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Sample records for relative emetogenic activities

  1. Acute emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Rapoport, Bernardo; Warr, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy as concluded at the third Perugia Consensus Conference, which took place in June 2009. The review will focus on new studies appearing since the Second consensus conference...... receiving multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy will be reviewed. Consensus statements are given, including optimal dose and schedule of serotonin(3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists. The most significant recommendations (and changes since the 2004...... version of the guidelines) are as follows: the best prophylaxis in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (not including a combination of an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide) is the combination of palonosetron and dexamethasone on the day of chemotherapy, followed by dexamethasone...

  2. Transdermal granisetron versus palonosetron for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a multicenter, randomized, open-label, cross-over, active-controlled, and phase IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young Mi; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Yang Soo; Oh, Sung Yong; Koh, Su Jin; Baek, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Sik; Joo, Young Don; Lee, Hyun Gi; Yun, Eun Young; Chung, Joo Seop

    2016-02-01

    Palonosetron is the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3RA) that has shown better efficacy than the first-generation 5-HT3RA for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS), a novel transdermal formulation, was developed to deliver granisetron continuously over 7 days. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of the GTDS to palonosetron for the control of CINV following MEC. A total of 196 patients were randomized to GP or PG group. In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, cross-over, active-controlled, Phase IV study, GP group was assigned to receive transdermal granisetron (one GTDS patch, 7 days) in the first chemotherapy cycle, palonosetron (iv 0.25 mg/day, 1 days) in the second chemotherapy cycle before receiving MEC, and PG group was assigned to receive palonosetron in the first cycle and GTDS in the second cycle. Primary endpoint was the percentage of chemotherapy cycles achieving complete response (CR; defined as no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) during the acute phase (0-24 h in post-chemotherapy; non-inferiority comparison with palonosetron). Total 333 cycles (165 in GTDS and 168 in palonosetron) were included in the per protocol analysis. The GTDS cycles showed non-inferiority to palonosetron cycles during the acute phase: CR was achieved by 124 (75.2 %) patients in the GTDS cycles and 134 (79.8 %) patients in the palonosetron cycles (treatment difference, -4.6 %; 95 % confidence interval, -13.6-4.4). There was no significant difference in CR rate during acute phase after the end of the first and second chemotherapy cycle between GP and PG group (p = 0.405, p = 0.074). Patients' satisfaction, assessed using Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLI-E), GTDS cycle were higher than those of palonosetron cycle in GP group (FLI-E score; median 1549.5 in GTDS cycle, median 1670

  3. Antiemetic therapy for non-anthracycline and cyclophosphamide moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Although antiemetic management in cancer therapy has improved, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting remain common and troubling adverse events. Chemotherapeutic agents are classified based on their emetogenic effects, and appropriate antiemetics are recommended according to this categorization. Chemotherapy categorized as moderately emetogenic is associated with a wide spectrum of emetic risks. Combined anthracycline and cyclophosphamide regimens have been recently reclassified as highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimen. This review focuses on antiemetic pharmacotherapy in patients receiving non-anthracycline and cyclophosphamide-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Combination therapy with a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor agonist, preferably palonosetron, and dexamethasone is the standard therapy in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, although triple therapy with add-on neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist is used as an alternative treatment strategy. Among moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens, carboplatin-containing chemotherapy has considerable emetic potential, particularly during the delayed phase. However, the additional of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist to the standard antiemetic therapy prevents carboplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. For regimens including oxaliplatin, the benefit of adding neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist requires further clarification.

  4. The Effect of a Standardized Ginger Extract on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea-Related Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Moderately or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Ried, Karin; McKavanagh, Dan; Vitetta, Luis; Sali, Avni; Lohning, Anna; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2017-08-12

    Ginger supplementation could be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). The aim of this clinical trial was to address significant methodological limitations in previous trials. Patients (N = 51) were randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of standardised ginger extract or placebo per day, in addition to standard anti-emetic therapy, during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was CIN-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the Functional Living Index- Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included acute and delayed nausea, vomiting, and retching as well as cancer-related fatigue, nutritional status, and CIN and vomiting-specific prognostic factors. Over three consecutive chemotherapy cycles, nausea was more prevalent than vomiting (47% vs. 12%). In chemotherapy Cycle 1, intervention participants reported significantly better QoL related to CIN ( p = 0.029), chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)-related QoL ( p = 0.043), global QoL ( p = 0.015) and less fatigue ( p = 0.006) than placebo participants. There were no significant results in Cycle 2. In Cycle 3, global QoL ( p = 0.040) and fatigue ( p = 0.013) were significantly better in the intervention group compared to placebo. This trial suggests adjuvant ginger supplementation is associated with better chemotherapy-induced nausea-related quality of life and less cancer-related fatigue, with no difference in adverse effects compared to placebo.

  5. Delayed emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (single-day chemotherapy regimens only)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roila, Fausto; Warr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-01-01

    An update of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of delayed emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy discussed during the third Perugia Consensus Conference (June 2009) sponsored by MASCC-ESMO was presented. The review considered new studies published since the second consensus...

  6. Olanzapine is effective for refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Sierra; Seibert, Laurel; Green, Myke R

    2014-01-01

    The role of olanzapine added to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine for the treatment of refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is incompletely characterized in all levels of chemotherapy emetogenicity. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of the addition of olanzapine in adults experiencing refractory CINV stratified by chemotherapy emetogenicity. Thirty-three adults who experienced CINV refractory to guideline-recommended prophylaxis and breakthrough antiemetics (dopamine antagonists and benzodiazepines) and received at least one dose of olanzapine 5-10 mg per os were evaluated. Failure was defined as >5 emesis events in 24 h or more than 10 cumulative doses of rescue antiemetics following first olanzapine dose per treatment cycle. Post hoc analyses investigated variables impacting olanzapine efficacy. The addition of olanzapine demonstrated an overall success rate of 70 %. This success rate did not differ between chemotherapy regimens of high versus low-to-moderate emetogenicity (p = 0.79), prophylaxis with serotonin antagonist plus corticosteroid and aprepitant versus serotonin antagonist alone (p = 0.77), or age over 50 versus ≤50 years (p > 0.99). A trend toward greater benefit was seen in women (p = 0.08). The addition of olanzapine to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine demonstrated high efficacy rates for refractory CINV irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity. The high success rates among all groups suggests that incomplete resolution of CINV with prophylactic serotonin antagonists and breakthrough dopamine antagonists plus benzodiazepine may benefit from the addition of olanzapine regardless of gender, degree of chemotherapy emetogenicity, number of prophylactic antiemetics, or age. The trend toward greater control of emesis in women merits further investigation.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of granisetron-based versus standard antiemetic regimens in low-emetogenic chemotherapy: a hospital-based perspective from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Chan Huan; Ghani, Norazila Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study of antiemetic therapy conducted in Malaysia, a total of 94 patients received low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with or without granisetron injections as the primary prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study is a retrospective cost analysis of two antiemetic regimens from the payer perspective. This cost evaluation refers to 2011, the year in which the observation was conducted. Direct costs incurred by hospitals including the drug acquisition, materials and time spent for clinical activities from prescribing to dispensing of home medications were evaluated (MYR 1=$0.32 USD). As reported to be significantly different between two regimens (96.1% vs 81.0%; p=0.017), the complete response rate of acute emesis which was defined as a patient successfully treated without any emesis episode within 24 hours after LEC was used as the main indicator for effectiveness. Antiemetic drug acquisition cost per patient was 40.7 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen than for the standard regimen (MYR 64.3 vs 1.58). When both the costs for materials and clinical activities were included, the total cost per patient was 8.68 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen (MYR 73.5 vs 8.47). Considering the complete response rates, the mean cost per successfully treated patient in granisetron group was 7.31 times higher (MYR 76.5 vs 10.5). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with granisetron-based regimen, relative to the standard regimen, was MYR 430.7. It was found to be most sensitive to the change of antiemetic effects of granisetron-based regimen. While providing a better efficacy in acute emesis control, the low incidence of acute emesis and high ICER makes use of granisetron as primary prophylaxis in LEC controversial.

  8. Can granisetron injection used as primary prophylaxis improve the control of nausea and vomiting with low- emetogenic chemotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Chan Huan; Phua, Gillian; Abdul Kassim, Mohd Shainol; Poh, Wong Kar; Sriraman, Malathi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients receiving low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with and without granisetron injection as the primary prophylaxis in addition to dexamethasone and metochlopramide. This was a single-centre, prospective cohort study. A total of 96 patients receiving LEC (52 with and 42 without granisetron) were randomly selected from the full patient list generated using the e-Hospital Information System (e-His). The rates of complete control (no CINV from days 1 to 5) and complete response (no nausea or vomiting in both acute and delayed phases) were identified through patient diaries which were adapted from the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT). Selected covariates including gender, age, active alcohol consumption, morning sickness and previous chemotherapy history were controlled using the multiple logistic regression analyses. Both groups showed significant difference with LEC regimens (pgranisetron group indicated a higher complete response rate in acute emesis (adjusted OR: 0.1; 95%CI 0.02-0.85; p=0.034) than did the non-granisetron group. Both groups showed similar complete control and complete response rates for acute nausea, delayed nausea and delayed emesis. Granisetron injection used as the primary prophylaxis in LEC demonstrated limited roles in CINV control. Optimization of the guideline-recommended antiemetic regimens may serve as a less costly alternative to protect patients from uncontrolled acute emesis.

  9. Palonosetron: an evidence-based choice in prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celio, Luigi; Agustoni, Francesco; Testa, Isabella; Dotti, Katia; de Braud, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the second-generation, 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist (5-HT(3) RA) palonosetron was approved by the FDA for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. We reviewed the current knowledge on the role of palonosetron against acute and delayed emesis in patients with solid tumors undergoing single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. A literature review in PubMed was performed to update currently available preclinical and clinical evidence on palonosetron, prioritizing randomized clinical trials. The distinct pharmacology of palonosetron provides a rationale behind the improved efficacy observed with the drug in prevention of delayed symptoms. This may be explained by allosteric binding properties and by palonosetron-triggered receptor internalization, which result in prolonged inhibition of the 5-HT(3) receptor function. Very recent pharmacology experiments have also suggested that palonosetron would be able to differentially inhibit 5-HT(3)/neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor signaling cross-talk. In two recent meta-analyses, palonosetron was shown to be more effective than other available 5-HT(3) RAs in preventing acute and delayed nausea and vomiting for both HEC and MEC. Recent findings also suggest that a single-day regimen of palonosetron plus dexamethasone (both drugs administered intravenously) may provide a reasonable therapeutic alternative to reduce the total dexamethasone dose administered in patients undergoing moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. On the basis of accumulating data, the evidence-based international guidelines devised from the major organizations have been recently updated to recommend the use of palonosetron plus 3-day dexamethasone for the optimal prevention of nausea and vomiting due to moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. There is still a need to investigate the efficacy of palonosetron in combination with an NK-1 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone in well

  10. Palonosetron Prevents Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in Oral Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sento, Shinya; Kitamura, Naoya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nakashiro, Koichi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Akira; Takamaru, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Yoji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo; Mishima, Katsuaki; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of palonosetron in preventing acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in oral cancer patients. Oral cancer patients receiving HEC were enrolled; among the 40 patients, 87 courses of chemotherapy were administered. On day 1, 0.75 mg palonosetron was intravenously administrated just before chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a complete response (CR) and the secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with complete control (CC) during the acute and delayed phase. During the acute phase, 86 of 87 courses (98.9%) had CR and 84 of 87 courses (96.6%) had CC. During the delayed phase, 84 of 87 courses (96.6%) had CR and 70 of 87 courses (80.5%) had CC. Palonosetron is effective at preventing HEC-induced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in oral cancer chemotherapeutic regimens in the acute and delayed phases. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Thalidomide for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of agents to maximize the prevention of chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting (CINV, however, the control of delayed CINV is still not satisfactory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of thalidomide in the prevention of CINV. Methods Of 89 patients enrolled, 83 chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (cisplatin 70mg/m2 were randomized into two groups: standard therapy group (ondansetron on day 1, metoclopramide and dexamethasone on days one to five and thalidomide group (in addition to standard emesis prevention, patients received oral 100mg thalidomide on days one to five. Patients recorded nausea and vomiting episodes in a diary. The primary end point was the efficacy of thalidomide in controlling vomiting and nausea on days one to five post cisplatin, and the secondary end point was the safety of the thalidomide. Results No significant differences of complete response rates (no emesis, no use of rescue therapy and no nausea were observed between the two groups, while the percentages of patients with complete response of delayed vomiting on day four and day five were higher in the thalidomide group, furthermore, the complete response rate of delayed nausea for thalidomide group and standard therapy group showed significant differences. Thalidomide group showed a similar safety profile as standard emesis prevention group. Conclusion Addition of thalidomide was generally well tolerated and improved prevention of CINV in patients receiving cisplatinbased chemotherapy to some degree, especially for delayed nausea.

  12. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  13. Cardiovascular Events in Cancer Patients Treated with Highly or Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy: Results from a Population-Based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, T. T.; Nelson, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular safety in cancer patients treated with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC), who may have taken the antiemetic, aprepitant, have been limited to clinical trials and postmarketing spontaneous reports. Our study explored background rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among HEC- or MEC-treated cancer patients in a population-based setting to contextualize events seen in a new drug development program and to determine at a high level whether rates differed by aprepitant usage. Medical and pharmacy claims data from the 2005-2007 IMPACT National Benchmark Database were classified into emetogenic chemotherapy categories and CVD outcomes. Among 5827 HEC/MEC-treated patients, frequencies were highest for hypertension (16-21%) and composites of venous (7-12%) and arterial thromboembolic events (4-7%). Aprepitant users generally did not experience higher frequencies of events compared to nonusers. Our study serves as a useful benchmark of background CVD event rates in a population-based setting of cancer patients.

  14. Phase III trial of casopitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Apornwirat, Wichit; Shaharyar, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this phase III trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of regimens containing casopitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the first cycle in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemo...

  15. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  16. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of APF530 (extended-release granisetron) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: results of two Phase II trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Yanagihara, Ronald; Spaczyński, Marek; Cooper, William; O’Boyle, Erin; Smith, Carrie; Boccia, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances with new therapies, a significant proportion of patients (>30%) suffer delayed-onset chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) despite use of antiemetics. APF530 is a sustained-release subcutaneous (SC) formulation of granisetron for preventing CINV. APF530 pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy were studied in two open-label, single-dose Phase II trials (C2005-01 and C2007-01, respectively) in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In C2005-01, 45 patients received APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively). In C2007-01, 35 patients were randomized to APF530 250 or 500 mg SC. Injections were given 30 to 60 minutes before single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Plasma granisetron was measured from predose to 168 hours after study drug administration. Safety and efficacy were also evaluated. APF530 pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow absorption and elimination of granisetron after a single SC dose. Median time to maximum plasma concentration and half-life were similar for APF530 250 and 500 mg in both trials, with no differences between the groups receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Exposure to granisetron was maintained at a therapeutic level over the delayed-onset phase, at least 168 hours. Adverse events in both trials were as expected for granisetron; injection site reactions (eg, erythema and induration) were predominantly mild and seen in ≤20% of patients. Complete responses (no emesis, with no rescue medication) were obtained in the acute, delayed, and overall phases in ≥80% and ≥75% of patients in both trials with the 250 and 500 mg doses, respectively. After a single injection of APF530, there were dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and sustained concentrations of granisetron over 168 hours. The 250 and 500 mg doses were well tolerated and maintained therapeutic granisetron

  17. Open-label observational study to assess the efficacy and safety of aprepitant for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in Indian patients receiving chemotherapy with highly emetogenic chemotherapy/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hingmire Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently, there is limited data on the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in Indian population with aprepitant containing regimens. Aims: The aim was to assess the Efficacy and Safety of Aprepitant for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC/MEC regimens. Settings and Design: Investigator initiated, multicentric, open-label, prospective, noncomparative, observational trial. Subjects and Methods: Triple drug regimen with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasaone administration was assessed for the prevention of CINV during acute, delayed, and the overall phase (OP for HEC/MEC Regimens. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR; no emesis and no use of rescue medication and the key secondary endpoint was the complete control (CC; no emesis, no rescue medication and no more than mild nausea during the OP. Statistical Analysis Used: Perprotocol efficacy was analyzed for the first cycle with results represented in terms of CR/CC rates using descriptive statistics. Results: Seventy-five patients were included in the study with median age of 49.7 years and 89.7% being females. The CR rate (OP for patients administered HEC or MEC regimens during the first cycle were 92% and 90.9%, respectively. Similarly, the CC rates (OP were 75% and 90% for these regimens, respectively. 7 (9.2% patients reported adverse drug reactions that were mild and transient with no reports of any serious adverse events. Conclusions: Use of aprepitant containing regimen for patients receiving HEC/MEC regimen resulted in significantly high CR and CC response rates, which further consolidate its potential role to improve patient quality of life and compliance to disease management.

  18. APF530 (granisetron injection extended-release) in a three-drug regimen for delayed CINV in highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadig, Ian D; Agajanian, Richy; Dakhil, Christopher; Gabrail, Nashat Y; Smith, Robert E; Taylor, Charles; Wilks, Sharon T; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Cooper, William; Mosier, Michael C; Payne, J Yvette; Klepper, Michael J; Vacirca, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    APF530, extended-release granisetron, provides sustained release for ≥5 days for acute- and delayed-phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). We compared efficacy and safety of APF530 versus ondansetron for delayed CINV after highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC), following a guideline-recommended three-drug regimen. HEC patients received APF530 500 mg subcutaneously or ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg intravenously, with dexamethasone and fosaprepitant. Primary end point was delayed-phase complete response (no emesis or rescue medication). A higher percentage of APF530 versus ondansetron patients had delayed-phase complete response (p = 0.014). APF530 was generally well tolerated; treatment-emergent adverse event incidence was similar across arms, mostly mild-to-moderate injection-site reactions. APF530 versus the standard three-drug regimen provided superior control of delayed-phase CINV following HEC. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02106494.

  19. Slow-release granisetron (APF530) versus palonosetron for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting: analysis by American Society of Clinical Oncology emetogenicity criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, Harry; Boccia, Ralph; Cooper, William; O'Boyle, Erin; Gralla, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    APF530 is a novel sustained-release formulation of granisetron. In a Phase III trial, APF530 500 mg was noninferior to palonosetron 0.25 mg in preventing acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and delayed CINV after MEC, but not superior in preventing delayed CINV after HEC. Emetogenicity was classified by Hesketh criteria; this reanalysis uses newer American Society of Clinical Oncology criteria. Complete responses (no emesis or rescue medication) after cycle one were reanalyzed after reclassification of MEC and HEC by American Society of Clinical Oncology criteria. APF530 maintained noninferiority to palonosetron. Single-dose APF530 is a promising alternative to palonosetron for preventing acute and delayed CINV after MEC or HEC. The Clinicaltrials.gov identifier for this study is NCT00343460.

  20. Climate change and related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change

  1. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of APF530 (extended-release granisetron in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: results of two Phase II trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrail N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nashat Gabrail,1 Ronald Yanagihara,2 Marek Spaczyński,3 William Cooper,4 Erin O'Boyle,5 Carrie Smith,1 Ralph Boccia6 1Gabrail Cancer Center, Canton, OH, USA; 2St Louise Regional Hospital, Gilroy, CA, USA; 3Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecologic Oncology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 4TFS International, Flemington, NJ, USA; 5FibroGen, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA; 6Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: Despite advances with new therapies, a significant proportion of patients (>30% suffer delayed-onset chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV despite use of antiemetics. APF530 is a sustained-release subcutaneous (SC formulation of granisetron for preventing CINV. APF530 pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy were studied in two open-label, single-dose Phase II trials (C2005-01 and C2007-01, respectively in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Methods: In C2005-01, 45 patients received APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively. In C2007-01, 35 patients were randomized to APF530 250 or 500 mg SC. Injections were given 30 to 60 minutes before single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Plasma granisetron was measured from predose to 168 hours after study drug administration. Safety and efficacy were also evaluated. Results: APF530 pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow absorption and elimination of granisetron after a single SC dose. Median time to maximum plasma concentration and half-life were similar for APF530 250 and 500 mg in both trials, with no differences between the groups receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Exposure to granisetron was maintained at a therapeutic level over the delayed-onset phase, at least 168 hours. Adverse events in both trials were as expected for granisetron; injection site reactions (eg, erythema

  2. EDA activities related to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.; Raeder, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the accomplishments in ITER safety analysis during the course of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA). The key aspects of ITER safety analysis are: effluents and emissions from normal operation, including planned maintenance activities; occupational safety for workers at the facility; radioactive materials and wastes generated during operation and from decommissioning ; potential incidents and accidents and the resulting transients. As a result of the work during the EDA it is concluded that ITER is safe

  3. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  4. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  5. Public relations activities at JAPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyabu, Kumi

    2011-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) is the only electric power company in Japan solely engaged in nuclear energy. In order to fulfill our role as a pioneer in nuclear power generation, various projects have been undertaken, including the construction of the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan and the construction, operation and decommissioning of power plants in Tokaimura in Ibaraki prefecture and in Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture. JAPC is an electric nuclear power generation company which sells electricity directly to the electric companies. Since JAPC doesn't have retail customers, it has limited opportunities to come in contact with local residents. It is essential to gain the confidence and understanding of nuclear power by local residents in order to promote our projects and to manage our nuclear power plants. Under these circumstances, JAPC has steadily developed public relations in local areas and surrounding neighborhoods through an action policy of two-way communication. In this presentation, the two-way communication public relations policy will be explained. I would like to describe the achievements of the two-way communication policy by referring to the results of public opinion surveys conducted in Ibaraki and Fukui prefectures. (author)

  6. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  7. Emetogenicity-risk procedures in same day surgery center of an academic university hospital in United States: a retrospective cost-audit of postoperative nausea vomiting management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Haber, Halim

    2014-06-01

    Despite the variable results of published studies, it is imperative for ambulatory surgery centers to self-audit local cost-implications for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) management. Our retrospective cost-audit assessed if there were comparative peri-anesthesia care cost-trends among patients who had undergone Low-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (LERP), Moderate-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (MERP) and Severe-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (SERP). This study was a review of Same Day Surgery Center practices in an academic university hospital setting during a three-year period (2010-2012). The patient lists were accessed from CIS and CITRIX App Bar for time audit and OR (operating room) schedule reports. Subsequently, OR pharmacy department ran a search for peri-operative anti-emetics and opioids that were billed for the patients at Same Day Surgery Center for the review period. The primary outcomes were the comparative costs/charges of these medications and comparative durations/ charges for these patients' stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Secondary outcomes analyzed in the study included peri-anesthesia durations. A total of 8,657 patient records were analyzed. Almost all analyzed variables revealed statistically significant inter-variable positive correlations. The patients' age was significantly (P < 0.001) different among LERP/MERP/SERP patients (LERP: 48.8 +/- 14.7 years; MERP: 61.8 +/- 14.6 years; SERP: 51.3 +/- 14.5 years). In regards to primary and secondary outcomes, the statistical significant differences among LERP/MERP/SERP patients (after correcting for both patients' age as well as patients' sex) were only achieved for preoperative times (P = 0.002; Power = 0.9), operating room recovery times (P = 0.003; Power = 0.9), PACU stay times (P < 0.001; Power = 1.0), and PACU charges (P < 0.001; Power = 1.0). PACU stay times and PACU charges were significantly higher in patients who had undergone SERP as compared to patients who had

  8. Efficacy of oral palonosetron compared to intravenous palonosetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Ralph; Grunberg, Steven; Franco-Gonzales, Edwin; Rubenstein, Edward; Voisin, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi(®), Onicit(®)) is a pharmacologically unique 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA) approved as a single IV injection for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy (CINV) of either moderate or highly emetogenic potential (MEC and HEC, respectively). An oral palonosetron formulation has been developed and compared to the IV formulation. In this multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging trial, 651 patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following as a single dose prior to moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: oral palonosetron 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg or IV palonosetron 0.25 mg. Patients were also randomized (1:1) to receive dexamethasone 8 mg IV or matched placebo on day 1. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR; no emesis, no rescue therapy) during the acute phase (0-24 h). Acute CR rates were 73.5, 76.3, 74.1, and 70.4 % for all patients receiving the palonosetron 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg oral doses, and for IV palonosetron 0.25 mg, respectively; delayed CR (24-120 h) rates were 59.4, 62.5, 60.1, and 65.4 %, and overall CR (0-120 h) rates were 53.5, 58.8, 53.2, and 59.3 %, respectively. The addition of dexamethasone improved emetic control (acute CR rate) by at least 15 % for all groups except oral palonosetron 0.25 mg, where the acute CR improvement was approximately 7 %. Adverse events were similar in nature, incidence, and intensity for all oral and IV palonosetron groups, and were the expected adverse events for 5-HT3 RAs (primarily headache and constipation). Oral palonosetron has a similar efficacy and safety profile as IV palonosetron 0.25 mg and may be the preferred formulation in certain clinical situations. Among the tested oral treatments, a palonosetron 0.50-mg oral dose has been favored for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy due to a numerical gain in efficacy without a side effect disadvantage.

  9. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving multiple-day highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: role of transdermal granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Mattia, Consalvo

    2016-08-01

    Granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS) is the first 5-HT3 drug to be transdermally delivered and represents a convenient alternative to oral and intravenous antiemetics for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. GTDS is effective and well tolerated in patients receiving multiple-day moderate-to-highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In this setting noninferiority studies showed similar efficacy when GTDS was compared with intravenous and oral granisetron and intravenous palonosetron. GTDS has shown good cardiovascular safety; however, special caution is needed in patients at risk for developing excessive QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. So far, GTDS has been investigated for intravenous prevention in comparison with granisetron and palonosetron; however, further prospects open the route to future clinical investigations.

  10. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty...... association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources...... to uphold task performance. Following cognitive training, increased neural activation was observed during 3-back in working memory-related regions, including the striatum, however, low sample size limits any firm conclusions....

  11. Transdermal granisetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting following moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy in Chinese patients: a randomized, double-blind, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qing; Sun, Xin-Chen; Qin, Shu-Kui; Chen, Ying-Xia; Zhang, He-Long; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Zhen-Dong; Shi, Jian-Hua; Wu, Qiong; Bai, Yu-Xian; Han, Bao-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ouyang, Xue-Nong; Liu, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Yong-Qiang; Xu, Jian-Ming; Yu, Shi-Ying

    2016-12-01

    The granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS) has been demonstrated effectiveness in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in previous studies. This is the first phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of GTDS in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in China. A total of 313 patients were randomized into the GTDS group (one transdermal granisetron patch, 7 days) or the oral granisetron group (granisetron oral 2 mg/day, ≥2 days). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving complete control (CC) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after final administration (PEEP). Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Two hundred eighty-one patients were included in the per protocol analysis. During PEEP, CC was achieved by 67 (47.52%) patients in the GTDS group and 83 (59.29%) patients in the oral granisetron group. There was no statistical significance between the groups (P=0.0559). However, the difference of the CC percentage mainly occurred on the first day of chemotherapy between the groups. The CC was 70.13% on day 1 in the GTDS group, which was significantly lower than that of 91.03% in the oral granisetron group in the full analysis set. In the following days of chemotherapy, the CC was similar between the groups. In terms of cisplatin-contained regimen and female, there was statistical significance between the groups. Both treatments were well tolerated and safe. The most common adverse event was constipation. GTDS provided effective and well-tolerated control of CINV in Chinese patients, especially to non-cisplatin-contained regimen.

  12. Efficacy and safety of rolapitant for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting over multiple cycles of moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Bernardo; Schwartzberg, Lee; Chasen, Martin; Powers, Dan; Arora, Sujata; Navari, Rudolph; Schnadig, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Rolapitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (RA), was shown to protect against delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during the first cycle of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in randomized, double-blind trials. This analysis explored the efficacy and safety of rolapitant in preventing CINV over multiple cycles of MEC or HEC. Patients in one phase III MEC, one phase II HEC, and two phase III HEC clinical trials were randomized to receive oral rolapitant (180 mg) or placebo in combination with a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 RA and dexamethasone. Regardless of response in cycle 1, patients could continue the same antiemetic treatment for up to six cycles. On days 6-8 of each subsequent chemotherapy cycle, patients reported the incidence of emesis and/or nausea interfering with normal daily life. Post hoc analyses of pooled safety and efficacy data from the four trials were performed for cycles 2-6. Significantly more patients receiving rolapitant than control reported no emesis or interfering nausea (combined measure) in cycles 2 (p = 0.006), 3 (p cycles 1-6, time-to-first emesis was significantly longer with rolapitant than with control (p cycles 2-6 was similar in rolapitant (5.5%) and control (6.8%) arms. No cumulative toxicity was observed. Over multiple cycles of MEC or HEC, rolapitant provided superior CINV protection and reduced emesis and nausea interfering with daily life compared with control and remained well tolerated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Active Metric Learning from Relative Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Sicheng; Rosales, Rómer; Pei, Yuanli; Fern, Xiaoli Z.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on active learning of distance metrics from relative comparison information. A relative comparison specifies, for a data point triplet $(x_i,x_j,x_k)$, that instance $x_i$ is more similar to $x_j$ than to $x_k$. Such constraints, when available, have been shown to be useful toward defining appropriate distance metrics. In real-world applications, acquiring constraints often require considerable human effort. This motivates us to study how to select and query the most useful ...

  14. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))

    1990-06-25

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes.

  15. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes

  16. Retrieval activates related words more than presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Hannah; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2018-03-23

    Retrieving information enhances learning more than restudying. One explanation of this effect is based on the role of mediators (e.g., sand-castle can be mediated by beach). Retrieval is hypothesised to activate mediators more than restudying, but existing tests of this hypothesis have had mixed results [Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(6), 1547-1552. doi: 10.1037/a0024140 ; Lehman, M., & Karpicke, J. D. (2016). Elaborative retrieval: Do semantic mediators improve memory? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(10), 1573-1591. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000267 ]. The present experiments explored an explanation of the conflicting results, testing whether mediator activation during a retrieval attempt depends on the accessibility of the target information. A target was considered less versus more accessible when fewer versus more cues were given during retrieval practice (Experiments 1 and 2), when the target had been studied once versus three times initially (Experiment 3), or when the target could not be recalled versus could be recalled during retrieval practice (Experiments 1-3). A mini meta-analysis of all three experiments revealed a small effect such that retrieval activated mediators more than presentation, but mediator activation was not reliably related to target accessibility. Thus, retrieval may enhance learning by activating mediators, in part, but these results suggest the role of other processes, too.

  17. Summary of activities on CSS related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriaux, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are two nuclear power plants. One 60Mw BWR for research purposes in Dodewaard, and one PWR 450 Mw IN Borssele. Both of these NPPs are undergoing an extensive upgrading. These plants use several CSS-like systems. These systems are primarily aimed to support and monitor safe and correct operation of the process or to detect specific (e.g. mechanical) problems in an early stage. The NPP in Dodewaard is upgrading its training simulator and process presentation system (''Datalogger''). The activities related to the CRP are mainly within the framework of the Dodewaard plant. This final national report will give an overview of these activities with particular emphasis on the replacement of the Datalogger system. Some additional information is given on trends in CSSs as used in fossil power plants. (author). 2 figs

  18. ICIT activities related to tritium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfirache, Marius; Bornea, Anisia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ana, George; Stefan, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the main directions of ICIT research in the field of hydrogen isotopes. • Tritium Removal Facility became a nuclear installation. • ICIT had begun the transfer of detritiation technology. - Abstract: National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies (ICIT) was established in 1970 as a research focused Industrial Pilot Plant. This new Institute was created with the purpose to develop the heavy water production technology. This technology has been successfully transferred to the heavy water production plant in 1988 (with a capacity of 360 t/year). Currently, research within ICIT is focused on the following main objectives: support for the National Nuclear Program, hydrogen and fuel cells, cryogenics, environment. Within ICIT it has been built an Experimental Pilot Plant having as the main objective the development of a technology for heavy water detritiation. The purpose of this Pilot Plant is to obtain technological data and functional characteristics of specific equipment in order to design a Detritiation Facility used for Nuclear Power Plants with CANDU reactors. This work is focused on the presentation of ICIT research activities, perspectives and its capability related to water detritiation technologies and also to on issues in the field of nuclear fusion.

  19. Database and Related Activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru; Kitajima, Masashi; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Akira; Skobelev, Igor; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Ulantsev, Artemiy; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Norimasa

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W 26+ ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association ''Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications'' to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

  20. Creative communication in public relations activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Jakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several approaches to new waves of public relations. Emphasis is given to the creative impulse since many public relations professionals are less familiar with it than other forms of communication. Five criteria are suggested for structuring creative communications: 1. learning how to be a good storyteller; 2. visual communication is the content that could increasingly build strong relationships with audiences; 3. the PR practitioner’s challenge is to evaluate what people are discussing and identify the recurring issues in their marketplace; 4. recognizing that local is new global; and 5. predicate that PR is constantly changing. People who work in public relations possess the skill of offering arguments that will convince the people themselves of something. However, these skills can be offered in traditional or creative forms of expression. If we define public relations as the management of an organization’s communication with its public, then we are referring to the traditional dimension of public relations, the basis and ultimate goal of which are to cultivate relationships with the participants of the process in order to obtain support and to build trust and reputation.

  1. Efficacy of palonosetron and 1-day dexamethasone in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy compared with fosaprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone: a prospective randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Tsuji, Yasushi; Sugiyama, Junko; Doi, Ayako; Kondo, Tomohiro; Hirayama, Michiaki

    2015-12-01

    Although palonosetron (PALO) and NK1 receptor antagonist both reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, no comparison trial in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) had been reported. The purpose of this study was to find out which drug combinations are preferable for patients receiving MEC. Chemotherapy-naive patients receiving MEC were randomized to two groups; group A first received PALO therapy [PALO plus 1-day dexamethasone (DEX)], and group B first received fosaprepitant (FAPR) therapy [FAPR, granisetron (GRAN), and DEX]. Patients were re-allocated to the other therapy, respectively, for the second cycle of chemotherapy. We administered intravenous PALO (0.75 mg) and DEX (9.9 mg) to the PALO therapy group, and FAPR (150 mg), DEX (4.95 mg), and GRAN (3 mg) to the FAPR therapy group, on Day 1. Complete response (CR) was the primary endpoint; complete control (CC), total control (CT), and the therapy chosen by the patients for their third and following cycles of antiemetic therapy were the secondary endpoints. We evaluated CR, CC, and TC in the acute phase, in the delayed phase, and over the whole period. A total of 35 patients and 70 cycles of therapy was evaluable for analysis. No significant difference was found at all evaluation points. Overall CR rates for PALO and FAPR therapy were 74 vs 69 % (P = 0.567), CC rates 66 vs 69 % (P = 0.521), and TC rates 46 vs 60 % (P = 0.235), respectively. Patients also showed no clear preference for their third and following cycles of chemotherapy, choosing both regimens almost equally often (PALO 10 vs FAPR 13). PALO and 1-day DEX is almost equivalent to FAPR, GRAN, and DEX for MEC.

  2. A randomized study of the efficacy and safety of transdermal granisetron in the control of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Park, Seong Joon; Sym, Sun Jin; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Jin Seok; Kim, Tae Won

    2015-06-01

    The granisetron transdermal system (GTS) showed non-inferior efficacy to oral granisetron to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during multiday chemotherapy. We compared the efficacy and safety of GTS with that of intravenous and oral granisetron in Korean patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). A total of 276 patients were randomized into GTS (n = 139, one patch on days 1-4) or control group (n = 137, intravenous on day 1 and oral on days 2-4). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving complete response (CR) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after the final administration. Out of 234 patients (112 in GTS and 122 in control group) included in the per protocol analysis, 97.9 % had gastrointestinal cancer and 76.9 % received 3-day chemotherapy. The GTS showed non-inferior efficacy achieving CR in 75.0 % of the patients; 74.6 % of the patients in the control group achieved CR (95 % confidence interval -10.73 to 11.55 %). The CR rate did not change after subgroup analyses by sex, age, and chemotherapy naivety and analysis per day and overall days of treatment. The GTS group showed sustained CR from day 1 to day 4. Patients' satisfaction, assessed using Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLI-E), showed no difference. Both treatments were well tolerated and safe. The GTS showed non-inferior efficacy to intravenous and oral granisetron. The safety, tolerability, and FLI-E scores of the GTS were comparable to those of control group. The GTS offers a convenient alternative option for relieving CINV in patients receiving MEC.

  3. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  4. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  5. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru

    1981-09-01

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3 He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  6. Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosar, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    Controversies recently have arisen over certain executive branch agencies' expenditures of appropriated funds on public relations activities, some of which have been characterized as propagandistic...

  7. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  8. Study of Relation between Physical Activity and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Preterm birth is the main cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and the importance of knowing its causes is clear. Since the effect of physical activity on preterm birth is unknown and its prevention is the priority in health care, we decided to do this study with the aim of determining the relation between physical activity and preterm birth. Methods: In this case-control study, 300 pregnant women delivering in Izadi Hospital in Qom, Iran in the second half of 2008, selected through simple sampling. The data were collected using standard pregnancy physical activity questionnaire that categorizes the physical activity into 4 groups: work activities, home activities, transport activities and fun/exercise activities. The physical activity severity was calculated as MET (Metabolic Equivalence Test. Finally, the data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic (x2 and t test statistics. A p<0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The findings didn't show any significant relation between physical activity and preterm birth. In addition, in view of activity type, fun/exercise and work activities (respectively and in view of activity severity, sedentary and moderate activities (respectively were associated with higher, but insignificant rate of preterm birth. Among demographic factors, only gravidity of women was significantly associated with preterm birth.Conclusion: Although, in this study the significant relation between physical activity and preterm delivery wasn't observed, the same research with further sample is recommended.

  9. Impact of 5-HT(3) RA selection within triple antiemetic regimens on uncontrolled highly emetogenic chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Lee; Jackson, James; Jain, Gagan; Balu, Sanjeev; Buchner, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    It is recommended that patients initiate triple antiemetic therapy with one of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT(3) RAs), aprepitant (or its intravenous prodrug fosaprepitant) and dexamethasone prior to the start of highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). However, the impact of 5-HT(3) RA selection within triple antiemetic regimens on the risk of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with HEC has not been well studied. To assess the likelihood of an uncontrolled CINV event following antiemetic prophylaxis with the 5-HT(3) RA palonosetron + aprepitant/fosaprepitant + dexamethasone (palonosetron cohort) versus any of the other 5-HT(3) RAs + aprepitant/fosaprepitant + dexamethasone (other 5-HT(3) RA cohort) among single-day HEC cycles. Single-day HEC cycles (a gap of at least 5 days between two administrations) among patients with a cancer diagnosis and receiving antiemetic prophylaxis with the aforementioned regimens between 1/1/2006 and 6/30/2010 were identified from the IMS LifeLink claims database. Uncontrolled CINV events were identified through ICD-9-CM codes (nausea and vomiting), Current Procedural Terminology codes (hydration), rescue medications and/or use of antiemetic therapy from days 2-5 following HEC administration. Risks for an uncontrolled CINV event among all patients, and within breast cancer and multiple cancer subpopulations, were analyzed at cycle level using logistic multivariate regression models. A total of 8018 cycles for the palonosetron cohort and 1926 cycles for the other 5-HT(3) RA cohort (3574 and 978 patients, respectively) were analyzed. Single-day HEC cycles received by the palonosetron cohort had a significantly lower unadjusted risk of an uncontrolled CINV event (17.5 vs 20.7% for the other 5-HT(3) RA cohort; p = 0.0010), with a 17% lower adjusted risk for palonosetron-administered cycles (odds ratio: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73-0.94; p = 0.0042). Results in the breast cancer and multiple cancer

  10. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise... store are “related activities,” even if the store sells a great variety of different types of goods and... of goods or services, of any type, are related activities and they will be considered one enterprise...

  11. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  12. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  13. Recovery of active pathogenesis-related enzymes from the apoplast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall protease activity intensity was higher in the symplast. Maximum symplast contamination of the apoplast was 2% as estimated by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, a biochemical marker for symplast. Accumulation of pathogenesis-related enzymatic activities in the apoplast of M. acuminata leaf tissue was ...

  14. Social power and approach-related neural activity

    OpenAIRE

    Boksem, Maarten; Smolders, Ruud; Cremer, David

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motiva...

  15. Seal Related Development Activities at EG/G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Harold F.

    1991-01-01

    Seal related development activities including modeling, analysis, and performance testing are described for several current seal related projects. Among the current seal related projects are the following: high pressure gas sealing systems for turbomachinery; brush seals for gas path sealing in gas turbines; and tribological material evaluation for wear surfaces in sealing systems.

  16. Disentangling longitudinal relations between physical activity, work-related fatigue, and task demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of

  17. Some aspects of public relation activities at Russian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, Sergei

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Since 1992 Rosenergoatom has managed most of the Russian NPPs. Here in this report we present its main public relations activities. 1. The leading role of the management of Rosenergoatom (Direction of Public Relations) is in relations with the public. 2. The main public relations activities are: - contact with the selected and administrative authorities of different levels, - interaction with mass media, - information of employees, - information of, and interaction with, the people of the areas close to the NPPs and especially of the nearby towns, - organising and carrying out opinion polls, - celebration campaigns at NPPs. 3. The use of NPPs' information centers and groups for PR activities: - construction and equipping of NPPs' public information centers; organising excursions, lectures, debates at NPPs; - publishing of news papers at NPPs and at NPPs' towns. 4. Public information in the regions close to the NPPs construction sites (Far East, Kostroma, Rostov, Veronezh regions). 5. Conclusions on the activities and plans for the future. (author)

  18. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; operation and management of a trust department; international banking; foreign exchange transactions... specialized lending provisions; marketing operations, including research, market development and advertising... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank management...

  19. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  1. Social power and approach-related neural activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.S. Boksem (Maarten); R. Smolders (Ruud); D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and

  2. Water chemistry-related activities at the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Onufriev, V.

    2005-01-01

    Water chemistry activities and publications in the past are listed. IAEA Coordinated Research Programmes, WWER-1000 SG water chemistry database, materials issues TM in Vienna, TC workshops and attendance of international meetings, publications. There is a list of IAEA publications related to water chemistry and corrosion. Finally water chemistry activities planned for 2006-2008 are detailed. (N.T.)

  3. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male cou...

  4. Randomized phase III trial of APF530 versus palonosetron in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in a subset of patients with breast cancer receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccia, Ralph; O’Boyle, Erin; Cooper, William

    2016-01-01

    APF530 provides controlled, sustained-release granisetron for preventing acute (0–24 h) and delayed (24–120 h) chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). In a phase III trial, APF530 was noninferior to palonosetron in preventing acute CINV following single-dose moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and delayed CINV in MEC (MEC and HEC defined by Hesketh criteria). This exploratory subanalysis was conducted in the breast cancer subpopulation. Patients were randomized to subcutaneous APF530 250 or 500 mg (granisetron 5 or 10 mg) or intravenous palonosetron 0.25 mg during cycle 1. Palonosetron patients were randomized to APF530 for cycles 2 to 4. The primary efficacy end point was complete response (CR, no emesis or rescue medication) in cycle 1. Among breast cancer patients (n = 423 MEC, n = 185 HEC), > 70 % received anthracycline-containing regimens in each emetogenicity subgroup. There were no significant between-group differences in CRs in cycle 1 for acute (APF530 250 mg: MEC 71 %, HEC 77 %; 500 mg: MEC 73 %, HEC 73 %; palonosetron: MEC 68 %, HEC 66 %) and delayed (APF530 250 mg: MEC 46 %, HEC 58 %; 500 mg: MEC 48 %, HEC 63 %; palonosetron: MEC 52 %, HEC 52 %) CINV. There were no significant differences in within-cycle CRs between APF530 doses for acute and delayed CINV in MEC or HEC in cycles 2 to 4; CRs trended higher in later cycles, with no notable differences in adverse events between breast cancer and overall populations. APF530 effectively prevented acute and delayed CINV over 4 chemotherapy cycles in breast cancer patients receiving MEC or HEC. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00343460 (June 22, 2006)

  5. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  6. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Social power and approach-related neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksem, Maarten A S; Smolders, Ruud; De Cremer, David

    2012-06-01

    It has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motivation has been found to be associated with increased relative left-sided frontal brain activity, while withdrawal motivation has been associated with increased right sided activations. We measured EEG activity while subjects engaged in a task priming either high or low social power. Results show that high social power is indeed associated with greater left-frontal brain activity compared to low social power, providing the first neural evidence for the theory that high power is associated with approach-related motivation. We propose a framework accounting for differences in both approach motivation and goal-directed behaviour associated with different levels of power.

  8. Kinesiophobia in relation to physical activity in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbüken, İlkşan; Özgül, Bahar; Kuru Çolak, Tuğba; Aydoğdu, Onur; Sarı, Zübeyir; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Little research is available concerning physical activity and its determinants in people with chronic neck pain. To explore the relation between kinesiophobia and physical activity and gender effect on these relations in people with chronic neck pain. Ninety-nine subjects (34 men and 65 women) with chronic neck pain were participated in the study. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analog Scale and kinesiophobia degree was determined by using Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Level of physical activity was assessed with short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. There was no statistically correlation between neck pain intensity and kinesiophobia degree (p= 0.246, r= 0.123) and physical activity level (p= 0.432, r= -0.083). It was also found that kinesiophobia degree was not correlated to physical activity level (p= 0.148, r= -0.153). There was a negative correlation between kinesiophobia degree and physical activity level only for women, not for men (p= 0.011, r= -0.318). Our results showed that although people with chronic neck pain reported higher pain intensity and fear of movement, pain intensity and kinesiophobia degree did not associate to their physical activity levels. It can be speculated that high kinesiophobia degrees cause low physical activity levels for women, but not for men.

  9. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  10. The alpha activity of soils in relation to landscape development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, R G; Quirk, J P [Western Australia Univ., Nedlands. Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    1976-02-01

    The alpha activity of soils and the degree of the equilibrium of the thorium series has been related to the age of soils developed on a truncated laterite landscape in southwestern Australia. The uplift of the old lateritic plateau has formed a sequence of erosional and depositional surfaces which form the parent materials of the present-day soils. These surfaces because of their different relative ages have been subjected to different degrees of weathering and leaching. The alpha activity of the soils formed on these different landscape surfaces is influenced firstly by the amount of weathering that the surface has undergone, and secondly by the degree of leaching that the soil has undergone as evidenced by profile development. It has been found that the younger soils have higher alpha activities with the thorium series tending more towards equilibrium when compared with older soils, where the alpha activity is lower due to the leaching of the daughter nuclides from the profile.

  11. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  12. 2017 Military Services Gender Relations Focus Groups: Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Office of People Analytics Office of People Analytics (OPA) Defense Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 06E22...Relations (2017 MSGR) Focus Groups among active duty members. This is the third6 administration of gender relations focus groups. This introductory ...Enlisted, Male “It is true statistically , a majority of sexual assaults there is alcohol or drugs. In the military, it’s into the alcohol more than

  13. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skidmore Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed.

  15. Project Rio Blanco: detonation related activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco is described in relation to detonation, its history, execution, and results. Topics discussed include generalized site activities, emplacement well, explosive services and operations, operational safety, environmental protection program, seismic effects and damage claims, and add-on programs. (U.S.)

  16. Legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Едуардович Радутний

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses pros and cons of the legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities, proves the necessity of resolving the issue from the perspective of human rights and interests of society, proposes changes to the current legislation of Ukraine and specific methods of information support of this process.

  17. Legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Олександр Едуардович Радутний

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses pros and cons of the legalization of prostitution and decriminalization of related activities, proves the necessity of resolving the issue from the perspective of human rights and interests of society, proposes changes to the current legislation of Ukraine and specific methods of information support of this process.

  18. Electrically active sodium-related defect centres in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen; Madsbøll, J.; Søiland, A.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrically active defect centres related to sodium in silicon have been examined with deep level transient spectroscopy, and their recombination potential analysed with the microwave photoconductive decay technique. In order to investigate the entire silicon band gap for defect centres, both p-...

  19. Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

    This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

  20. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  1. High Tide, Low Tide. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  2. Options for Diversification in Tobacco Farming and Related Activities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 janv. 2012 ... This project aims to provide the national working group with data on the socioeconomic status of the population engaged in tobacco farming and related activities such as bidi rolling and tendu leaf plucking; identify feasible alternative livelihoods; and design an intervention to facilitate a gradual shift to other ...

  3. Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Vroome, E.M. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods: Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one

  4. Life Cycle of the Salmon. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabochia, Kathy

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive advantage over firms competing with other holding company affiliates. To reduce the possibility... Board's amendment of § 225.4(a), which adds courier services to the list of closely related activities... generally in the provision of transportation services. During the course of the Board's proceedings...

  6. Some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen transparencies where presented, elaborating some activities at CEA related to behaviour of core internals. After some introduction, ten of the transparencies are essentially a copy of the table of contents of the AMES report no. 11 (report no: EUR 17694 EN). The remaining 6 foils concerned themselves with irradiation experiments in test reactors, namely the IDAHO, CASIMIR and ALEXANDRA experiments

  7. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  8. The relation between self-esteem, sexual activity, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R B; Frank, D I

    1994-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.

  9. Estimating relative demand for wildlife: Conservation activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Gary G.; Larson, Joseph S.

    1982-09-01

    An alternative method of estimating relative demand among nonconsumptive uses of wildlife and among wildlife species is proposed. A demand intensity score (DIS), derived from the relative extent of an individual's involvement in outdoor recreation and conservation activities, is used as a weighting device to adjust the importance of preference rankings for wildlife uses and wildlife species relative to other members of a survey population. These adjusted preference rankings were considered to reflect relative demand levels (RDLs) for wildlife uses and for species by the survey population. This technique may be useful where it is not possible or desirable to estimate demand using traditional economic means. In one of the findings from a survey of municipal conservation commission members in Massachusetts, presented as an illustration of this methodology, poisonous snakes were ranked third in preference among five groups of reptiles. The relative demand level for poisonous snakes, however, was last among the five groups.

  10. Enzyme Enzyme activities in relation to sugar accumulation in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.J.; Rahman, M.H.; Mamun, M.A.; Islam, K.

    2006-01-01

    Enzyme activities in tomato juice of five different varieties viz. Ratan, Marglove, BARI-1, BARI-5 and BARI-6, in relation to sugar accumulation were investigated at different maturity stages. The highest amount of invertase and beta-galactosidase was found in Marglove and the lowest in BARI- 6 at all maturity stages. Total soluble sugar and sucrose contents were highest in BARI-1 and lowest in BARI-6. The activity of amylase was maximum in Ratan and minimum in Marglove. Protease activity was highest in Ratan and lowest in BARI-6. BARI-1 contained the highest cellulase activity and the lowest in BARI-5. The amount of total soluble sugar and sucrose increased moderately from premature to ripe stage. The activities of amylase and cellulase increased up to the mature stage and then decreased drastically in the ripe stage. The activities of invertase and protease increased sharply from the premature to the ripe stage while the beta-galactosidase activity decreased remarkably. No detectable amount of reducing sugar was present in the premature stage in all cultivars of tomato but increased thereafter upto the ripe stage. The highest reducing sugar was present in BARI-5 in all of the maturity stages. (author)

  11. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  12. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  13. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P N Scholl

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112 and controls (n = 67. Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH, factor B-C2 (BF-C2 and complement C3 (C3 genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001, were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  14. Dispersion relations and sum rules for natural optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, M.T.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1981-06-01

    Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained. It is shown that the Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion formula is inconsistent with the expected asymptotic behavior at high frequencies. A new dispersion formula based on quantum eletro-dynamics removes this inconsistency; however, it still requires modification in the low-frequency limit. (Author) [pt

  15. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  16. The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; MacKay, Alicia

    2011-05-01

    Intensive repetitive musical practice can lead to bilateral cortical reorganization. However, whether musical sensorimotor and cognitive abilities transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities that are maintained throughout the life span is unclear. In an attempt to identify modifiable lifestyle factors that may potentially enhance successful aging, we evaluated the association between musical instrumental participation and cognitive aging. Seventy older healthy adults (ages 60-83) varying in musical activity completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The groups (nonmusicians, low and high activity musicians) were matched on age, education, history of physical exercise, while musicians were matched on age of instrumental acquisition and formal years of musical training. Musicians were classified in the low (1-9 years) or high (>10 years) activity group based on years of musical experience throughout their life span. The results of this preliminary study revealed that participants with at least 10 years of musical experience (high activity musicians) had better performance in nonverbal memory (η2 = .106), naming (η2 = .103), and executive processes (η2 = .131) in advanced age relative to nonmusicians. Several regression analyses evaluated how years of musical activity, age of acquisition, type of musical training, and other variables predicted cognitive performance. These correlational results suggest a strong predictive effect of high musical activity throughout the life span on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. A discussion of how musical participation may enhance cognitive aging is provided along with other alternative explanations.

  17. Relation of Biospeckle Activity with Quality Attributes of Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zdunek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and starch content (SC during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.

  18. Relation of biospeckle activity with quality attributes of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, Artur; Cybulska, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    Biospeckle is nondestructive optical technique based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. Biospeckle activity reflects the state of the investigated object. In this study the relation of biospeckle activity (BA) with firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and starch content (SC) during the shelf life of seven apple cultivars was studied. The results showed that the quality attributes change significantly during storage. Significant and pronounced positive correlation between BA and SC was found. This result shows that degradation of starch granules, which could be stimulated to vibration by intracellular cyclosis, causes a lesser number of laser light scattering centers and results in smaller apparent biospeckle activity.

  19. Transit-Related Walking to Work in Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2015-04-01

    Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.

  20. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Workplace harassment, active coping, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S

    2001-01-01

    While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.

  2. Palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with emetogenic chemotherapy in a hospital outpatient setting in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Chris; Gayle, Julie; Balu, Sanjeev; Buchner, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after initiating antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists (RAs) in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies (lymphoma and leukemia) and receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) in a hospital outpatient setting. Patients aged ≥ 18 years and diagnosed with hematologic malignancies initiating HEC or MEC and antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron (Group 1) and other 5-HT₃ RAs (Group 2) for the first time in a hospital outpatient setting between 4/1/2007 and 3/31/2009 were identified from the Premier Perspective Database. Within each cycle, CINV events were identified (in the hospital outpatient, inpatient, and emergency room settings) through ICD-9 codes for nausea, vomiting, and/or volume depletion (from each CT administration day 1 until the end of the CT cycle), or use of rescue medications (day 2 until the end of the CT cycle). Negative binomial distribution generalized linear multivariate regression model estimating the CINV event rate on CT, specific CT cycles, and cancer diagnosis (leukemia/lymphoma)-matched groups in the follow-up period (first of 8 cycles or 6 months) was developed. Of 971 identified patients, 211 initiated palonosetron (Group 1). Group 1 patients comprised of more females [50.2 vs. 41.4%; p = 0.0226], Whites [74.4 vs. 70.4%, and Hispanics [7.6 vs. 6.3%; all races p = 0.0105], received more HEC treatments [89.6 vs. 84.2%; all CT types p = 0.0129], and had more lymphoma diagnosed patients [89.6 vs. 76.3%; all cancer types p = 0.0033] at baseline. After controlling for differences in several demographic and clinical variables, the regression model predicted a 20.4% decrease in CINV event rate per CT cycle for Group 1 versus Group 2 patients. Study limitations include potential lack of generalizability, absence of data on certain

  3. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    other hand, in the survey to determine what the greatest difficulties of the current mining activities, 54% of mining companies chose environmental regulations, 26% of mining companies chose conflicts between mine area residents and mining companies. Environmental regulations are may defined as the greatest difficulty of current mining activities. But most of environmental regulation's problems are caused by frictions with residents, because all of South Korean mines are very close to villages. So, the biggest difficulty of mining activities can be defined conflicts between residents and mining companies. Moreover, general people in South Korea including some mining engineers recognize the mining industry as a declined and pollution industry. Without clear understanding of mining activities, any mine developments and policies related to mining activities cannot be made by rational discussions. And, if their recognition is not formed in a rational way, it will be turned to extreme fear or blind hatred. Therefore, to understand mining activities correctly, the effective public relations strategy is necessary such as corporate advertisements or public advertisements.

  4. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  5. Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning for Relative Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-06-02

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning (DEGAL). This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multi-class distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  6. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  7. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Although girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Data from 1,866 eighth-grade girls from six field centers across the United States participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed-model analysis of variance examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. High-active girls were taller, had lower body mass indices and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Update on the SDTP Sponsored Fukushima Daiichi Related Assesment Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Innovative Systems Software and several other members of an international software development and training group (SDTP) started an assessment of the possible core/vessel damage states of Units 1-3. This assessment, using a reference RELAP/SCDAPSIM Laguna Verde BWR model developed by CNSNS, the Mexican nuclear regulatory body, was presented initially to the IAEA emergency response team for Fukushima in March of 2011. Our assessment for the IAEA indicated that significant fuel melting, fuel slumping, and lower head failure was likely for Units 1 and 3. The results for Unit 2 were inconclusive because of the complex thermal hydraulic conditions at the time of likely fuel melting. Since that time the SDTP related assessment activities have continued on three main fronts: (a) continued analysis using our representative Laguna Verde model to determine the likely failure modes leading to an un-intentional depressurization of the vessel during a SBO in a BWR, (b) development of improved RELAP/SCDAPSIM models to treat the likely mode of lower core support structure melting and failure, and (c) design studies for proposed fuel melting and relocation experiments in Japan to support model development and cleanup related activities, The presentation gives a brief summary and discussion of these activities.

  9. Adolescents' and young adults' physical activity related to built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cocca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to analyse physical activity (PA levels of high school and university students; to estimate their perception of built environment with regard to physical PA; and to assess the relation between PA and built environment. Methods. A sociological cross-sectional study with non-experimental design was applied. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Built Environment Characteristics Questionnaire were filled in by a sample of 1.862 students from high schools and the university in Granada, Spain. Results. High school students were significantly more active than university students, the latter reaching insufficient levels of PA. Nevertheless, they consider Granada as a good context for carrying out outdoor exercise. No relations were found between PA levels and built environment. Conclusion. The discrepant outcomes for PA levels and perceived built environment suggest the need of interventions focused on making youth aware of the possibilities that an environment provides to them for exercising. Consequently, environment could have an impact on their health at the same time as youth learn to respect it.

  10. Stroke survivors' and relatives' negotiation of relational and activity changes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Cathrine; Hamran, Torunn

    2016-01-01

    This study explores stroke survivors' and relatives' negotiation of relational and activity change in their interrelated long-term meaning-making processes of everyday life and what it means for the experience of progress and well-being. Repeated retrospective in-depth interviews were conducted with both the stroke survivor and relatives. A Critical Psychological Perspective gives the frame of reference to study more closely what is going on in and across particular contexts in family members' ongoing social practices. An asymmetric problematic relationship can develop among the participants in the context of family life. However, the analysis identifies six beneficial relational and activity changes, which contribute to a reciprocal, balanced repositioning, and help the family move in a more positive direction. The repositioning processes facilitate a new transformation of family we-ness, which is important for the participants' experience of process and well-being. The comprehensive family work that has to be done is about managing the imbalance of everyday life, upholding separate activities outside the family sphere and dealing with the fact that peripheral others become more peripheral. The study addresses some arguments for taking a family-centred perspective in occupational therapy practice, as well as in a stroke rehabilitation service in general.

  11. Error-Related Activity and Correlates of Grammatical Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Doug J.; Indefrey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG) activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase on two separate days spaced 1 week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants’ classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar learning. PMID:21960979

  12. Cerebral Activations Related to Writing and Drawing with Each Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; van der Hoorn, Anouk; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Writing is a sequential motor action based on sensorimotor integration in visuospatial and linguistic functional domains. To test the hypothesis of lateralized circuitry concerning spatial and language components involved in such action, we employed an fMRI paradigm including writing and drawing with each hand. In this way, writing-related contributions of dorsal and ventral premotor regions in each hemisphere were assessed, together with effects in wider distributed circuitry. Given a right-hemisphere dominance for spatial action, right dorsal premotor cortex dominance was expected in left-hand writing while dominance of the left ventral premotor cortex was expected during right-hand writing. Methods Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects were scanned during audition-guided writing of short sentences and simple figure drawing without visual feedback. Tapping with a pencil served as a basic control task for the two higher-order motor conditions. Activation differences were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Results Writing and drawing showed parietal-premotor and posterior inferior temporal activations in both hemispheres when compared to tapping. Drawing activations were rather symmetrical for each hand. Activations in left- and right-hand writing were left-hemisphere dominant, while right dorsal premotor activation only occurred in left-hand writing, supporting a spatial motor contribution of particularly the right hemisphere. Writing contrasted to drawing revealed left-sided activations in the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, Broca’s area, pre-Supplementary Motor Area and posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, without parietal activation. Discussion The audition-driven postero-inferior temporal activations indicated retrieval of virtual visual form characteristics in writing and drawing, with additional activation concerning word form in the left hemisphere. Similar parietal processing in writing and drawing pointed at a

  13. Cerebral activations related to writing and drawing with each hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van der Hoorn, Anouk; de Jong, Bauke M

    2015-01-01

    Writing is a sequential motor action based on sensorimotor integration in visuospatial and linguistic functional domains. To test the hypothesis of lateralized circuitry concerning spatial and language components involved in such action, we employed an fMRI paradigm including writing and drawing with each hand. In this way, writing-related contributions of dorsal and ventral premotor regions in each hemisphere were assessed, together with effects in wider distributed circuitry. Given a right-hemisphere dominance for spatial action, right dorsal premotor cortex dominance was expected in left-hand writing while dominance of the left ventral premotor cortex was expected during right-hand writing. Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects were scanned during audition-guided writing of short sentences and simple figure drawing without visual feedback. Tapping with a pencil served as a basic control task for the two higher-order motor conditions. Activation differences were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Writing and drawing showed parietal-premotor and posterior inferior temporal activations in both hemispheres when compared to tapping. Drawing activations were rather symmetrical for each hand. Activations in left- and right-hand writing were left-hemisphere dominant, while right dorsal premotor activation only occurred in left-hand writing, supporting a spatial motor contribution of particularly the right hemisphere. Writing contrasted to drawing revealed left-sided activations in the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, Broca's area, pre-Supplementary Motor Area and posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, without parietal activation. The audition-driven postero-inferior temporal activations indicated retrieval of virtual visual form characteristics in writing and drawing, with additional activation concerning word form in the left hemisphere. Similar parietal processing in writing and drawing pointed at a common mechanism by which such visually

  14. Quality Control Activities Related to Mechanical Maintenance of Safety Related Components at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djakovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    For successful, safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plant, maintenance processes have to be systematically controlled and procedures for quality control of maintenance activities shall be established. This is requested by the quality assurance program, which shall provide control over activities affecting the quality of structures, systems, and components, considering their importance to safety. As a part of Quality and Nuclear Oversight Division (QNOD; SKV), the Quality Control Department (QC) provides quality control activities, which are deeply involved in maintenance processes at Krsko NPP, both on safety related and non-safety related (non-nuclear safety) components. QC activities on safety related components have to fulfil all requirements, which will enable the components to perform their intended safety functions. This paper describes quality control activities related to mechanical maintenance of safety related components at Krsko NPP and significant role of the Krsko plant QC Department in three particular maintenance cases connected with safety related components. In these three specific cases, the QC has confirmed its importance in compliance with quality assurance program and presented its significant added value in providing safe and reliable operation of the plant. The first maintenance activity was installation of nozzle check valves in the scope of a modification for improving regulation of spent fuel pit pumps. The QC Department performed receipt inspection of the valves. Using non-destructive examination methods and X-ray spectrometry, it was found out that the valve diffuser was made of improper material, which could cause progressive corrosion of the valve diffuser in borated water and consequently a loss of safety function of the valves followed by long-term consequences. The second one was the receipt inspection of containment ventilation fan coolers. The coolers were claimed and sent back to the supplier because the QC Department

  15. [Relation between physical activity, weight balance and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maître, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies, with a good methodology, support the evidence of the positive role of regular physical activity on primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer on the risk of recurrence and mortality. This relation depends on the level of total energy expenditure by week, which helps balance weight on lifetime, an essential part of benefit. The beneficial effects of physical activity are linked to many interrelated additional mechanisms: in a short-term, contraction of skeletal muscles involves aerobic metabolism which utilizes glucose and amino acids like glutamine, improves insulin sensitivity and lowers plasma insulin; in a long-term, physical activity produces favorable changes in body composition, decreasing body fat and increasing lean mass. That is a key point to reduce the intake of energy substrates stimulating carcinogenesis, to improve insulin sensitivity, to change the ratio of leptin and adiponectin, to enhance cellular immunity and to block cellular pathways of cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity well balanced with energy intake is it a goal for prevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. JAEA's activities relating the Fukushima Nuclear Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    JAEA started the activities relating to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The Office of Fukushima Partnership Operations for Environmental Remediation was opened and the JAEA staff was stationed as the base of cooperation with other organizations. It is conducting environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting, and demonstration of decontamination technology. Experts of JAEA are providing technical advice and supports to the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Furthermore, the water radiolysis leading to hydrogen gas evolution by Cs 137 adsorbed zeolite and the technique for radioactive waste process and its disposal of fuel debris are being studied. JAEA's Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) is acting as a center of these supporting activities of JAEA. (S. Ohno)

  17. Status of research reactor utilization and other related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    The report covers two parts; the first is on the progress of the cooperative projects planned for 2002 under the FNCA and the other part on the activities related to the PRR1, Philippine Research Reactor. In the 2001 Workshop at Beijing, the Country agreed to participate in the three areas for collaboration. A brief reports on these three projects are included. The Country representatives during this 2002 Workshop will do a more detailed presentation on Radioisotope Production (TcG) and Neutron Activation Analysis projects. The second part of this report deals with the issues/concerns impeding the rehabilitation of PRR1. In January 2002, the Institute created the PRR1 Strategic Plan Committee to look deeply into these issues and concerns. The results of the Committee's work are discussed. (author)

  18. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Savita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  19. THE RADIO ACTIVITY-ROTATION RELATION OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, M.; Berger, E.; Reiners, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the Very Large Array. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. As part of the survey we discovered radio emission from three new objects, 2MASS J 0518113 – 310153 (M6.5), 2MASS J 0952219 – 192431 (M7), and 2MASS J 1314203 + 132001 (M7), and made an additional detection of LP 349-25 (M8). Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at L rad /L bol ≈ 10 –7.5 above vsin i ≈ 5 km s –1 , similar to the relation in Hα and X-rays. However, at spectral types ∼> M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases significantly regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 ) exhibit 'super-saturation' in X-rays and Hα, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 have a higher radio detection fraction by about a factor of three compared to objects with vsin i ∼ –1 . When measured in terms of the Rossby number (Ro), the radio activity-rotation relation follows a single trend and with no apparent saturation from G to L dwarfs and down to Ro ∼ 10 –3 ; in X-rays and Hα there is clear saturation at Ro ∼ rad /R 2 * ) as a function of Ro. The continued role of rotation in the overall level of radio activity and in the fraction of active sources, and the single trend of L rad /L bol and L rad /R 2 * as a function of Ro from G to L dwarfs, indicates that rotation effects are important in regulating the topology or strength of magnetic fields in at least some fully convective dwarfs. The fact that

  20. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    CERN Document Server

    Guan Xia Ling; Ding Da Zhao; Fang Jia Xun; Fang Shou Xian; Fu Shin Ian; Guo, Z Y; Jiang Wei; Li Jie Quan; Luo Zi Hua; Ouyang Hua Fu; Peng Chao Hua; Xu Tao Guang; Xu Wen Wu; Yu Qi; Zhang Zong Hua; Zhao Sheng Chu

    2001-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  1. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xialing; Jiang Weisheng; Cui Baoqun; Peng Chaohua; Ding Dazhao; Fu Shinian; Yu Qingchang; Luo Zihua; Xu Wenwu; Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang; Zhao Shengchu; Zhang Zonghua; Li Jian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  2. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Activities Related to Fast Reactor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dujardin, Thierry; Gulliford, Jim

    2013-01-01

    • Despite impact of Fukushima, there remains a high level of interest in continued development of advanced nuclear systems and fuel cycles: – better use of natural resources; – minimisation of waste and reduction of constraints on deep geological repositories. • Ambitious R&D programmes on-going at national level in many countries, also through international projects: – expected to lead to development of advanced reactors and fuel cycle facilities. • OECD/NEA will continue to support member countries in field of fast reactor development and related advanced fuel cycles: – forum for exchange of information; – collaborative activities

  3. The efficacy and safety of palonosetron compared with granisetron in preventing highly emetogenic chemotherapy-induced vomiting in the Chinese cancer patients: a phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel, comparative clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaocai; Liu, Wenchao; Wang, Ling; Liang, Houjie; Huang, Ying; Si, Xiaoming; Zhang, Helong; Liu, Duhu; Zhang, Hongmei

    2009-01-01

    This clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Palonosetron in preventing chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) among the Chinese cancer patients. Two hundred and forty patients were scheduled to be enrolled and randomized to receive a single intravenous dose of palonosetron 0.25 mg, or granisetron 3 mg, 30 min before receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete response (CR) rate for acute CIV (during the 0-24-h interval after chemotherapy). Secondary endpoints included the CR rates for delayed CIV (more than 24 h after chemotherapy). Two hundred and eight patients were accrued and received study medication. CR rates for acute CIV were 82.69% for palonosetron and 72.12% for granisetron, which demonstrated that palonosetron was not inferior to granisetron in preventing acute CIV. Comparisons of CR rates for delayed CIV yielded no statistical difference between palonosetron and granisetron groups and did not reveal non-inferiority of palonosetron to granisetron. Adverse events were mostly mild to moderate, with quite low rates among the two groups. A single dose (0.25 mg) of palonosetron is not inferior to a single dose (3 mg) of granisetron in preventing CIV and possesses an acceptable safety profile in the Chinese population.

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of transdermal granisetron for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately and highly emetogenic multi-day chemotherapy: a randomized, double-blind, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Ralph V; Gordan, Lucio N; Clark, Gemma; Howell, Julian D; Grunberg, Steven M

    2011-10-01

    A novel transdermal formulation of granisetron (the granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS)) has been developed to deliver granisetron continuously over 7 days. This double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and tolerability of the GTDS to daily oral granisetron for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Six hundred forty-one patients were randomized to oral (2 mg/day, 3-5 days) or transdermal granisetron (one GTDS patch, 7 days), before receiving multi-day chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was complete control of CINV (no vomiting/retching, no more than mild nausea, no rescue medication) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after final administration. The prespecified non-inferiority margin was 15%. Five hundred eighty-two patients were included in the per protocol analysis. The GTDS displayed non-inferiority to oral granisetron: complete control was achieved by 60% of patients in the GTDS group, and 65% in the oral granisetron group (treatment difference, -5%; 95% confidence interval, -13-3). Both treatments were well tolerated, the most common adverse event being constipation. The GTDS provides effective, well-tolerated control of CINV associated with moderately or highly emetogenic multi-day chemotherapy. It offers a convenient alternative route for delivering granisetron for up to 7 days that is as effective as oral granisetron.

  5. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  6. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  7. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine benthic faunal successional stages and related sedimentary activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Rosenberg

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief review of successional stages and activity of benthic soft-bottom communities. Benthic communities was first described by Petersen in the 1910s and further developed by Molander, Thorson and Margalef. Successional stages of benthic communities chance in a predictable way in relation to environmental disturbance and food availability. Food supply to the bottom can occur as a vertical flux, but transport through lateral advection is more important in some areas. While at the bottom, the infauna processes the food in many different ways, and the feeding modes can be categorised into more than 20 functional groups, but fewer are present in brackish water. This categorisation is based on animal mobility and where and how they ingest the food. Animal activity in the sediment, bioturbation, has a significant effect on redox conditions and diagenetic processes. Structures in the sediment due to infaunal presence and activity can be observed in situ by sediment profile imaging, and the biogenic structures and redox conditions can be parameterised and have been shown to correlate to benthic community successional stages. The largest threat to benthic faunal biodiversity is the spread of near-bottom oxygen deficiency in many enclosed are stratified coastal areas.

  9. Relation of Age at Menarche to Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egreta Peja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether regular physical activity during early puberty is influential in preventing early menarche. This cross sectional study was carried out on 102 post-menarcheal girls aged 11–20 (14.79±0.33. 51 of them were already engaged in competitive sport activities prior to the onset of menstruation (group 1, while the others got engaged in such activities after the onset of menstruation (group 2. All participants provided the year and the month of their first menstrual period. First, we estimated the equality of dispersion between the two groups, by conducting Two Samples for Variances F-test. Second, because no homogeneity of variances between groups was found, they were compared by using Two Samples Assuming Unequal Variances t-test. The difference between groups is statistically significant, as the t statistics (=2.883 is greater than both critical t statistics (one-tail=1.664 two-tail=1.990 and the p value less than 0.05 in both cases (one-tail=0.002 two-tail=0.005. None of the girls in the first group starts to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 14, with a median age of 12.95±0.35 years. Age of menarche is lower in the second group with a median age of 12.25±0.31 years, thus approximately 8 months lower than median age for the first group. 11.76% of the girls in the second group start to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 13. It is rather, the decline in early matures among those engaged in regular physical activity prior to the onset of menses, that makes the statistically significant correlation between physical activity and age at menarche practically meaningful. Relatively early matures (<11 years have been found to be slightly shorter but up to 5.5 kg heavier in adulthood than are late matures. In addition, a relatively young age at menarche has been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer and spontaneous

  10. Factors Related to Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in Active College Students: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, G. L.; Zhang, T.; Martin, S. B.; Thomas, K. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of sex, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support with meeting physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Participants: Three hundred ninety-six college students participated in this study in the summer 2013. Methods: Students completed online questionnaires that assessed physical activity…

  11. Activity Engagement and Activity-Related Experiences: The Role of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicky J; Pladevall-Guyer, Jana; Gonzalez, Richard; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-08-12

    The associations of personality with activity participation and well-being have been well studied. However, less is known concerning the relationship between personality and specific aspects of activity engagement in older adults. We conducted a fine-grained examination of the effects of extraversion and conscientiousness on reported activity engagement-which we define as participation, time allocated, and affective experience-during 8 everyday activities. Data were obtained using a day reconstruction measure from a subgroup of participants in the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 5,484; mean age = 67.98 years). We found mixed support for hypotheses suggesting that specific personality traits would be associated with activity participation, time allocated, and activity-affective experience. For example, extraverts were more likely to socialize and experienced higher socializing-related positive affect, but did not spend more time socializing. Results are discussed in light of the value of including personality in, and its contribution to, studies of activity engagement in later life. In addition, the need to acknowledge the complexity of the concept of activity engagement in future research is highlighted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. World uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanly, A.

    2014-01-01

    A Nuclear Energy Series publication entitled “World Uranium Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities” (WUERPRA) will soon be published by the IAEA. The objective of the publication is to provide a comprehensive compilation of historic uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities based primarily on information from the 1966 to 2009 editions of the publication “Uranium Resources, Production and Demand”, a joint publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development commonly known as the ‘Red Book’. This has been supplemented by historic information from other reliable sources. The publications also include, where enough information was available, descriptions of the relative potential for discovery of new uranium resources on a per country basis. To recover complete historic information it is frequently necessary to refer to earlier editions of the Red Book, many of which may not be readily available. This publication aims to provide one comprehensive source for much of this type of information which will reduce the effort required to prepare future editions of the Red Book, as well as make the historic Red Book information, together with select related information from other sources, more readily available to all users with an interest in uranium. WUERPRA comprises 6 volumes containing 164 country reports, each organized by region; Volume 1: Africa (53 countries); Volume 2: Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (25 countries); Volume 3: Southeastern Asia, Pacific, East Asia (18 countries); Volume 4: Western Europe (22 countries); Volume 5: Middle East, Central and Southern Asia (19 countries), and; Volume 6: North America, Central America and South America (27 countries). The report also contains information on countries that have not reported to the Red Book. The poster will summarize select major highlights from each volume

  13. Relation of physical activity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between self-esteem appraisal and physical activity testing a convenience sample of 211 individuals, ages 19 to 35 years and selected from the general population after a brief structured interview. They were grouped by sport habits into three distinct groups named Athletes, Nonathletes, and Sedentary people, and then were examined for significant differences in self-esteem scores measured via the Heatherton and Polivy State Self-esteem Scale which assesses three correlated factors, respectively, Performance, Social, and Appearance. As hypothesized, self-esteem scores between-groups differences emerged for the Appearance factor only, and the Sedentary group scored comparatively lower than the other two groups.

  14. WHO activities in teaching radioimmunoassay and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.P.; Sufi, S.B.; Donaldson, A.; Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization has recognized from its beginning that training is a key component of its activities, including its immunoassay standardization programme. Since the start of the Special Programme more than 250 scientists have received training in RIA and related procedures and 27 training courses have been held in various countries. Many of the courses have been held in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and these co-operative activities have established a core of scientific expertise worldwide which has contributed to the increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques in many countries. The increasing number of medical and non-medical applications of immunoassays and the special expertise required for some immunoassay methods create a continuing demand for training in RIA techniques. Both WHO and the IAEA have responded by organizing courses to 'train the trainers' and by supporting national and regional courses based on centrally provided material, as well as by commissioning the production of additional teaching documents and audio-visual aids in English and Spanish. It is envisaged that such materials, complete with centrally provided materials for practicals and other teaching aids, will be made available to national reagent programmes and will be used in the future as a well characterized, standardized core around which local organizers can construct training programmes geared to local needs and drawing upon local experience. (author)

  15. Nucleus Ambiguus Cholinergic Neurons Activated by Acupuncture: Relation to Enkephalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Li, Min; Longhurst, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture regulates autonomic function. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi–Neiguan acupoints (P5–P6, underlying the median nerve) inhibits central sympathetic outflow and attenuates excitatory cardiovascular reflexes, in part, through an opioid mechanism. It is unknown if EA at these acupoints influences the parasympathetic system. Thus, using c-Fos expression, we examined activation of nucleus ambiguus (NAmb) neurons by EA, their relation to cholinergic (preganglionic parasympathetic) neurons and those containing enkephalin. To enhance detection of cell bodies containing enkephalin, colchicine (90–100 μg/kg) was administered into the subarachnoid space of cats 30 hr prior to EA or sham-operated controls for EA. Following bilateral barodenervation and cervical vagotomy, either EA for 30 min at P5–P6 acupoints or control stimulation (needle placement at P5–P6 without stimulation) was applied. While perikarya containing enkephalin were observed in some medullary nuclei (e.g., râphe), only enkephalin-containing neuronal processes were found in the NAmb. Compared to controls (n=4), more c-Fos immunoreactivity, located principally in close proximity to fibers containing enkephalin was noted in the NAmb of EA-treated cats (n=5; P<0.01). Moreover, neurons double-labeled with c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase in the NAmb were identified in EA-treated, but not the control animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that EA activates preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the NAmb. Because of their close proximity, these EA-activated neurons likely interact with nerve fibers containing enkephalin. These results suggest that EA at the P5–P6 acupoints has the potential to influence parasympathetic outflow and cardiovascular function, likely through an enkephalinergic mechanism. PMID:22306033

  16. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Alicia; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mamani, Zulma A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Piñero, José E; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio

    2003-09-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3-7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8-27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1-11 that proved to be more active that ketoconazol, used as positive control, were further assayed against promastigotes of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. Compounds 7 and 11, with a C(6)-C(3)-C(6) system, proved to be the most promising compounds, with IC(50) values of 2.98 and 3.65 microg/mL, respectively, and exhibited no toxic effect on macrophages (around 90% viability). Correlation between the molecular structures and antileishmanial activity is discussed in detail.

  17. Seasonal variations in health-related human physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Peiser, Benny

    2006-01-01

    There are profound fluctuations in climate that occur within the annual cycle of seasonal changes. The severity of these changes depends on latitude of location and prevailing topography. Living creatures have evolved means of coping with seasonal extremes. Endogenous circannual cycles, at least in humans, appear to have been masked by mechanisms employed to cope with environmental changes. Physical activity levels tend to be lower in winter than in summer, mediating effects on health-related fitness. In athletes, seasonal changes are dictated by requirements of the annual programme of competitive engagements rather than an inherent circannual rhythm. Injury rates are influenced by seasonal environmental factors, notably in field sports. Season of birth has been related to susceptibility to selected morbidities, including mental ill-health. In age-restricted sports, there is a date-of-birth bias favouring those individuals born early in the competitive year. Trainers and selectors should acknowledge this trend if they are to avoid omitting gifted individuals, born later in the year, from talent development programmes.

  18. Tiger team findings related to DOE environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments were implemented in June 1989 as part of a strategy to ensure that DOE facilities fully comply with Federal, state, local and DOE environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) requirements. The Tiger Teams provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current ES ampersand H compliance status of each DOE facility and causes for noncompliance. To date, Tiger Team Assessments have been completed at 25 DOE facilities. With regard to assessments of environmental restoration activities, the performance of DOE facilities was evaluated against the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and DOE Order 5400.4, CERCLA Requirements, among others. Five major categories of environmental restoration-related findings were identified: (1) environmental restoration program planning and management (found at 60 percent of the sites assessed); (2) community relations/administrative record (60 percent); (3) characterization of extent of contamination (56 percent); (4) identification and evaluation of inactive waste sites (56 percent); and (5) DOE and NCP requirements for response action studies (44 percent). Primary causal factors for these findings were inadequate procedures, resources, supervision, and policy implementation

  19. Role of Slovakia within the IAEA Decommissioning Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, V.; Stubna, M.

    2009-01-01

    Slovakia has a long-term experience with the IAEA decommissioning related activities as a recipient of Agency assistance and then as a country offering assistance to others. Background, short 'history' and current status of Slovakian national technical cooperation (TC) projects SLR/4/008 'Robotic Technologies for Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Bohunice A1 NPP' and SLR/3/002 'Management of Radioactive Waste from the A1 Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning' will be described in paper. The first TC project SLR/4/008 was solved by the main Slovakian counterpart, company VUJE, Inc., from 2001 to 2006. Second TC project SLR/3/002 is ongoing with extension to 2011. Thanks to the implementation of a long-term large-scale 'Project of the A1 NPP Decommissioning - Stage I' (1996-2007), financed by Slovak National Nuclear Account (decommissioning fund), as well as implementation of the IAEA TC national projects a comprehensive know-how in the field of D and D and RAW management was obtained. Moreover, technologies and facilities necessary for implementation of decommissioning and RAW management projects were developed. Thanks to this development Slovakia offers donor assistance to other countries in subjected fields through IAEA TC program. The type and scope of assistance for Armenia, Bulgaria, Egypt, Latvia, Lithuania and The Ukraine is described in the paper. The above-mentioned national projects are not only activities of Slovakia within the IAEA TC program. Regional TC project RER/3/005 'Support in Planning the Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors' has been ongoing from 2007 with accepted extension to 2011. About nine countries from Eastern and Central Europe participate in the project (for the NPPs part) and Slovakia plays the role of LCC (Leading Country Coordinator). On the basis of suggestion of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, VUJE is the coordinator of the regional project. Moreover, Slovakia would be the

  20. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Baayen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through

  1. Analysis of supercooling activity of tannin-related polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-08-01

    Based on the discovery of novel supercooling-promoting hydrolyzable gallotannins from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree (see Wang et al. (2012) [38]), supercooling capability of a wide variety of tannin-related polyphenols (TRPs) was examined in order to find more effective supercooling-promoting substances for their applications. The TRPs examined were single compounds including six kinds of hydrolyzable tannins, 11 kinds of catechin derivatives, two kinds of structural analogs of catechin and six kinds of phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives, 11 kinds of polyphenol mixtures and five kinds of crude plant tannin extracts. The effects of these TRPs on freezing were examined by droplet freezing assays using various solutions containing different kinds of identified ice nucleators such as the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, the INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol as well as a solution containing only unintentionally included unidentified airborne ice nucleators. Among the 41 kinds of TRPs examined, all of the hydrolyzable tannins, catechin derivatives, polyphenol mixtures and crude plant tannin extracts as well as a few structural analogs of catechin and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives exhibited supercooling-promoting activity (SCA) with significant differences (p>0.05) from at least one of the solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. It should be noted that there were no TRPs exhibiting ice nucleation-enhancing activity (INA) in all solutions containing identified ice nucleators, whereas there were many TRPs exhibiting INA with significant differences in solutions containing unidentified ice nucleators alone. An emulsion freezing assay confirmed that these TRPs did not essentially affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. It is thought that not only SCA but also INA in the TRPs are produced by interactions with heterogeneous ice nucleators, not by direct interaction with water

  2. Time-dependent relative activities in the radioactive families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiernik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The relative activities of the members of the principal radioactive families, with respect to the initial activities of chosen parents were calculated for a wide range of time intervals. Tables ard graphs that are useful for radiochemistry, source standardization and chronology are presented.Three series of graphs and tables are included; series A corresponds to the family 4n, series B corresponds to the family 4n+ x, series C corresponds to the family 4n+2. A foustry, source standardization and chronology are presented. rth series 4n+1 ( 241 Pu/ 209 Bi) was not included, because it does not exist in nature and, thus, is of little interest. Each series begins with a table identified by a plain letter (A,B,C) where all the nuclides considered for the calculations and their half-lives are listed. Branching was neglected. All the series begin with isotopes of plutonium in order to show some examples of no-equilibrium, and five of the longest lived members of each family were chosen as the parents of the sub-families. The graphs show that, besides their obvious use in radiochemical separations and standardizations, each family beginning with a naturally occuring nuclide has a particular time span (before secular equilibrium occurs) that can be used for chronology. Thus, if the proper radionuclides are present, we can use the wide range families in geological and archeological research and the short range ones in other kinds of jobs, like checking the authenticity of art masterpieces and other forensic problems. (T.G.)

  3. Antiemetic therapy in Asia Pacific countries for patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy--a descriptive analysis of practice patterns, antiemetic quality of care, and use of antiemetic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiying; Burke, Thomas A; Chan, Alexandre; Kim, Hoon-Kyo; Hsieh, Ruey Kuen; Hu, Xichun; Liang, Jin-Tung; Baños, Ana; Spiteri, Carmel; Keefe, Dorothy M K

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports prescribing patterns for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC) for cancer in six Asia Pacific countries. In a prospective noninterventional study, 31 sites in Australia, China, India, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan recorded details of CINV prophylaxis for the acute phase (first 24 h) and delayed phase (days 2-5) after single-day HEC or MEC for adult patients. Additional information on CINV prophylactic medications was collected from 6-day patient diaries. Primary antiemetic therapies were defined as corticosteroids, the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5HT3-RAs), and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1-RAs). Evaluable patients in cycle 1 numbered 648 (318 [49%] HEC and 330 [51%] MEC) of mean (SD) age of 56 (12) years, including 58% women. For the acute phase after HEC, overall (and country range), 96% (91-100%) of patients received a 5HT3-RA, 87% (70-100%) a corticosteroid, and 43% (0-91%) an NK1-RA. CINV prophylaxis for the HEC delayed phase was more variable: including 22% (7-65%) 5HT3-RA, 52% (12-93%) corticosteroid, and 46% (0-88%) NK1-RA. For the MEC acute phase, 97% (87-100%) of patients received 5HT3-RA and 86% (73-97%) a corticosteroid. For the MEC delayed phase, 201 patients (61%) received a primary antiemetic, including 5HT3-RA (41%), corticosteroid (37%), and/or NK1-RA (4%). The 5HT3-RAs were prescribed consistently in all countries, while prescribing of other antiemetic therapies was variable, and corticosteroids were under-prescribed for CINV prophylaxis, particularly in the delayed phase.

  4. Efficacy and safety of aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the first cycle of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in Korean patients with a broad range of tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Jang, Joung-Soon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Sung, Yong Lee; Cho, Chi-Heum; Lee, Myung-Ah; Kim, Do-Jin; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Lee, Kil Yeon; Sym, Sun Jin; Lim, Myong Choel; Jung, Hun; Cho, Eun Kim; Min, Kyung Wan

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 3-day aprepitant regimen for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during the first cycle of non-anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC)-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) based on government guidelines in Korean patients. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase IV trial (NCT01636947) enrolled adult South Korean patients with a broad range of tumor types who were scheduled to receive a single dose of ≥1 MEC agent. Patients were randomized to a 3-day regimen of aprepitant (aprepitant regimen) or placebo (control regimen) on top of ondansetron plus dexamethasone. The primary and key secondary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of subjects who achieved no vomiting and complete response (CR) during the overall phase. Of the 494 randomized subjects, 480 were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. Response rates for no vomiting and CR in the overall phase were numerically higher for the aprepitant regimen compared with the control regimen groups, but failed to reach statistical significance (no vomiting 77.2 vs 72.0%; p = 0.191; CR 73.4 vs 70.4%; p = 0.458). Both the aprepitant and control regimens were generally well tolerated. A 3-day aprepitant regimen was numerically better but not statistically superior to a control regimen with respect to the achievement of no vomiting or CR during the overall phase in a non-AC MEC Korean population based on government reimbursement guidelines. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01636947 ( https://clinicaltrials.Gov/ct2/show/NCT01636947 ).

  5. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  6. ERDA activities related to reprocessing and plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA has redirected its program in support of the LWR fuel cycle from one emphasizing the commercialization of existing fuel cycle technology to a broader based assessment of alternative fuel cycle concepts with the emphasis on safeguardability and avoidance of proliferation risks. As part of this program, ERDA will evaluate a number of possible technical and institutional options to reduce proliferation risks. ERDA will continue its current program of LWR fuel reprocessing R and D with added emphasis on improved safeguards capability as well as the applicability of conventional reprocessing technology to large multinational plants. These activities and supporting design studies will provide the basis for a decision regarding the design of an optimized system for the management of spent LWR fuel. Such a system would provide a model for the development of future domestic and foreign facilities and programs. A recently completed ERDA study of the benefits of LWR reprocessing and recycle would also be expected to be factored into such a decision. The study concluded that based on currently available data, recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWR's is attractive from the standpoint of economics and resource utilization relative to the discarding of spent fuel. The LWR reprocessing/recycle picture today is clouded by several unresolved policy issues. These include the need for adequate spent fuel storage capacity for both domestic and foreign reactors; the possibility of foreign reprocessing of U.S. produced fuel; the possibility of the disposal of foreign fuel in the U.S.; the possible need to dispose of wastes generated by multinational reprocessing plants; and finally, determination of the optimum balance between recycling recovered plutonium and saving it for the breeder

  7. IAEA activity related to safety of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, M.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear plants for desalination to be built in the future will have to meet the standards of safety required for the best nuclear power plants currently in operation or being designed. The current safety approach, based on the achievement of the fundamental safety functions and defence in depth strategy, has been shown to be a sound foundation for the safety and protection of public health, and gives the plant the capability of dealing with a large variety of sequences, even beyond the design basis. The Department of Nuclear Safety of the IAEA is involved in many activities, the most important of which are to establish safety standards, and to provide various safety services and technical knowledge in many Technical Co-operation assistance projects. The department is also involved in other safety areas, notably in the field of future reactors. The IAEA is carrying out a project on the safety of new generation reactors, including those used for desalination, with the objective of fostering an exchange of information on safety approaches, promoting harmonization among Member States and contributing towards the development and revision of safety standards and guidelines for nuclear power plant design. The safety, regulatory and environmental concerns in nuclear powered desalination are those related directly to nuclear power plants, with due consideration given to the coupling process. The protection of product water against radioactive contamination must be ensured. An effective infrastructure, including appropriate training, a legal framework and regulatory regime, is a prerequisite to considering use of nuclear power for desalination plants, also in those countries with limited industrial infrastructures and little experience in nuclear technology or safety. (author)

  8. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...... with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers....

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  10. Age-Related Changes in Spreading Activation during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Walker, Joanne; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2014-01-01

    The concept of spreading activation describes how retrieval of one memory cues retrieval of other memories that are associated with it. This study explored spreading activation in 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants. Infants (n = 144) learned two tasks within the same experimental session; one task, deferred imitation (DI), is typically remembered…

  11. Disclosure Day on Relativity: A Science Activity beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragoneses, Andres; Salan, M. Nuria; Hernandez-Fernandez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    An important goal for students in engineering education is the ability to present and defend a project in front of a technical audience. We have designed an activity for helping students to work the independent learning and communication skills, while they are introduced in the dynamics of a conference. In this activity, students prepare and…

  12. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  13. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  14. Effects of Active Videogames on Physical Activity and Related Outcomes Among Healthy Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W C

    2014-06-01

    This review systematically evaluated the effects of active videogames (AVGs) on physical activity (PA) and related outcomes in healthy children. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve articles published from January 2000 through August 2013. Included were original studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, that included at least one subgroup of healthy participants not older than 18 years, and that measured at least one PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, or behavioral outcome. All study designs were included, but only intervention studies with PA comparison between groups or across time were assessed for methodological quality. Evidence strength for intervention studies was stratified by settings (including the free-living home setting, the school, community, or primary care setting with structured AVG sessions [i.e., AVG play of participants was organized by teachers or researchers], and multiple settings). Fifty-four articles were identified, including 32 studies that examined the immediate PA effects (i.e., energy expenditure and PA levels during AVG play), one survey study, and 21 intervention studies aimed to promote PA. AVGs led to light- to moderate-intensity PA among studies of immediate PA outcomes. No effect was identified of AVGs on PA in the home setting. Moderate evidence was found that structured AVG play could improve PA. Inconclusive evidence was found for the effect of AVGs on PA in multiple settings. The present review does not support using AVGs alone in the home setting to promote PA. Structured AVG play has the potential to promote PA in children.

  15. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  16. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood

    1999-01-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  17. A climatological study of the relations among solar activity, galactic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activity, galactic cosmic ray and precipitation on various regions .... mate variations to cosmic rays and the physical- chemical .... For the wavelet spectrum, significance level for each ..... monthly climate for Europe and the globe: The observed.

  18. Prevalence of knee instability in relation to sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann

    2001-01-01

    to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount......The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...

  19. Incorporating quality control activities in scrum in relation to the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Aamir

    control activities in the scrum philosophy by introducing the concept of test backlog. ... Rapid application development; agile software development; extreme programming; scrum; ..... development team has a good problem solving approach.

  20. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Activities relating to PSA in the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.F.; Grint, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the IAEA activities concerning the use of PSA in the regulatory process there are two other international initiatives in this area by the European Commission and the OECD's Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Authorities (CRNA). The paper gives a brief outline of these activities as well as introducing an update on the regulatory use of PSA in the UK. 3 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R L; Fernandes, L; Sun, X [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise must...

  5. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S. politics...

  6. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2010-04-01

    Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.

  7. European Union: Review of fast reactor related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. van; Hugon, M.

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) continued its fast reactor research activities on the same lines as in the past, but with the main emphasis on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides. The work was carried out by research institutions in the Member States and by the EC Joint Research Centre (JRC) as cost shared actions. The JRC has also been performing its own programme through institutional and competitive research activities. The JRC institutes involved in these studies are the Institute of Systems, Informatics and Safety (ISIS) in Ispra (I), the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in Karlsruhe (D) and the Institute for Advanced Materials in Petten. This paper summarizes the main activities performed in the field of (i) fast reactor safety and of (ii) partitioning and transmutation. (author)

  8. Physical activity in relation to development and progression of myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr Thykjær, Anne; Lundberg, Kristian; Grauslund, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to make a systematic review regarding the correlation between physical activity and myopia. A total of 263 papers were identified in a systematic database search of PubMed/Medline and Embase. Five steps of screening removed studies of a low evidence quality and animal studies......On a global scale, myopia is one of the most common causes of visual impairment. Given the increasing prevalence of myopia, it is vital to understand the pathogenesis and to identify potential interventions. Some studies have described physical activity as a potential correlation for myopia....... Studies included had refractive error and physical activity (as measured by questionnaires, accelerometers and cycle ergometers) as separate, well-defined outcomes. Nine studies (six cross-sectional, two cohorts and one case-control study) with a total of 17 634 subjects were included. Six studies...

  9. Effectiveness of Corporate Social Media Activities to Increase Relational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...... empirically identify different social media activities in terms of social media management strategies (using social media management tools or the web-frontend client), account types (broadcasting or receiving information), and communicative approaches (conversational or disseminative). We find positive...... effects of social media management tools, broadcasting accounts, and conversational communication on public perception....

  10. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  11. Termite activity in relation to natural grassland soil attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Pires Santos, J.C.; Almeida, J.A.; Sinhorati, D.S.; Berton-Junior, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-feeding termites transport soil for mound building, and this process can affect soil characteristics. To verify the influence of soil termite activity on soil characteristics, samples were collected from top, bottom and center of termite mounds, and of the adjacent area, to assess chemical and

  12. Brain activation related to the change between bimanual motor programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    By using positron emission tomography, we aimed to identify cerebral foci of neuronal activation associated with the initiation of a specific motor program. To that end, a state of repeatedly alternating in- and antiphase of bimanual flexion and extension movements was compared with similar movement

  13. Relating Eye Activity Measures to Human Controller Remnant Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, A; Zaal, P.M.T.; Pool, D.M.; Mulder, M.; Sawaragi, T

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to partially explain the characteristics of the human perceptual remnant, following Levison’s representation of the remnant as an equivalent observation noise. Eye activity parameters are recorded using an eye tracker in two compensatory tracking tasks in which the visual

  14. Relations of Physical Activity and Stress Vulnerability in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Furong; Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose; Schmidlein, Robert

    2018-01-01

    There are increased concerns about depression and anxiety among college students. Thus in need of actions to find proper intervention strategies to target this issue. The purpose of this study was to examine association between leisure-time physical activity and stress vulnerability among college students. A modified survey including physical…

  15. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...

  16. Randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of palonosetron versus granisetron in the triplet regimen for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after highly emetogenic chemotherapy: TRIPLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Yamanaka, T; Hashimoto, H; Shimada, Y; Arata, K; Matsui, R; Goto, K; Takiguchi, T; Ohyanagi, F; Kogure, Y; Nogami, N; Nakao, M; Takeda, K; Azuma, K; Nagase, S; Hayashi, T; Fujiwara, K; Shimada, T; Seki, N; Yamamoto, N

    2016-08-01

    There has been no phase III study of comparing the efficacy of first- and second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the triplet regimen with dexamethasone and aprepitant for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Patients with a malignant solid tumor who would receive HEC containing 50 mg/m(2) or more cisplatin were randomly assigned to either palonosetron (0.75 mg) arm (Arm P) or granisetron (1 mg) arm (Arm G), on day 1, both arms with dexamethasone (12 mg on day 1 and 8 mg on days 2-4) and aprepitant (125 mg on day 1 and 80 mg on days 2-3). The primary end point was complete response (CR; no vomiting/retching and no rescue medication) at the 0-120 h period and secondary end points included complete control (CC; no vomiting/retching, no rescue medication, and no more than mild nausea) and total control (TC; no vomiting/retching, no rescue medication, and no nausea). Between July 2011 and June 2012, 842 patients were enrolled. Of 827 evaluable, 272 of 414 patients (65.7%) in Arm P had a CR at the 0-120 h period when compared with 244 of 413 (59.1%) in Arm G (P = 0.0539). Both arms had the same CR rate of 91.8% at the acute (0-24 h) period, while at the delayed (24-120 h) period, Arm P had a significantly higher CR rate than Arm G (67.2% versus 59.1%; P = 0.0142). In secondary end points, Arm P had significantly higher rates than Arm G at the 0-120 h period (CC rate: 63.8% versus 55.9%, P = 0.0234; TC rate: 47.6% versus 40.7%, P = 0.0369) and delayed periods (CC rate: 65.2% versus 55.9%, P = 0.0053; TC rate: 48.6% versus 41.4%, P = 0.0369). The present study did not show the superiority of palonosetron when compared with granisetron in the triplet regimen regarding the primary end point. UMIN000004863. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Age-related increase in brain activity during task-related and -negative networks and numerical inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that elderly adults exhibit increased and decreased activation on various cognitive tasks, yet little is known about age-related changes in inductive reasoning. To investigate the neural basis for the aging effect on inductive reasoning, 15 young and 15 elderly subjects performed numerical inductive reasoning while in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis revealed that numerical inductive reasoning, relative to rest, yielded multiple frontal, temporal, parietal, and some subcortical area activations for both age groups. In addition, the younger participants showed significant regions of task-induced deactivation, while no deactivation occurred in the elderly adults. Direct group comparisons showed that elderly adults exhibited greater activity in regions of task-related activation and areas showing task-induced deactivation (TID) in the younger group. Our findings suggest an age-related deficiency in neural function and resource allocation during inductive reasoning.

  18. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  19. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  20. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  1. The relation between bone demineralization, physical activity and anthropometric standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify the correlation between bone mineral density and the level of physical activity, as well as the food intake and the anthropometric parameters. It intended to analyse the bone mineral density (BMD of menopausal women through the bone densitometry test (DO in the lumbar region (L1 to L4, femoral neck and total femur, and also use Bouchard’s self-recall of daily activities; employing the food record from Buker and Stuart to dose and quantify the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. The data were analysed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, and default value of α = 0.05 was set to compare the BMD averages. It was observed that one hundred percent of the assessed individuals had a BMD level below the average fixed by WHO: 14.4% with osteopenia and 85.6% with osteoporosis; a lower BMD in the femoral area (0.721g and the biggest loss among the sedentary ones (0.698g. It was noticed that there was a correlation between the physical activities and the BMD only when associated with anthropometric standards and the daily ingestion of vitamin D.

  2. A climatological study of the relations among solar activity, galactic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Though correlation study between precipitation and other parameters do not hint any linear relation, still the Fourier and wavelet analyses give an idea of common periodicities. The 9–11 year periodicity of sunspot numbers calculated by Fourier transform is also confirmed by wavelet transform in annual scale. Similarly ...

  3. EPA activities related to emerging air sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide set was developed through contributions of NERL and NRMRL research groups and organized to explain the diversity of ongoing research related to emerging air sensor technology for an international audience. Gayle will be walking OAQPS through the slide set in advance o...

  4. Health-related fitness, body composition and physical activity status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity (PI) is found to be a major contributor to the high incidence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. As such, PI was significantly related to risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Studies especially in the 14-years in adolescents' learners are sparse. The purpose of this study was to ...

  5. Call 4 Concern: patient and relative activated critical care outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Mandy; Gerber, Karin; Gager, Melanie

    Patients can experience unexpected deterioration in their physiological condition that can lead to critical illness, cardiac arrest, admission to the intensive care unit and death. While ward staff can identify deterioration through monitoring physiological signs, these signs can be missed, interpreted incorrectly or mismanaged. Rapid response systems using early warning scores can fail if staff do not follow protocols or do not notice or manage deterioration adequately. Nurses often notice deterioration intuitively because of their knowledge of individual patients. Patients and their relatives have the greatest knowledge of patients, and can often pick up subtle signs physiological deterioration before this is identified by staff or monitoring systems. However, this ability has been largely overlooked. Call 4 Concern (C4C) is a scheme where patients and relatives can call critical care teams directly if they are concerned about a patient's condition- it is believed to be the first of its kind in the UK. A C4C feasibility project ran for six months, covering patients being transferred from the intensive care unit to general wards. C4C has the potential to prevent clinical deterioration and is valued by patients and relatives. Concerns of ward staff could be managed through project management. As it is relatively new, this field offers further opportunities for research.

  6. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  7. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  8. Pain-related Impairment of Daily Activities After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    -specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. METHODS:: Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. RESULTS:: Four of 17...... found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand...... (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ=0.46, P...

  9. KNK-II knowledge preservation and related activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.; Wehmann, U.; Stanculescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the scenarios describing possible energy futures, e.g., the World Energy Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), foresee a role for nuclear power in meeting a growing world energy demand through 2050. While some scenarios explore the impact of a nuclear phase out, others envision a major growth in nuclear technology's share of the world energy mix. Given the forecasted growth in world population and in economic development, the environmental advantages of nuclear power, and concerns over climate change and the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, it is not unreasonable to expect an increased interest in nuclear power in the coming decades. Loss of nuclear knowledge is a serious concern, in particular with regard to areas where, for various reasons, nuclear technology development and innovation has been slowed down. Knowledge can be preserved by archival techniques and by passing it on to new generations. In the case of the Federal Republic of Germany, in spite of the lack of funding and political support, both avenues are followed. Data retrieval and preservation by archiving activities for the German experimental fast reactor KNK-II were undertaken within the framework of IAEA's initiative on Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation. The paper will shortly introduce the IAEA initiative (scope, objectives, status, and outlook). The general approach to nuclear knowledge preservation in Germany will be presented, and the concrete archiving activities undertaken for KNK-II will be summarized. (author)

  10. Relation of flare activity to the approach and separation of sunspots in an active region and to its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, E.

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the flare activity of active regions within the scope of a large complex and the magnetic gradients of these active regions and their daily variations is investigated in the interval of the exceptionally high flare activity occurring in June 1970. New indices, characterizing the active region, were defined, e.g., the instantaneous sunspot-area density and the instantaneous sunspot-number density. These indices were determined on the basis of measurements of the surface containing all sunspots of the complex of active regions enclosed by an envelope. An attempt was made to substitute the surface in the relation for the individual indices by distance. The daily variations of these indices were again compared with the flare activity and some mutual relations were derived. (author)

  11. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives for individuals. Twelve studies with unconditional incentives (eg, free membership sport facility) and conditional incentives (ie, rewards for reaching physical-activity goals) related to physical ...

  12. Legal approaches to transboundary pollution - relating to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsteiner, G.

    2000-05-01

    This work examines the legal approaches to pollution in a transboundary context. Particular consideration is given to transboundary pollution that is related to the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Since I have chosen to approach the very topic not so much in the hope of finding a single and unequivocal answer but rather by building a circumstantial case, the present work naturally relies to a great extent on decisions of international courts and tribunals, as well as on principles and rules stemming from international law in general. The international norm that basically guides the topic is the prohibition of transboundary pollution, or, expressed as a positive duty, i.e. the obligation to prevent transboundary harm, which has found expression in Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment. The very obligation is relevant from the perspective of prevention of environmental harm, as well as reparation when harm has actually occurred. One of the primary issues of this work accordingly relates to the obligation's preventive function, thus its extent, meaning and scope are examined, and in particular its approach to transboundary risk-creation. In the overall context of transboundary pollution the principle of the sovereign equality of states and other basic rules that directly emanate from it are of continuos importance. This work is further strongly impacted by notions of equity together with the establishment of a balancing of interests test which application merits special consideration in cases where a conflict between two states cannot be solved by mere reliance on their sovereign rights. Rules relating to the prevention of environmental harm, now increasingly guided by the Precautionary Principle, are also relevant under the law of state responsibility for wrongful acts and in the context of defining obligations erga omnes. (author)

  13. Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability.

  14. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Aretha

    2009-01-01

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  15. UTSI/CFFF MHD program completion and related activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlhauser, J.W.; Chapman, J.N.

    1999-04-30

    Maintenance work on the DOE CFFF facility remained in suspension for the entire quarter in accordance with the stop work order issued the previous quarter. Work resumed on the environmental restoration activities during the quarter and work performed is summarized. Progress continued on the five (5) high temperature superconductivity projects under Task 6. On the sol-gel process, improvement is reported in application of buffer layers to single crystals. Problems are discussed in applying buffer layers to nickel substrates. The status of cost performance studies is summarized. The status of diagnostic measurements directed toward real time control of manufacturing processes is reported with emphasis on measurement of surface smoothness. The results of atomic absorption measurement of MOCVD precursors are reported.

  16. Out-of-School Activities Related to Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial and natural environments constitute an extensive educational resource in whose framework the basic experiences that contribute to the development process of human beings occur. These experiences are the source of previous knowledge that students bring to school and that are key for building scientific school learning. This article reports the results of a study that addresses out-of-school experiences related to science and technology, through the application of an inventory list to a sample of students who were in their last year of compulsory education. The results show a relatively low overall frequency of experiences, characterized by some qualitative and quantitative differences according to a few grouping variables such as gender, the choice of an elective science subject, and different scientific topics and disciplines. In spite of its importance for learning, the school curriculum often ignores students’ previous experiences. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results for developing a more equitable science and technology curriculum, from a perspective of a universal, humanistic science education.

  17. The Relation of Personality Traits Wth Depression Severity in Active and Non-Active Elderly Women in Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani; Ahmad Farokhi; Parvane Shamsipour Dehkordi; Amir Shams; Mohammad Reza Ghasemian Moghaddam

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of personality traits with depression in active and non – active elderly women in Tehran city. Methods & Materials: The present research is descriptive–correlation. For this purpose, 188 elderly women (94 active and 94 non - active elders) in the age range of 63-82 in Tehran city availably selected as statistical sample. Measurement instrument were demographic questionnaire, Beck depression questionnaire and...

  18. Transit use and physical activity: Findings from the Houston travel-related activity in neighborhoods (TRAIN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Gregory; Durand, Casey P; Shuval, Kerem; Kohl Iii, Harold W; Salvo, Deborah; Sener, Ipek; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee

    2018-03-01

    Transportation-related physical activity can significantly increase daily total physical activity through active transportation or walking/biking to transit stops. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between transit-use and self-reported and monitor-based physical activity levels in a predominantly minority population from the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN) Study. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 865 adults living in Houston, Texas between 2013 and 2015. The exposure variable was transit-use (non-users, occasional users, and primary users). Self-reported and accelerometer-determined physical activity were the outcomes of interest. Regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other covariates of interest were built to test the hypothesis that transit user status was directly associated with 1) minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and 2) the prevalence of achieving the physical activity guidelines. The majority of participants were female, non-Hispanic black, and almost one-third had a high school education or less. After adjustment, primary transit-use was associated with 134.2 ( p  < 0.01) additional mean minutes per week of self-reported moderate-intensity transportation-related physical activity compared to non-users. Further, primary users had 7.3 (95% CI: 2.6-20.1) times the relative adjusted odds of meeting physical activity recommendations than non-users based on self-reported transportation-related physical activity. There were no statistically significant associations of transit-use with self-reported leisure-time or accelerometer-derived physical activity. Transit-use has the potential for a large public health impact due to its sustainability and scalability. Therefore, encouraging the use of transit as a means to promote physical activity should be examined in future studies.

  19. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydler, P.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  20. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-07-28

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  1. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  2. School Social Worker's Perceptions of the Frequency of Actual and Preferred Engagement in Role Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the frequency in which school social workers in Virginia engage in and prefer to engage in social work related activities and (2) to determine if the frequency in which the social work related activities the school social workers engage in is related to select variables. After a comprehensive review…

  3. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. U.S. activities related to fast reactors and ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    , lower cost, and improved safety and proliferation resistance; Innovative nuclear plant design, manufacturing, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning technologies; Advanced nuclear fuels; and Relevant areas of fundamental science. In 2000, the US Fast Reactor and ADS programs include the EBR-II Electrometallurgical Treatment program, FFTF activities in view of a decision whether to restart or deactivate the facility, several NERI awards, and the Advanced Accelerators Applications program. A 10 year R and D plan concentrated on defining the key technologies to be used for transmutation of nuclear waste (plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products). This activity includes fuels development and performance testing, development and testing of dedicated separation technologies, design of transmutation systems, and materials and physics research. It is expected that after 10 years, suitable technologies will have been demonstrated for practical waste transmutation demonstration. The Accelerator Driven Test Facility (ADTF) will be built over 10 years. It will consist of a large proton linear accelerator (600MeV, 13mA), coupled to two testing stations; the Target and Multiplier Test Station will consist of a large (8MW) spallation target surrounded by test loops for materials and small amounts of fuels; the Sub Critical Multiplier (SCM) will consist of a 100MW subcritical fast reactor driven by a 4MW spallation target and will be used to demonstrate the safe and efficient operations of accelerator driven systems, and will serve to irradiate experimental fuels. The ADTF will serve as the principal test station for a Proof of Performance series of tests, to demonstrate the safety and operations of Accelerator Driven Systems, and to demonstrate efficient transmutation and recycling of minor actinides and long lived fission products

  5. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  6. Joint of activities related to the territorial ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Vilca, Wilmer

    2005-01-01

    The process of territorial ordering in Peru has little experiences; one of them is the one that comes carrying out in the department from san martin, with the conduction of its respective regional government. This department is in the Amazonian natural region and comes being affected by a series from problems social (like the existence of an uncontrolled migration, deficiency of basic services), economic (unemployment, unmannerliness), legal (territorial invasions to the property, conflicts) and environmental (deforestation, gradual loss of the biodiversity, environmental contamination), in addition to the loss of leadership of the organizations responsible for the departmental development. As opposed to it, the local institutional organizations decided to give priority as of year 2004 to the project of territorial ordering as a measurement to obtain the use and suitable occupation of the territory. This project has between its characteristics the one to gather and to group the experiences in demarcation and territorial organization, economic ecological zonification, road management of the use of the territory, plans and conformation of regions. This set of activities arisen without a national technical-legal frame that unifies them is being articulated by means of the execution of a project of public investment denominated 'territorial ordering of the department of san cultural, institutional, economic and environmental martin whose indicators of management are being constructed with the purpose of evaluating their social impact. Like all developing process, it has his discharges and losses, whose lessons will be with the purpose of taking advantage of the obtained knowledge and that it has in the geomatic to one of his tools of technological support

  7. Joint of activities related to the territorial ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Vilca, Wilmer

    2006-01-01

    The process of territorial ordering in Peru has little experiences; one of them is the one that comes carrying out in the department from san martin, with the conduction of its respective regional government. This department is in the Amazonian natural region and comes being affected by a series from problems social (like the existent of an uncontrolled migration, deficiency of basic services), economic (unemployment, un mannerliness), legal (territorial invasions to the property, conflicts) and environmental (deforestation, gradual loss of the biodiversity, environmental contamination), in addition to the loss of leadership of the organizations responsible for the departmental development. As opposed to it, the local institutional organizations decided to give priority as of year 2004 to the project of territorial ordering as a measurement to obtain the use and suitable occupation of the territory. This project has between its characteristics the one to gather and to group the experiences in demarcation and territorial organization, economic ecological zincification, road management of the use of the territory, plans and conformation of regions. This set of activities arisen without a national technical-legal frame that unifies them is being articulated by means of the execution of a project of public investment denominated territorial ordering of the department of san cultural, institutional, economic and environmental martin, whose indicators of management are being constructed with the purpose of evaluating their social impact. Like all developing process, it has his discharges and losses, whose lessons will be with the purpose of taking advantage of the obtained knowledge and that it has in the geomatic to one of his tools of technological support

  8. Review and Perspective of FCI Related Activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, O.

    1976-01-01

    Because of its meager natural resources and high population, Japan needs a strong nuclear program. However, the high population density and the public concern about environmental pollution and safety tend to impose stringent safety criteria for nuclear plants. Safety of the LMFBR, the most promising among several nuclear options, must be established for future commercialization. One of the most crucial issues in LMFBR safety is the molten fuel coolant interaction (FCI), which comes into play in various phases of the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). The objectives of the present paper are: firstly to summarize the current FCI considerations applied in the design of the Japanese prototype FBR, MONJU; and secondly to review the supporting R and D activities. In conclusion: Although analytical model predictions for FCI work energy per plant electrical output has decreased considerably over the last few years, the current classical approach would yield an inexorable containment design for larger FBRs. The FCI issue should be resolved within the coming few years. Concentrated efforts should be directed toward: (1) Proof both with simulant materials and fuel-sodium systems of the existence of the threshold for vapor explosions. (2) Establishment with out-of-pile fuel-sodium systems of the fragmentation mechanism to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients. (3) A few carefully planned in-pile tests. (4) Development of computer codes at various levels of accident to realistically assess the initial condition, progression and consequence of an FCI event under reactor conditions. (5) Establishment of the world-wide consensus of the HCDA scenario for licensable, economical commercial FBRs. We believe that an extensive data and personnel exchange are readily available in the areas (1) and (2) above, and that the NEA/CSNI Committee should coordinate future experiments on a complementing basis. We believe that promotion of further international cooperation in the

  9. The determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xhoxhi, Orjon; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities in Adana, Turkey. In doing so, a holistic model of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities is proposed. The objective of this model is to contribute to a better understa......This paper investigates the determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities in Adana, Turkey. In doing so, a holistic model of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin-related activities is proposed. The objective of this model is to contribute to a better...

  10. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  11. Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as defined by ability tests. Structural regression models suggested that prediction of cognition by activity level was partially mediated by memory beliefs, controlling for age, education, health, and depressive affect. Models adding paths from general and specific activities to aspects of crystallized intelligence suggested additional unique predictive effects for some activities. In alternative models, nonsignificant effects of beliefs on activities were detected when cognition predicted both variables, consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs derive from monitoring cognition and have no influence on activity patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives

  13. Transit use and physical activity: Findings from the Houston travel-related activity in neighborhoods (TRAIN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Knell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation-related physical activity can significantly increase daily total physical activity through active transportation or walking/biking to transit stops. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between transit-use and self-reported and monitor-based physical activity levels in a predominantly minority population from the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN Study. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 865 adults living in Houston, Texas between 2013 and 2015. The exposure variable was transit-use (non-users, occasional users, and primary users. Self-reported and accelerometer-determined physical activity were the outcomes of interest. Regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other covariates of interest were built to test the hypothesis that transit user status was directly associated with 1 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and 2 the prevalence of achieving the physical activity guidelines. The majority of participants were female, non-Hispanic black, and almost one-third had a high school education or less. After adjustment, primary transit-use was associated with 134.2 (p<0.01 additional mean minutes per week of self-reported moderate-intensity transportation-related physical activity compared to non-users. Further, primary users had 7.3 (95% CI: 2.6–20.1 times the relative adjusted odds of meeting physical activity recommendations than non-users based on self-reported transportation-related physical activity. There were no statistically significant associations of transit-use with self-reported leisure-time or accelerometer-derived physical activity. Transit-use has the potential for a large public health impact due to its sustainability and scalability. Therefore, encouraging the use of transit as a means to promote physical activity should be examined in future studies. Keywords: Physical activity, Transportation, Commuting, Motor activity, Urban health

  14. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  15. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant to...

  16. 29 CFR 779.208 - Auxiliary activities which are “related activities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... eating and drinking facilities (note that employees primarily engaged in certain food service activities... Act if the specific conditions are met; see § 779.388); (j) The operation of employee benefit and...

  17. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  18. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  19. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  20. Intensity, but not duration, of physical activities is related to cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Vanhees, Luc; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Aufdernkarnpe, Geert; Aleman, Andrie; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  1. Intensity, but not duration of physical activities is related to cognitive function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Aleman; Geert Aufdemkampe; H.J. Verhaar; W. Wendel-Vos; Drs. Maaike Angevaren; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; W.M. Verschuren

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  2. Costs in Relation to Disability, Disease Activity, and Health-related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallman, Johan K; Eriksson, Jonas K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    between-patient associations) and by generalized estimating equations (GEE), using all observations to also account for within-patient associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to costs. RESULTS: Regardless of the methodology (linear or GEE regression), HAQ was most closely related to both cost types, while work......OBJECTIVE: To compare how costs relate to disability, disease activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-treated patients with RA in southern Sweden (n = 2341) were monitored 2005-2010. Health Assessment...... Questionnaire (HAQ), 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), and EQ-5D scores were linked to register-derived costs of antirheumatic drugs (excluding anti-TNF agents), patient care, and work loss from 30 days before to 30 days after each visit (n = 13,289). Associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to healthcare...

  3. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    小濵, 京子; 丸, 光惠; 前田, 留美; 久保田, 俊郎

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. Methods: A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. Results: The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had...

  4. Proteasome activity related with the daily physical activity of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kang-Yun Lee,1,2,* Tzu-Tao Chen,1,* Ling-Ling Chiang,1,3 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1,3 Po-Hao Feng,1,2 Wen-Te Liu,1–3 Kuan-Yuan Chen,1 Shu-Chuan Ho1,3 1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 3School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD is a debilitating disease that affects patients’ daily lives. One’s daily physical activity (DPA decreases due to multifactorial causes, and this decrease is correlated with a poor prognosis in COPD patients. Muscle wasting may at least be partly due to increased activity of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and apoptosis.Methods: This study investigated the relationships among DPA, circulating proteasome activity, and protein carbonyl in COPD patients and healthy subjects (HSs. This study included 57 participants (42 patients and 15 healthy subjects. Ambulatory DPA was measured using actigraphy, and oxygen saturation was measured with a pulse oximeter.Results: COPD patients had lower DPA, lower 6 min walking distance (6MWD, lower delta saturation pulse oxygenation (SpO2 during the 6MWT, and lower delta SpO2 during DPA than HSs. COPD patients had higher proteasome activity and protein carbonyl than HSs. Circulating proteasome activity was significantly negatively correlated with DPA (r=−0.568, P<0.05 in COPD patients, whereas delta SpO2 during the 6MWT was significantly positively correlated with proteasome activity (r=0.685, P<0.05 in HSs. Protein carbonyl was significantly negatively correlated with the body mass index (r=−0.318, P<0.05, mid-arm circumference (r=0.350, P<0.05, calf circumference (r=0.322, P<0.05, forced expiratory volume in the first second (r=−0.441, P<0

  5. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlien Pieters

    Full Text Available Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g, platelet-containing (352 g and platelet-rich plasma (200 g were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly

  6. The Relation of Personality Traits Wth Depression Severity in Active and Non-Active Elderly Women in Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of personality traits with depression in active and non – active elderly women in Tehran city. Methods & Materials: The present research is descriptive–correlation. For this purpose, 188 elderly women (94 active and 94 non - active elders in the age range of 63-82 in Tehran city availably selected as statistical sample. Measurement instrument were demographic questionnaire, Beck depression questionnaire and NEO personality traits questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic (mean and standard deviation and inferential statistic (independent t test, Pearson correlation and Enter multi variant Regression. Results: Results showed that there was significant difference in personality traits and depression between active women with non-active women elders (P<0.05. Also, the result showed that significant correlation between depression score on neuroticism, extroversion, openness and conscientiousness in active women elders and conscientiousness and openness in non-active women elders (P<0.05. The results of multi variant regression also indicated that openness and extroversion variants in active elders and conscientiousness variant in non-active elders have linear relationship with criteria variant (depression and can predict its changes. Conclusion: Based on results of present research, sport and physical activity can be afforded the increase of positive personality traits (for example extroversion and openness and decrease of depression in women elders.

  7. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: The role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley eMulder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages, non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively, and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English. Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: The response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1 family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2 depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading

  8. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kimberley; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, R. Harald

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages), non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively), and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English). Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: the response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1) family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2) depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading activation framework

  9. ANTIMYCOTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTIVATED ZINC PYRITHIONE IN RELATION TO MALASSEZIA IN PATIENTS WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Golysheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates the results of a study whose purpose was to determine the antimycotic action of activated zinc pyrithione (AZP against Malassezia in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. 30 patients diagnosed with AD and aged 3 to 18 years were studied. A mycological study that aimed to identify Malassezia was done by the scraping method and skin surface collection using a cotton ball on a 1 cm2 area, with further yeast maintenance procedure in a selective environment. The activated zinc pyrithione in the form of cream was applied on children’s skin of the left shoulder and forearm twice a day. Nothing but a moisturizing cream was applied to the skin on the right shoulder and forearm. The samples for mycobiota were taken on both sides three times: before AZP treatment, 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. As a result of treatment, a two-fold reduction in skin colonization with Malassezia just in a week’s time (up to 102–105 КОЕ/cm2. The significant dynamics was observed in the modification of species diversity which got more sparse in skin areas where activated zinc pyrithione cream was applied. The follow-up results confirm that AZP has a moderate antimycotic effect. Key words: atopic dermatitis, treatment, activated zinc pyrithione, antimycotic action, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:58-62

  10. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We

  11. 29 CFR 779.209 - Vertical activities which are “related activities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structure such as the manufacturing, warehousing, and retailing of a particular product or products.” Where... business activities, such as a wholesaling and retailing or manufacturing and retailing, are interrelated... to carry out a business purpose of the manufacturing plant, retailing and manufacturing will be...

  12. Relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity in inpatient cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Franziska; Catuogno, Silvio; Perseus, Josef M; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is a serious problem for the majority of patients with cancer. In this context, several studies have shown benefits of physical activity during and following treatment. However, uncertainties remain regarding the optimal type and duration of physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity in the course of inpatient rehabilitation. Fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and physical activity (Freiburg Questionnaire of Physical Activity) were assessed in a consecutive series of 35 patients with cancer attending oncological inpatient rehabilitation during a six-month study period. The three-week rehabilitation program included daily exercise therapy consisting of aerobic endurance training, moderate resistance training, coordination exercises, relaxation training and individual physiotherapy. At discharge, a significant improvement in each dimension of cancer-related fatigue (p=0.001-0.003) and a significant increase of physical activity levels (p=0.001) were observed. A small, but significant negative correlation was found between cancer-related fatigue and the level of physical activity (R=-0.438, p=0.004). The largest effects were associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 3000 kcal through physical activity. The results support a non-linear dose-response relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity. Since this is the first study providing specific exercise recommendations for an effective treatment of cancer-related fatigue in the context of inpatient rehabilitation, further research is required to validate the observed trends.

  13. Non-Relative Value Unit-Generating Activities Represent One-Fifth of Academic Neuroradiologist Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Zeineh, M; Zaharchuk, G; Srivastava, A; Fischbein, N

    2016-07-01

    A neuroradiologist's activity includes many tasks beyond interpreting relative value unit-generating imaging studies. Our aim was to test a simple method to record and quantify the non-relative value unit-generating clinical activity represented by consults and clinical conferences, including tumor boards. Four full-time neuroradiologists, working an average of 50% clinical and 50% academic activity, systematically recorded all the non-relative value unit-generating consults and conferences in which they were involved during 3 months by using a simple, Web-based, computer-based application accessible from smartphones, tablets, or computers. The number and type of imaging studies they interpreted during the same period and the associated relative value units were extracted from our billing system. During 3 months, the 4 neuroradiologists working an average of 50% clinical activity interpreted 4241 relative value unit-generating imaging studies, representing 8152 work relative value units. During the same period, they recorded 792 non-relative value unit-generating study reviews as part of consults and conferences (not including reading room consults), representing 19% of the interpreted relative value unit-generating imaging studies. We propose a simple Web-based smartphone app to record and quantify non-relative value unit-generating activities including consults, clinical conferences, and tumor boards. The quantification of non-relative value unit-generating activities is paramount in this time of a paradigm shift from volume to value. It also represents an important tool for determining staffing levels, which cannot be performed on the basis of relative value unit only, considering the importance of time spent by radiologists on non-relative value unit-generating activities. It may also influence payment models from medical centers to radiology departments or practices. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Yang, Heidi Y; Deshpande, Bhushan R; Katz, Jeffrey N; Collins, Jamie E

    2017-01-01

    Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week), medium (75-149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  15. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    Full Text Available Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work.We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week, medium (75-149 min/week and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week. We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism.The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11, 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74 of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38 due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism.Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  16. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heidi Y.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Collins, Jamie E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. Methods We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0–74 min/week), medium (75–149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. Results The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7–7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Discussion Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism. PMID:28472084

  17. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.

  18. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-d...

  19. The Investigation of Social Support and Physical Activity Related to Workplace among Female Teachers in Jolfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Sahranavard-Gargari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the amount of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this amount, decreases with aging. Family, friends, colleagues and society’s support, especially at workplace, have a positive effect on the amount of engagement in physical activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of social support and physical activity related to workplace among female teachers in Jolfa. Material and Methods: In this study, 230 female teachers working at different schools in Jolfa were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Required data were collected using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and social support questionnaire by Sallis et al. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The average of physical activity related to teachers’ work was about 20 minutes per week which is very low. Ten percent of them had light physical activity, 61.7% had moderate physical activity and 28.3% had heavy activity. The results of this study proved a significant relationship between social support and physical activity. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that a large percentage of the teachers do not have enough physical activity, having more physical activity and creating a social network through encouraging friends and colleagues to promote physical activity is emphasized.

  20. Frontal eye field sends delay activity related to movement, memory, and vision to the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M A; Wurtz, R H

    2001-04-01

    Many neurons within prefrontal cortex exhibit a tonic discharge between visual stimulation and motor response. This delay activity may contribute to movement, memory, and vision. We studied delay activity sent from the frontal eye field (FEF) in prefrontal cortex to the superior colliculus (SC). We evaluated whether this efferent delay activity was related to movement, memory, or vision, to establish its possible functions. Using antidromic stimulation, we identified 66 FEF neurons projecting to the SC and we recorded from them while monkeys performed a Go/Nogo task. Early in every trial, a monkey was instructed as to whether it would have to make a saccade (Go) or not (Nogo) to a target location, which permitted identification of delay activity related to movement. In half of the trials (memory trials), the target disappeared, which permitted identification of delay activity related to memory. In the remaining trials (visual trials), the target remained visible, which permitted identification of delay activity related to vision. We found that 77% (51/66) of the FEF output neurons had delay activity. In 53% (27/51) of these neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions. The modulation preceded saccades made into only part of the visual field, indicating that the modulation was movement-related. In some neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent where to move in general. In other neurons, delay activity was modulated by Go/Nogo instructions only in memory trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of working memory, or only in visual trials, which suggested that it was a correlate of visual attention. In 47% (24/51) of FEF output neurons, delay activity was unaffected by Go/Nogo instructions, which indicated that the activity was related to the visual stimulus. In some of these neurons, delay activity occurred in both memory and visual trials and seemed to represent a

  1. Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-11-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 4...

  3. Gender differences in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and their relation to body composition in active Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Julia Aparecida Devide; Macedo da Costa, Teresa Helena

    2009-01-01

    Body weight and composition are determined by genotype, environment, and energy balance. Physical activity or sedentary behavior have different associations with body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass, a relationship that is not clear in adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the associations between gender, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body composition in physically active adolescents. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured in 326 physically active boys and girls age 11 to 15 years. All subjects answered a questionnaire assessing their usual daily activities for the last month. Time spent on each activity was used to estimate the physical activity level (PAL). PAL was associated with body composition after adjustment for age and maturation, with differences between genders. For boys, PAL was positively and significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index (beta=0.14 and 0.15, respectively). For girls, PAL was negatively and significantly associated with BMI and fat mass index (beta=-0.11 and -0.75, respectively). Sedentary behavior, expressed by hours of TV, videogame, and computer use, was not associated with any body-composition outcome for either gender. The accumulated amount of physical activity, but not of sedentary behavior, was related to body composition in active adolescents.

  4. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  5. ict and quality of teaching–learning related activities in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irene

    (ICT) enhance teaching learning related activities in primary schools in Ogoja education zone of Cross. River State ... A sample of six hundred and twenty ... Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that ... video conferencing).

  6. Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). IBD patients frequently complain of fatigue, and a substantial proportion of the patients have

  7. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  8. CFD Activity at Aerojet Related to Seals and Fluid Film Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, George E.

    1991-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) activities related to seals and fluid film bearings are presented. Among the topics addressed are the following: Aerovisc Numeric and its capabilities; Recent Seal Applications; and Future Code Developments.

  9. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    outstanding research that has had a clear impact on improving policy decisions practice or discourse, either in the public or private sectors .” 6. What...2017 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members 433 | OPA Frequently Asked Questions 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations...OPA), has been conducting surveys of gender issues for the active duty military since 1988. RSSC uses scientific state of the art statistical

  10. The role of body-related self-conscious emotions in motivating women's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Kowalski, Kent C; Wilson, Philip M; Mack, Diane E; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.

  11. African American Youths with Internalizing Difficulties: Relation to Social Support and Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…

  12. rCBF activation studies and neuronal circuitry related to vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, BM

    Three principles of neuronal interaction within cortically distributed networks are discussed PET-rCBF activation methods provide an opportunity to acquire insight in the distribution of functionally related areas of the human brain in vivo. The distinction of visual areas, activated by either

  13. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  14. Evolution of public relations in the activity of organizations of ukrainian socio-cultural sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євгенія Олегівна Кияниця

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the evolution of public relations in various fields of life including socio-cultural and found creative and social potential of this activity. Analysis of historical experience of using the PR-technologies in the field of sociocultural institutions promotes understanding of importance of this activity for the efficient work of organizations of this sphere

  15. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination ...

  16. Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

  17. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  18. Why do children think they get discomfort related to daily activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jemma; Straker, Leon; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Children commonly report musculoskeletal discomfort related to different activities such as computer use, playing electronic games, watching TV, reading, and performing physical and hand intensive activities. Discomfort can result in disability and is a strong predictor of future discomfort in adulthood. Adult beliefs regarding discomfort can affect the level of disability and are modifiable. Children's beliefs regarding discomfort could potentially be modified to minimise disability related to musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to describe children's beliefs about why they experience musculoskeletal discomfort, both in general and related to specific activities. Eighty eight school children completed questionnaires on frequency and usual duration of nine activities, whether they had felt discomfort and what they believed was the cause of any discomfort in relation to those activities. The most common activity was TV watching, and most activities were performed for 1 hour or shorter. Bad posture and doing too much of a certain activity were the most common beliefs regarding reasons for discomfort. This study shows that children are developing beliefs that tend to reflect scientific knowledge about risk factors. These beliefs could be incorporated into preventative health interventions.

  19. Hungarian national report on activities related to operator support systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorjan, F.; Lux, I.; Vegh, J.; Vegh, E.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized operator support systems and related activities in Hungary are summarized. Systems developed in the past, presently developed and used as well as being in a planning phase are briefly described. Activity of the Hungarian participants in the framework of the co-ordinated project on operator support systems for nuclear power plant is summarized. (author). 55 refs

  20. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  1. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...

  2. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components in employees of a financial institution

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Madelein; Wilders, Cilas J.; Moss, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was determined by using the Health Risk Assessment (HRA) and Monitored Health Risk (MHM). Assessment included a physical activity, diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk question...

  3. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Yoshio; Oka Koichiro; Shibata Ai; Muraoka Isao

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-age...

  4. Combating Corruption Relates Money Laundering Activities in Indonesia: a Hope and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Sigit

    2008-01-01

    Corruption in Indonesia has become a culture and systemic so that it could not be eradicated in the short period of time. As corruption is closely related to money laundering activities, it is not impossible that combating corruption also means combating money laun-dering activities. PPATK (Pusat Pengkajian dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan) as the Indone-sia's FIU (Financial Intelligence Unit) has hard works to reveal those money laundering and corruptions activities. Beside its obstacles, PPA...

  5. Combating Corruption Relates Money Laundering Activities in Indonesia: A Hope and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Sigit

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in Indonesia has become a culture and systemic so that it could not be eradicated in the short period of time. As corruption is closely related to money laundering activities, it is not impossible that combating corruption also means combating money laun-dering activities. PPATK (Pusat Pengkajian dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan) as the Indone-sia’s FIU (Financial Intelligence Unit) has hard works to reveal those money laundering and corruptions activities. Beside its obstacles, PPA...

  6. Physical activity is related to quality of life in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Polly S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL in clinical populations, but less is known whether this relationship exists in older men and women who are healthy. Thus, this study determined if physical activity was related to HRQL in apparently healthy, older subjects. Methods Measures were obtained from 112 male and female volunteers (70 ± 8 years, mean ± SD recruited from media advertisements and flyers around the Norman, Oklahoma area. Data was collected using a medical history questionnaire, HRQL from the Medical Outcomes Survey short form-36 questionnaire, and physical activity level from the Johnson Space Center physical activity scale. Subjects were separated into either a higher physically active group (n = 62 or a lower physically active group (n = 50 according to the physical activity scale. Results The HRQL scores in all eight domains were significantly higher (p 0.05 between the two groups. Conclusion Healthy older adults who regularly participated in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for more than one hour per week had higher HRQL measures in both physical and mental domains than those who were less physically active. Therefore, incorporating more physical activity into the lifestyles of sedentary or slightly active older individuals may improve their HRQL.

  7. Physical activity is related to quality of life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Luke S; Longfors, Jessica; Fjeldstad, Anette S; Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Schank, Bob; Nickel, Kevin J; Montgomery, Polly S; Gardner, Andrew W

    2006-06-30

    Physical activity is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in clinical populations, but less is known whether this relationship exists in older men and women who are healthy. Thus, this study determined if physical activity was related to HRQL in apparently healthy, older subjects. Measures were obtained from 112 male and female volunteers (70 +/- 8 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from media advertisements and flyers around the Norman, Oklahoma area. Data was collected using a medical history questionnaire, HRQL from the Medical Outcomes Survey short form-36 questionnaire, and physical activity level from the Johnson Space Center physical activity scale. Subjects were separated into either a higher physically active group (n = 62) or a lower physically active group (n = 50) according to the physical activity scale. The HRQL scores in all eight domains were significantly higher (p social functioning (92 +/- 18 vs. 83 +/- 19, p = 0.040). General health, role-emotional, and mental health were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the two groups. Healthy older adults who regularly participated in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for more than one hour per week had higher HRQL measures in both physical and mental domains than those who were less physically active. Therefore, incorporating more physical activity into the lifestyles of sedentary or slightly active older individuals may improve their HRQL.

  8. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Kyoko; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Kubota, Toshiro

    2015-09-30

    To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had severe fatigue. The participants had higher physical activity levels compared with the findings in previous studies, and reported an average of 40 min/day of moderate to vigorous activity. Moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity were derived from essential social activities rather than leisure time exercise. There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between the lower and higher CRF groups. Our study results suggested that the higher level of physical activity in daily living itself had no relationship with decreasing CRF among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. It would be better to focus on cognitive and psychological factors before introducing physical activity programs and be careful of the characteristics of the participants' physical activity among this population in daily basis.

  9. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure.

  10. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-08

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. "Good child" motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  11. The MicroActive project: automatic detection of disease-related molecular cell activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuberg, Liv; Mielnik, Michal; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Voitel, Jörg; Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Bayer, Tobias; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Drese, Klaus; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the MicroActive project is to develop an instrument for molecular diagnostics. The instrument will first be tested for patient screening for a group of viruses causing cervical cancer. Two disposable polymer chips with reagents stored on-chip will be inserted into the instrument for each patient sample. The first chip performs sample preparation of the epithelial cervical cells while mRNA amplification and fluorescent detection takes place in the second chip. More than 10 different virus markers will be analysed in one chip. We report results on sub-functions of the amplification chip. The sample is split into smaller droplets, and the droplets move in parallel channels containing different dried reagents for the different analyses. We report experimental results on parallel droplet movement control using one external pump only, combined with hydrophobic valves. Valve burst pressures are controlled by geometry. We show droplet control using valves with burst pressures between 800 and 4500 Pa. We also monitored the re-hydration times for two necessary dried reagents. After sample insertion, uniform concentration of the reagents in the droplet was reached after respectively 60 s and 10 min. These times are acceptable for successful amplification. Finally we have shown positive amplification of HPV type 16 using dried enzymes stored in micro chambers.

  12. Feeling full and being full : how gastric content relates to appetite, food properties and neural activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This thesis aimed to further determine how gastric content relates to subjective experiences regarding appetite, how this relation is affected by food properties and whether this is visible in neural activation changes.

    Method: This was studied using

  13. IAEA Activities in the Area of Fast Reactors and Related Fuels and Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, S.; Basak, U.; Dyck, G.; Inozemtsev, V.; Toti, A.; Zeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • The IAEA role to support fast reactors and associated fuel cycle development programmes; • Main IAEA activities on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology; • Main IAEA deliverables on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology

  14. 77 FR 65702 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ...-0037] Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730... request. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if... households. Form I- 730 will be used by an asylee or refugee to file on behalf of his or her spouse and/or...

  15. 77 FR 38307 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative...: Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee...

  16. DINFOS: Bibliography of Theses and Reports Related to Military Information Activities; Volume V, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. Defense Information School.

    This bibliography lists theses and research reports related to military information activities. The listings are grouped according to the following subject categories: journalism, public and internal information, mass communications, political science, international communications, sociology, history, education, public relations, leadership,…

  17. Brain activity and cognitive transition during childhood: A longitudinal event-related brain potential study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauder, J.E.A.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relation between brain activation and cognitive development using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and a longitudinal design. 5 yr old females performed a visual recognition ('oddball') task and an experimental analogue of the Piagetian conservation of liquid quantity task At three

  18. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  19. Stereotype activation is unintentional: Behavioural and event-related potenials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Ya-Ping; Tan, Chen-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Xia; Liu, Yong-He; Lin, Chong-De

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a priming Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether stereotype activation is unintentional. Priming conditions (priming/no-priming) and the relationship between priming and target (consistent/inconsistent/no-relation) were the independent variables; accuracy, reaction time and N400 amplitude were used as dependent variables. The reaction time revealed that stereotype activation is, to some extent, unintentional. Furthermore, the event-related potenial (ERP) results showed that N400 amplitude was larger for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. This result supported the notion that stereotype activation is an unintentional and automatic process. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  1. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Toxopeus

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12 and healthy subjects (N = 18. In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account

  2. Objectively measured active travel and uses of activity-friendly neighborhood resources: Does change in use relate to change in physical activity and BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B. Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies examine how objectively measured use of local physical activity resources contributes to objectively-measured healthy physical activity and weight changes over time. We utilized objective measures to test whether changes in active travel and uses of three physical activity (PA resources–parks, recreation centers, and transit– related to changes in PA and BMI. Adults (n=536 in Salt Lake City, UT, wore accelerometer and GPS units in 2012 and 2013, before and after neighborhood rail completion. Regression outcomes included accelerometer counts per minute (cpm, MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous activity minutes/10h accelerometer wear and measured BMI; key predictors were changes in active travel and PA resource uses (former and new uses. Significant results (all p<0.05 showed that increased active travel related to increased total PA (59.86cpm and 8.50 MVPA; decreased active travel related to decreased MVPA (−3.01 MVPA. Poorer outcomes were seen after discontinuing use of parks (−36.29cpm, −5.73 MVPA, and +0.44 BMI points, recreation centers (−6.18 MVPA, and transit (−48.14cpm, −5.43 MVPA, and +0.66 BMI. Healthier outcomes were seen after commencing use of parks (29.83cpm, 5.25 MVPA, recreation centers (44.63cpm and transit (38.44cpm, 4.17 MVPA, and −0.56 BMI. Transit and park/recreational center uses were unrelated, although park users were more likely to be recreation center users. Active travel and use of three neighborhood PA resources relate to healthy activity and could be fostered by policy and design. Keywords: Recreation center, Accelerometry, Active transport, Built environment, Parks, Global positioning system

  3. Physical activity and its related motivational attributes in adolescents with different BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Kim, Y H

    2013-03-01

    A number of obesity studies have been focused on identifying the relationships between socioeconomic status and physical activity involvement. In behavioral medicine, the limited data are available on obese people's physical activity and its related psychological predictors based on psychological theories. To identify the differences in physical activity and its related motivational attributes among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and to find the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs in predicting physical activity. One thousand seventy-one students ranging from seventh to ninth grades were randomly selected from three junior high schools in Seoul (359 normal weight students, 468 overweight students, and 244 obese students). A Korean version of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were applied to measure the participants' motivational attributes and physical activity. Overweight and obese adolescents showed higher scores on amotivation and externally motivated regulations for physical activity than their normal weight counterparts. Internal regulation was more significant for physical activity in normal weight adolescent. However, there was no difference in physical activity among the three groups. Additionally, the findings identified that BMI and the SDT constructs were significant to explain physical activity. This study offers fundamental knowledge in gaining a clearer understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and promotion of physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents.

  4. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships and Docking Studies of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Kyani, Anahita

    2012-01-01

    Defining the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine pathogenesis could lead to the application of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists as novel migraine therapeutics. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of biological activities of a large range...... of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression....... The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model...

  5. PPARgamma-PGC-1alpha activity is determinant of alcohol related breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed Petersen, Rasmus; Benzon Larsen, Signe; Jensen, Ditte Marie

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. One of several proposed mechanisms is that alcohol-related breast cancer is caused by increased sex hormone levels. PPARγ inhibits aromatase transcription in breast adipocytes. We reproduced previously found allele-specific effects...... of the wildtype Pro-allele of PPARG Pro12Ala in alcohol related breast cancer. In transiently transfected cells, transcriptional activation by PPARγ and the PPARγ-PGC-1α complex was inhibited by ethanol. PPARγ 12Ala-mediated transcription activation was not enhanced by PGC-1α, resulting in allele......-specific transcription activation by the PPARγ 12Pro-PGC-1α complex. Our results suggest that PPARγ and PGC-1α activity is an important determinant of alcohol related breast cancer....

  6. Imaging movement-related activity in medicated Parkin-associated and sporadic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Eimeren, Thilo; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buhmann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Treatment-related motor complications such as dyskinesias are a major problem in the long-term management of Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, a relatively early onset of the disease is known to be associated with an early development of dyskinesias. Although linked with early onset...... selected movements. Patients with Parkin-associated and sporadic PD showed no difference in movement-related activation patterns. Moreover, the covariates 'age' and 'disease duration' similarly influenced brain activation in both patient groups. The present finding suggests that a stable long-term motor...

  7. Beyond recreational physical activity: examining occupational and household activity, transportation activity, and sedentary behavior in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stephanie M; Irwin, Melinda L; Matthews, Charles E; Mayne, Susan T; Gail, Mitchell H; Moore, Steven C; Albanes, Demetrius; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2010-11-01

    We prospectively examined nonrecreational physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to breast cancer risk among 97 039 postmenopausal women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. We identified 2866 invasive and 570 in situ breast cancer cases recorded between 1996 and 2003 and used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Routine activity during the day at work or at home that included heavy lifting or carrying versus mostly sitting was associated with reduced risk of invasive breast cancer (RR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.91; P(trend) = .024). Routine activity during the day at work or home may be related to reduced invasive breast cancer risk. Domains outside of recreation time may be attractive targets for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior among postmenopausal women.

  8. Expected reward modulates encoding-related theta activity before an event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Matthias J; Watrous, Andrew J; Ekstrom, Arne D; Ranganath, Charan; Otten, Leun J

    2013-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activity in the theta frequency range (4-8 Hz) before the onset of an event has been shown to affect the likelihood of successfully encoding the event into memory. Recent work has also indicated that frontal theta activity might be modulated by reward, but it is not clear how reward expectancy, anticipatory theta activity, and memory formation might be related. Here, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the relationship between these factors. EEG was recorded from healthy adults while they memorized a series of words. Each word was preceded by a cue that indicated whether a high or low monetary reward would be earned if the word was successfully remembered in a later recognition test. Frontal theta power between the presentation of the reward cue and the onset of a word was predictive of later memory for the word, but only in the high reward condition. No theta differences were observed before word onset following low reward cues. The magnitude of prestimulus encoding-related theta activity in the high reward condition was correlated with the number of high reward words that were later confidently recognized. These findings provide strong evidence for a link between reward expectancy, theta activity, and memory encoding. Theta activity before event onset seems to be especially important for the encoding of motivationally significant stimuli. One possibility is that dopaminergic activity during reward anticipation mediates frontal theta activity related to memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  10. Ecological analysis of college women's physical activity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Dunn, Jacqueline; Morrow, James; Greenleaf, Christy

    2018-03-01

    Despite significant health benefits of regular physical activity, over 60 percent of college women do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines to promote their health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a comprehensive construct including physical and psychosocial health functioning. The major purpose of this study was to examine the influences of individual (e.g., self-efficacy, enjoyment), social (e.g., family and friend support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., crime safety) on college women's physical activity and HRQoL. Participants were 235 (Mean age = 21.0 years) college women from a public research university located in the southwest region of the United States. They completed validated surveys assessing their perceptions of physical activity, HRQoL, and social ecological factors during the spring semester of 2012. The findings of three multiple linear regressions, entering individual factors first, followed by social and physical environmental factors, revealed that self-efficacy and crime safety were significantly related to physical activity. For HRQoL-physical functioning, significant factors were self-efficacy, enjoyment, and crime safety. Enjoyment was the only factor related to HRQoL-psychosocial functioning. These findings indicated that physical activity professionals need to foster safe environments, enhance self-efficacy, and provide enjoyable activities to promote college women's physical activity and HRQoL.

  11. Maternal involvement in children's leisure activities in rural China: Relations with adjustment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin

    2018-02-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined maternal involvement in children's leisure activities and its relations with children's adjustment in rural China. Participants included 184 children (93 boys and 91 girls) initially in third grade (mean age = 9.31 years). Children were asked to report the frequencies of mothers' involvement in leisure activities. Information on children's social, school, and psychological adjustment were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results showed that children's perceptions of maternal involvement in leisure activities positively predicted later social and school adjustment, particularly in boys. Furthermore, child initial adjustment status moderated the relations between maternal leisure activity involvement and child outcomes. The results suggest that maternal involvement in children's leisure activities, which has traditionally been neglected in the society, is a significant factor in contributing to child development in today's rural China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Motivation-related predictors of physical activity engagement and vitality in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-an Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the Basic Psychological Needs Theory (within the Self-determination framework, in relation to the prediction of physical activity and well-being among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Motivation regulations for physical activity were also considered in the process model. A total of 207 patients (150 females, mean age = 58 ± 11 years completed a questionnaire pack and structural equation modelling was used to test expected relationships. Autonomy support provided by important other(s regarding physical activity positively predicted rheumatoid arthritis patients’ need satisfaction which positively related to autonomous reasons for physical activity participation. Autonomous motivation positively predicted reported physical activity participation levels and feelings of vitality.

  13. Associations of physical activity with driving-related cognitive abilities in older drivers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Ferreira, Inês; Melo, Filipe; Godinho, Mário

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between hysical activity and driving-related cognitive abilities of older drivers. Thirty-eight female and male drivers ages 61 to 81 years (M = 70.2, SD = 5.0) responded to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and were assessed on a battery of neuropsychological tests, which included measures of visual attention, executive functioning, mental status, visuospatial ability, and memory. A higher amount of reported physical activity was significantly correlated with better scores on tests of visual processing speed and divided visual attention. Higher amounts of physical activity was significantly associated with a better composite score for visual attention, but its correlation with the composite score for executive functioning was not significant. These findings support the hypothesis that pzhysical activity is associated with preservation of specific driving-related cognitive abilities of older adults.

  14. Organized Activity Participation and Relational Aggression: The Role of Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Bauermeister, José A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-02-01

    Relational aggression among early adolescents is a pervasive problem that negatively influences the health and well-being of youth. Strength-based approaches such as positive youth development (PYD) are a promising way to reduce risk of detrimental outcomes such as relational aggression. Participation in organized activities is a key way that youth build assets related to PYD. Yet, few researchers have examined empirically assets related to PYD as a mechanism by which organized activity participation may help reduce risk of relational aggression. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to investigate if assets associated with PYD mediate the relationship between organized activity participation and relational aggression using survey data from a diverse, school-based sample of early adolescents (N = 196; mean age = 12.39 years; SD = 0.52; 60% female; 45% African American, 27% White, 21% multiracial, and 7% other, 71% economically disadvantaged). We tested 2 competing models, 1 with decomposed PYD factors and 1 with an integrated PYD factor. Our results suggest that PYD better fit as an integrated versus decomposed construct, providing support for the notion that youth benefit most from assets related to PYD when they operate collectively. Our results also provide support for PYD-related factors as a mechanism by which participation may reduce risk of relational aggression. Limitations of this study, and implications for prevention are discussed.

  15. Health-related quality of life, physical activity, and sedentary behavior of adults with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Famelia, Ruri; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-11-01

    Research suggests that physical activity and sedentary behaviors can impact one's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, little is known about the impact that these behaviors can have on the HRQoL of those with visual impairments. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with HRQoL among a sample of adults with visual impairments. Individuals with visual impairments were invited via email to complete three questionnaires: (a) the international physical activity questionnaire-short form, (b) the Rasch-revised versions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument with the Level of Independence subscale, and (c) a demographic questionnaire. Eighty participants (M age   =   47.5) provided usable surveys for analyses. The results demonstrated that physical activity significantly predicted HRQoL (F(2,79) = 3.508, p = .035, R 2 Adjusted =.060), yet, sedentary behavior did not (F(2,79) = 1.546, p = .220, R 2  = .039, R 2 Adjusted =.014). Gender differences were uncovered regarding the relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of physical activity in influencing the HRQoL of adults with visual impairments. This study supports the need for additional intervention research to promote physical activity for those with visual impairments. Implications for Rehabilitations Adults with visual impairments tend to report lower health-related quality of life than peers without visual impairments. Regular participation in leisure-time physical activity, and restricted sedentary time, have been demonstrated to positively influence health-related quality of life for adults without disabilities. In this study, physical activity shows promise as an effective means of improving health-related quality of life for adults with visual impairments.

  16. Application of activity theory to analysis of human-related accidents: Method and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Sik; Ham, Dong-Han; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to human-related accident analysis based on activity theory. Most of the existing methods seem to be insufficient for comprehensive analysis of human activity-related contextual aspects of accidents when investigating the causes of human errors. Additionally, they identify causal factors and their interrelationships with a weak theoretical basis. We argue that activity theory offers useful concepts and insights to supplement existing methods. The proposed approach gives holistic contextual backgrounds for understanding and diagnosing human-related accidents. It also helps identify and organise causal factors in a consistent, systematic way. Two case studies in Korean nuclear power plants are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was also applied to the case studies. The results of using HFACS were then compared with those of using the proposed method. These case studies showed that the proposed approach could produce a meaningful set of human activity-related contextual factors, which cannot easily be obtained by using existing methods. It can be especially effective when analysts think it is important to diagnose accident situations with human activity-related contextual factors derived from a theoretically sound model and to identify accident-related contextual factors systematically. - Highlights: • This study proposes a new method for analysing human-related accidents. • The method was developed based on activity theory. • The concept of activity system model and contradiction was used in the method. • Two case studies in nuclear power plants are presented. • The method is helpful to consider causal factors systematically and comprehensively.

  17. Ankle torque steadiness is related to muscle activation variability and co-activation in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin; Sløk, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the significance of muscle activation variability and coactivation for the ability to perform steady submaximal ankle torque (torque steadiness) in healthy children and those with cerebral palsy (CP), and (2) assess ankle function during isometric...... contractions in those children. Fourteen children with CP who walked with equinus foot deformity and 14 healthy (control) children performed maximal and steady submaximal ankle dorsi- and plantarflexions. Dorsiflexion torque steadiness was related to agonist and antagonist muscle activation variability as well...

  18. Factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in outdoor, noncompetitive physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G; McCarty, Frances A; Green, Gary T

    2014-12-01

    Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity to inform intervention design. Young adolescents aged 10 to 14 years old (N = 1,032) from 1 rural county completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing constructs from self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) related to noncompetitive outdoor physical activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an integrated conceptual model of hypothesized relationships among constructs. The hypothesized conceptual model provided a good fit to the data with greater perceptions of autonomy support and self-determined motivation having statistically significant positive indirect effects on participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity mediated by the constructs of the TPB. All direct paths in the model were statistically significant; however, the direct effect of attitudes on intention was weak (.08) and self-determined motivation had no indirect effect on intention through attitudes (.03). Constructs of SDT and TPB should be accounted for by interventions targeting noncompetitive outdoor physical activity among young adolescents. More research is needed to determine young adolescents' preferences for noncompetitive and competitive physical activity and the potential influence that noncompetitive outdoor physical activity may have on total daily physical activity.

  19. The effects of xylitol and sorbitol on lysozyme- and peroxidase-related enzymatic and candidacidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Young; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether xylitol and sorbitol affect enzymatic and candidacidal activities of lysozyme, the peroxidase system, and the glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase system. Xylitol and sorbitol were added to hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase, and whole saliva in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces. The enzymatic activities of lysozyme, peroxidase, and glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase were determined by the turbidimetric method, the NbsSCN assay, and production of oxidized o-dianisidine, respectively. Candidacidal activities were determined by comparing colony forming units using Candida albicans ATCC strains 10231, 11006, and 18804. While xylitol and sorbitol did not affect the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme both in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces, they did inhibit the enzymatic activity of salivary lysozyme significantly in solution, but not on the surfaces. Xylitol and sorbitol enhanced the enzymatic activities of both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase significantly in a dose-dependent manner in solution, but not on the surfaces. Sorbitol, but not xylitol, inhibited the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase significantly. Both xylitol and sorbitol did not affect candidacidal activities of hen egg-white lysozyme, the bovine lactoperoxidase system, or the glucose oxidase-mediated bovine lactoperoxidase system. Xylitol and sorbitol inhibited salivary lysozyme activity, but enhanced both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase activities significantly in solution. Xylitol and sorbitol did not augment lysozyme- and peroxidase-related candidacidal activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rate of antioxidant degradation and color variations in dehydrated apples as related to water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2009-06-10

    Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 degrees C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid acid acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.

  1. Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenhol, Tobias; Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1) that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2) that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3) how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4) psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. Methods and Findings Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. Conclusion Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support

  2. Gritty people try harder: grit and effort-related cardiac autonomic activity during an active coping challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underpinnings of grit during an active coping task. Forty young adults completed the Short Grit Scale and worked on a self-paced mental effort task. Effort-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using impedance cardiography, which yielded measures of sympathetic activity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Multilevel models revealed that people high on the Perseverance of Effort subscale showed autonomic coactivation: both PEP and RSA became stronger during the task, reflecting higher activity of both ANS divisions. The Consistency of Interest subscale, in contrast, predicted only weaker sympathetic activity (slower PEP). Taken together, the findings illuminate autonomic processes associated with how "gritty" people pursue goals, and they suggest that more attention should be paid to the facets' distinct effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Antibacterial and anti-hemolysin activities of tea catechins and their structural relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1990-03-01

    Among catechins tested, (-)epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba 569B and El Tor Inaba V86. S. aureus was more sensitive than V. cholerae O1 to these compounds. EGCg showed also a bactericidal activity against V. cholerae O1 569B. Pyrogallol showed a stronger antibacterial activity against S. aureus and V. cholerae O1 than tannic and gallic acid. Rutin or caffein had no effect on them. ECg and EGCg showed the most potent anti-hemolysin activity against S. aureus alpha-toxin, Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin (Vp-TDH) and cholera hemolysin. Among catechin relatives, only tannic acid had a potent anti-hemolysin activity against alpha-toxin. These results suggest that the catechol and pyrogallol groups are responsible for the antibacterial and bactericidal activities, while the conformation of catechins might play an important role in the anti-hemolysin activity.

  4. Age-Related Increase in Electromyography Burst Activity in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Theou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of electromyography (EMG technology facilitates measurement of muscle activity outside the laboratory during daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bursts in EMG recorded over a typical 8-hour day differed between young and old males and females. Muscle activity was recorded from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of 16 young and 15 old adults using portable surface EMG. Old muscles were active 16–27% of the time compared to 5–9% in young muscles. The number of bursts was greater in old than young adults and in females compared to males. Burst percentage and mean amplitude were greater in the flexor muscles compared with the extensor muscles. The greater burst activity in old adults coupled with the unique activity patterns across muscles in males and females provides further understanding of how changes in neuromuscular activity effects age-related functional decline between the sexes.

  5. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  6. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals......Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had...

  7. Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n=14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n=28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment. These findings suggest that reduced smoking during smoking cessation treatment is associated with a "recovery of function" in frontostriatal responses to nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers, although comparison with a developmental control group of adolescent nonsmokers is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine H; Christensen, Finn B; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities in the LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p leisure activities, LDS patients did not achieve a quality of life comparable to that of THA patients 1 year postoperatively.

  9. Health-related quality of life in relation to disease activity in adults with hereditary angioedema in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Patrik; Nilsson, Mats; Lindfors, Anders; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Björkander, Janne

    2017-11-30

    Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) is impaired in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) but has not yet been satisfactorily described. To study HR-QoL in patients with HAE by combining different HR-QoL instruments with disease activity assessment. All adults in the Swedish HAE registry were invited to take part in this questionnaire study, which used the generic HR-QoL instruments, EuroQol 5 Dimensions 5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) and the RAND Corporation Short Form 36 (RAND-36), the disease-specific Angioedema Quality of Life instrument (AE-QoL), the recently introduced Angioedema Activity Score (AAS) form, and questionnaires on sick leave and prophylactic medication. Sixty-four of 133 adults (26 men, 38 women) between 18 and 91 years old responded. The most affected HR-QoL dimensions in the EQ-5D-5L were pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression; in the RAND-36, energy/fatigue, general health, pain; and, in the AE-QoL, fears/shame and fatigue/mood. Women had lower HR-QoL in the RAND-36 for general health and energy/fatigue (p 0 had significantly impaired HR-QoL. There were significant associations (p depression, and fatigue/mood are important aspects of HAE but the AE-QoL disregards pain. HR-QoL was not significantly affected by prophylaxis. Increased disease activity was associated with impaired HR-QoL, which justifies more active disease management.

  10. Seasonal bat activity related to insect emergence at three temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarina, Ioanna; Gravier, Dorian; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of aquatic food resources entering terrestrial systems is important for food web studies and conservation planning. Bats, among other terrestrial consumers, often profit from aquatic insect emergence and their activity might be closely related to such events. However, there is a lack of studies which monitor bat activity simultaneously with aquatic insect emergence, especially from lakes. Thus, our aim was to understand the relationship between insect emergence and bat activity, and investigate whether there is a general spatial or seasonal pattern at lakeshores. We assessed whole-night bat activity using acoustic monitoring and caught emerging and aerial flying insects at three different lakes through three seasons. We predicted that insect availability and seasonality explain the variation in bat activity, independent of the lake size and characteristics. Spatial (between lakes) differences of bat activity were stronger than temporal (seasonal) differences. Bat activity did not always correlate to insect emergence, probably because other factors, such as habitat characteristics, or bats' energy requirements, play an important role as well. Aerial flying insects explained bat activity better than the emerged aquatic insects in the lake with lowest insect emergence. Bats were active throughout the night with some activity peaks, and the pattern of their activity also differed among lakes and seasons. Lakes are important habitats for bats, as they support diverse bat communities and activity throughout the night and the year when bats are active. Our study highlights that there are spatial and temporal differences in bat activity and its hourly nocturnal pattern, that should be considered when investigating aquatic-terrestrial interactions or designing conservation and monitoring plans.

  11. Automatic activation of categorical and abstract analogical relations in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-10-01

    We examined activation of concepts during analogical reasoning. Subjects made either analogical judgments or categorical judgments about four-word sets. After each four-word set, they named the ink color of a single word in a modified Stroop task. Words that referred to category relations were primed (as indicated by longer response times on Stroop color naming) subsequent to analogical judgments and categorical judgments. This finding suggests that activation of category concepts plays a fundamental role in analogical thinking. When colored words referred to analogical relations, priming occurred subsequent to analogical judgments, but not to categorical judgments, even though identical four-word stimuli were used for both types of judgments. This finding lends empirical support to the hypothesis that, when people comprehend the analogy between two items, they activate an abstract analogical relation that is distinct from the specific content items that compose the analogy.

  12. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study...... analyses indicated that the various physical activity variables explained between 2 and 8% of the variance in VO(2peak) in boys. In this population-based cohort, most daily activity variables were positively related to aerobic fitness in boys, whereas less clear relationships were observed in girls. Our...... finding that physical activity was only uniformly related to aerobic fitness in boys partly contradicts previous studies in older children and adolescents....

  13. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    , and physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly...

  14. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantut Susanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  15. Relation of Depression with the Outonomy Elderly Into Activity Life of Daily Living at Timbangan Indralaya

    OpenAIRE

    Muharyani, Putri Widita

    2010-01-01

    Background : Depression is considered as dangeousr for a psychological and physical health, because it was causing for a function discharge of kognitif, emosional and productivities, especially unautonomy of elderly into fill activities life in everytime. This research is done to know the relation of depression with the autonomy into activity of daily Lliving at Kelurahan Timbangan Indralaya. Method : The method was using into this research it was from the analytic of desain Cross Sectional a...

  16. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew T. Ludlow; Stephen M. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and...

  17. Motivation-related predictors of physical activity engagement and vitality in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, C.-a.; Rouse, P. C.; Van Zanten, J. V. J.; Metsios, G. S.; Ntoumanis, N.; Kitas, G. D.; Duda, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the Basic Psychological Needs Theory (within the Self-determination framework), in relation to the prediction of physical activity and well-being among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Motivation regulations for physical activity were also considered in the process model. A total of 207 patients (150 females, mean age = 58 ± 11 years) completed a questionnaire pack and structural equation modelling was used to test expected relationships. Autonomy support provided by important ...

  18. Nuclear safety regulation on nuclear safety equipment activities in relation to human and organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Based on years of knowledge in nuclear safety supervision and experience of investigating and dealing with violation events in repair welding of DFHM, this paper analyzes major faults in manufacturing and maintaining activities of nuclear safety equipment in relation to human and organizational factors. It could be deducted that human and organizational factors has definitely become key features in the development of nuclear energy and technology. Some feasible measures to reinforce supervision on nuclear safety equipment activities have also been proposed. (author)

  19. IAEA specialists' meeting on the fusion evaluated nuclear data library related to the ITER activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.; Lorenz, A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the summary report of an IAEA Specialists' Meeting on the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library Related to the ITER Activity, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna from 16 to 18 November 1987. The objective of the meeting was to formulate a detailed programme and time schedule for the development of the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) to meet the future needs of the ITER activity

  20. Phosphatase activity in relation to key litter and soil properties in mature subtropical forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Enqing; Chen, Chengrong; Wen, Dazhi; Liu, Xian

    2015-05-15

    Phosphatase-mediated phosphorus (P) mineralization is one of the critical processes in biogeochemical cycling of P and determines soil P availability in forest ecosystems; however, the regulation of soil phosphatase activity remains elusive. This study investigated the potential extracellular activities of acid phosphomonoesterase (AcPME) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) and how they were related to key edaphic properties in the L horizon (undecomposed litter) and F/H horizon (fermented and humified litter) and the underlying mineral soil at the 0-15cm depth in eight mature subtropical forests in China. AcPME activity decreased significantly in the order of F/H horizon>L horizon>mineral soil horizon, while the order for PDE activity was L horizon=F/H horizon>mineral soil horizon. AcPME (X axis) and PDE (Y axis) activities were positively correlated in all horizons with significantly higher slope in the L and F/H horizons than in the mineral soil horizon. Both AcPME and PDE activities were positively related to microbial biomass C, moisture content and water-holding capacity in the L horizon, and were positively related to soil C:P, N:P and C:N ratios and fine root (diameter≤2mm) biomass in the mineral soil horizon. Both enzyme activities were also interactively affected by forest and horizon, partly due to the interactive effect of forest and horizon on microbial biomass. Our results suggest that modulator(s) of the potential extracellular activity of phosphatases vary with horizon, depending on the relative C, P and water availability of the horizon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  2. [Occupation-, transportation- and leisure-related physical activity: gender inequalities in Santander, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga-Sánchez, Claudia M; Alzate-Posada, Martha L; Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Otero-Wandurraga, Johanna A

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of occupation-, transportation- and leisure-related physical activity, its compliance with recommendations, and to explore its association with demographic and socioeconomic variables in men and women of the Department of Santander (Colombia). Methods The sample consisted of 2421 people between 15 and 64 years of age, participants in the Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases of Santander cross-sectional study, developed in 2010. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for data collection. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated and multivariate analysis models were built by sex using robust Poisson regression. Results The prevalence of occupational and leisure physical activity and compliance with recommendations were lower in women. Sexual division of labor and a low socioeconomic level negatively influenced physical activity in women, limiting the possibility of practice of those principally engaged in unpaid work at home. Young or single men and those living in higher socioeconomic areas were more likely to practice physical activity in leisure time and meet recommendations. Conclusion Physical activity surveillance and related public policies should take into account the inequalities between the practice of men and women related to their socioeconomic conditions and the sexual division of labor.

  3. Regulating the Access to Awareness: Brain Activity Related to Probe-related and Spontaneous Reversals in Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian A; Mathewson, Kyle E; Tapia, Evelina; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Beck, Diane M

    2017-06-01

    Research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has implicated an assortment of brain regions, ERP components, and network properties associated with visual awareness. Recently, the P3b ERP component has emerged as a leading NCC candidate. However, typical P3b paradigms depend on the detection of some stimulus change, making it difficult to separate brain processes elicited by the stimulus itself from those associated with updates or changes in visual awareness. Here we used binocular rivalry to ask whether the P3b is associated with changes in awareness even in the absence of changes in the object of awareness. We recorded ERPs during a probe-mediated binocular rivalry paradigm in which brief probes were presented over the image in either the suppressed or dominant eye to determine whether the elicited P3b activity is probe or reversal related. We found that the timing of P3b (but not its amplitude) was closely related to the timing of the report of a perceptual change rather than to the onset of the probe. This is consistent with the proposal that P3b indexes updates in conscious awareness, rather than being related to stimulus processing per se. Conversely, the probe-related P1 amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with reversal latency, suggesting that the degree to which the probe is processed increases the likelihood of a fast perceptual reversal. Finally, the response-locked P3b amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with the duration of an intermediate stage between reversals in which parts of both percepts coexist (piecemeal period). Together, the data suggest that the P3b reflects an update in consciousness and that the intensity of that process (as indexed by P3b amplitude) predicts how immediate that update is.

  4. Using Active Learning to Identify Health Information Technology Related Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Howe, Jessica L; Adams, Katharine T; Ratwani, Raj M

    2017-01-18

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (HIT) has led to new patient safety hazards that are often difficult to identify. Patient safety event reports, which are self-reported descriptions of safety hazards, provide one view of potential HIT-related safety events. However, identifying HIT-related reports can be challenging as they are often categorized under other more predominate clinical categories. This challenge of identifying HIT-related reports is exacerbated by the increasing number and complexity of reports which pose challenges to human annotators that must manually review reports. In this paper, we apply active learning techniques to support classification of patient safety event reports as HIT-related. We evaluated different strategies and demonstrated a 30% increase in average precision of a confirmatory sampling strategy over a baseline no active learning approach after 10 learning iterations.

  5. Reactive oxygen species-related activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haohao; Yin, Jun-Jie; Wamer, Wayne G; Zeng, Mingyong; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-03-01

    Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase), and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. 'Low-activation' fusion materials development and related nuclear data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, S.

    1990-01-01

    So-called ''low-activation'' materials are presently considered as an important means of improving the safety characteristics of future DT fusion reactors. Essential benefits are expected in various problem areas ranging from operation considerations to aspects of decommissioning and waste disposal. Present programs on ''low-activation'' materials development depend strongly on reliable activity calculations for a wide range of technologically important materials. The related nuclear data requirements and important needs for more and improved nuclear data are discussed. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Public relations activities of the Service Hall for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article includes information of the Service Hall for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station. About 30% of the total electricity production in Japan is due to 16 power stations and 52 reactors. The service hall is a kind of atomic power pavilion for public relations. In Japan, each nuclear power station has such a pavilion, which acts a a center of public relations activities for the atomic power. (S. Grainger)

  8. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Consequences of activation policy targeting young adults with health-related problems in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long history of active labor market policy and over the years, activation has been used as a method to combat unemployment amongst those with no problems besides unemployment. However, activation policy is now permeating social policies providing economic...... protection for young adults who cannot work for health reasons . A strong emphasis on paid work as the main source to social participation has legitimized work-promoting activation that targets socially vulnerable groups such as young adults with comprehensive health problems. In this paper we discuss...... the consequences of this activation policy in Denmark and Sweden, and argue that the strong emphasis on work has counterproductive consequences when directed towards individuals whose problems are medical rather than related to their position on the labour market....

  10. Error-related negativity varies with the activation of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Shu, Liangchao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Shenyi; Che, Hongmin

    2008-09-19

    The error-related negativity (ERN) was suggested to reflect the response-performance monitoring process. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the activation of gender stereotypes influences the ERN. Twenty-eight male participants were asked to complete a tool or kitchenware identification task. The prime stimulus is a picture of a male or female face and the target stimulus is either a kitchen utensil or a hand tool. The ERN amplitude on male-kitchenware trials is significantly larger than that on female-kitchenware trials, which reveals the low-level, automatic activation of gender stereotypes. The ERN that was elicited in this task has two sources--operation errors and the conflict between the gender stereotype activation and the non-prejudice beliefs. And the gender stereotype activation may be the key factor leading to this difference of ERN. In other words, the stereotype activation in this experimental paradigm may be indexed by the ERN.

  11. Energy Through Motion: An Activity Intervention for Cancer-Related Fatigue in an Ambulatory Infusion Center
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Linda; Hooke, Mary Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) occurs in most people with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Physical activity (PA) is safe and effective in reducing CRF in people with cancer. 
. This project involved the implementation and evaluation of a three-month PA program to maintain or improve CRF and quality of life.
. Activity trackers and resistance bands were provided to participants. Verbal instruction, printed material, activity videos, and text messages were used in this program. Participants completed a fatigue assessment; self-reported PA measure; and measure of attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about sustaining regular PA pre- and postimplementation.
. 51 patients enrolled in the study, and 39 completed the program. Participants' fatigue did not worsen significantly during the three months, and self-reported activity levels increased, but not significantly. The activity tracker, text messages, and personal connection with nursing staff were reported to be helpful.

  12. Daily physical activity and its relation to aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.

    2006-01-01

    and fitness in children has been published, where fitness has been assessed by direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake and related to daily physical activity intensities by accelerometers. We examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Maximum workload and maximal oxygen uptake...... in vigorous physical activity were calculated. VO2PEAK was correlated with mean accelerometer counts (r=0.23 for boys and r=0.23 for girls, both Pactivity (r=0.32 for boys, r=0.30 for girls, both P...Abstract  A positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness exists in adults. Studies in children have given conflicting results, possibly because of differences in methods used to assess daily physical activity and fitness. No study regarding daily physical activity...

  13. The role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotion-related phenomena: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Gable, Philip A; Peterson, Carly K

    2010-07-01

    Conceptual and empirical approaches to the study of the role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotional processes are reviewed. Although early research suggested that greater left than right frontal cortical activity was associated with positive affect, more recent research, primarily on anger, suggests that greater left than right frontal cortical activity is associated with approach motivation, which can be positive (e.g., enthusiasm) or negative in valence (e.g., anger). In addition to reviewing this research on anger, research on guilt, bipolar disorder, and various types of positive affect is reviewed with relation to their association with asymmetric frontal cortical activity. The reviewed research not only contributes to a more complete understanding of the emotive functions of asymmetric frontal cortical activity, but it also points to the importance of considering motivational direction as separate from affective valence in psychological models of emotional space. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain activity related to phonation in young patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyuna, Asanori; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Higa, Asano; Shingaki, Kouta; Uehara, Takayuki; Suzuki, Mikio

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the brain activities during phonation of young patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) of relatively short disease duration (<10 years). Six subjects with ADSD of short duration (mean age: 24. 3 years; mean disease duration: 41 months) and six healthy controls (mean age: 30.8 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a sparse sampling method to identify brain activity during vowel phonation (/i:/). Intragroup and intergroup analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping software. Areas of activation in the ADSD and control groups were similar to those reported previously for vowel phonation. All of the activated areas were observed bilaterally and symmetrically. Intergroup analysis revealed higher brain activities in the SD group in the auditory-related areas (Brodmann's areas [BA] 40, 41), motor speech areas (BA44, 45), bilateral insula (BA13), bilateral cerebellum, and middle frontal gyrus (BA46). Areas with lower activation were in the left primary sensory area (BA1-3) and bilateral subcortical nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus). The auditory cortical responses observed may reflect that young ADSD patients control their voice by use of the motor speech area, insula, inferior parietal cortex, and cerebellum. Neural activity in the primary sensory area and basal ganglia may affect the voice symptoms of young ADSD patients with short disease duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks: an explanation for non-memory-related hippocampal activations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly noted hippocampal activation associated with a variety of cognitive functions--such as decision making, attention, perception, incidental learning, prediction, and working memory--that have little apparent relation to declarative memory. Such findings might be difficult to reconcile with classical hippocampal lesion studies that show remarkable sparing of cognitive functions outside the realm of declarative memory. Even the oft-reported hippocampal activations during confident episodic retrieval are not entirely congruent with evidence that hippocampal lesions reliably impair encoding but inconsistently affect retrieval. Here we explore the conditions under which the hippocampus responds during episodic recall and recognition. Our findings suggest that anterior hippocampal activity may be related to the imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks and conditions rather than due to retrieval per se. Incidental encoding and hippocampal activity may be reduced during conditions where retrieval requires greater attentional engagement. During retrieval, anterior hippocampal activity decreases with increasing search duration and retrieval effort, and this deactivation corresponds with a coincident impaired encoding of the external environment (Israel, Seibert, Black, & Brewer, 2010; Reas & Brewer, 2013; Reas, Gimbel, Hales, & Brewer, 2011). In light of this emerging evidence, we discuss the proposal that some hippocampal activity observed during memory retrieval, or other non-memory conditions, may in fact be attributable to concomitant encoding activity that is regulated by the attentional demands of the principal task. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Use of Social Networking Sites in Job Related Activities: A Cross-cultural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bartosik-Purgat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the paper is to identify the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs in job related activities and indicate the interdependencies between these activities and age, gender, as well as education in culturally diversified markets (China, Poland, Turkey, the United States. Research Design & Methods: In the exploratory empirical study the authors used two research methods: PAPI (Paper and Pen Personal Interview and CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview. The empirical data were collected in 2016 and the total number of respondents from four culturally diversified countries was 1246. Findings: The analysis with the use of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests showed that the Turkish respondents most often use SNSs for job related activities, while it is the least often done by the studied Americans. Moreover, from among the studied factors (gender, age and education level that differentiate the SNSs usage for job related activities in a statistically significant way age is of greatest importance. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the research provide implications for the recruitment policy of multinational enterprises (MNEs. Since more and more enterprises use SNSs in order to look for new employees and advertise themselves as employers (employer branding, the identified interdependencies between the SNSs activities and the analysed factors can support firm attempts to develop the proper recruitment policy taking into account the cultural diversity of potential workers. Contribution & Value Added: There are not many studies in the literature which present the usage of SNSs for job related activities from the perspective of individual users in the cross-cultural approach. The majority of studies are related to the usage of SNSs by enterprises in the recruitment process.

  17. Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health.

  18. Different responses of spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha activity to ambient luminance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-12-04

    Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse-correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear. Here, we investigated the effect of ambient luminance changes, known to dramatically modulate neural oscillations, on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha. We investigated the effect of ambient luminance on EEG alpha during spontaneous human brain activity at rest (experiment 1) and during visual stimulation (experiment 2). Results show that spontaneous alpha amplitude increased by decreasing ambient luminance, while alpha frequency remained unaffected. In the second experiment, we found that under low-luminance viewing, the stimulus-related alpha amplitude was lower, and its frequency was slightly faster. These effects were evident in the phase-locked part of the alpha response (echo function), but weaker or absent in the induced (non-phase-locked) alpha responses. Finally, we explored the possible behavioural correlates of these modulations in a monocular critical flicker frequency task (experiment 3), finding that dark adaptation in the left eye decreased the temporal threshold of the right eye. Overall, we found that ambient luminance changes impact differently on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha expression. We suggest that stimulus-related alpha activity is crucial in determining human temporal segmentation abilities. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Striatal Activity and Reward Relativity: Neural Signals Encoding Dynamic Outcome Valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Emily S; Mankin, David E; Cromwell, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is a key brain region involved in reward processing. Striatal activity has been linked to encoding reward magnitude and integrating diverse reward outcome information. Recent work has supported the involvement of striatum in the valuation of outcomes. The present work extends this idea by examining striatal activity during dynamic shifts in value that include different levels and directions of magnitude disparity. A novel task was used to produce diverse relative reward effects on a chain of instrumental action. Rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) were trained to respond to cues associated with specific outcomes varying by food pellet magnitude. Animals were exposed to single-outcome sessions followed by mixed-outcome sessions, and neural activity was compared among identical outcome trials from the different behavioral contexts. Results recording striatal activity show that neural responses to different task elements reflect incentive contrast as well as other relative effects that involve generalization between outcomes or possible influences of outcome variety. The activity that was most prevalent was linked to food consumption and post-food consumption periods. Relative encoding was sensitive to magnitude disparity. A within-session analysis showed strong contrast effects that were dependent upon the outcome received in the immediately preceding trial. Significantly higher numbers of responses were found in ventral striatum linked to relative outcome effects. Our results support the idea that relative value can incorporate diverse relationships, including comparisons from specific individual outcomes to general behavioral contexts. The striatum contains these diverse relative processes, possibly enabling both a higher information yield concerning value shifts and a greater behavioral flexibility.

  20. Relation of Perceived Health Competence to Physical Activity in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Justin M; Mayberry, Lindsay S; Wallston, Kenneth A; Huang, Shi; Roumie, Christianne L; Muñoz, Daniel; Patel, Niral J; Kripalani, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    Physical inactivity is highly associated with mortality, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. We evaluated the effect of perceived health competence, a patient's belief in his or her ability to achieve health-related goals, on cumulative physical activity levels in the Mid-South Coronary Heart Disease Cohort Study. The Mid-South Coronary Heart Disease Cohort Study consists of 2,587 outpatients (32% were female) with coronary heart disease at an academic medical center network in the United States. Cumulative physical activity was quantified in metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We investigated associations between the 2-item Perceived Health Competence Scale (PHCS-2) and MET-minutes/week after adjusting for co-morbidities and psychosocial factors with linear regression. Nearly half of participants (47%) exhibited low physical activity levels (Perceived health competence was highly associated with physical activity after multivariable adjustment. A nonlinear relation was observed, with the strongest effect on physical activity occurring at lower levels of perceived health competence. There was effect modification by gender (p = 0.03 for interaction). The relation between perceived health competence and physical activity was stronger in women compared with men; an increase in the PHCS-2 from 3 to 4 was associated with a 73% increase in MET-minutes/week in women (95% confidence interval 43% to 109%, p perceived health competence was strongly associated with less physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease and may represent a potential target for behavioral interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Error-related anterior cingulate cortex activity and the prediction of conscious error awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eOrr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research examining the neural mechanisms associated with error awareness has consistently identified dorsal anterior cingulate activity (ACC as necessary but not predictive of conscious error detection. Two recent studies (Steinhauser and Yeung, 2010; Wessel et al. 2011 have found a contrary pattern of greater dorsal ACC activity (in the form of the error-related negativity during detected errors, but suggested that the greater activity may instead reflect task influences (e.g., response conflict, error probability and or individual variability (e.g., statistical power. We re-analyzed fMRI BOLD data from 56 healthy participants who had previously been administered the Error Awareness Task, a motor Go/No-go response inhibition task in which subjects make errors of commission of which they are aware (Aware errors, or unaware (Unaware errors. Consistent with previous data, the activity in a number of cortical regions was predictive of error awareness, including bilateral inferior parietal and insula cortices, however in contrast to previous studies, including our own smaller sample studies using the same task, error-related dorsal ACC activity was significantly greater during aware errors when compared to unaware errors. While the significantly faster RT for aware errors (compared to unaware was consistent with the hypothesis of higher response conflict increasing ACC activity, we could find no relationship between dorsal ACC activity and the error RT difference. The data suggests that individual variability in error awareness is associated with error-related dorsal ACC activity, and therefore this region may be important to conscious error detection, but it remains unclear what task and individual factors influence error awareness.

  2. On the relation between activity-related frequency shifts and the sunspot distribution over the solar cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ângela R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity-related variations in the solar acoustic frequencies have been known for 30 years. However, the importance of the different contributions is still not well established. With this in mind, we developed an empirical model to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts, which takes into account the sunspot properties, such as area and latitude. The comparison between the model frequency shifts obtained from the daily sunspot records and those observed suggests that the contribution from a stochastic component to the total frequency shifts is about 30%. The remaining 70% is related to a global, long-term variation. We also propose a new observable to investigate the short-and mid-term variations of the frequency shifts, which is insensitive to the long-term variations contained in the data. On the shortest time scales the variations in the frequency shifts are strongly correlated with the variations in the total area covered by sunspots. However, a significant loss of correlation is still found, which cannot be fully explained by ignoring the invisible side of the Sun when accounting for the total sunspot area. We also verify that the times when the frequency shifts and the sunspot areas do not vary in a similar way tend to coincide with the times of the maximum amplitude of the quasi-biennial variations found in the seismic data.

  3. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  4. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lian eTam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011, estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  5. Bidirectional associations between activity-related parenting practices, and child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and body mass index: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children?s activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child?s activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children?s ...

  6. Choroidal thickness and myopia in relation to physical activity - the CHAMPS Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Kristian; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Jacobsen, Nina

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the relationship between choroidal thickness (CT) and myopia in relation to physical activity (PA) in a population-based child cohort. METHODS: In a prospective study of 307 children from the CHAMPS Study Denmark, we used objective data from GT3X accelerometer worn at four...

  7. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  8. Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Staal, B.J.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes. A computerized literature search, a reference search, and a manual search of personal databases were performed using the following inclusion

  9. Are diet and physical activity patterns related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? Findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    An inadequate diet and physical inactivity may compound the many deleterious effects of smoking on health. Some research indicates that smoking behavior is related to other health behaviors, but little research has examined how smoking may be related to dietary intake of key nutrients, consumption of fast food, sedentary lifestyle, or weight status. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking frequency among adolescents and its relationship to physical activity and dietary patterns. The research study employed a cross-sectional, population-based design. Adolescents self-reported cigarette smoking, physical activity, and eating behaviors on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and reported dietary intake on a food frequency questionnaire completed in school classrooms. The sample included 4746 middle school and high school students from Minneapolis-St. Paul public schools. Mixed-model regression, which was controlled for sex, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade level (middle school or high school), and school, was used to examine the association of smoking with diet and physical activity patterns. Overall, reported smoking frequency was inversely related to participating in team sports, eating regular meals, and consuming healthful foods and nutrients. Smoking frequency was directly related to frequency of fast-food and soft drink consumption. Adolescents who smoke cigarettes may be less likely to engage in health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Interventions are needed to prevent smoking and the unhealthy dietary practices and physical activity behaviors that may be associated with it.

  10. Impact of Arts-Related Activities on the Perceived Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived or experienced quality of life. In the fall of 2006 a questionnaire was mailed out to a random selection of 2000 households in each of five British Columbia communities, and 1027 were returned completed. The total and individual community samples…

  11. BDNF val(66)met affects hippocampal volume and emotion-related hippocampal memory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, M. L.; van Tol, M-J; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; van der Wee, N. J. A.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D. J.; Spinhoven, P.; Elzinga, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The val(66)met polymorphism on the BDNF gene has been reported to explain individual differences in hippocampal volume and memory-related activity. These findings, however, have not been replicated consistently and no studies to date controlled for the potentially confounding impact of early life

  12. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  13. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  14. Relation between flexor spasms, uninhibited detrusor contractions and anal sphincter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, E; Petersen, T; Schrøder, H D

    1986-01-01

    The time relation between flexor spasms, detrusor contractions and anal sphincter activity was recorded in a consecutive series of 111 patients with hyperreflexic bladder and flexor spasms. In 76 of the patients flexor spasms were preceded by detrusor contractions. The opposite pattern, namely de...

  15. 78 FR 5828 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-0028] Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative, Form I-600; Application for Advance Processing of Orphan Petition, Form I-600A; Listing of Adult Member... are encouraged and will be accepted until February 27, 2013. This process is conducted in accordance...

  16. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns.

  17. The Relation of Exposure to Parental Criminal Activity, Arrest, and Sentencing to Children's Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Wilson, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the psychosocial maladjustment of 32 children with an incarcerated parent from the child's perspective as well as from the perspective of their caregiver. We focused on the relation between the incarcerated parent's report of children's exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing and caregivers' and children's…

  18. Guide related to the management of activities in the vicinity of INBs - Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document aims at proposing a national framework for local dialogue on the management of activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. According to official documents, this dialogue between local actors and public services, based on risk characterization, aims at examining peculiarities and challenges of the concerned territory, and at identifying the most adapted perspectives for economic development while taking risks related to nuclear activities into account. The document first gives an overview of modalities for the taking of the nuclear risk into account. It proposes some definitions related to these issues, indicates general principles of management of activities in the vicinity of basic nuclear installations, and presents some general rules regarding project vulnerability, current projects, road infrastructures, and outdoor temporary events. The next part of the report addresses issues related to local dialogue: roles and missions of the different actors, expected approach at the local level (risk characterization, definition of the area of activity management, territory pre-diagnosis, elaboration of the 'bringing to attention', exchanges with local actors). Appendices present the legal context related to risk management, and a model of requirements specification for a territory pre-diagnosis

  19. Fore shock activity and its probabilistic relation to earthquake occurrence in Albania and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peci, V. [Seismological Institute, Tirana (Albania); Maeda, K. [Meteorologial Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Seismology and Volcanology Research; Matsmura, K.; Irikura, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Disaster Prevention Research

    1999-10-01

    The paper investigates some characteristics of fore shock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible fore shocks, the authors obtained a probabilistic relation between possible fore shocks and main shocks. Results recorded between 1901-1994 are analysed and discussed.

  20. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Prather, Aric A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems. PMID:28183031

  1. Magnetoencephalographic activity related to conscious perception is stable within individuals across years but not between individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate that conscious perception is related to changes in neural activity within a time window that varies between 130 and 320 msec after stimulus presentation, yet it is not known whether such neural correlates of conscious perception are stable across time. Here, we examined the gener...

  2. Effects of V4c-ICL Implantation on Myopic Patients’ Vision-Related Daily Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new type implantable Collamer lens with a central hole (V4c-ICL is widely used to treat myopia. However, halos occur in some patients after surgery. The aim is to evaluate the effect of V4c-ICL implantation on vision-related daily activities. This retrospective study included 42 patients. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, endothelial cell density (ECD, and vault were recorded and vision-related daily activities were evaluated at 3 months after operation. The average spherical equivalent was -0.12±0.33 D at 3 months after operation. UCVA equal to or better than preoperative BCVA occurred in 98% of eyes. The average BCVA at 3 months after operation was -0.03±0.07 LogMAR, which was significantly better than preoperative BCVA (0.08±0.10 LogMAR (P=0.029. Apart from one patient (2.4% who had difficulty reading computer screens, all patients had satisfactory or very satisfactory results. During the early postoperation, halos occurred in 23 patients (54.8%. However there were no significant differences in the scores of visual functions between patients with and without halos (P>0.05. Patients were very satisfied with their vision-related daily activities at 3 months after operation. The central hole of V4c-ICL does not affect patients’ vision-related daily activities.

  3. ICT and quality of teaching–learning related activities in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is a report of a study carried out to examine how information and communication technology (ICT) enhance teaching learning related activities in primary schools in Ogoja education zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of the study, one research question was formulated to direct the study.

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  5. Sex Commonalities and Differences in Obesity-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Brain Activity and Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi R; Ju, Tiffany; Love, Aubrey; Bal, Amanat; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize obesity-related sex differences in the intrinsic activity and connectivity of the brain's reward networks. Eighty-six women (n = 43) and men (n = 43) completed a 10-minute resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sex differences and commonalities in BMI-related frequency power distribution and reward seed-based connectivity were investigated by using partial least squares analysis. For whole-brain activity in both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-5 activity in the left globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra. In women only, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 activity in the right GP and bilateral putamen. For seed-based connectivity in women, increased BMI was associated with reduced slow-5 connectivity between the left GP and putamen and the emotion and cortical regulation regions, but in men, increased BMI was associated with increased connectivity with the medial frontal cortex. In both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 connectivity between the right GP and bilateral putamen and the emotion regulation and sensorimotor-related regions. The stronger relationship between increased BMI and decreased connectivity of core reward network components with cortical and emotion regulation regions in women may be related to the greater prevalence of emotional eating. The present findings suggest the importance of personalized treatments for obesity that consider the sex of the affected individual. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Cerebral activation related to implicit sequence learning in a Double Serial Reaction Time task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, FHCE; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; de Jong, BM

    2006-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the distribution of cerebral activations related to implicitly learning a series of fixed stimulus-response combinations. In a novel - bimanual - variant of the Serial Reaction Time task (SRT), simultaneous finger movements of the two

  7. Proximity alert! Distance related cuneus activation in military veterans with anger and aggression problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, Lieke; Edward Gladwin, Thomas; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack; Kleber, Rolf; Geuze, Elbert

    2017-01-01

    Problems involving anger and aggression are common after military deployment, and may involve abnormal responses to threat. This study therefore investigated effects on neural activation related to threat and escapability among veterans with deployment experience. Twenty-seven male veterans with

  8. Longitudinal person-related determinants of physical activity in young adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Singh, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations of person-related factors with physical activity (PA) behavior in young adults. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal self-reported time spent in moderate-intensity PA (MPA; 4–7 METs) and vigorous-intensity PA (VPA; >7 METs) from 499

  9. Longitudinal Person-Related Determinants of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; van Mechelen, W.; Singh, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations of person-related factors with physical activity (PA) behavior in young adults. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal self-reported time spent in moderate-intensity PA (MPA; 4-7 METs) and vigorous-intensity PA (VPA; >7 METs) from 499

  10. Longitudinal person-related determinants of physical activity in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Singh, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations of person-related factors with physical activity (PA) behavior in young adults. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal self-reported time spent in moderate-intensity PA (MPA; 4-7 METs) and vigorous-intensity PA (VPA; >7 METs) from 499

  11. Testosterone is inversely related to brain activity during emotional inhibition in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Vercammen

    Full Text Available Sex steroids affect cognitive function as well as emotion processing and regulation. They may also play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the effects of sex steroids on cognition and emotion-related brain activation in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone relates to brain activation in men with schizophrenia compared to healthy men during cognitive-emotional processing. We assessed brain activation in 18 men with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy men during an emotional go/no-go task using fMRI and measured total serum testosterone levels on the same morning. We performed an ROI analysis to assess the relationship between serum testosterone and brain activation, focusing on cortical regions involved the emotional go/no-go task. Slower RT and reduced accuracy was observed when participants responded to neutral stimuli, while inhibiting responses to negative stimuli. Healthy men showed a robust increase in activation of the middle frontal gyrus when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli, but there was no significant association between activation and serum testosterone level in healthy men. Men with schizophrenia showed a less pronounced increase in activation when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli; however, they did show a strong inverse association between serum testosterone level and activation of the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left insula. Additionally, increased accuracy during inhibition of response to negative words was associated with both higher serum testosterone levels and decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus in men with schizophrenia only. We conclude that endogenous hormone levels, even within the normal range, may play an enhanced modulatory role in determining the neural and behavioural response during cognitive-emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  12. Physical activity attenuates age-related biomarker alterations in preclinical AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca; Gallagher, Catherine L; Dowling, N M; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Rowley, Howard A; Christian, Brad T; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2014-11-04

    To examine whether engagement in physical activity might favorably alter the age-dependent evolution of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related brain and cognitive changes in a cohort of at-risk, late-middle-aged adults. Three hundred seventeen enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent T1 MRI; a subset also underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 186) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (n = 152) imaging. Participants' responses on a self-report measure of current physical activity were used to classify them as either physically active or physically inactive based on American Heart Association guidelines. They also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the adverse effect of age on imaging and cognitive biomarkers was modified by physical activity. There were significant age × physical activity interactions for β-amyloid burden (p = 0.014), glucose metabolism (p = 0.015), and hippocampal volume (p = 0.025) such that, with advancing age, physically active individuals exhibited a lesser degree of biomarker alterations compared with the physically inactive. Similar age × physical activity interactions were also observed on cognitive domains of Immediate Memory (p = 0.042) and Visuospatial Ability (p = 0.016). In addition, the physically active group had higher scores on Speed and Flexibility (p = 0.002) compared with the inactive group. In a middle-aged, at-risk cohort, a physically active lifestyle is associated with an attenuation of the deleterious influence of age on key biomarkers of AD pathophysiology. However, because our observational, cross-sectional design cannot establish causality, randomized controlled trials/longitudinal studies will be necessary for determining whether midlife participation in structured physical exercise forestalls the development of AD and related disorders in later life. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Dog ownership and health-related physical activity among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai

    2009-07-01

    Dog ownership appears to have associated health benefits as a result of increased physical activity through dog walking. This study examined the association between dog ownership and health-related physical activity among Japanese adults. Male and female respondents to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey were divided into the following groups: dog owner (DOG), nondog pet owner (NDOG), and nonpet owner (NPOG). Moderate and vigorous physical activity amount (MVPA), walking amount (Walking), and sedentary behavior time (SB) were estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analysis were used. The differences in MVPA, Walking, and SB were statistically significant among the three groups. DOG had a significantly greater amount of MVPA than NDOG and NPOG. DOG also had a significantly greater amount of Walking and less SB time than NPOG, and DOG was 1.5 times more likely to meet the physical activity recommendation than NDOG and NPOG. The dog owners had higher physical activity levels than owners of other kinds of pets and those without any pets, suggesting that dogs may play a major role in promoting physical activity. However, only 30% of the dog owners met the recommended criteria for physical activity.

  14. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  15. Body-Related Shame and Guilt Predict Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Wrosch, Carsten; Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-07-01

    To test body-related shame and guilt as predictors of breast cancer survivors' (BCS') moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) during six months and to examine motivational regulations as mediators of this association.
. Prospective study.
. Survivors were recruited through advertisements and oncologist referrals from medical clinics and hospitals in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
. 149 female BCS.
. Self-reports of body-related shame and guilt, motivational regulations, and MVPA were measured among BCS at baseline. MVPA was assessed a second time six months later. Residual change scores were used.
. Body-related shame and guilt; external, introjected, and autonomous (identified and intrinsic) motivational regulations; MVPA.
. In the multiple mediation models, body-related shame was associated with low levels of MVPA, as well as external, introjected, and autonomous motivational regulations. Guilt was related to high levels of MVPA and introjected and autonomous motivational regulations. Indirect effects linked shame, guilt, and MVPA via autonomous motivation. Only body-related shame was a significant predictor of six-month changes in MVPA.
. Based on these results, the specific emotions of shame and guilt contextualized to the body differentially predict BCS' health motivations and behavior over time.
. Survivorship programs may benefit from integrating intervention strategies aimed at reducing body-related shame and helping women manage feelings of guilt to improve physical activity.

  16. Relations of perception of responsibility to intrinsic motivation and physical activity among Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Kim, Younhee; Kim, Oung Jun

    2012-12-01

    To validate the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire, the relations between perceived responsibility and intrinsic motivation were examined among Korean middle school students. The relations of change in stages of physical activity and students' perceived responsibility were also examined. Participants were 357 middle school students (160 boys, 197 girls) from three schools in the Seoul metropolitan area. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure with effort and self-direction merged into one factor and the responsibilities of respect and caring for others constituted separate factors. Pearson correlations among factors showed perceptions of personal responsibility were associated with more intrinsic motivation toward physical education and a higher stage of physical activity. A moderate or low association between perceived social responsibility and intrinsic motivation implied a need to develop strategies for Korean students to use social responsibility for promoting physical activity.

  17. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  18. Disentangling brain activity related to the processing of emotional visual information and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniecki, Michał; Wołoszyn, Kinga; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Joanna

    2018-05-01

    Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal. We show that arousal induced by the negative images, as compared to the neutral ones, is primarily related to greater amygdala activity while increasing visibility of negative content to enhanced activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). We argue that more intense visual processing of negative scenes can occur irrespective of the level of arousal. It may suggest that higher areas of the visual stream are fine-tuned to process emotionally relevant objects. Both arousal and processing of emotional visual information modulated activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Overlapping activations within the vmPFC may reflect the integration of these aspects of emotional processing. Additionally, we show that emotionally-evoked pupil dilations are related to activations in the amygdala, vmPFC, and LOC.

  19. Petroleum related business activities in Hordaland - competence, flexibility and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, Ove

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the study has been to determine the future conditions of the supply business in Hordaland for petroleum related activities, international competition and on markets outside the Norwegian shelf. In addition it is focused on the adjustment possibilities of the companies during the expected decrease of activity on the Norwegian continental shelf. The report is based on a questionnaire to the company leadership. In 2003 there was 15073 persons employed in the petroleum activities in Hordaland. Out of this the supplier activities account for 10500 employees which is 4.7 % of the total employment in the county. Service deliveries to the shelf are included in the figure. The productivity related competence in these companies is substantial. The work force has a high educational level where more than half has an education of college or higher. Most of the firms have been in the industry for a long time. A substantial part of the suppliers in Hordaland is internationally competitive and participates globally. The companies are to a varying degree specialized for petroleum activities but most of them get their income largely from the petroleum market. A substantial number of companies inform that they would participate in the foreign petroleum market when decrease of activities on the Norwegian shelf occurs. The majority of the companies have however, the capability to adjust to other markets than petroleum exploitation

  20. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  2. Relative phase asynchrony and long-range correlation of long-term solar magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2017-07-01

    Statistical signal processing is one of the most important tasks in a large amount of areas of scientific studies, such as astrophysics, geophysics, and space physics. Phase recurrence analysis and long-range persistence are the two dynamical structures of the underlying processes for the given natural phenomenon. Linear and nonlinear time series analysis approaches (cross-correlation analysis, cross-recurrence plot, wavelet coherent transform, and Hurst analysis) are combined to investigate the relative phase interconnection and long-range correlation between solar activity and geomagnetic activity for the time interval from 1932 January to 2017 January. The following prominent results are found: (1) geomagnetic activity lags behind sunspot numbers with a phase shift of 21 months, and they have a high level of asynchronous behavior; (2) their relative phase interconnections are in phase for the periodic scales during 8-16 years, but have a mixing behavior for the periodic belts below 8 years; (3) both sunspot numbers and geomagnetic activity can not be regarded as a stochastic phenomenon because their dynamical behaviors display a long-term correlation and a fractal nature. We believe that the presented conclusions could provide further information on understanding the dynamical coupling of solar dynamo process with geomagnetic activity variation, and the crucial role of solar and geomagnetic activity in the long-term climate change.

  3. The perceived importance of physical activity: associations with psychosocial and health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; Szabo, Amanda N; White, Siobhan M; Mailey, Emily L; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which participation in a 12-month exercise program changed the degree of importance that older adults attached to physical activity. In addition, associations among changes in physical activity importance and health-related and psychosocial outcomes were examined. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 179) were recruited to participate in a 12-month exercise trial examining the association between changes in physical activity and fitness with changes in brain structure and psychological health. Participants were randomly assigned to a walking condition or a flexibility, toning, and balance condition. Physical, psychological, and cognitive assessments were taken at months 0, 6, and 12. Involvement in a 12-month exercise program increased the importance that participants placed on physical activity; this positive change was similar across exercise condition and sex. Changes in importance, however, were only associated with changes in physical health status and outcome expectations for exercise midway through the intervention. There were no significant associations at the end of the program. Regular participation in physical activity can positively influence the perceived importance of the behavior itself. Yet, the implications of such changes on physical activity-related outcomes remain equivocal and warrant further investigation.

  4. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  5. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E.; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related

  6. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-05-01

    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision

  7. Single-dose palonosetron for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy containing steroids: results of a phase II study from the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dei Linfomi (GISL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Nicola; Montanini, Antonella; Mannina, Donato; Dondi, Alessandra; Muci, Stefania; Mancuso, Salvatrice; De Paolis, M Rosaria; Plati, Caterina; Stelitano, Caterina; Patti, Catia; Olivieri, Attilio; Liardo, Eliana; Buda, Gabriele; Cantaffa, Renato; Federico, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    The control of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy is paramount for overall treatment success in cancer patients. Antiemetic therapy during chemotherapy in lymphoma patients generally consists of anti-serotoninergic drugs and dexamethasone. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of palonosetron, a second-generation serotonin type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist, in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) containing steroids. Patients received a single intravenous bolus of palonosetron (0.25 mg) before administration of chemotherapy. Complete response (CR) defined as no vomiting and no rescue therapy during overall phase (0-120 h) was the primary endpoint. Complete control (CC) defined as CR and only mild nausea was a secondary endpoint. Eighty-six evaluable patients entered in the study. A CR was observed in 74 patients (86.0%) during the overall phase; the CR during the acute (0-24 h) and delayed (24-120 h) phases was 90.7% and 88.4%, respectively. CC was 89.5% during the acute and 84.9% during the delayed phase; the overall CC was 82.6%. This was the first trial, which demonstrated the efficacy of a single dose of palonosetron in control CINV in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving MEC regimen containing steroids.

  8. Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children’s Free-Time Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Bickham, David S.; Lee, June H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study assessed the claim that children’s television use interferes with time spent in more developmentally appropriate activities. METHODS Data came from the first wave of the Child Development Supplement, a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 12 in 1997 (N = 1712). Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries from 1 randomly chosen weekday and 1 randomly chosen weekend day were used to assess children’s time spent watching television, time spent with parents, time spent with siblings, time spent reading (or being read to), time spent doing homework, time spent in creative play, and time spent in active play. Ordinary least squares multiple regression was used to assess the relationship between children’s television use and time spent pursuing other activities. RESULTS Results indicated that time spent watching television both with and without parents or siblings was negatively related to time spent with parents or siblings, respectively, in other activities. Television viewing also was negatively related to time spent doing homework for 7- to 12-year-olds and negatively related to creative play, especially among very young children (younger than 5 years). There was no relationship between time spent watching television and time spent reading (or being read to) or to time spent in active play. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study are among the first to provide empirical support for the assumptions made by the American Academy of Pediatrics in their screen time recommendations. Time spent viewing television both with and without parents and siblings present was strongly negatively related to time spent interacting with parents or siblings. Television viewing was associated with decreased homework time and decreased time in creative play. Conversely, there was no support for the widespread belief that television interferes with time spent reading or in active play. PMID:16452327

  9. Altered mucosal DNA methylation in parallel with highly active Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Maekita, Takao; Yamashita, Satoshi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ando, Takayuki; Niwa, Tohru; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2013-10-01

    Chronic inflammation triggered by Helicobacter pylori causes altered DNA methylation in stomach mucosae, which is deeply involved in gastric carcinogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between altered mucosal DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis, because inflammatory activity shows particular correlations with the development of diffuse-type cancer. Methylation levels in stomach mucosae of 78 healthy volunteers were determined by real-time methylation-specific PCR or bisulfite pyrosequencing. Examined loci were the promoter CpG islands of six genes (FLNc, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, HRASLS, and LOX) and the CpG sites of non-coding repetitive elements (Alu and Satα) that are reportedly altered by H. pylori infection. Activity of H. pylori-related gastritis was evaluated using two serum markers: H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen II. Methylation levels of the six CpG islands were consistently increased, and those of the two repetitive elements were consistently decreased in a stepwise manner with the activity of gastric inflammation as represented by serum marker levels. Each serum marker level was well correlated with the overall DNA methylation status of stomach mucosa, and these two serologic markers were additive in the detection of the mucosa with severely altered DNA methylation. Alteration in mucosal DNA methylation level was closely correlated with activity of H. pylori-related gastritis as evaluated by serum markers. The observed correlation between altered DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis appears to be one of the relevant molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diffuse-type cancer.

  10. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular

  11. Measuring emotions during epistemic activities: the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Vogl, Elisabeth; Muis, Krista R; Sinatra, Gale M

    2017-09-01

    Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms of discrete emotion categories, and the scales showed metric invariance across the North American and German samples. Furthermore, emotion scores changed over time as a function of conflicting task information and related significantly to perceived task value and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.

  12. Doctoral scientists and engineers working in energy-related activities, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The Department of Energy has a responsibility to help ensure the supply of highly trained personnel by providing supply and demand information on energy-related manpower to public and private planners and the general public. This report provides information about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists working primarily in energy-related activities. The data for the year 1981 are part of the information base for a program of continuing studies of the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Information from these studies will provide input to consideration of actions necessary to ensure that adequate numbers of qualified scientists and engineers are available, when needed, to develop the nation's energy resources and technologies

  13. Cracking the Betel Nut: Cholinergic Activity of Areca Alkaloids and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, Nicole A; Quadri, Marta; Stokes, Clare; Shoaib, Mohammed; Papke, Roger L

    2017-10-03

    The use of betel quid is the most understudied major addiction in the world. The neuropsychological activity of betel quid has been attributed to alkaloids of Areca catechu. With the goal of developing novel addiction treatments, we evaluate the muscarinic and nicotinic activity of the four major Areca alkaloids: arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine and four structurally related compounds. Acetylcholine receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with two-electrode voltage clamp. Both arecoline- and guvacoline-activated muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), while only arecoline produced significant activation of nicotinic AChR (nAChR). We characterized four additional arecoline-related compounds, seeking an analog that would retain selective activity for a α4* nAChR, with diminished effects on mAChR and not be a desensitizer of α7 nAChR. We show that this profile is largely met by isoarecolone. Three additional arecoline analogs were characterized. While the quaternary dimethyl analog had a broad range of activities, including activation of mAChR and muscle-type nAChR, the methyl analog only activated a range of α4* nAChR, albeit with low potency. The ethyl analog had no detectable cholinergic activity. Evidence indicates that α4* nAChR are at the root of nicotine addiction, and this may also be the case for betel addiction. Our characterization of isoarecolone and 1-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) ethanone as truly selective α4*nAChR selective partial agonists with low muscarinic activity may point toward a promising new direction for the development of drugs to treat both nicotine and betel addiction. Nearly 600 million people use Areca nut, often with tobacco. Two of the Areca alkaloids are muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, and one, arecoline, is a partial agonist for the α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) associated with tobacco addiction. The profile of arecoline activity suggested its potential to be used as a

  14. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallis, James F; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity......, in an international sample of adults. METHODS: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic......'s residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models...

  15. Relative contribution of matrix metalloprotease and cysteine protease activities to cytokine-stimulated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Henriksen, K; Wulf, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and cathepsin K (CK) activity have been implicated in cartilage turnover. We investigated the relative contribution of MMP activity and CK activity in cartilage degradation using ex vivo and in vivo models. METHODS: Bovine articular cartilage...... explants were stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM) 10 ng/ml and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 20 ng/ml in the presence or absence of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 and the cysteine protease inhibitor, E64. Cartilage degradation was evaluated in the conditioned medium by glycosaminoglycans...... was measured from CK-deficient mice. RESULTS: OSM and TNF-alpha combined induced significant (Pcartilage degradation products measured by hydroxyproline and CTX-II compared to vehicle control. The cytokines potently induced MMP expression, assessed by zymography, and CK expression...

  16. Gender-related differences in lateralization of hippocampal activation and cognitive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Lars; Wagner, Kathrin; Unterrainer, Josef; Spreer, Joachim; Halsband, Ulrike; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2006-03-20

    Gender-related differences in brain activation patterns and their lateralization associated with cognitive functions have been reported in the field of language, emotion, and working memory. Differences have been hypothesized to be due to different cognitive strategies. The aim of the present study was to test whether lateralization of brain activation in the hippocampi during memory processing differs between the sexes. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy female and male study participants performing a spatial memory task and quantitatively assessed the lateralization of hippocampal activation in each participant. Hippocampal activation was significantly more left lateralized in women, and more right lateralized in men. Correspondingly, women rated their strategy as being more verbal than men did.

  17. Assessment of sedentary behaviors and transport-related activities by questionnaire: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitly Mensah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive assessment of sedentary behavior (SB and physical activity (PA, including transport-related activities (TRA, is required to design innovative PA promotion strategies. There are few validated instruments that simultaneously assess the different components of human movement according to their context of practice (e.g. work, transport, leisure. We examined test-retest reliability and validity of the Sedentary, Transportation and Activity Questionnaire (STAQ, a newly developed questionnaire dedicated to assessing context-specific SB, TRA and PA. Methods Ninety six subjects (51 women kept a contextualized activity-logbook and wore a hip accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X + TM for a 7-day or 14-day period, at the end of which they completed the STAQ. Activity-energy expenditure was measured in a subgroup of 45 subjects using the double labeled water (DLW method. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class-coefficients (ICC in a subgroup of 32 subjects who filled the questionnaire twice one month apart. Accelerometry was annotated using the logbook to obtain total and context-specific objective estimates of SB. Spearman correlations, Bland-Altman plots and ICC were used to analyze validity with logbook, accelerometry and DLW data validity criteria. Results Test-retest reliability was fair for total sitting time (ICC = 0.52, good to excellent for work sitting time (ICC = 0.71, transport-related walking (ICC = 0.61 and car use (ICC = 0.67, and leisure screen-related SB (ICC = 0.64-0.79, but poor for total sitting time during leisure and transport-related contexts. For validity, compared to accelerometry, significant correlations were found for STAQ estimates of total (r = 0.54 and context-specific sitting times with stronger correlations for work sitting time (r = 0.88, and screen times (TV/DVD viewing: r = 0.46; other screens: r = 0.42 than for transport (r = 0.35 or

  18. Assessment of sedentary behaviors and transport-related activities by questionnaire: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Keitly; Maire, Aurélia; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Dugas, Julien; Charreire, Hélène; Weber, Christiane; Simon, Chantal; Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2016-08-09

    Comprehensive assessment of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), including transport-related activities (TRA), is required to design innovative PA promotion strategies. There are few validated instruments that simultaneously assess the different components of human movement according to their context of practice (e.g. work, transport, leisure). We examined test-retest reliability and validity of the Sedentary, Transportation and Activity Questionnaire (STAQ), a newly developed questionnaire dedicated to assessing context-specific SB, TRA and PA. Ninety six subjects (51 women) kept a contextualized activity-logbook and wore a hip accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X + (TM)) for a 7-day or 14-day period, at the end of which they completed the STAQ. Activity-energy expenditure was measured in a subgroup of 45 subjects using the double labeled water (DLW) method. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class-coefficients (ICC) in a subgroup of 32 subjects who filled the questionnaire twice one month apart. Accelerometry was annotated using the logbook to obtain total and context-specific objective estimates of SB. Spearman correlations, Bland-Altman plots and ICC were used to analyze validity with logbook, accelerometry and DLW data validity criteria. Test-retest reliability was fair for total sitting time (ICC = 0.52), good to excellent for work sitting time (ICC = 0.71), transport-related walking (ICC = 0.61) and car use (ICC = 0.67), and leisure screen-related SB (ICC = 0.64-0.79), but poor for total sitting time during leisure and transport-related contexts. For validity, compared to accelerometry, significant correlations were found for STAQ estimates of total (r = 0.54) and context-specific sitting times with stronger correlations for work sitting time (r = 0.88), and screen times (TV/DVD viewing: r = 0.46; other screens: r = 0.42) than for transport (r = 0.35) or leisure-related sitting-times (r

  19. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  20. Physical Activity in Relation to Sleep Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Yang, Binbin; Varrasse, Miranda; Ji, Xiaopeng; Wu, MaoChun; Li, Manman; Li, Kun

    2018-02-27

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe physical activity and sleep in 290 community-dwelling Chinese older adults and to examine the association between physical activity and poor sleep outcomes. Almost half of the sample were poor sleepers. The majority of the sample regularly participated in walking, some household activity and light sports; yet, only a small portion were involved in work-related activity or in strenuous sports. A greater level of overall physical activity [Odds Ratio (OR) =0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.73,0.86)], leisure-time exercise [OR=0.77, 95%CI=(0.68,0.85)], and household activity [OR=0.66, 95%CI= (0.56,0.78)] were associated with reduced likelihood of being poor sleepers and other poor sleep outcomes, independent of covariates including age, sex, education, family income, the number of children, drinking, and sleep hygiene. Future larger scale studies that incorporate both objective and subjective measures are needed to further examine the association and to explore the effects of different types of activity on sleep and other well-beings in older adults.

  1. Effects of Level of Retrieval Success on Recall-Related Frontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Montaldi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to compare the neuroactivation produced by the cued recall of response words in a set of studied word pairs with that produced by the cued retrieval of words semantically related to unstudied stimulus words. Six of the 12 subjects scanned were extensively trained so as to have good memory of the studied pairs and the remaining six were minimally trained so as to have poor memory. When comparing episodic with semantic retrieval, the well-trained subjects showed significant left medial temporal lobe activation, which was also significantly greater than that shown by the poorly trained subjects, who failed to show significant medial temporal lobe activation. In contrast, the poorly trained subjects showed significant bilateral frontal lobe activation, which was significantly greater than that shown by the well-trained subjects who failed to show significant frontal lobe activation. The frontal activations occurred mainly in the dorsolateral region, but extended into the ventrolateral and, to a lesser extent, the frontal polar regions. It is argued that whereas the medial temporal lobe activation increased as the proportion of response words successfully recalled increased, the bilateral frontal lobe activation increased in proportion to retrieval effort, which was greater when learning had been less good.

  2. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Arno; Wright, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  3. Is the use of Gunnera perpensa extracts in endometritis related to antibacterial activ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. McGaw

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome extracts of Gunnera perpensa are used in traditional remedies in South Africa to treat endometritis both in humans and animals. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether this plant possesses antibacterial activity, which may explain its efficacy. Gunnera perpensa rhizome extracts were prepared serially with solvents of increasing polarity and tested for antibacterial activity. Test bacteria included the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A moderate to weak level of antibacterial activity in most of the extracts resulted, with the best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 2.61 mg ml-1 shown by the acetone extract against S. aureus. The extracts were also submitted to the brine shrimp assay to detect possible toxic or pharmacological effects. All the extracts were lethal to the brine shrimp larvae at a concentration of 5 mg ml-1. The acetone extract was extremely toxic at 1 mg ml-1, with some toxicity evident at 0.1 mg ml-1. The remainder of the extracts generally displayed little activity at concentrations lower than 5 mg ml-1. In summary, the results indicate that although the extracts demonstrated a level of pharmacological activity, the relatively weak antibacterial activity is unlikely to justify the use of G. perpensa rhizomes in the traditional treatment of endometritis. Rather, the slightly antibacterial nature of the rhizomes may contribute to an additive effect, along with their known uterotonic activity, to the overall efficacy of the preparation.

  4. The Effects of Ibogaine on Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions: Relation to the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Oreščanin-Dušić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid originally extracted from the root bark of the African rainforest shrub Tabernanthe iboga. It has been explored as a treatment for substance abuse because it interrupts drug addiction and relieves withdrawal symptoms. However, it has been shown that ibogaine treatment leads to a sharp and transient fall in cellular ATP level followed by an increase of cellular respiration and ROS production. Since contractile tissues are sensitive to changes in the levels of ATP and ROS, here we investigated an ibogaine-mediated link between altered redox homeostasis and uterine contractile activity. We found that low concentrations of ibogaine stimulated contractile activity in spontaneously active uteri, but incremental increase of doses inhibited it. Inhibitory concentrations of ibogaine led to decreased SOD1 and elevated GSH-Px activity, but doses that completely inhibited contractions increased CAT activity. Western blot analyses showed that changes in enzyme activities were not due to elevated enzyme protein concentrations but posttranslational modifications. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities point to a vast concentration-dependent increase in H2O2 level. Knowing that extracellular ATP stimulates isolated uterus contractility, while H2O2 has an inhibitory effect, this concentration-dependent stimulation/inhibition could be linked to ibogaine-related alterations in ATP level and redox homeostasis.

  5. Objectively measured walkability and active transport and weight-related outcomes in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; Van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which GIS-based measures of walkability (density, land-use mix, connectivity and walkability indexes) in urban and suburban neighbourhoods are used in research and which of them are consistently associated with walking and cycling for transport, overall active transportation and weight-related measures in adults. A systematic review of English publications using PubMed, Science Direct, Active Living Research Literature Database, the Transportation Research Information Service and reference lists was conducted. The search terms utilised were synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for the outcomes. Thirty-four publications based on 19 different studies were eligible. Walkability measures such as gross population density, intersection density and walkability indexes most consistently correlated with measures of physical activity for transport. Results on weight-related measures were inconsistent. More research is needed to determine whether walkability is an appropriate measure for predicting weight-related measures and overall active transportation. As most of the consistent correlates, gross population density, intersection density and the walkability indexes have the potential to be used in planning and monitoring.

  6. Effect of Relative Humidity on Adsorption Breakthrough of CO2 on Activated Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microporous activated carbon fibers (ACFs were developed for CO2 capture based on potassium hydroxide (KOH activation and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA amination. The material properties of the modified ACFs were characterized using several techniques. The adsorption breakthrough curves of CO2 were measured and the effect of relative humidity in the carrier gas was determined. The KOH activation at high temperature generated additional pore networks and the intercalation of metallic K into the carbon matrix, leading to the production of mesopore and micropore volumes and providing access to the active sites in the micropores. However, this treatment also resulted in the loss of nitrogen functionalities. The TEPA amination has successfully introduced nitrogen functionalities onto the fiber surface, but its long-chain structure blocked parts of the micropores and, thus, made the available surface area and pore volume limited. Introduction of the power of time into the Wheeler equation was required to fit the data well. The relative humidity within the studied range had almost no effects on the breakthrough curves. It was expected that the concentration of CO2 was high enough so that the impact on CO2 adsorption capacity lessened due to increased relative humidity.

  7. Conflict-related activity in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex in the absence of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Stefan; Clark, Kristi A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Stenger, V. Andrew; Carter, Cameron S.

    2009-01-01

    The caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) is thought to be involved in performance monitoring, as conflict and error-related activity frequently co-localize in this area. Recent results suggest that these effects may be differentially modulated by awareness. To clarify the role of awareness in performance monitoring by the cACC, we used rapid event-related fMRI to examine the cACC activity while subjects performed a dual task: a delayed recognition task and a serial response task (SRT) with an implicit probabilistic learning rule (i.e. the stimulus location followed a probabilistic sequence of which the subjects were unaware). Task performance confirmed that the location sequence was learned implicitly. Even though we found no evidence of awareness for the presence of the sequence, imaging data revealed increased cACC activity during correct trials which violated the sequence (high conflict), relative to trials when stimuli followed the sequence (low conflict). Errors made with awareness also activated the same brain region. These results suggest that the performance monitoring function of the cACC extends beyond detection of errors made with or without awareness, and involves detection of multiple responses even when they are outside of awareness. PMID:19026710

  8. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigated a spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) in surface sediments at 20 sampling points in Port Ningbo, China, one of the top five world ports by volume. The spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) was quantified following marine sediment quality guidelines of China and USA and surface sediment quality was assessed according to thresholds of the two guidelines. Coupling a categorical matrix of port activities with the matrix of sedimentary contaminants revealed that contaminants were highly associated with the port operations. Ship repair posed a severe chemical risk to sediment. Operations of crude oil and coal loadings were two top activities related to organic pollutants in sediments while port operations of ore and container loadings discharged metals. Among the 20 sampling points, Cu, Zn, Pb, and DDT and its metabolites were the priority contaminants influencing sediment quality. Overall, surface sediments in Port Ningbo had relatively low environmental risks but ship repair is an environmental concern that must be addressed. This study provides a practical approach for port activity-related quality assessment of surface sediments in ports that could be applicable in many world sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring resting-state EEG brain oscillatory activity in relation to cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Hansen, Sascha; Weber, Emily; Zapf, Franziska; Habich, Juliane; Muenssinger, Jana; Wolf, Sebastian; Schönenberg, Michael; Oschmann, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Neurophysiologic monitoring parameters related to cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are sparse. Previous work reported an association between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) alpha-1 activity and information processing speed. While this remains to be replicated by more available electroencephalographic (EEG) methods, also other established EEG markers, e.g. the slow-wave/fast-wave ratio (theta/beta ratio), remain to be explored in this context. Performance on standard tests addressing information processing speed and attention (Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, SDMT; Test of Attention Performance, TAP) was examined in relation to resting-state EEG alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and the theta/beta ratio in 25MS patients. Increased global alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and an increased frontal theta/beta ratio (pronounced slow-wave relative to fast-wave activity) were associated with lower SDMT processing speed. In an exploratory analysis, clinically impaired attention was associated with a significantly increased frontal theta/beta ratio whereas alpha power did not show sensitivity to clinical impairment. EEG global alpha power and the frontal theta/beta ratio were both associated with attention. The theta/beta ratio involved potential clinical sensitivity. Resting-state EEG recordings can be obtained during the routine clinical process. The examined resting-state measures may represent feasible monitoring parameters in MS. This notion should be explored in future intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  11. Functional activity of the sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum relates to cervical dystonia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Roxana G; Hess, Christopher W; Coombes, Stephen A; Ofori, Edward; Shukla, Priyank; Chung, Jae Woo; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Okun, Michael S; Vaillancourt, David E

    2017-09-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia, causing abnormal movements of the neck and head. In this study, we used noninvasive imaging to investigate the motor system of patients with CD and uncover the neural correlates of dystonic symptoms. Furthermore, we examined whether a commonly prescribed anticholinergic medication in CD has an effect on the dystonia-related brain abnormalities. Participants included 16 patients with CD and 16 healthy age-matched controls. We collected functional MRI scans during a force task previously shown to extensively engage the motor system, and diffusion and T1-weighted MRI scans from which we calculated free-water and brain tissue densities. The dystonia group was also scanned ca. 2 h after a 2-mg dose of trihexyphenidyl. Severity of dystonia was assessed pre- and post-drug using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Motor-related activity in CD was altered relative to controls in the primary somatosensory cortex, cerebellum, dorsal premotor and posterior parietal cortices, and occipital cortex. Most importantly, a regression model showed that increased severity of symptoms was associated with decreased functional activity of the somatosensory cortex and increased activity of the cerebellum. Structural imaging measures did not differ between CD and controls. The single dose of trihexyphenidyl altered the fMRI signal in the somatosensory cortex but not in the cerebellum. Symptom severity was not significantly reduced post-treatment. Findings show widespread changes in functional brain activity in CD and most importantly that dystonic symptoms relate to disrupted activity in the somatosensory cortex and cerebellum. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4563-4573, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The relation between self-determination and retirement satisfaction among active retired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the motivational forces leading retired individuals to engage in post-retirement activities and how they could be related to satisfaction with retirement. Using the self-determination framework, the purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine the nature of active retirees' motivation and its impact on satisfaction with life in retirement. The Global Motivation Scale and measures of satisfaction with retirement were administered to 150 active retired individuals engaged in organized post-retirement activities in a University-based organization. Results revealed that these individuals were mainly characterized by higher levels of intrinsic motivation for knowledge, stimulation and accomplishment, rather than extrinsic dimensions. Regression analysis further demonstrated that intrinsic motivation for both accomplishment and stimulation were positively related to satisfaction with retirement, over and above the significant contribution of time since retirement, anticipated satisfaction with retirement, and subjective health. This exploratory study highlights the motivational mechanisms through which post-retirement behaviors could positively influence satisfaction with life in retirement among active retirees.

  13. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  14. Consumer response to healthy eating, physical activity and weight-related recommendations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, S; Louie, J C Y; Gill, T P

    2012-07-01

    Strong evidence linking poor diet and lack of physical activity to risk of obesity and related chronic disease has supported the development and promotion of guidelines to improve population health. Still, obesity continues to escalate as a major health concern, and so the impact of weight-related guidelines on behaviour is unclear. The aim of this review was to examine consumer response to weight-related guidelines. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest Central and additional searches using Google and reference lists. Of the 1,765 articles identified, 46 relevant titles were included. Most studies examined attitudes towards content, source, tailoring and comprehension of dietary guidelines. Many respondents reported that guidelines were confusing, and that simple, clear, specific, realistic, and in some cases, tailored guidelines are required. Recognition of guidelines did not signify understanding nor did perceived credibility of a source guarantee utilization of guidelines. There was a lack of studies assessing: the impact of guidelines on behaviour; responses to physical activity guidelines; responses among males and studies undertaken in developing countries. Further research is needed, in particular regarding responses to physical activity guidelines and guidelines in different populations. Communication professionals should assist health professionals in the development of accurate and effective weight-related guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Parkinson-related changes of activation in visuomotor brain regions during perceived forward self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk van der Hoorn

    Full Text Available Radial expanding optic flow is a visual consequence of forward locomotion. Presented on screen, it generates illusionary forward self-motion, pointing at a close vision-gait interrelation. As particularly parkinsonian gait is vulnerable to external stimuli, effects of optic flow on motor-related cerebral circuitry were explored with functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy controls (HC and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Fifteen HC and 22 PD patients, of which 7 experienced freezing of gait (FOG, watched wide-field flow, interruptions by narrowing or deceleration and equivalent control conditions with static dots. Statistical parametric mapping revealed that wide-field flow interruption evoked activation of the (pre-supplementary motor area (SMA in HC, which was decreased in PD. During wide-field flow, dorsal occipito-parietal activations were reduced in PD relative to HC, with stronger functional connectivity between right visual motion area V5, pre-SMA and cerebellum (in PD without FOG. Non-specific 'changes' in stimulus patterns activated dorsolateral fronto-parietal regions and the fusiform gyrus. This attention-associated network was stronger activated in HC than in PD. PD patients thus appeared compromised in recruiting medial frontal regions facilitating internally generated virtual locomotion when visual motion support falls away. Reduced dorsal visual and parietal activations during wide-field optic flow in PD were explained by impaired feedforward visual and visuomotor processing within a magnocellular (visual motion functional chain. Compensation of impaired feedforward processing by distant fronto-cerebellar circuitry in PD is consistent with motor responses to visual motion stimuli being either too strong or too weak. The 'change'-related activations pointed at covert (stimulus-driven attention.

  16. [The association between socioeconomic indicators andadolescents'physical activity and health-related fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino-Coledam, Diogo H; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli; Arruda, Gustavo Aires de; Pires-Júnior, Raymundo; Teixeira, Marcio; Greca, João Paulo de Aguiar; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic indicators and adolescents' physical activity and health-related fitness. The study involved 716 adolescents from both genders whose age ranged from 10 to 18 years-old (46.8% male) who answered a questionnaire for estimating their habitual physical activity, socioeconomic status; two health-related physical fitness tests were also performed. The socioeconomic indicators analysed concerned their parents' educational level and the number of bathrooms, TVs, cars, housemaids, refrigerators and freezers in their homes. A positive association was found between paternal education (PR=1.61 (range 1.27-2.10) and 1.41 (1.10-1.83)) and housemaids (PR=1.97 (1.04-3.81) and 1.92 (1.05-3.52)) with recommended physical activity and leisure time physical activity, respectively. The number of cars (PR=1.48: 1.02-2.19) and freezers (PR=1.88: 1.12-3.18) was positively associated with leisure time physical activity and the number of TVs negatively so (PR=0.75: 0.63-0.89). The number of TVs (PR=0.80: 0.67-0.96) and cars (PR=0.70: 0.55-0.89) was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness whilst paternal education (PR=1.17: 1.00-1.37) and the number of bathrooms in the home (PR=1.25: 1.02-1.54) were positively associated with muscular strength. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness were associated with socioeconomic status. However, such association depended on the socioeconomic indicator being analysed. Caution should be taken when analysing studies which use different socioeconomic indicators.

  17. Global development of advanced nuclear power plants, and related IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is underlining the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies deployable in the near term as well as in the longer term. For applications in the medium to longer term, with rising expectations for the role of nuclear energy in the future, technological innovation has become a strong focus of nuclear power technology developments by many Member States. To meet Member States' needs, the IAEA conducts activities to foster information exchange and collaborative research and development in the area of advanced nuclear reactor technologies. These activities include coordination of collaborative research, organization of international information exchange, and analyses of globally available technical data and results, with a focus on reducing nuclear power plant capital costs and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation resistance. In other activities, evolutionary and innovative advances are catalyzed for all reactor lines such as advanced water cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors and accelerator driven systems, including small and medium sized reactors. In addition, there are activities related to other applications of nuclear energy such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications. This brochure summarizes the worldwide status and the activities related to advanced nuclear power technology development and related IAEA activities. It includes a list of the collaborative research and development projects conducted by the IAEA, as well as of the status reports and other publications produced

  18. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 activity controls 4-hydroxynonenal metabolism and activity in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Ciamporcero, Eric; Medana, Claudio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Dal Bello, Federica; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Toaldo, Cristina; Minelli, Rosalba; Uchida, Koji; Dianzani, Mario Umberto; Pili, Roberto; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2011-10-15

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is an end product of lipoperoxidation with antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in various tumors. Here we report a greater sensitivity to HNE in PC3 and LNCaP cells compared to DU145 cells. In contrast to PC3 and LNCaP cells, HNE-treated DU145 cells showed a smaller reduction in growth and did not undergo apoptosis. In DU145 cells, HNE did not induce ROS production and DNA damage and generated a lower amount of HNE-protein adducts. DU145 cells had a greater GSH and GST A4 content and GSH/GST-mediated HNE detoxification. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a regulator of the antioxidant response. Nrf2 protein content and nuclear accumulation were higher in DU145 cells compared to PC3 and LNCaP cells, whereas the expression of KEAP1, the main negative regulator of Nrf2 activity, was lower. Inhibition of Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in GST A4 expression and GS-HNE formation, indicating that Nrf2 controls HNE metabolism. In addition, Nrf2 knockdown sensitized DU145 cells to HNE-mediated antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that increased Nrf2 activity resulted in a reduction in HNE sensitivity in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential mechanism of resistance to pro-oxidant therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Everyday science & science every day: Science-related talk & activities across settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather

    To understand the development of science-related thinking, acting, and learning in middle childhood, I studied youth in schools, homes, and other neighborhood settings over a three-year period. The research goal was to analyze how multiple everyday experiences influence children's participation in science-related practices and their thinking about science and scientists. Ethnographic and interaction analysis methodologies were to study the cognition and social interactions of the children as they participated in activities with peers, family, and teachers (n=128). Interviews and participant self-documentation protocols elucidated the participants' understandings of science. An Everyday Expertise (Bell et al., 2006) theoretical framework was employed to study the development of science understandings on three analytical planes: individual learner, social groups, and societal/community resources. Findings came from a cross-case analysis of urban science learners and from two within-case analyses of girls' science-related practices as they transitioned from elementary to middle school. Results included: (1) children participated actively in science across settings---including in their homes as well as in schools, (2) children's interests in science were not always aligned to the school science content, pedagogy, or school structures for participation, yet children found ways to engage with science despite these differences through crafting multiple pathways into science, (3) urban parents were active supporters of STEM-related learning environments through brokering access to social and material resources, (4) the youth often found science in their daily activities that formal education did not make use of, and (5) children's involvement with science-related practices can be developed into design principles to reach youth in culturally relevant ways.

  20. Self-Reported Physical Activity within and outside the Neighborhood: Criterion-Related Validity of the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire in German Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Malte; Bucksch, Jens; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire allows to assess physical activity within and outside the neighborhood. Study objectives were to examine the criterion-related validity and health/functioning associations of Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire-derived physical activity in German older adults. A total of 107 adults aged…

  1. Human cortical activity related to unilateral movements. A high resolution EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, A; Babiloni, C; Onorati, P; Babiloni, F

    1996-12-20

    In the present study a modern high resolution electroencephalography (EEG) technique was used to investigate the dynamic functional topography of human cortical activity related to simple unilateral internally triggered finger movements. The sensorimotor area (M1-S1) contralateral to the movement as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA) and to a lesser extent the ipsilateral M1-S1 were active during the preparation and execution of these movements. These findings suggest that both hemispheres may cooperate in both planning and production of simple unilateral volitional acts.

  2. Amygdala activity related to enhanced memory for pleasant and aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S B; Ely, T D; Grafton, S T; Kilts, C D

    1999-03-01

    Pleasant or aversive events are better remembered than neutral events. Emotional enhancement of episodic memory has been linked to the amygdala in animal and neuropsychological studies. Using positron emission tomography, we show that bilateral amygdala activity during memory encoding is correlated with enhanced episodic recognition memory for both pleasant and aversive visual stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and that this relationship is specific to emotional stimuli. Furthermore, data suggest that the amygdala enhances episodic memory in part through modulation of hippocampal activity. The human amygdala seems to modulate the strength of conscious memory for events according to emotional importance, regardless of whether the emotion is pleasant or aversive.

  3. Physical activity and television watching in relation to semen quality in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskins, Audrey Jane; Mendiola, Jaime; Afeiche, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Semen quality appears to have declined over the past decades but reasons for this decline are unresolved. The concurrent increase in sedentary behaviour may be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of physical activity and television (TV...... the past 3 months were assessed via questionnaire. Semen quality was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, morphology and total sperm count. RESULTS: Sperm concentration and total sperm count were directly related to physical activity after multivariable adjustment (p-trend=0.01 and 0.04); men...

  4. Natural radionuclides in soils - relation between soil properties and the activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Nakayama, Masashi; Sawamura, Sadashi

    2000-01-01

    Vertical profiles of natural radionuclides (K-40 and Ra-226) have been investigated in a soil core with 8 m in depth to elucidate its relation to the bed rock activity and to several soil properties. Pattern of the Ra-226 activity with soil depth suggests inhomogeneity of this nuclide during the accumulating process. Radiometric sorption experiments with Pb-210 as a tracer gave the result that almost all Pb(II) in the soil solution disappeared to be sorbed to the soil components

  5. Brain Activity toward Gaming-Related Cues in Internet Gaming Disorder during an Addiction Stroop Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifen; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Hongli; Xu, Jiaojing; Du, Xiaoxia; Dong, Guangheng

    2016-01-01

    Attentional bias for drug-related stimuli is a key characteristic for drug addiction. Characterizing the relationship between attentional bias and brain reactivity to Internet gaming-related stimuli may help in identifying the neural substrates that critical to Internet gaming disorder (IGD). 19 IGD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they were performing an addiction Stroop task. Compared with HC group, IGD subjects showed higher activations when facing Internet gaming-related stimuli in regions including the inferior parietal lobule, the middle occipital gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These brain areas were thought to be involved in selective attention, visual processing, working memory and cognitive control. The results demonstrated that compared with HC group, IGD subjects show impairment in both visual and cognitive control ability while dealing with gaming-related words. This finding might be helpful in understanding the underlying neural basis of IGD.

  6. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  7. Sensory modality specificity of neural activity related to memory in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J R; Maunsell, J H

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that when monkeys perform a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task, some neurons in inferotemporal visual cortex are activated selectively during the delay period when the animal must remember particular visual stimuli. This selective delay activity may be involved in short-term memory. It does not depend on visual stimulation: both auditory and tactile stimuli can trigger selective delay activity in inferotemporal cortex when animals expect to respond to visual stimuli in a DMS task. We have examined the overall modality specificity of delay period activity using a variety of auditory/visual cross-modal and unimodal DMS tasks. The cross-modal DMS tasks involved making specific long-term memory associations between visual and auditory stimuli, whereas the unimodal DMS tasks were standard identity matching tasks. Delay activity existed in auditory/visual cross-modal DMS tasks whether the animal anticipated responding to visual or auditory stimuli. No evidence of selective delay period activation was seen in a purely auditory DMS task. Delay-selective cells were relatively common in one animal where they constituted up to 53% neurons tested with a given task. This was only the case for up to 9% of cells in a second animal. In the first animal, a specific long-term memory representation for learned cross-modal associations was observed in delay activity, indicating that this type of representation need not be purely visual. Furthermore, in this same animal, delay activity in one cross-modal task, an auditory-to-visual task, predicted correct and incorrect responses. These results suggest that neurons in inferotemporal cortex contribute to abstract memory representations that can be activated by input from other sensory modalities, but these representations are specific to visual behaviors.

  8. Domain-specific physical activity and health-related quality of life in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedišić, Zeljko; Rakovac, Marija; Titze, Sylvia; Jurakić, Danijel; Oja, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Information on the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population and specific groups is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PA in work, transport, domestic and leisure-time domains and HRQoL among university students. PA and HRQoL were assessed in a random stratified sample of 1750 university students using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - long form and 12-item Short Form Health Survey, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlations, adjusted for age, community size, personal monthly budget, body mass index, smoking habits and alcohol intake ranged from -0.11 to 0.18 in female students and -0.29 to 0.19 in male students. Leisure-time, domestic, transport-related PA and total PA were positively related to HRQoL. Inverse correlations with HRQoL were only found for work-related PA in male students. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only leisure-time PA was related to the Physical Summary Component score (β = 0.08 for females and β = 0.10 for males, P leisure-time, transport and domestic PA with HRQoL can potentially be used to support evidence-based promotion of PA in a university setting, and as a hypothesis for future longitudinal studies on such potential causal relationships.

  9. Active reward processing during human sleep: insights from sleep-related eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present two carefully documented cases of patients with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, a parasomnia which is characterized by involuntary compulsive eating during the night and whose pathophysiology is not known. Using video-polysomnography and psychometric examination, we found that both patients present elevated novelty seeking and increased reward sensitivity on reward-related questionnaires. In light of new evidence on the mesolimbic dopaminergic implication in compulsive eating disorders, our findings suggest a role of an active reward system during sleep in the manifestation of SRED.

  10. Activation analysis in a multitechnique study of trace element imbalances in age-related neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Ding, X.X.; Khare, S.S.; Lovell, M.A.; Ni, B.F.; Tandon, L.; Vance, D.E.; Wenstrup, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that several age-related neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be related to environmental toxins. Bulk sample multielemental analyses by INAA alone are not adequate to define the role of trace elements in these diseases. A multitechnique approach has been developed that incorporates 14 MeV, instrumental reactor, radiochemical, and pre-irradiation chemical neutron activation analysis, together with laser microprobe mass spectrometry. The analytical scheme is able to provide bulk or protein normalized elemental concentrations, as well as microstructural, cellular, and subcellular localization information. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Recent status of research activities for development of CTBT-related technologies in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Naoki; Houkida, Takanori; Inoue, Yoji

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research activities of the R and D Group for Non-Proliferation Technology related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. The main subjects of this report are (1) an overview of the CTBT verification regime, (2) preparation of the National Data Center for radionuclide data, (3) construction and operation of the radionuclide monitoring stations at Takasaki and Okinawa and the certified radionuclide laboratory at Tokai in Japan. We have participated in an intercomparison test internationally organized for the certified laboratories and the test results are given here. Scientific application of the CTBT-related technologies to environmental researches is also depicted. (author)

  12. A Preliminary Investigation of Accelerometer-Derived Sleep and Physical Activity Following Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia M; Howie, Erin K; Elbin, R J; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    2018-03-29

    Describe changes in postconcussion activity levels and sleep throughout recovery in a sample of pediatric sport-related concussion (SRC) patients, and examine the predictive value of accelerometer-derived activity and sleep on subsequent clinical outcomes at a follow-up clinic visit. Outpatient concussion clinic. Twenty athletes aged 12 to 19 years with diagnosed SRC. Prospective study including visit 1 (sleep across recovery. Symptom, neurocognitive, and vestibular/oculomotor scores; sleep and activity data (Actigraph GT3x+) RESULTS:: The maximum intensity of physical activity increased (P = .009) and time in bed decreased throughout recovery (P = .026). Several physical activity metrics from 0 to 6 days postinjury were predictive of worse vestibular/oculomotor scores at visit 2 (P sleep 0 to 6 days postinjury were associated with worse reaction time at visit 2 (P sleep change from the acute to subacute postinjury time period in adolescent SRC patients. In our small sample, excess physical activity and poor sleep the first week postinjury may be associated with worse outcomes at follow-up in the subacute stage of recovery. This study further supported the feasibility of research utilizing wearable technology in concussion patients, and future research in a large, diverse sample of concussion patients examined at concise time intervals postinjury is needed.

  13. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  14. Supply chain and innovation activity in transport related enterprises in Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ioppolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background: One of the development strategies uses R&D activity as the main source of innovation, which is often carried out in cooperation with other units, but in particular in the supply chain, and therefore applies to cooperation between enterprises and their customers and suppliers. The aim of the study was to identify the variable determinants of the impact of the character of relationships among enterprises and their suppliers and customers on their innovative performance, within regional industrial systems and to define the constraints for a model regional structure of innovation network tailored to the needs of Poland and its regions. Methods: 167 enterprises belonging to the transport sector and operating in the area of Eastern Poland took part. In order to determine the impact of relationships with suppliers and customers on innovation activity, models based on probability analysis - probit models - were used. Results: It can be clearly stated that the cooperation of industrial enterprises in the transport sector with customers and suppliers activates innovation activity and its specified attributes. However, the probability varies depending on the test variable adopted. Conclusions: The cooperation with suppliers and customers is the cognitive aspect in the development of innovation activity in industrial enterprises representing the transport-related sector. Such cooperation has a stimulating effect on expenditures on innovation activity and on the implementation of innovative solutions in the field of technological innovation (products and processes.  

  15. Open field locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Adeline A; Crawley, Allison C; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M

    2008-08-05

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIA, or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe and progressive neuropathology. Following an asymptomatic period, patients may present with sleep disturbances, cognitive decline, aggressive tendencies and hyperactivity. A naturally-occurring mouse model of MPS IIIA also exhibits many of these behavioral features and has been recently back-crossed onto a C57BL/6 genetic background. To more thoroughly characterize the behavioral phenotype of congenic MPS IIIA mice, we assessed exploratory activity and unconditioned anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field locomotor activity. Although MPS IIIA male mice were less active in the EPM at 18 and 20 weeks of age, they were more likely to explore the open arms than their normal counter-parts suggesting reduced anxiety. Repeated EPM testing reduced exploration of the open arms in MPS IIIA mice. In the open field test, significant reductions in activity were evident in naïve-tested male MPS IIIA mice from 10 weeks of age. Female normal and MPS IIIA mice displayed similar exploratory activity in the open field test. These differences in anxiety and locomotor activity will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic regimes for MPS IIIA as a forerunner to developing safe and effective therapies for Sanfilippo patients.

  16. Vagal activity is quadratically related to prosocial traits, prosocial emotions, and observer perceptions of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Aleksandr; Oveis, Christopher; Carr, Evan W; Gruber, June; Mauss, Iris B; Shallcross, Amanda; Impett, Emily A; van der Lowe, Ilmo; Hui, Bryant; Cheng, Cecilia; Keltner, Dacher

    2014-12-01

    In the present article, we introduce the quadratic vagal activity-prosociality hypothesis, a theoretical framework for understanding the vagus nerve's involvement in prosociality. We argue that vagus nerve activity supports prosocial behavior by regulating physiological systems that enable emotional expression, empathy for others' mental and emotional states, the regulation of one's own distress, and the experience of positive emotions. However, we contend that extremely high levels of vagal activity can be detrimental to prosociality. We present 3 studies providing support for our model, finding consistent evidence of a quadratic relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia--the degree to which the vagus nerve modulates the heart rate--and prosociality. Individual differences in vagal activity were quadratically related to prosocial traits (Study 1), prosocial emotions (Study 2), and outside ratings of prosociality by complete strangers (Study 3). Thus, too much or too little vagal activity appears to be detrimental to prosociality. The present article provides the 1st theoretical and empirical account of the nonlinear relationship between vagal activity and prosociality.

  17. Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemin, Anne; Boini, Stéphanie; Bertrais, Sandrine; Tessier, Sabrina; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hercberg, Serge; Guillemin, Francis; Briançon, Serge

    2005-08-01

    There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in the general population. We investigated the relationships of meeting public health recommendations (PHR) for moderate and vigorous physical activity with HRQoL in French adult subjects. LTPA and HRQoL were assessed in 1998 in 2333 men and 3321 women from the SU.VI.MAX. cohort using the French versions of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) and the SF-36 questionnaire, respectively. Relationship between LTPA and HRQoL was assessed using analysis of variance. Results from multivariate analysis showed that meeting physical activity recommended levels was associated with higher HRQoL scores (except in Bodily pain dimension for women): differences in mean HRQoL scores between subjects meeting or not PHR ranged from 2.4 (Mental health) to 4.5 (Vitality) and from 2.2 (Bodily pain) to 5.7 (Vitality) for women and men, respectively. Subjects meeting PHR for physical activity had better HRQoL than those who did not. Our data suggest that 30' of moderate LTPA per day on a regular basis may be beneficial on HRQoL. Higher intensity LTPA is associated with greater HRQoL. This emphasizes the importance to promote at least moderate physical activity.

  18. Gender-related response in open-field activity following developmental nicotine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roland D; Chen, Wei-Jung A

    2004-08-01

    Smoking during pregnancy may lead to low birthweight and behavioral alterations in the offspring. In this study, the effects of developmental nicotine exposure on the somatic growth of the offspring and the behavioral performance in the open-field test were examined. Sprague-Dawley female rats were implanted with nicotine (35 mg for 21-day time release; NIC 35) or placebo pellets on gestational day (GD) 8 (postblastocyst implantation). A normal control group with no pellet implant was also included. There was a significantly higher maternal weight gain in the placebo group possibly due to a larger litter size. However, there were no significant differences in body weights among all three treatment groups for male and female offspring. The amount of activity, measured by the total number of crossings in the open-field test, indicated a gender difference in baseline level and pattern of ambulatory activity, with less activity (lower number of crossings) in male offspring and an increase in the activity of the female offspring as a function of testing day. The increase in the ambulatory activity of the female offspring was observed in the placebo and normal, but not the NIC 35 group suggesting that developmental nicotine exposure interferes with open-field activity, and this behavioral alteration is gender related. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Fall-related activity avoidance in relation to a history of falls or near falls, fear of falling and disease severity in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Manzur; Iwarsson, Susanne; Odin, Per; Nilsson, Maria H

    2016-06-02

    There is limited knowledge concerning fall-related activity avoidance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD); such knowledge would be of importance for the development of more efficient PD-care and rehabilitation. This study aimed to examine how fall-related activity avoidance relates to a history of self-reported falls/near falls and fear of falling (FOF) as well as to disease severity in people with PD. Data were collected from 251 (61 % men) participants with PD; their median (min-max) age and PD duration were 70 (45-93) and 8 (1-43) years, respectively. A self-administered postal survey preceded a home visit which included observations, clinical tests and interview-administered questionnaires. Fall-related activity avoidance was assessed using the modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (mSAFFE) as well as by using a dichotomous (Yes/No) question. Further dichotomous questions concerned: the presence of FOF and the history (past 6 months) of falls or near falls, followed by stating the number of incidents. Disease severity was assessed according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages. In the total sample (n = 251), 41 % of the participants reported fall-related activity avoidance; the median mSAFFE score was 22. In relation to a history of fall, the proportions of participants (p fall-related activity avoidance were: non-fallers (30 %), single fallers (50 %) and recurrent fallers, i.e. ≥ 2 falls (57 %). Among those that reported near falls (but no falls), 51 % (26 out of 51) reported fall-related activity avoidance. Of those that reported FOF, 70 % reported fall-related activity avoidance. Fall-related activity avoidance ranged from 24 % in the early PD-stage (HY I) to 74 % in the most severe stages (HY IV-V). Results indicate that fall-related activity avoidance may be related to a history of self-reported falls/near falls, FOF and disease severity in people with PD. Importantly, fall-related activity avoidance is

  20. Neuronal thresholds and choice-related activity of otolith afferent fibers during heading perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-jie; Dickman, J David; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-05-19

    How activity of sensory neurons leads to perceptual decisions remains a challenge to understand. Correlations between choices and single neuron firing rates have been found early in vestibular processing, in the brainstem and cerebellum. To investigate the origins of choice-related activity, we have recorded from otolith afferent fibers while animals performed a fine heading discrimination task. We find that afferent fibers have similar discrimination thresholds as central cells, and the most sensitive fibers have thresholds that are only twofold or threefold greater than perceptual thresholds. Unlike brainstem and cerebellar nuclei neurons, spike counts from afferent fibers do not exhibit trial-by-trial correlations with perceptual decisions. This finding may reflect the fact that otolith afferent responses are poorly suited for driving heading perception because they fail to discriminate self-motion from changes in orientation relative to gravity. Alternatively, if choice probabilities reflect top-down inference signals, they are not relayed to the vestibular periphery.

  1. [Relation between physical activity, muscle function and IGF-1, testosterone and DHEAS concentrations in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M; Patricot, M C; Lacour, J R; Rahmani, A; Berthouze, S; Kostka, T

    2002-10-01

    Lower amounts of circulating anabolic hormones are thought to accelerate the age related decline in muscle mass and function. Replacement therapies are promising interventions but there are problems with these therapies. Thus alternative strategies should be developed. The age related changes in hormonal status may be probably influenced by exercise. The purpose of this study was: a) to confirm with other methods, more adapted for elderly people, the results of a previous study that has shown relationship between physical activity (PA) and quadriceps muscle function with dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Quadriceps muscle power (Pmax) is measured in this new work with a recently developed leg extensor machine and, b) to complete the results of the first study examining simultaneously the relationship between PA, Pmax and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) with DHEAS, IGF-1 and testosterone in a group of healthy elderly people. Fifty independent, community dwelling elderly subjects (25 mens and 25 womens) aged from 66 to 84 volunteered to participate in the study. PA was evaluated by the questionnaire and expressed using two activity indices: mean habitual daily energy expenditure (MHDEE) and the daily energy expenditure corresponding to leisure time sports activities (Sports Activity). Pmax and optimal shortening velocity (vopt) were measured on a Ergopower dynamometer. The Pmax was expressed relative to body mass, Pmax/kg (W kg-1), and relative to the mass of the two quadriceps muscles, Pmax/Quadr (W.kgQuadr-1). VO2max has been measured during a maximal treadmill exercise. In women, IGF-1 correlated significantly with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Pmax/kg (r = 0.54, P = 0.004) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), whereas DHEAS with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Sports Activity (r = 0.65, P < 0.001), VO2max (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), Pmax/kg (r = 0.46, P = 0.02) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.55, P = 0.004). No such correlation was

  2. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  3. Annotating activation/inhibition relationships to protein-protein interactions using gene ontology relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soorin; Yu, Hasun; Jang, Dongjin; Lee, Doheon

    2018-04-11

    Signaling pathways can be reconstructed by identifying 'effect types' (i.e. activation/inhibition) of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Effect types are composed of 'directions' (i.e. upstream/downstream) and 'signs' (i.e. positive/negative), thereby requiring directions as well as signs of PPIs to predict signaling events from PPI networks. Here, we propose a computational method for systemically annotating effect types to PPIs using relations between functional information of proteins. We used regulates, positively regulates, and negatively regulates relations in Gene Ontology (GO) to predict directions and signs of PPIs. These relations indicate both directions and signs between GO terms so that we can project directions and signs between relevant GO terms to PPIs. Independent test results showed that our method is effective for predicting both directions and signs of PPIs. Moreover, our method outperformed a previous GO-based method that did not consider the relations between GO terms. We annotated effect types to human PPIs and validated several highly confident effect types against literature. The annotated human PPIs are available in Additional file 2 to aid signaling pathway reconstruction and network biology research. We annotated effect types to PPIs by using regulates, positively regulates, and negatively regulates relations in GO. We demonstrated that those relations are effective for predicting not only signs, but also directions of PPIs. The usefulness of those relations suggests their potential applications to other types of interactions such as protein-DNA interactions.

  4. Attentional control activation relates to working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Gregory C; Depue, Brendan E; Ruzic, Luka; Willcutt, Erik G; Du, Yiping P; Banich, Marie T

    2010-04-01

    Attentional control difficulties in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might reflect poor working memory (WM) ability, especially because WM ability and attentional control rely on similar brain regions. The current study examined whether WM ability might explain group differences in brain activation between adults with ADHD and normal control subjects during attentional demand. Participants were 20 adults with ADHD combined subtype with no comorbid psychiatric or learning disorders and 23 control subjects similar in age, IQ, and gender. The WM measures were obtained from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Brain activation was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a Color-Word Stroop task. Group differences in WM ability explained a portion of the activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which has been related to the creation and maintenance of an attentional set for task-relevant information. In addition, greater WM ability predicted increased activation of brain regions related to stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes in the ADHD group but not in the control group. The inability to maintain an appropriate task set in young adults with combined type ADHD, associated with decreased activity in left DLPFC, might in part be due to poor WM ability. Furthermore, in individuals with ADHD, higher WM ability might relate to increased recruitment of stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes, perhaps as a compensatory strategy. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks: An explanation for non-memory-related hippocampal activations?

    OpenAIRE

    Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly noted hippocampal activation associated with a variety of cognitive functions such as decision-making, attention, perception, incidental learning, prediction and working memory, which have little apparent relation to declarative memory. Such findings might be difficult to reconcile with classical hippocampal lesion studies that show remarkable sparing of cognitive functions outside the realm of declarative memory. Even the oft-reported hippoca...

  6. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials by the k sub 0 standardization and relative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M C; Martinho, E [LNETI/ICEN, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1989-04-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub o}-standardization method was applied to eight geological, environmental and biological reference materials, including leaves, blood, fish, sediments, soils and limestone. To a first approximation, the results were normally distributed around the certified values with a standard deviation of 10%. Results obtained by using the relative method based on well characterized multi-element standards for IAEA CRM Soil-7 are reported.

  7. OCL2Trigger: Deriving active mechanisms for relational databases using Model-Driven Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jumaily, Harith T.; Cuadra, Dolores; Martínez, Paloma

    2008-01-01

    16 pages, 10 figures.-- Issue title: "Best papers from the 2007 Australian Software Engineering Conference (ASWEC 2007), Melbourne, Australia, April 10-13, 2007, Australian Software Engineering Conference 2007". Transforming integrity constraints into active rules or triggers for verifying database consistency produces a serious and complex problem related to real time behaviour that must be considered for any implementation. Our main contribution to this work is to provide a complete appr...

  8. Modulating Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor-α Activity Inhibits Cell Proliferation*

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Lanvin, Olivia; Tribollet, Violaine; Macari, Claire; North, Sophie; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    High expression of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR)-α in human tumors is correlated to a poor prognosis, suggesting an involvement of the receptor in cell proliferation. In this study, we show that a synthetic compound (XCT790) that modulates the activity of ERRα reduces the proliferation of various cell lines and blocks the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in an ERR...

  9. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heaney, P.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  10. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Lioret, S.; Touvier, M.; Lafay, L.; Volatier, J. L.; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-...

  11. Relations among school students' self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    Guided by the self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of self-determined motivation toward motivational outcomes (perceived enjoyment, perceived effort, physical activity behaviors) for 286 middle school students in physical education. Analyses indicated that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation were positively related to students' enjoyment, perceived effort, and physical activity, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with students' enjoyment and perceived effort. The findings highlighted the importance of higher self-determined motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) in students' perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. This study supports the use of self-determination theory to investigate students' motivational outcomes in school physical education.

  12. Investigation of some factors related to antibacterial activity of Saudi honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Brahim, Jehan Saud Rashid

    2006-01-01

    Honey was found to have a curing effect on bacterial species known to cause wound infections. The aim of this research was to study some of the factors related to the antibacterial activity of a Saudi Honey. Honey samples from different floral sources, geographic locations and production season were used. The tested organisms presented both gram positive and gram negative bacteria causing wound infection. A zone of complete inhibition of all bacterial species was observed with honey types Samra (S-W), Samra (W-S), Saha (W-S), Samra (S-S), Sidir (S-W) and a larger zone of partial inhibition of growth was observed in all tested honey types. It can be concluded that osmolarity is involved in the antibacterial activity of the honey. Acidity might be regarded as being of primary importance. On the other hand, hydrogen peroxide was found to play a major role in the bacterial activity of honey. (author)

  13. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Rachel K; Scarneo, Samantha E; Adams, William M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Belval, Luke N; Stamm, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

  14. Activation of dopamine D3 receptors inhibits reward-related learning induced by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, H; Kuang, W; Li, S; Xu, M

    2011-03-10

    Memories of learned associations between the rewarding properties of drugs and environmental cues contribute to craving and relapse in humans. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in reward-related learning induced by drugs of abuse. DA D3 receptors are preferentially expressed in mesocorticolimbic DA projection areas. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that DA D3 receptors suppress locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviors. Activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) induced by acute cocaine administration is also inhibited by D3 receptors. How D3 receptors modulate cocaine-induced reward-related learning and associated changes in cell signaling in reward circuits in the brain, however, have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we show that D3 receptor mutant mice exhibit potentiated acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) at low doses of cocaine compared to wild-type mice. Activation of ERK and CaMKIIα, but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and prefrontal cortex is also potentiated in D3 receptor mutant mice compared to that in wild-type mice following CPP expression. These results support a model in which D3 receptors modulate reward-related learning induced by low doses of cocaine by inhibiting activation of ERK and CaMKIIα in reward circuits in the brain. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extract the Relational Information of Static Features and Motion Features for Human Activities Recognition in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both static features and motion features have shown promising performance in human activities recognition task. However, the information included in these features is insufficient for complex human activities. In this paper, we propose extracting relational information of static features and motion features for human activities recognition. The videos are represented by a classical Bag-of-Word (BoW model which is useful in many works. To get a compact and discriminative codebook with small dimension, we employ the divisive algorithm based on KL-divergence to reconstruct the codebook. After that, to further capture strong relational information, we construct a bipartite graph to model the relationship between words of different feature set. Then we use a k-way partition to create a new codebook in which similar words are getting together. With this new codebook, videos can be represented by a new BoW vector with strong relational information. Moreover, we propose a method to compute new clusters from the divisive algorithm’s projective function. We test our work on the several datasets and obtain very promising results.

  16. Is midlife occupational physical activity related to disability in old age? The SNAC-Kungsholmen study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rydwik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Leisure-time physical activity (PA has been established to be related to more years lived without disability. However, less is known about the relationship between occupational PA and disability in old age. The aim of the study was 1 to investigate whether midlife occupational PA is related to late-life disability, and 2 to test the hypothesis that the association differs according to the occupational categories of blue and white collar work. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, and consisted of a random sample of 1804 subjects aged 72 and above. The association of occupational PA during the longest held occupation with disability in old age was determined using logistic regression. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between occupational PA and disability in personal or instrumental activities of daily living (ADL after controlling for demographic and health-related factors. However, in stratified analyses moderate levels of occupational PA was associated with a lower odds ratio of dependency in personal ADL amongst white collar workers, compared to low level of occupational PA (OR = 0.34 95% C1 0.12-0.98. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate levels of midlife occupational PA were associated with a decreased risk of personal ADL disability in old age among white collar workers, but not among blue collar workers. Our results highlight the importance of encouraging white collar workers to engage in physical activity during or outside work hours.

  17. Qualification and competence in workers with limitations acquired in work related activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Liliana Sbriller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present research is based on the posture of critical occupational therapy and analyzes the concept of occupational skills required in the current job market, and its application in processes of work exclusion - inclusion in people with limitations acquired due to work related activities. Objective: Describe and analyze the concept of labor competencies within the transformation of the globalized occupational world, and analyze the impact of the required skills in the processes of exclusion - inclusion of people with limitations acquired due to work related activities. Method: Qualitative research. Technique: Documentary analysis and literary review. Results: Consider skills as construction in social action promotes debate within the field of occupational therapy with regard to professional intervention, expanding opportunities for job inclusion of people limitations acquired due to work related activities within the context of economic exclusion from the globalized labor market. Conclusion: Understanding the problem and it is current implications, helps to question praxis of occupational therapy and promotes the basis for an empirical investigation.

  18. Tinnitus perception and distress is related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tinnitus perception are not well understood. Surprisingly, there have been no group studies comparing abnormalities in ongoing, spontaneous neuronal activity in individuals with and without tinnitus perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that the spontaneous neuronal activity of a group of individuals with tinnitus (n = 17 is characterised by a marked reduction in alpha (8-12 Hz power together with an enhancement in delta (1.5-4 Hz as compared to a normal hearing control group (n = 16. This pattern was especially pronounced for temporal regions. Moreover, correlations with tinnitus-related distress revealed strong associations with this abnormal spontaneous activity pattern, particularly in right temporal and left frontal areas. Overall, effects were stronger for the alpha than for the delta frequency band. A data stream of 5 min, recorded with a whole-head neuromagnetometer under a resting condition, was sufficient to extract the marked differences. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, there are arguments that the regional pattern of abnormal spontaneous activity we found could reflect a tinnitus-related cortical network. This finding, which suggests that a neurofeedback approach could reduce the adverse effects of this disturbing condition, could have important implications for the treatment of tinnitus.

  19. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Patients Healthy young men with untested fertility (n=215). Intervention A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Main outcomes measure Semen quality parameters. Results Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥9.5h/wk) to men in the bottom quartile (≤3h/wk) were 4.3% (−30.2, 38.9) for total sperm count, 7.2% (−30.6, 45.1) for sperm concentration, −2.42% (−6.53, 1.69) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (−12.0, 37.2) for sperm morphology. Conclusion In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. PMID:25064411

  20. A Study of Cyber Security Activities for Development of Safety-related Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongkyun; Song, Seunghwan; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Yun, Donghwa [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear Power Plant Regulatory guide describes the regulatory requirements to implement cyber security activities to ensure that design and operate to respond to cyber threats that exploited to vulnerability of digital-based technologies associated with safety-related digital instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. Cyber security activities coverage is instrumentation and control systems to perform safety functions and digital-based equipment to use development, test, analysis and asset for instrumentation and control systems. Regulatory guidance is required to the cyber security activities that should be performed in each development phase of safety-related controller. Development organization should establish and implement to cyber security plans for responding to cyber threats throughout each lifecycle phase and the result of the cyber security activities should be generated to the documents. In addition, the independent verification and validation organization should perform simulated penetration test for enhancing response capabilities to cyber security threats and development organization should establish and implement response hardening solutions for the cyber security vulnerabilities identified in the simulated penetration test.

  1. NLRP3 Inflammasome: Activation and Regulation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of legal blindness in the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is a multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Progression of AMD is characterized by an increase in the number and size of drusen, extracellular deposits, which accumulate between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and Bruch’s membrane (BM in outer retina. The major pathways associated with its pathogenesis include oxidative stress and inflammation in the early stages of AMD. Little is known about the interactions among these mechanisms that drive the transition from early to late stages of AMD, such as geographic atrophy (GA or choroidal neovascularization (CNV. As part of the innate immune system, inflammasome activation has been identified in RPE cells and proposed to be a causal factor for RPE dysfunction and degeneration. Here, we will first review the classic model of inflammasome activation, then discuss the potentials of AMD-related factors to activate the inflammasome in both nonocular immune cells and RPE cells, and finally introduce several novel mechanisms for regulating the inflammasome activity.

  2. Legal framework related to access to information and public participation on nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, M. C.; Bernaldez, A.L.; Ghiggeri, M.; Tula, C.

    2011-01-01

    The right of access to information by citizens about activities related to scientific and technological development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, has evolved over time. Governments began to perceive the necessity and the benefits of informing the community, who manifested certain prejudices about nuclear activity as a consequence of the propelling of nuclear bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. With the advent of environmental law and the influence of its principles, the idea of transparency of information in the nuclear field was imposed, and also the importance of both the inhabitants of countries with nuclear developments and neighbouring countries who may be affected by the bordering effects of ionizing radiation, could have access to information and to participate actively. The access to information and citizen participation has been institutionalized and reflected in international regulations through international conventions subscribed by our country and nationally through the National Constitution, the Provincials Constitutions, the City of Buenos Aires Constitution, Laws No. 25.675, 25.831 and PEN Decree No. 1172/03, among others. The present work aims to make an overview of the legal framework related to access to information on nuclear activity. (authors) [es

  3. Hippocampus activation related to 'real-time' processing of visuospatial change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudel, M; Leenders, K L; de Jong, B M

    2016-12-01

    The delay associated with cerebral processing time implies a lack of real-time representation of changes in the observed environment. To bridge this gap for motor actions in a dynamical environment, the brain uses predictions of the most plausible future reality based on previously provided information. To optimise these predictions, adjustments to actual experiences are necessary. This requires a perceptual memory buffer. In our study we gained more insight how the brain treats (real-time) information by comparing cerebral activations related to judging past-, present- and future locations of a moving ball, respectively. Eighteen healthy subjects made these estimations while fMRI data was obtained. All three conditions evoked bilateral dorsal-parietal and premotor activations, while judgment of the location of the ball at the moment of judgment showed increased bilateral posterior hippocampus activation relative to making both future and past judgments at the one-second time-sale. Since the condition of such 'real-time' judgments implied undistracted observation of the ball's actual movements, the associated hippocampal activation is consistent with the concept that the hippocampus participates in a top-down exerted sensory gating mechanism. In this way, it may play a role in novelty (saliency) detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study of Cyber Security Activities for Development of Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongkyun; Song, Seunghwan; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Yun, Donghwa

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Regulatory guide describes the regulatory requirements to implement cyber security activities to ensure that design and operate to respond to cyber threats that exploited to vulnerability of digital-based technologies associated with safety-related digital instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. Cyber security activities coverage is instrumentation and control systems to perform safety functions and digital-based equipment to use development, test, analysis and asset for instrumentation and control systems. Regulatory guidance is required to the cyber security activities that should be performed in each development phase of safety-related controller. Development organization should establish and implement to cyber security plans for responding to cyber threats throughout each lifecycle phase and the result of the cyber security activities should be generated to the documents. In addition, the independent verification and validation organization should perform simulated penetration test for enhancing response capabilities to cyber security threats and development organization should establish and implement response hardening solutions for the cyber security vulnerabilities identified in the simulated penetration test

  5. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  7. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, M.B.; Kudrick, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases and conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in an appendix

  8. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff-approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in Appendix C of this report

  9. [Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and the related esophageal motor activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hyo; Hong, Su Jin

    2012-03-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) is defined as LES relaxation without a swallow. TLESRs are observed in both of the normal individuals and the patients with gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). However, TLESR is widely considered as the major mechanism of the GERD. The new equipments such as high resolution manometry and impedance pH study is helped to understand of TLESR and the related esophageal motor activities. The strong longitudinal muscle contraction was observed during development of TLESR. Most of TLESRs are terminated by TLESR related motor events such as primary peristalsis and secondary contractions. The majority of TLESRs are associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contraction is mainly associated with liquid reflux during recumbent position and UES relaxation predominantly related with air reflux during upright position. The frequency of TLESR in GERD patients seems to be not different compared to normal individuals, but the refluxate of GERD patients tend to be more acidic during TLESR.

  10. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstatt, Kelly L; Voss, Joel L

    2014-01-01

    Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  11. Neural activity related to cognitive and emotional empathy in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Tempesta, Daniela; Pino, Maria Chiara; Nigri, Anna; Catalucci, Alessia; Guadagni, Veronica; Gallucci, Massimo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the empathic ability and its functional brain correlates in post-traumatic stress disorder subjects (PTSD). Seven PTSD subjects and ten healthy controls, all present in the L'Aquila area during the earthquake of the April 2009, underwent fMRI during which they performed a modified version of the Multifaceted Empathy Test. PTSD patients showed impairments in implicit and explicit emotional empathy, but not in cognitive empathy. Brain responses during cognitive empathy showed an increased activation in patients compared to controls in the right medial frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. During implicit emotional empathy responses patients with PTSD, compared to controls, exhibited greater neural activity in the left pallidum and right insula; instead the control group showed an increased activation in right inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, in the explicit emotional empathy responses the PTSD group showed a reduced neural activity in the left insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus. The behavioral deficit limited to the emotional empathy dimension, accompanied by different patterns of activation in empathy related brain structures, represent a first piece of evidence of a dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in PTSD patients. The present findings support the idea that empathy is a multidimensional process, with different facets depending on distinct anatomical substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital imaging information technology for biospeckle activity assessment relative to bacteria and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E; Cabrera, Humberto; Grassi, Hilda C; de J Andrades, Efrén; Otero, Isabel; Rodríguez, Dania; Darias, Juan G

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports on the biospeckle processing of biological activity using a visualization scheme based upon the digital imaging information technology. Activity relative to bacterial growth in agar plates and to parasites affected by a drug is monitored via the speckle patterns generated by a coherent source incident on the microorganisms. We present experimental results to demonstrate the potential application of this methodology for following the activity in time. The digital imaging information technology is an alternative visualization enabling the study of speckle dynamics, which is correlated to the activity of bacteria and parasites. In this method, the changes in Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color component density are considered as markers of the growth of bacteria and parasites motility in presence of a drug. The RGB data was used to generate a two-dimensional surface plot allowing an analysis of color distribution on the speckle images. The proposed visualization is compared to the outcomes of the generalized differences and the temporal difference. A quantification of the activity is performed using a parameterization of the temporal difference method. The adopted digital image processing technique has been found suitable to monitor motility and morphological changes in the bacterial population over time and to detect and distinguish a short term drug action on parasites.

  13. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Brandstatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  14. Variability of disease activity in patients treated with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, P; Scholz, P; Muether, P S; Fauser, S

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo analyze choroidal neovasularization (CNV) activity and recurrence patterns in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with ranibizumab, and the correlation with individual intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppression time (VST).MethodsPost-hoc analysis of data from a prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Patients with nAMD treated with ranibizumab on a pro re nata regimen. Disease activity was analyzed monthly by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and correlated with VSTs.ResultsOverall, 73 eyes of 73 patients were included in the study with a mean follow-up of 717 days (range: 412-1239 days). Overall, the mean CNV-activity-free interval was 76.5 days (range: 0-829 days). The individual range of the length of dry intervals was high. A total of 42% of patients had a range of more than 90 days. Overall, 16% of patients showed persistent activity. And 12% stayed dry after the initial ranibizumab treatment. No significant correlation was found between the CNV-recurrence pattern and VST (P=0.12).ConclusionsCNV activity in nAMD is irregular, which is reflected in the range of the duration of dry intervals and late recurrences. The biomarker VST solely seems not to be sufficient to explain recurrence pattern of CNV in all AMD patients.

  15. Relations Among Maternal Life Satisfaction, Shared Activities, and Child Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Richter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal well-being is assumed to be associated with well-being of individual family members, optimal parenting practices, and positive developmental outcomes for children. The objective of this study was to examine the interplay between maternal well-being, parent-child activities, and the well-being of 5- to 7-year-old children. In a sample of N = 291 mother-child dyads, maternal life satisfaction, the frequency of shared parent-child activities, as well as children’s self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary were assessed using several methods. Data were collected in a special study of the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, a representative longitudinal survey of private households in Germany. Using structural equation modeling, significant positive direct and indirect relations between maternal life satisfaction, frequency of shared parent-child activities, children’s self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary were found. The more satisfied the mother was, the more she shared activities with her child and the more the child acted prosocially. Furthermore, the higher the frequency of shared parent-child activities, the higher the child scored in all three analyzed indicators of children’s well-being: self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary. The current study supports the assumption of maternal well-being as the basis of positive parenting practices and child well-being.

  16. EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE MBH-σ* RELATION WITH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Ting; Barth, Aaron J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ludwig, Randi R.; Ho, Luis C.; Bentz, Misty C.; Jiang Yanfei

    2011-01-01

    We present new measurements of stellar velocity dispersions, using spectra obtained with the Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) and the Magellan Echellette (MagE), for 76 Seyfert 1 galaxies from the recent catalog of Greene and Ho. These objects were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to have estimated black hole (BH) masses below 2 x 10 6 M sun . Combining our results with previous ESI observations of similar objects, we obtain an expanded sample of 93 galaxies and examine the relation between BH mass and velocity dispersion (the M BH -σ * relation) for active galaxies with low BH masses. The low-mass active galaxies tend to follow the extrapolation of the M BH -σ * relation of inactive galaxies. Including results for active galaxies of higher BH mass from the literature, we find a zero point α = 7.68 ± 0.08 and slope of β = 3.32 ± 0.22 for the M BH -σ * relation (in the form log M BH = α + βlog (σ * /200 km s -1 )), with intrinsic scatter of 0.46 ± 0.03 dex. This result is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the slope of the M BH -σ * relation for reverberation-mapped active galaxies with BH masses from 10 6 to 10 9 M sun . For the subset of our sample having morphological information from Hubble Space Telescope images, we examine the slope of the M BH -σ * relation separately for subsamples of barred and unbarred host galaxies, and find no significant evidence for a difference in slope. We do find a mild offset between low-inclination and high-inclination disk galaxies, such that more highly inclined galaxies tend to have larger σ * at a given value of BH mass, presumably due to the contribution of disk rotation within the spectroscopic aperture. We also find that the velocity dispersion of the ionized gas, measured from narrow emission lines including [N II] λ6583, [S II] λλ6716, 6731, and the core of [O III] λ5007 (with the blueshifted wing removed), trace the stellar velocity dispersion well for this large

  17. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60-69 years) and old elderly (70-80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. A total of 1288 participants' level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Significant differences (P men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance.

  18. The Murine Factor H-Related Protein FHR-B Promotes Complement Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcell Cserhalmi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Factor H-related (FHR proteins consist of varying number of complement control protein domains that display various degrees of sequence identity to respective domains of the alternative pathway complement inhibitor factor H (FH. While such FHR proteins are described in several species, only human FHRs were functionally investigated. Their biological role is still poorly understood and in part controversial. Recent studies on some of the human FHRs strongly suggest a role for FHRs in enhancing complement activation via competing with FH for binding to certain ligands and surfaces. The aim of the current study was the functional characterization of a murine FHR, FHR-B. To this end, FHR-B was expressed in recombinant form. Recombinant FHR-B bound to human C3b and was able to compete with human FH for C3b binding. FHR-B supported the assembly of functionally active C3bBb alternative pathway C3 convertase via its interaction with C3b. This activity was confirmed by demonstrating C3 activation in murine serum. In addition, FHR-B bound to murine pentraxin 3 (PTX3, and this interaction resulted in murine C3 fragment deposition due to enhanced complement activation in mouse serum. FHR-B also induced C3 deposition on C-reactive protein, the extracellular matrix (ECM extract Matrigel, and endothelial cell-derived ECM when exposed to mouse serum. Moreover, mouse C3 deposition was strongly enhanced on necrotic Jurkat T cells and the mouse B cell line A20 by FHR-B. FHR-B also induced lysis of sheep erythrocytes when incubated in mouse serum with FHR-B added in excess. Altogether, these data demonstrate that, similar to human FHR-1 and FHR-5, mouse FHR-B modulates complement activity by promoting complement activation via interaction with C3b and via competition with murine FH.

  19. Changing relations between intelligence and brain activity in late childhood: A longitudinal event-related potential study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauder, J.E.A.; van der Molen, M.W.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    In studying the relationship between Raven intelligence and event-related brain potentials to a visual oddball task in the same children, at respectively 9, 10 and 11 years of age, dramatic changes were observed with age. The event-related amplitude data suggest a shift in relation between

  20. The moderating effect of psychosocial factors in the relation between neighborhood walkability and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Gheysen, Freja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2016-12-09

    The study aimed to investigate if psychosocial factors moderate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity (PA). A second aim of the study was to investigate the direct associations between psychosocial factors and children's PA. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children (BEPAS-child). In total, data from 494 children and one of their parents were included in the study. Children wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and together with one of their parents, they completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning their child's psychosocial factors toward PA (i.e. parental attitude toward their child's PA, parental social norm toward their child's PA, parental support, friend support, children's self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers toward sports and PA). Neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems (GIS). Multilevel cross-classified analyses were conducted. Of the 42 investigated interactions between neighborhood walkability and psychosocial factors in relation to PA among children, only 7 significant interactions were found of which 3 were only significant among children from low-income neighborhoods. Parental support and self-efficacy were positive correlates of children's PA in high- and low-income neighborhoods independent of the level of walkability, but effect sizes were small. The hypothesis that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles could not be confirmed and in general, psychosocial factors and objective walkability did not interact in relation to children's PA. Focusing on parental support and self

  1. Evaluation of an oral telomerase activator for early age-related macular degeneration - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dow CT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coad Thomas Dow,1,2 Calvin B Harley3 1McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; 2Chippewa Valley Eye Clinic, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, WI, USA; 3Independent Telomere Biology Consultant, Murphys, CA, USA Purpose: Telomere attrition and corresponding cellular senescence of the retinal pigment epithelium contribute to the changes of age-related macular degeneration. Activation of the enzyme telomerase can add telomeric DNA to retinal pigment epithelium chromosomal ends and has been proposed as a treatment for age-related macular degeneration. We report the use of a small molecule, oral telomerase activator (TA-65 in early macular degeneration. This study, focusing on early macular degeneration, provides a model for the use of TAs in age-related disease.Method: Thirty-eight (38 patients were randomly assigned to a 1-year, double-blinded, placebo-controlled interventional study with arms for oral TA-65 or placebo. Macular functions via micro-perimetry were the primary measured outcomes.Results: The macular function in the arm receiving the TA-65 showed significant improvement relative to the placebo control. The improvement was manifest at 6 months and was maintained at 1 year: macular threshold sensitivity (measured as average dB [logarithmic decibel scale of light attenuation] improved 0.97 dB compared to placebo (P-value 0.02 and percent reduced thresholds lessened 8.2% compared to the placebo arm (P-value 0.04. Conclusion: The oral TA significantly improved the macular function of treatment subjects compared to controls. Although this study was a pilot and a larger study is being planned, it is noteworthy in that it is, to our knowledge, the first randomized placebo-controlled study of a TA supplement. Keywords: drusen, macular degeneration, micro-perimetry, senescence, telomerase activation, telomere

  2. Children's perceptions of weight, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and related health and socio-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Bakun, Peter J; Herzog, Julia Bloom; Dolan, Peter R; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Markow, Dana; Sharma, Shanti; Nelson, Miriam E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend. An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Within the USA. US children (n 1224) aged 8-18 years. Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1% of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9%) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1%). Most children (91·1%) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1%); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2%); not be able to play sports well (84·5%); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8%). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children. Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.

  3. Association of physical activity and appetite with visual function related to driving competence in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takafumi; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yuji

    2017-04-26

    Older people are at greater risk of traffic accidents, partially because of age-related declines in visual function, including reduced useful field of view (UFOV). However, lifestyle factors which cause age-related decline in UFOV remain poorly understood. We conducted a study to investigate whether physical activity and appetite status were related to UFOV test performance in healthy older adults. Thirty community-dwelling older people (age 68.6 ± 3.1 years, 15 females) were enrolled in this study. Each participant completed the Council on Nutrition appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) and a UFOV test. They then wore a tri-axial accelerometer (Active style Pro HJA-350IT) for 3-6 consecutive days to objectively measure their PA in free-living conditions. Longer time spent in vigorous physical activity was significantly associated with better UFOV test performance when adjusted for age and accelerometer wear time (non-locomotive: r = -0.435, locomotive: r = -0.449; n = 25). In addition, male, but not female, participants with a higher CNAQ score had significantly better UFOV test performance in both an unadjusted model (r = -0.560; n = 15) and a model adjusted for age (r = -0.635; n = 15). The results suggest that appetite status among males and time spent in high intensity PA are associated with visual function related to driving competence in older adults.

  4. Error-related brain activity predicts cocaine use after treatment at 3-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhe, Reshmi; van de Wetering, Ben J M; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-04-15

    Relapse after treatment is one of the most important problems in drug dependency. Several studies suggest that lack of cognitive control is one of the causes of relapse. In this study, a relative new electrophysiologic index of cognitive control, the error-related negativity, is investigated to examine its suitability as a predictor of relapse. The error-related negativity was measured in 57 cocaine-dependent patients during their first week in detoxification treatment. Data from 49 participants were used to predict cocaine use at 3-month follow-up. Cocaine use at follow-up was measured by means of self-reported days of cocaine use in the last month verified by urine screening. A multiple hierarchical regression model was used to examine the predictive value of the error-related negativity while controlling for addiction severity and self-reported craving in the week before treatment. The error-related negativity was the only significant predictor in the model and added 7.4% of explained variance to the control variables, resulting in a total of 33.4% explained variance in the prediction of days of cocaine use at follow-up. A reduced error-related negativity measured during the first week of treatment was associated with more days of cocaine use at 3-month follow-up. Moreover, the error-related negativity was a stronger predictor of recent cocaine use than addiction severity and craving. These results suggest that underactive error-related brain activity might help to identify patients who are at risk of relapse as early as in the first week of detoxification treatment. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth: The International Children's Accelerometry Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Corder

    2016-12-01

    Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5.0–5.9 y and larger negative annual differences.

  6. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  7. Interaction between DRD2 variation and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, T; Fasano, M C; Taurisano, P; Fazio, L; Antonucci, L A; Gelao, B; Romano, R; Mancini, M; Porcelli, A; Masellis, R; Pallesen, K J; Bertolino, A; Blasi, G; Brattico, E

    2017-01-26

    Sounds, like music and noise, are capable of reliably affecting individuals' mood and emotions. However, these effects are highly variable across individuals. A putative source of variability is genetic background. Here we explored the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2 rs1076560, G>T, previously associated with the relative expression of D2S/L isoforms) and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity. Thirty-eight healthy subjects were genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 (G/G=26; G/T=12) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of an implicit emotion-processing task while listening to music or noise. Individual variation in mood induction was assessed before and after the task. Results showed mood improvement after music exposure in DRD2GG subjects and mood deterioration after noise exposure in GT subjects. Moreover, the music, as opposed to noise environment, decreased the striatal activity of GT subjects as well as the prefrontal activity of GG subjects while processing emotional faces. These findings suggest that genetic variability of dopamine receptors affects sound environment modulations of mood and emotion processing. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plutonium research and related activities at the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Beard, C.A.; Barnes, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, the US and Russia are reducing their nuclear weapons stockpiles. What to do with the materials from thousands of excess nuclear weapons is an important international challenge. How to handle the remaining US stockpile to ensure safe storage and reliability, in light of the aging support infrastructure, is an important national challenge. To help address these challenges and related issues, the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is working on behalf of the State of Texas with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The center directs three major programs that address the key aspects of the plutonium management issue: (1) the Communications, Education, Training and Community Involvement Program, which focuses on informing the public about plutonium and providing technical education at all levels; (2) the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Program, which investigates the key ES and H impacts of activities related to the DOE weapons complex in Texas; and (3) the Nuclear and Other Materials Program, which is aimed at minimizing safety and proliferation risks by helping to develop and advocate safe stewardship, storage, and disposition of nuclear weapons materials. This paper provides an overview of the center's nuclear activities described in four broad categories of international activities, materials safety, plutonium storage, and plutonium disposition

  9. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p < .005). The association between the school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p < .001). The difference in physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  10. Brain activations related to saccadic response conflict are not sensitive to time on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eBeldzik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e. a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  11. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  12. Environmental planning related to the oil industry activities at Maracaibo Lake Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, F.

    1993-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake has been the center of most of the hydrocarbon exploration and production activities in Venezuela since the early twenties, with a total cumulative oil extraction of nearly 40 billion barrels. The intensive activities related to production have brought a wide variety of ecosystem perturbations, as a consequence of the construction of facilities for exploration, transport, treatment, storage, and oil refining, as well as the generation of effluents, emissions, and solid wastes therein associated. The Venezuelan Petroleum Corporation (PDVSA) has recognized the importance of preventing further potential damage from its current operations and future expansions, with an additional concern for restoring affected areas. Herein, actual and future restoration/mitigation environmental planning will be discussed, emphasizing a research program focused on the Maracaibo Lake region, being conducted by PDVSA's R ampersand D Corporative branch. Research main objective is to gather, for PDVSA operating companies, a priority setting, as a function of environmental or ecological risks, related to the oil industry activities. To this end, efforts will be directed from a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account some of the major links structuring ecosystem complexity

  13. Culture-related differences in default network activity during visuo-spatial judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Joshua O S; Hebrank, Andrew C; Sutton, Bradley P; Chee, Michael W L; Sim, Sam K Y; Park, Denise C

    2013-02-01

    Studies on culture-related differences in cognition have shown that Westerners attend more to object-related information, whereas East Asians attend more to contextual information. Neural correlates of these different culture-related visual processing styles have been reported in the ventral-visual and fronto-parietal regions. We conducted an fMRI study of East Asians and Westerners on a visuospatial judgment task that involved relative, contextual judgments, which are typically more challenging for Westerners. Participants judged the relative distances between a dot and a line in visual stimuli during task blocks and alternated finger presses during control blocks. Behaviorally, East Asians responded faster than Westerners, reflecting greater ease of the task for East Asians. In response to the greater task difficulty, Westerners showed greater neural engagement compared to East Asians in frontal, parietal, and occipital areas. Moreover, Westerners also showed greater suppression of the default network-a brain network that is suppressed under condition of high cognitive challenge. This study demonstrates for the first time that cultural differences in visual attention during a cognitive task are manifested both by differences in activation in fronto-parietal regions as well as suppression in default regions.

  14. Tannins and Tannin-Related Derivatives Enhance the (Pseudo-)Halogenating Activity of Lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Jana; Prévost, Martine; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Sarosi, Menyhárt-Botond; Rodewald, Steffen; Arnhold, Jürgen; Flemmig, Jörg

    2017-05-26

    Several hydrolyzable tannins, proanthocyanidins, tannin derivatives, and a tannin-rich plant extract of tormentil rhizome were tested for their potential to regenerate the (pseudo-)halogenating activity, i.e., the oxidation of SCN - to hypothiocyanite - OSCN, of lactoperoxidase (LPO) after hydrogen peroxide-mediated enzyme inactivation. Measurements were performed using 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid in the presence of tannins and related substances in order to determine kinetic parameters and to trace the LPO-mediated - OSCN formation. The results were combined with docking studies and molecular orbital analysis. The - OSCN-regenerating effect of tannin derivatives relates well with their binding properties toward LPO as well as their occupied molecular orbitals. Especially simple compounds like ellagic acid or methyl gallate and the complex plant extract were found as potent enzyme-regenerating compounds. As the (pseudo-)halogenating activity of LPO contributes to the maintenance of oral bacterial homeostasis, the results provide new insights into the antibacterial mode of action of tannins and related compounds. Furthermore, chemical properties of the tested compounds that are important for efficient enzyme-substrate interaction and regeneration of the - OSCN formation by LPO were identified.

  15. Group B streptococcus activates transcriptomic pathways related to premature birth in human extraplacental membranes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ryung; Harris, Sean M; Boldenow, Erica; McEachin, Richard C; Sartor, Maureen; Chames, Mark; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) infection in pregnant women is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although inflammation during infection has been associated with preterm birth, the contribution of GBS to preterm birth is less certain. Moreover, the early mechanisms by which GBS interacts with the gestational tissue to affect adverse pregnancy outcomes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that short-term GBS inoculation activates pathways related to inflammation and premature birth in human extraplacental membranes. We tested this hypothesis using GBS-inoculated human extraplacental membranes in vitro. In agreement with our hypothesis, a microarray-based transcriptomics analysis of gene expression changes in GBS-inoculated membranes revealed that GBS activated pathways related to inflammation and preterm birth with significant gene expression changes occurring as early as 4 h postinoculation. In addition, pathways related to DNA replication and repair were downregulated with GBS treatment. Conclusions based on our transcriptomics data were further supported by responses of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and matrix metalloproteinases 1 (MMP1) and 3 (MMP3), all of which are known to be involved in parturition and premature rupture of membranes. These results support our initial hypothesis and provide new information on molecular targets of GBS infection in human extraplacental membranes.

  16. Relation of diet and physical activity to obesity in children in elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Dinarević

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of pediatric obesity is increasing. Finding the most effective preventive measures for the development of obesity in each country requires accurate epidemiological data on the number of obese children and adolescents, and their habits regarding nutrition and activity. The objective of this study was evaluate diet and physical activity in primary school students in relation to the occurrence of obesity, to determine the prevalence of overweight, mark the basic causes of this phenomenon and to establish measures for treatment and prevention.Methods: pupils 1-8. grades of primary schools were surveyed in written forms in terms of nutrition and physical activity, and measured height and weight, body mass index (BMI-body mass index was calculated by whichwas estimated the level of nourishment: BMI> p (percentile 5-malnutrition, p 5-85 proper body weight, p 85-95 over-nutrition, p> 95 obesity.Results: The study comprised 2329 pupils from 10 primary schools in the Canton of Sarajevo. Number of respondents by age and gender was balanced: I-IV 1077, V-VIII 1252; M-1226 and -1103 W. Obese and overweight was 22.46%, 62.53% of normal weight and 15 underweight, 01%. Most children eat a sandwich from school 34.63%, and food from the bakery 23.36% and 23.64% a sandwich from home. Still-dense juices are mostly drunk, even 22.34% of the students, a maximum of 52.8% water. Daily candy had taken 53.21% of all primary school students. 33.80% of the students were active on physical activity lessons and daily only 28.27%.Conclusions: The overweight problem in relation to the way of nutrition and physical activity is evident. The most important factors in] uencing the development of obesity undernutrition of children in school, the high frequency of intake of sweets and thick juice, an inadequate level ofphysical activity and sedanteran way of life.

  17. Active assistance technology for health-related behavior change: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-06-14

    Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with

  18. Food habits and physical activity in relation to overweight and obesity in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marqueta de Salas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this paper is to determine the eating habits and the physical activity in the Spanish population along 2012 and to analyze its relationship with overweight and obesity. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of the National Health Survey in 2012. A descriptive analysis of the eating habits and the physical activity was conducted within the general population and also within the genders for ages between 18 and 90 of age. Also, a multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed calculating the RRR adjusted to a series of sociodemographic variables. The goal was to assess the risk of overweight and obesity and know whether the individuals followed or not the recommendations given by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC in relation to eating habits, alcohol consumption and regular physical activity. Results: Less than 50% of the Spanish population followed the recommendations given by the SENC in the consumption of pasta and rice, vegetables, sausages and sweets. Women significantly followed the recommendations of taking fruits, vegetables, dairy products, fish, sausages, soft drinks, fast food and snacks and men followed the recommendations of pasta and rice, bread and cereals and legumes, in a statistically significant manner in both cases. More than a half of those surveyed (81.4% did not physical activity during their free time being men the ones who performed physical activity more frequently. Daily consumption of fruit was associated with a higher risk of overweight (RRR adjusted=0.77; p=.008 and occasional consumption of sweets compared to the daily one showed a higher risk of overweight (RRR adjusted=0.83; p=.005 and obesity (RRR adjusted=0.73; p<.001. Physical activity several times a week or monthly decreased the latter risk significantly (p<.001. Conclusions: The Spanish population does not exercise enough in its free time. Association between eating habits and overweight and obesity is not

  19. Regulatory behavior and frontal activity: Considering the role of revised-BIS in relative right frontal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Neal, Lauren B; Threadgill, A Hunter

    2018-01-01

    Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation. Specifically, research suggests that greater activation of the r-BIS is associated with greater relative right frontal activity, and reduced r-BIS activation is associated with reduced right frontal activity (greater relative left frontal activity). We review evidence examining trait and state frontal activity using EEG, source localization, lesion studies, neuronal stimulation, and fMRI supporting the idea that r-BIS may be the core personality system related to greater relative right frontal activity. In addition, the current review seeks to disentangle avoidance motivation and r-BIS as substrates of relative right frontal asymmetry. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Suprathreshold Heat Pain Response Predicts Activity-Related Pain, but Not Rest-Related Pain, in an Exercise-Induced Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Simon, Corey B.; Valencia, Carolina; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Borsa, Paul A.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced injury models are advantageous for studying pain since the onset of pain is controlled and both pre-injury and post-injury factors can be utilized as explanatory variables or predictors. In these studies, rest-related pain is often considered the primary dependent variable or outcome, as opposed to a measure of activity-related pain. Additionally, few studies include pain sensitivity measures as predictors. In this study, we examined the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors, including pain sensitivity, for induced rest and activity-related pain following exercise induced muscle injury. The overall goal of this investigation was to determine if there were convergent or divergent predictors of rest and activity-related pain. One hundred forty-three participants provided demographic, psychological, and pain sensitivity information and underwent a standard fatigue trial of resistance exercise to induce injury of the dominant shoulder. Pain at rest and during active and resisted shoulder motion were measured at 48- and 96-hours post-injury. Separate hierarchical models were generated for assessing the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors on 48- and 96-hour rest-related and activity-related pain. Overall, we did not find a universal predictor of pain across all models. However, pre-injury and post-injury suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR), a pain sensitivity measure, was a consistent predictor of activity-related pain, even after controlling for known psychological factors. These results suggest there is differential prediction of pain. A measure of pain sensitivity such as SHPR appears more influential for activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, and may reflect different underlying processes involved during pain appraisal. PMID:25265560