intensities were 2 endash 3.5x10 15 W/cm 2 . X-ray images measured x-ray conversion in a hohlraum and from an isolated disk simultaneously. A laser spot inside a hohlraum emitted more x rays, after subtracting the background emission from the hohlraum walls, than a spot on a disk. Numerical models suggest the enhanced spot emission inside the hohlraum is due to an increase in lateral transport relative to the disk. Filamentation in the hohlraum will also increase the spot size. The models agree fairly well with the results on spot spreading but do not explain the overall increase in conversion efficiency. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. ULF-ELF Electromagnetic Emissions Over the Fault in Kangra Valley of India and their Relation With Radon Emanation (Intercosmos 24 Satellite Data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Yu.M.; Mikhailova, G.A.; Kapustina, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental investigations of space and spectral characteristics of the electric component of the electromagnetic waves in the outer ionosphere in the ULF (f < 30 Hz) and ELF (f < 1 kHz) ranges were carried out over north fault of the India - Australian plate. Records of the 10 narrow band filters in the frequency range from 8 to 970 Hz with NVK-receiver mounting on Intercosmos 24 satellite were used. In the day-time at sensitivity level near 2 μV/m emissions couldn't observe. In the night-time emissions, localized exactly in space above the fault, was observed in mentioned full frequency range. In spectral distribution of emission maximum in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz allocated. In those days, when anomalous bursts of radon concentration in underground waters in Kangra Valley was observed the simultaneous amplification of electric component of field at frequency 8 Hz more on the factor more than ten and in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz, where usually was maximum, on the factor two or three also was observed. This fact ensures statement, that the noises are generated by the lightning discharges, but amplification of their intensity on satellite heights was related with decreasing of ELF waves attenuation in the time of their penetration through lower ionosphere, modified by electric field in preparing phase of the earthquakes. (author)

  13. Relative Intensity Influences the Degree of Correspondence of Jump Squats and Push Jerks to Countermovement Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Emily J; Goodwin, Jon E; Cleather, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical similarity between push jerk (PJ) and jump squat (JS) to countermovement jump (CMJ) and further understand the effect increasing external load may have on this relationship. Eight physically trained men (age 22 ± 3; height 176 ± 7 kg; weight 83 ± 8 kg) performed an unloaded CMJ followed by JS under a range of loads (10, 25, 35, and 50% 1RM back squat) and PJ (30, 50, 65, and 75% 1RM push jerk). A portable force platform and high-speed camera both collecting at 250 Hz were used to establish joint moments and impulse during the propulsive phase of the movements. A standard inverse dynamics model was used to determine joint moment and impulse at the hip, knee, and ankle. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) were shown between CMJ knee joint moment and JS knee joint moment at 25% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 50% load. Significant correlations were also observed between CMJ knee joint impulse and JS knee joint impulse at 10% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 65% load. Significant correlation was also observed between CMJ hip joint impulse and PJ hip joint impulse at 30% load. No significant joint × load interaction was shown as load increased for either PJ or JS. Results from the study suggest partial correspondence between PJ and JS to CMJ, where a greater mechanical similarity was observed between the PJ and CMJ. This interaction is load and joint dependent where lower relative loads showed greatest mechanical similarity. Therefore using lower relative loads when programming may provide a greater transfer of training effect.

  14. THE H α EMISSION OF NEARBY M DWARFS AND ITS RELATION TO STELLAR ROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of H α emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 M {sub ⊙} are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass–period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well-defined active/inactive boundary indicates that H α activity is a useful diagnostic for stellar rotation period, e.g., for target selection for exoplanet surveys, and we present a mass-period relation for inactive M dwarfs. We also find a significant, moderate correlation between L{sub Hα} / L{sub bol} and variability amplitude: more active stars display higher levels of photometric variability. Consistent with previous work, our data show that rapid rotators maintain a saturated value of L{sub Hα} / L {sub bol}. Our data also show a clear power-law decay in L{sub Hα} / L{sub bol} with Rossby number for slow rotators, with an index of −1.7 ± 0.1.

  15. THE H α EMISSION OF NEARBY M DWARFS AND ITS RELATION TO STELLAR ROTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of H α emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 M ⊙ are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass–period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well-defined active/inactive boundary indicates that H α activity is a useful diagnostic for stellar rotation period, e.g., for target selection for exoplanet surveys, and we present a mass-period relation for inactive M dwarfs. We also find a significant, moderate correlation between L Hα / L bol and variability amplitude: more active stars display higher levels of photometric variability. Consistent with previous work, our data show that rapid rotators maintain a saturated value of L Hα / L bol . Our data also show a clear power-law decay in L Hα / L bol with Rossby number for slow rotators, with an index of −1.7 ± 0.1.

  16. Relation of distortion product otoacoustic emission and tinnitus in normal hearing patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datt Modh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus, the perception of the sound in the absence of an external acoustic source, disrupts the daily life 1 out of every 200 adults, yet its physiological basis remains largely a mystery. The generation of tinnitus is commonly linked with the impaired functioning of the outer hair cells (OHC inside the cochlea. Otoacoustic emissions are the objective test used to assess their activity. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the features of Distortion product OtoAcoustic emissions (DPOAE in a group of tinnitus patients with normal hearing and to find out whether there is any difference in DPOAE findings in the tinnitus patients with normal hearing and in persons with normal hearing with no complaint of tinnitus. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of two groups. The subject group consisted of 16 ears of patients, in which 6 subjects were having tinnitus in both ears while 4 subjects were having tinnitus only in one ear. All subjects were aged between 20 to 60 years with complaint of tinnitus with audiometrically normal hearing. Control group was comprised of 16 audiometrically normal hearing ears of persons who were age and gender matched with the subject groups and had no complaint of tinnitus. Both the subject group as well as control group was subjected for DPOAE test. Findings of both the groups were compared using the unpaired t test. Result and conclusion: It was observed that the amplitudes of DPOAE were significantly lower in tinnitus patients than that of persons without complaint of tinnitus, at a frequency of 1281-1560, 5120-6250, 7243-8837 Hz, which imply that decrease of DPOAEs amplitudes may be related to the presence of tinnitus. It can be concluded that there is association between tinnitus and reduced OHC activity which indicate the OHC of cochlea are involved in the generation of tinnitus.

  17. The Hα Emission of Nearby M Dwarfs and its Relation to Stellar Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of Hα emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 M⊙ are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass-period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well-defined active/inactive boundary indicates that Hα activity is a useful diagnostic for stellar rotation period, e.g., for target selection for exoplanet surveys, and we present a mass-period relation for inactive M dwarfs. We also find a significant, moderate correlation between LHα/Lbol and variability amplitude: more active stars display higher levels of photometric variability. Consistent with previous work, our data show that rapid rotators maintain a saturated value of LHα/Lbol. Our data also show a clear power-law decay in LHα/Lbol with Rossby number for slow rotators, with an index of -1.7 ± 0.1.

  18. [Methodical approaches to evaluation of air pollution by emissions of motor vehicles in population areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapkalo, A A; Dement'ev, A A; Tsurgan, A M

    2014-01-01

    There are results of comparative analysis of air pollution by emissions of motor vehicles in the residential districts of Ryazan via different methodical approaches. Emissions were calculated regarding analysis of the traffic intensity on the elements of the city traffic network. Relative emissions, equivalent relative emissions and relative coefficient of emission hazard were calculated for each district. Rating of the comparing districts was done according to the pollution level using the above-mentioned indices. Gorodskaya Roscha was detected as the most polluted district. The most informative approach was comparison of the residential districts according to the equivalent relative emissions and relative coefficient of emission hazard.

  19. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  20. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  1. Signal intensity in T2' magnetic resonance imaging is related to brain glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio; Heese, Oliver; Westphal, Manfred; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Goebell, Einar; Matschke, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    T2' values reflect the presence of deoxyhaemoglobin related to high local oxygen extraction. We assessed the feasibility of T2' imaging to display regions with high metabolic activity in brain gliomas. MRI was performed in 25 patients (12 female; median age 46 years; range 2-69) with brain gliomas with additional T2 and T2* sequences. T2' maps were derived from T2 and T2*. Dynamic susceptibility weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion was performed in 12/25 patients. Images were visually assessed by two readers and five ROIs were evaluated for each patient. Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied for statistical analysis. Three patients were not further evaluated because of artefacts. Mean values of high-grade (III-IV) gliomas showed significantly lower T2' values than low-grade (II) gliomas (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between rCBV and sqr (T2') (r = -0.463, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between T2' and rCBV for grade II tumours (r = 0.038; p = 0.875). High-grade tumours revealed lower T2' values, presumably because of higher oxygen consumption in proliferating tissue. Our results indicate that T2' imaging can be used as an alternative to DSC perfusion in the detection of subtle deviations in tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  2. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  3. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Tomimoto, Hidekazu [Kyoto University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Junya [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  4. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Konishi, Junya

    2005-01-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  5. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions: control targets and long term policy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    1993-01-01

    A number of countries have unilaterally committed themselves to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Other countries have resisted such commitments; they prefer to engage in further climate research to determine the extent of any emissions reduction that may be necessary before committing themselves to significant costs to implement controls. This paper examines the costs of alternative policies including immediate action to limit emissions and climate research followed by controls if necessary. (Author)

  6. Impacts of GDP, Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption, Energy Consumption Intensity, and Economic Structure on SO2 Emissions: A Multi-Variate Panel Data Model Analysis on Selected Chinese Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution gradually become a focus of concern all over the world owing to its detrimental influence on human health as well as long range impact on global ecosystem. This paper investigated the relationship among SO2 emissions, GDP, fossil fuel energy consumption, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure of five provinces in China with the highest SO2 emissions spanning from 2002–2015 based on panel data model. Through comparatively analyzing the coefficients in the established panel data model for Hebei, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Shanxi, we can obtain that: (1 fossil fuel energy consumption made the most devotion to SO2 discharge compared with GDP, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure. And the more the fossil fuel energy consumption, the more the devotion made by it to SO2 discharge. (2 GDP devoted less to SO2 emissions than fossil fuel energy consumption, and the larger the scale of the economy, the greater the contribution made by it to SO2 emissions. (3 The higher the proportion of the secondary industry added value accounted in GDP, the more the devotion made by the economic structure and energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions. Through analyzing the Granger causality examination results, it can be concluded that: (1 there existed a bi-directional causal relationship between fossil fuel energy consumption and SO2 emissions among five selected provinces. (2 There existed uni-directional causal nexus running from GDP to SO2 emissions, from energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions, and from economic structure to SO2 emissions among five chosen provinces. Based on the empirical analysis, several policy implications were proposed to provide references for policy makers, which were (1 Giving full play to the guiding role of price signals, and improving the price policy for desulfurization. (2 Formulating a new comprehensive evaluation system to measure the regional development level

  7. Detection of oxygen-related defects in GaAs by exo-electron emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulluvarad, Shiva S.; Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of intentional introduction of oxygen, at the surface of GaAs, on its native surface states was studied. Oxygen was made to interact with the surface of GaAs by three different means: (1) by growing native oxides, (2) exposing to oxygen plasma in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma reactor and by (3) high energy oxygen ion irradiation. Thermally stimulated exo-electron emission (TSEE) spectroscopy was used to estimate the relative densities and energies of the surface states induced by the three different modes of introducing oxygen. Out of the two native defect levels found in GaAs by TSEE; at 325 K (0.7 eV below E c ) and at 415 K (0.9 below E c ); the former is seen to get broadened or split into multiple peaks in each of the methods. Multiple peaks in TSEE signify the presence of a closely spaced band of defect levels. Therefore the results exclusively point out that oxygen-related complexes contribute to the formation of a band of defects centered at 325 K in TSEE which is correlated to an energy level 0.7 eV below E c known as the EL2 defect level. The results reported in this paper thus confirm that the TSEE peak at 0.7 eV below E c is related to oxygen induced defects whereas the peak at 0.9 eV is not affected by the presence of oxygen-related species

  8. Detection of oxygen-related defects in GaAs by exo-electron emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulluvarad, Shiva S.; Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of intentional introduction of oxygen, at the surface of GaAs, on its native surface states was studied. Oxygen was made to interact with the surface of GaAs by three different means: (1) by growing native oxides, (2) exposing to oxygen plasma in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma reactor and by (3) high energy oxygen ion irradiation. Thermally stimulated exo-electron emission (TSEE) spectroscopy was used to estimate the relative densities and energies of the surface states induced by the three different modes of introducing oxygen. Out of the two native defect levels found in GaAs by TSEE; at 325 K (0.7 eV below E c ) and at 415 K (0.9 below E c ); the former is seen to get broadened or split into multiple peaks in each of the methods. Multiple peaks in TSEE signify the presence of a closely spaced band of defect levels. Therefore the results exclusively point out that oxygen-related complexes contribute to the formation of a band of defects centered at 325 K in TSEE which is correlated to an energy level 0.7 eV below E c known as the EL2 defect level. The results reported in this paper thus confirm that the TSEE peak at 0.7 eV below E c is related to oxygen induced defects whereas the peak at 0.9 eV is not affected by the presence of oxygen-related species. (author)

  9. Detection of oxygen-related defects in GaAs by exo-electron emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulluvarad, Shiva S.; Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, S.V. E-mail: svb@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2001-10-01

    The influence of intentional introduction of oxygen, at the surface of GaAs, on its native surface states was studied. Oxygen was made to interact with the surface of GaAs by three different means: (1) by growing native oxides, (2) exposing to oxygen plasma in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma reactor and by (3) high energy oxygen ion irradiation. Thermally stimulated exo-electron emission (TSEE) spectroscopy was used to estimate the relative densities and energies of the surface states induced by the three different modes of introducing oxygen. Out of the two native defect levels found in GaAs by TSEE; at 325 K (0.7 eV below E{sub c}) and at 415 K (0.9 below E{sub c}); the former is seen to get broadened or split into multiple peaks in each of the methods. Multiple peaks in TSEE signify the presence of a closely spaced band of defect levels. Therefore the results exclusively point out that oxygen-related complexes contribute to the formation of a band of defects centered at 325 K in TSEE which is correlated to an energy level 0.7 eV below E{sub c} known as the EL2 defect level. The results reported in this paper thus confirm that the TSEE peak at 0.7 eV below E{sub c} is related to oxygen induced defects whereas the peak at 0.9 eV is not affected by the presence of oxygen-related species.

  10. Effect of venous dexamethasone, oral caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of postdural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudifar, Mehrdad; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Adib, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication after regional anesthesia, especially in younger people, bothersome to patients and needs prophylaxis to prevent this complication. This study was conducted aiming to determine the preventive effect of dexamethasone plus caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of PDPH after spinal anesthesia. In a clinical trial study, 90 candidates for the lower extremities orthopedic elective operation were divided into two groups of 45 individuals each. Intervention group received the compound of 500 mg acetaminophen +65 mg oral caffeine +8 mg venous dexamethasone an hour before spinal blocking, and the control group received placebo tablets + a dexamethasone equivalent volume of venous normal saline. The level of postoperative headache at the time of entrance to recovery and discharge, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively were measured based on Visual Analog Scale criterion in the two groups and then compared with each other. During the study, 24 patients in the control group and 17 patients in the intervention group were afflicted with headache; however, with no significant difference (P = 0.14). Total frequency of headache incidence was 35 times in the control group and 27 times in the intervention group (P = 0.32). Though the taking of acetaminophen + caffeine + dexamethasone is associated with a decrease in headache intensity and duration and decrease in PDPH incidence, compared with placebo, however, no essentially and statistically significant effect was produced.

  11. The relative importance of impacts from climate change vs. emissions change on air pollution levels in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Hedegaard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far several studies have analysed the impacts of climate change on future air pollution levels. Significant changes due to impacts of climate change have been made clear. Nevertheless, these changes are not yet included in national, regional or global air pollution reduction strategies. The changes in future air pollution levels are caused by both impacts from climate change and anthropogenic emission changes, the importance of which needs to be quantified and compared. In this study we use the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM driven by meteorological input data from the coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM5/MPI-OM and forced with the newly developed RCP4.5 emissions. The relative importance of the climate signal and the signal from changes in anthropogenic emissions on the future ozone, black carbon (BC, total particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 including BC, primary organic carbon (OC, mineral dust and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA and total nitrogen (including NHx + NOy has been determined. For ozone, the impacts of anthropogenic emissions dominate, though a climate penalty is found in the Arctic region and northwestern Europe, where the signal from climate change dampens the effect from the projected emission reductions of anthropogenic ozone precursors. The investigated particles are even more dominated by the impacts from emission changes. For black carbon the emission signal dominates slightly at high latitudes, with an increase up to an order of magnitude larger, close to the emission sources in temperate and subtropical areas. Including all particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 enhances the dominance from emissions change. In contrast, total nitrogen (NHx + NOy in parts of the Arctic and at low latitudes is dominated by impacts of climate change.

  12. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2012-12-01

    and metallurgical emissions, and coal burning were identified using the principle component analysis. The average visibility during the whole study period was less than 6 km. It had been estimated that 50% of the total light extinction was due to the high water vapor in the atmosphere. This study demonstrates that organic aerosol was the largest contributor to aerosol extinction at 47%, followed by sulfate ammonium, nitrate ammonium, and EC at 22%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. Our results indicated the dominant role of traffic-related aerosol species (i.e. organic aerosol, nitrate and EC on the formation of air pollution, and suggested the importance of controlling vehicle numbers and emissions in mega-cities of China as its population and economy continue to grow.

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors for Intensive Care Unit–related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans and Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627

  14. Studies of optical emission in the high intensity pumping regime of top-down ZnO nanostructures and thin films grown on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divay, L.; Kostcheev, S.; McMurtry, S.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, ICD CNRS (FRE2848), Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes (France); Rogers, D.J.; Teherani, F.H. [Nanovation SARL, Versailles, 91400 Orsay (France); Lusson, A. [GEMaC, CNRS - Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines,Meudon (France)

    2008-07-01

    We report on the emission of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) under high intensity excitation. In order to clarify the origin of the emission bands, we compared results for high quality thin films (75 nm) before and after 'top-down' nanopatterning. A nanopattering technique was developed for this purpose. The technique combined Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) and lift-off techniques and Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP RIE). The emission spectra of the two types of samples were found to have a difference in their fine structure that was attributed, in part, to the existence of guided emission in the thin films and exciton weak confinement effects in the nanostructures. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Relation between parental psychopathology and posttraumatic growth after a child's admission to intensive care: Two faces of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Rocío; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Confronted with the potentially traumatic experience of a child's admission to a paediatric intensive care unit, parents may experience psychopathological post-trauma symptoms as well as posttraumatic growth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relation between psychopathology symptoms, namely, posttraumatic stress disorder), anxiety and depression, as well as post traumatic growth in parents following their child's hospitalisation in a paediatric intensive care unit. Six months after their child's discharge, 143 parents completed the questionnaire, which assessed post traumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), post traumatic stress disorder (Davidson Trauma Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Of the 143 parents, 23.1% reported symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder, 21% reported symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety, 9.1% reported symptoms of moderate to severe depression and 37.1% reported at least a medium degree of post traumatic growth. There was a moderate, direct association between post traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety with post traumatic growth. Higher scores in anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder were associated with higher levels of post traumatic growth, contradicting the notion of an inverted U-shaped relationship between psychopathology symptoms and post traumatic growth. Given that positive and negative outcomes after a child's critical admission tend to co-occur, it is surmised that parents who indicate post traumatic growth do not deny the difficulties. While not negating the negative impact on the mental health of a parent with a child admitted to intensive care, including the assessment of post traumatic growth as an outcome following this event has important implications for research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The clonic phase of seizures in patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy is related to age and stimulus intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh eTseng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in patients who are drug-naïve or less-receptive to antipsychotic drugs. Several studies have discussed the correlation between patient characteristics, input current volume and seizure duration. According to the present principle of ECT guidelines, the therapeutic effect of ECT mostly correlates with seizure duration. As the tonic phase is different from the clonic phase with respect to brain function and activity, it is informative to analyse both the tonic and clonic phases. Thus, this study sought to clarify the relationship between the features of the two phases, and to re-examine and refine guidelines regarding ECT treatment.Method: ECT-course data from 44 schizophrenia patients were recollected, including the number of treatments that they had received, their gender, age, and the association of these characteristics with motor seizure duration was analysed. A two-factor correlation was employed to test the relationship between each of the two factors.Result: The meta-analysis results indicate that seizure duration and age are significantly correlated. Older patients had relatively short seizure durations after ECT-treatment. Notably, a negative correlation was only found