Relations among several nuclear and electronic density functional reactivity indexes
Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Luis, Josep M.; Duran, Miquel; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Solà, Miquel
2003-11-01
An expansion of the energy functional in terms of the total number of electrons and the normal coordinates within the canonical ensemble is presented. A comparison of this expansion with the expansion of the energy in terms of the total number of electrons and the external potential leads to new relations among common density functional reactivity descriptors. The formulas obtained provide explicit links between important quantities related to the chemical reactivity of a system. In particular, the relation between the nuclear and the electronic Fukui functions is recovered. The connection between the derivatives of the electronic energy and the nuclear repulsion energy with respect to the external potential offers a proof for the "Quantum Chemical le Chatelier Principle." Finally, the nuclear linear response function is defined and the relation of this function with the electronic linear response function is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2002-08-01
In early work, Dawson and March [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5850 (1984)] proposed a local energy method for treating both Hartree-Fock and correlated electron theory. Here, an exactly solvable model two-electron atom with pure harmonic interactions is treated in its ground state in the above context. A functional relation between the kinetic energy density t(r) at the origin r=0 and the electron density p(r) at the same point then emerges. The same approach is applied to the Hookean atom; in which the two electrons repel with Coulombic energy e 2 /r 12 , with r 12 the interelectronic separation, but are still harmonically confined. Again the kinetic energy density t(r) is the focal point, but now generalization away from r=0 is also effected. Finally, brief comments are added about He-like atomic ions in the limit of large atomic number. (author)
Influence of the curve density relative electron in dosimetry clinic in treatments stereo tactics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Parra Osorio, V.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Garcia Pareja, S.
2013-01-01
The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between clinical dosimetry in the treatments with radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy fractional obtained from the relative Electron density curve (Schneider 1996) tabulated and provided with the scanner's radiation therapy. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, Norman H.; Akbari, Ali; Rubio, Angel
2007-01-01
For arbitrary interparticle interaction u(r 12 ), the model two-electron atom in the title is shown to be such that the ground-state electron density ρ(r) is determined uniquely by the correlated kinetic energy density t R (r) of the relative motion. Explicit results for t R (r) are presented for the Hookean atom with force constant k=1/4, and also for u(r 12 )=(λ)/(r 12 2 ) . Possible relevance of the Hookean atom treatment to the ground state of the helium atom itself is briefly discussed
Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arutyunov, N.Y.; Sekkal, N.
2008-08-01
The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the
van Abbema, Joanne K.; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Brandenburg, Sytze; van der Graaf, Emiel R.
2015-01-01
Radiotherapy and particle therapy treatment planning require accurate knowledge of the electron density and elemental composition of the tissues in the beam path to predict the local dose deposition. We describe a method for the analysis of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images that provides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucca, C.
2009-04-01
The current density in tokamak plasmas strongly affects transport phenomena, therefore its understanding and control represent a crucial challenge for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of tokamak studies, three topics have been tackled in the course of the present thesis: first, the modelling of the current density evolution in electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) discharges in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV); second, the study of current diffusion and inversion of electron transport properties observed during Swing Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (Swing ECCD) discharges in TCV; third, the analysis of the current density tailoring obtained by local ECCD driven by the improved EC system for sawtooth control and reverse shear scenarios in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The work dedicated to the study of eITBs in TCV has been undertaken to identify which of the main parameters, directly related to the current density, played a relevant role in the confinement improvement created during these advanced scenarios. In this context, the current density has to be modeled, there being no measurement currently available on TCV. Since the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) model has been validated on TCV ohmic heated plasmas, the corresponding scaling factor has often been used as a measure of improved confinement on TCV. The many interpretative simulations carried on different TCV discharges have shown that the thermal confinement improvement factor, H RLW , linearly increases with the absolute value of the minimum shear outside ρ > 0.3, ρ indicating a normalized radial coordinate. These investigations, performed with the transport code ASTRA, therefore confirmed a general observation, formulated through previous studies, that the formation of the transport barrier is correlated with the magnetic shear reversal. This was, indeed, found to be true in all cases studied, regardless of the different heating and
Solar corona electron density distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esposito, P.B.; Edenhofer, P.; Lueneburg, E.
1980-01-01
Three and one-half months of single-frequency (f= 0 2.2 x 10 9 Hz) time delay data (earth-to-spacecraft and return signal travel time) were acquired from the Helios 2 spacecraft around the time of its solar occupation (May 16, 1976). Following the determination of the spacecraft trajectory the excess time delay due to the integrated effect of free electrons along the signal's ray path could be separated and modeled. An average solar corona, equatorial, electron density profile, during solar minimum, was deduced from time delay measurements acquired within 5--60 solar radii (R/sub S/) of the sun. As a point of reference, at 10 R/sub S/ from the sun we find an average electron density of 4500 el cm -3 . However, there appears to be an asymmtry in the electron density as the ray path moved from the west (preoccultation) to east (post-occulation) solar limb. This may be related to the fact that during entry into occulation the heliographic latitude of the ray path (at closes approach to the sun) was about 6 0 , whereas during exit it became -7 0 . The Helios electron density model is compared with similar models deduced from a variety of different experimental techniques. Within 5--20 R/sub S/ of the sun the models separate according to solar minimum or maximum conditions; however, anomalies are evident
Statistical theory of electron densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, L.R.; Hoffman, G.G.; Harris, R.A.
1988-01-01
An optimized Thomas--Fermi theory is proposed which retains the simplicity of the original theory and is a suitable reference theory for Monte Carlo density functional treatments of condensed materials. The key ingredient of the optimized theory is a neighborhood sampled potential which contains effects of the inhomogeneities in the one-electron potential. In contrast to the traditional Thomas--Fermi approach, the optimized theory predicts a finite electron density in the vicinity of a nucleus. Consideration of the example of an ideal electron gas subject to a central Coulomb field indicates that implementation of the approach is straightforward. The optimized theory is found to fail completely when a classically forbidden region is approached. However, these circumstances are not of primary interest for calculations of interatomic forces. It is shown how the energy functional of the density may be constructed by integration of a generalized Hellmann--Feynman relation. This generalized Hellmann--Feynman relation proves to be equivalent to the variational principle of density functional quantum mechanics, and, therefore, the present density theory can be viewed as a variational consequence of the constructed energy functional
Transition densities with electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heisenberg, J.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the ground state and transition charge densities in nuclei via electron scattering. Using electrons as a spectroscopic tool in nuclear physics, these transition densities can be determined with high precision, also in the nuclear interior. These densities generally ask for a microscopic interpretation in terms of contributions from individual nucleons. The results for single particle transitions confirm the picture of particle-phonon coupling. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Guosheng; Liang Yuan; Wu Danling; Hao Yanrong; Lu Heming; Chen Jiaxin; Liao Chaolong; Mo Ying; Huang Yihang
2012-01-01
Objective: To study the CT values of certain phantoms scanned by various CT scanners with dissimilar parameters. Methods: The CT values of tissue equivalent inserts was measured in the TM164 and CIRS-062 phantom scanned by TOSHIBA AQUILION TM , SIEMENS SOMATOM TM SENSATION TM 64 and SIEMENS SOMATOM TM SENSATION TM OPEN with different voltages,currents and slice thicknesses and then the corresponding CT-to-density curves was compared. Results: There are no significant differences of CT values with various currents and slice thicknesses and also for low atom number materials scanned by different scanners with various tube voltages. The CT values of high atom number materials have obvious differences scanned with tube voltage,the maximum is about 400 HU. There are also significant differences between CT-density curves of two phantoms in the range from soft tissues to dense bone, the maximum is up to 500 HU. Conclusions: CT-density curves were highly affected by materials of phantoms, scanners and tube voltages. It is necessary to measure the curve with a comfortable phantom and certain scanner to assure the accuracy for dose calculation for treatment planning system. (authors)
Vibronic coupling density and related concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Tohru; Uejima, Motoyuki; Iwahara, Naoya; Haruta, Naoki; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi
2013-01-01
Vibronic coupling density is derived from a general point of view as a one-electron property density. Related concepts as well as their applications are presented. Linear and nonlinear vibronic coupling density and related concepts, orbital vibronic coupling density, reduced vibronic coupling density, atomic vibronic coupling constant, and effective vibronic coupling density, illustrate the origin of vibronic couplings and enable us to design novel functional molecules or to elucidate chemical reactions. Transition dipole moment density is defined as an example of the one-electron property density. Vibronic coupling density and transition dipole moment density open a way to design light-emitting molecules with high efficiency.
Mobility-electron density relation probed via controlled oxygen vacancy doping in epitaxial BaSnO3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koustav Ganguly
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The recently discovered high room temperature mobility in wide band gap semiconducting BaSnO3 is of exceptional interest for perovskite oxide heterostructures. Critical open issues with epitaxial films include determination of the optimal dopant and understanding the mobility-electron density (μ-n relation. These are addressed here through a transport study of BaSnO3(001 films with oxygen vacancy doping controlled via variable temperature vacuum annealing. Room temperature n can be tuned from 5 × 1019 cm−3 to as low as 2 × 1017 cm−3, which is shown to drive a weak- to strong-localization transition, a 104-fold increase in resistivity, and a factor of 28 change in μ. The data reveal μ ∝ n0.65 scaling over the entire n range probed, important information for understanding mobility-limiting scattering mechanisms.
Anomalous evolution of Ar metastable density with electron density in high density Ar discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Min; Chang, Hong-Young; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Shin, Yong-Hyeon
2011-01-01
Recently, an anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with plasma discharge power (electron density) was reported [A. M. Daltrini, S. A. Moshkalev, T. J. Morgan, R. B. Piejak, and W. G. Graham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Although the importance of the metastable atom and its density has been reported in a lot of literature, however, a basic physics behind the anomalous evolution of metastable density has not been clearly understood yet. In this study, we investigated a simple global model to elucidate the underlying physics of the anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with the electron density. On the basis of the proposed simple model, we reproduced the anomalous evolution of the metastable density and disclosed the detailed physics for the anomalous result. Drastic changes of dominant mechanisms for the population and depopulation processes of Ar metastable atoms with electron density, which take place even in relatively low electron density regime, is the clue to understand the result.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tulunay, Y.K.; Demir, O.; Tauriainen, A.
1976-01-01
The mid-latitude electron density trough position and the scintillation boundary have been compared for magnetically quiet periods by using the data returned by Ariel 3 and Explorer 22 satellites. The scintillation boundary is found southward of the trough during daytime, but at night the positions are reversed. (author)
Electron densities in planetary nebulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanghellini, L.; Kaler, J.B.
1989-01-01
Electron densities for 146 planetary nebulae have been obtained for analyzing a large sample of forbidden lines by interpolating theoretical curves obtained from solutions of the five-level atoms using up-to-date collision strengths and transition probabilities. Electron temperatures were derived from forbidden N II and/or forbidden O III lines or were estimated from the He II 4686 A line strengths. The forbidden O II densities are generally lower than those from forbidden Cl III by an average factor of 0.65. For data sets in which forbidden O II and forbidden S II were observed in common, the forbidden O II values drop to 0.84 that of the forbidden S II, implying that the outermost parts of the nebulae might have elevated densities. The forbidden Cl II and forbidden Ar IV densities show the best correlation, especially where they have been obtained from common data sets. The data give results within 30 percent of one another, assuming homogeneous nebulae. 106 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, K; Kadoya, N; Chiba, M; Matsushita, H; Jingu, K [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Sato, K; Nagasaka, T; Yamanaka, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2016-06-15
Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop radiation treatment planning using magnetic susceptibility obtained from quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) via MR imaging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method for generating a substitute for a CT image from an MRI. Methods: The head of a healthy volunteer was scanned using a CT scanner and a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The CT imaging was performed with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm at 80 and 120 kV (dual-energy scan). These CT images were converted to relative electron density (rED) using the CT-rED conversion table generated by a previous dual-energy CT scan. The CT-rED conversion table was generated using the conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to rED via a single linear relationship. One T2 star-weighted 3D gradient echo-based sequence with four different echo times images was acquired using the MRI scanner. These T2 star-weighted images were used to estimate the phase data. To estimate the local field map, a Laplacian unwrapping of the phase and background field removal algorithm were implemented to process phase data. To generate a magnetic susceptibility map from the local field map, we used morphology enabled dipole inversion method. The rED map was resampled to the same resolution as magnetic susceptibility, and the magnetic susceptibility-rED conversion table was obtained via voxel-by-voxel mapping between the magnetic susceptibility and rED maps. Results: A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed through our method. Conclusion: Our results show that the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed. As the next step, we assume that the voxel of the magnetic susceptibility map comprises two materials, such as water (0 ppm) and bone (-2.2 ppm) or water and marrow (0.81ppm). The elements of each voxel were estimated from the ratio of the two materials.
Electron velocity and momentum density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, G.A.
1978-01-01
A null 4-vector eta + sigma/sub μ/based on Dirac's relativistic electron equation, is shown explicitly for a plane wave and various Coulomb states. This 4-vector constitutes a mechanical ''model'' for the electron in those staes, and expresses the important spinor quantities represented conventionally by n, f, g, m, j, kappa, l, and s. The model for a plane wave agrees precisely with the relation between velocity and phase gradient customarily used in quantum theory, but the models for Coulomb states contradict that relation
Analyticity of the density of electronic wavefunctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas
2004-01-01
We prove that the electronic densities of atomic and molecular eigenfunctions are real analytic in R^3 away from the nuclei.......We prove that the electronic densities of atomic and molecular eigenfunctions are real analytic in R^3 away from the nuclei....
Imaginary time density-density correlations for two-dimensional electron gases at high density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motta, M.; Galli, D. E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Moroni, S. [IOM-CNR DEMOCRITOS National Simulation Center and SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Vitali, E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)
2015-10-28
We evaluate imaginary time density-density correlation functions for two-dimensional homogeneous electron gases of up to 42 particles in the continuum using the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method. We use periodic boundary conditions and up to 300 plane waves as basis set elements. We show that such methodology, once equipped with suitable numerical stabilization techniques necessary to deal with exponentials, products, and inversions of large matrices, gives access to the calculation of imaginary time correlation functions for medium-sized systems. We discuss the numerical stabilization techniques and the computational complexity of the methodology and we present the limitations related to the size of the systems on a quantitative basis. We perform the inverse Laplace transform of the obtained density-density correlation functions, assessing the ability of the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method to evaluate dynamical properties of medium-sized homogeneous fermion systems.
Stefanikova, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Saarelma, S.; Loarte, A.; Nunes, I.; Garzotti, L.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Drewelow, P.; Kruezi, U.; Lomanowski, B.; de la Luna, E.; Meneses, L.; Peterka, M.; Viola, B.; Giroud, C.; Maggi, C.; contributors, JET
2018-05-01
The electron temperature and density pedestals tend to vary in their relative radial positions, as observed in DIII-D (Beurskens et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056120) and ASDEX Upgrade (Dunne et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 14017). This so-called relative shift has an impact on the pedestal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and hence on the pedestal height (Osborne et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 063018). The present work studies the effect of the relative shift on pedestal stability of JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) baseline low triangularity (δ) unseeded plasmas, and similar JET-C discharges. As shown in this paper, the increase of the pedestal relative shift is correlated with the reduction of the normalized pressure gradient, therefore playing a strong role in pedestal stability. Furthermore, JET-ILW tends to have a larger relative shift compared to JET carbon wall (JET-C), suggesting a possible role of the plasma facing materials in affecting the density profile location. Experimental results are then compared with stability analysis performed in terms of the peeling-ballooning model and with pedestal predictive model EUROPED (Saarelma et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion). Stability analysis is consistent with the experimental findings, showing an improvement of the pedestal stability, when the relative shift is reduced. This has been ascribed mainly to the increase of the edge bootstrap current, and to minor effects related to the increase of the pedestal pressure gradient and narrowing of the pedestal pressure width. Pedestal predictive model EUROPED shows a qualitative agreement with experiment, especially for low values of the relative shift.
Limitations in accurate electron density studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wal, R. van der.
1982-01-01
Most of X-ray diffraction studies are devoted to the determination of three-dimensional crystal structures from the electron density distributions. In these cases the density distributions are described by the independent atom model (IAM model), which consists of a superposition of spherically averaged free atom densities, which are smeared by thermal vibrations. During the last few decades studies have been made into the deviations of the density distribution from the IAM model, which enables a study of the chemical binding between atoms. The total density can be described using pseudo-atom multipole models as a superposition of aspherical pseudo-atom densities. A fundamental problem is that the separation of this density into an IAM and a deformation part is not unique. This thesis considers the problem and besides deformation densities from X-ray diffraction also considers the corresponding deformation electric field and deformation potential. (C.F.)
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J.
1997-07-01
Linus Pauling once said that a topic must satisfy two criteria before it can be taught to students. First, students must be able to assimilate the topic within a reasonable amount of time. Second, the topic must be relevant to the educational needs and interests of the students. Unfortunately, the standard general chemistry textbook presentation of "electronic structure theory", set as it is in the language of molecular orbitals, has a difficult time satisfying either criterion. Many of the quantum mechanical aspects of molecular orbitals are too difficult for most beginning students to appreciate, much less master, and the few applications that are presented in the typical textbook are too limited in scope to excite much student interest. This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, which we have developed and used for several years in general chemistry (G.P.S.) and organic chemistry (A.J.S.) courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions, and largely satisfies Pauling's two criteria. Students find electron density models easy to understand and use, and because these models are easily applied to a broad range of topics, they successfully convey to students the importance of electronic structure. In addition, when students finally learn about orbital concepts they are better prepared because they already have a well-developed three-dimensional picture of electronic structure to fall back on. We note in this regard that the types of models we use have found widespread, rigorous application in chemical research (1, 2), so students who understand and use electron density models do not need to "unlearn" anything before progressing to more advanced theories.
Determination of electron temperature and electron density in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It is seen that the electron temperature increases from 5.8 × 102 oK to 7.83 × 104 oK as the pd is reduced from 130mm Hg × mm to 60 mm Hg × mm for argon. The electron densities increases from 2.8 × 1011/cm3 to 3.2 × 1011 /cm3 for the same variation of pds. For air the electron temperature increases from 3.6 × 104 oK to ...
Topside electron density at low latitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezquer, R.G.; Cabrera, M.A.; Flores, R.F.; Mosert, M.
2002-01-01
The validity of IRI to predict the electron density at the topside electron density profile over the low latitude region is checked. The comparison with measurements obtained with the Taiyo satellite during low solar activity shows that, the disagreement between prediction and measurement is lower than 40% for 70% of considered cases. These IRI predictions are better than those obtained in a previous work at the southern peak of the equatorial anomaly for high solar activity. Additional studies for low solar activity, using ionosonde data as input parameters in the model, are needed in order to check if the observed deviations are due to the predicted peak characteristics or to the predicted shape of the topside profile. (author)
Electron density measurement for steady state plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawano, Yasunori; Chiba, Shinichi; Inoue, Akira
2000-01-01
Electron density of a large tokamak has been measured successfully by the tangential CO 2 laser polarimeter developed in JT-60U. The tangential Faraday rotation angles of two different wavelength of 9.27 and 10.6 μm provided the electron density independently. Two-color polarimeter concept for elimination of Faraday rotation at vacuum windows is verified for the first time. A system stability for long time operation up to ∼10 hours is confirmed. A fluctuation of a signal baseline is observed with a period of ∼3 hours and an amplitude of 0.4 - 0.7deg. In order to improve the polarimeter, an application of diamond window for reduction of the Faraday rotation at vacuum windows and another two-color polarimeter concept for elimination of mechanical rotation component are proposed. (author)
Electron density profile in multilayer systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toekesi, K.
2004-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been used extensively to study the multilayer systems, where the thickness of layers are in the nanometer range. These studies has received considerable attention because of its technological interest, for example in the nanotechnology. On the most fundamental level, its importance is derived from the basic physics that is involved. One key quantities of interest is the response of a many-body system to an external perturbation: How act and how modify the interface between the solid-solid or solid-vacuum the excitations in the solid and in the vicinity of the interfaces. In this work, as a starting point of such investigations we calculated the electron density profile for multilayer systems. Our approach employs the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), that is, the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation in which the potential and forces are determined selfconsistently from the dynamics governed by the Schroedinger equation. We treat the problem in TDDFT at the level of the local-density approximation (LDA). Later, the comparison of experimentally obtained loss functions and the theory, based on our TDDFT calculations can provide deeper understanding of surface physics. We performed the calculations for half-infinite samples characterized by r s =1.642 and r s =1.997. We also performed the calculations for double layer systems. The substrate was characterized by r s =1.997 and the coverage by r s =1.642. Fig. 1. shows the obtained electron density profile in LDA approximation. Because of the sharp cutoff of electronic wave vectors at the Fermi surface, the densities in the interior exhibit slowly decaying Friedel oscillations. To highlight the Friedel oscillation we enlarged the electron density profile in Fig. 1a. and Fig. 1b. The work was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Found: OTKA No. T038016, the grant 'Bolyai' from the Hungarian Academy of
Tomography of the ionospheric electron density with geostatistical inversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Minkwitz
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In relation to satellite applications like global navigation satellite systems (GNSS and remote sensing, the electron density distribution of the ionosphere has significant influence on trans-ionospheric radio signal propagation. In this paper, we develop a novel ionospheric tomography approach providing the estimation of the electron density's spatial covariance and based on a best linear unbiased estimator of the 3-D electron density. Therefore a non-stationary and anisotropic covariance model is set up and its parameters are determined within a maximum-likelihood approach incorporating GNSS total electron content measurements and the NeQuick model as background. As a first assessment this 3-D simple kriging approach is applied to a part of Europe. We illustrate the estimated covariance model revealing the different correlation lengths in latitude and longitude direction and its non-stationarity. Furthermore, we show promising improvements of the reconstructed electron densities compared to the background model through the validation of the ionosondes Rome, Italy (RO041, and Dourbes, Belgium (DB049, with electron density profiles for 1 day.
Precision Electron Density Measurements in the SSX MHD Wind Tunnel
Suen-Lewis, Emma M.; Barbano, Luke J.; Shrock, Jaron E.; Kaur, Manjit; Schaffner, David A.; Brown, Michael R.
2017-10-01
We characterize fluctuations of the line averaged electron density of Taylor states produced by the magnetized coaxial plasma gun of the SSX device using a 632.8 nm HeNe laser interferometer. The analysis method uses the electron density dependence of the refractive index of the plasma to determine the electron density of the Taylor states. Typical magnetic field and density values in the SSX device approach about B ≅ 0.3 T and n = 0 . 4 ×1016 cm-3 . Analysis is improved from previous density measurement methods by developing a post-processing method to remove relative phase error between interferometer outputs and to account for approximately linear phase drift due to low-frequency mechanical vibrations of the interferometer. Precision density measurements coupled with local measurements of the magnetic field will allow us to characterize the wave composition of SSX plasma via density vs. magnetic field correlation analysis, and compare the wave composition of SSX plasma with that of the solar wind. Preliminary results indicate that density and magnetic field appear negatively correlated. Work supported by DOE ARPA-E ALPHA program.
Electronic structure and electron momentum density in TiSi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghaleb, A.M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq); Mohammad, F.M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Tikreet, Tikreet (Iraq); Sahariya, Jagrati [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Mukesh [Physics Division, Forensic Science Laboratory, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India); Ahuja, B.L., E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India)
2013-03-01
We report the electron momentum density in titanium monosilicide using {sup 241}Am Compton spectrometer. Experimental Compton profile has been compared with the theoretical profiles computed using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). The energy bands, density of states and Fermi surface structures of TiSi are reported using the LCAO and the full potential linearized augmented plane wave methods. Theoretical anisotropies in directional Compton profiles are interpreted in terms of energy bands. To confirm the conducting behavior, we also report the real space analysis of experimental Compton profile of TiSi.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Parra Osorio, V.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Garcia Pareja, S.
2013-07-01
The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between clinical dosimetry in the treatments with radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy fractional obtained from the relative Electron density curve (Schneider 1996) tabulated and provided with the scanner's radiation therapy. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, S. M.; Han, J. M.; Cha, Y. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Rhee, Y. J.; Cha, H. K.
2008-01-01
Neutron generation through Coulomb explosion of deuterium contained gas clusters is known as one of the very effective methods to produce fusion neutrons using a table top terawatt laser. The energy of ions produced through Coulomb explosions is very important factor to generate neutrons efficiently. Until the ion energy reaches around∼MeV level, the D D fusion reaction probability increases exponentially. The understanding of laser beam propagation and laser energy deposition in clusters is very important to improve neutron yields. As the laser beam propagates through clusters medium, laser energy is absorbed in clusters by ionization of molecules consisting clusters. When the backing pressure of gas increases, the average size of clusters increases and which results in higher energy absorption and earlier termination of laser propagation. We first installed a Michelson interferometer to view laser beam traces in a cluster plume and to measure spatial electron density profiles of a plasma channel which was produced by a laser beam. And then we measured the energy of ions distributed along the plasma channel with a translating slit to select ions from narrow parts of a plasma channel. In our experiments, methane gas was used to produce gas clusters at a room temperature and the energy distribution of proton ions for different gas backing pressure were measured by the time of flight method using dual micro channel plates. By comparing the distribution of ion energies and electron densities, we could understand the condition for effective laser energy delivery to clusters
Electron density measurements on the plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rueckle, B.
1976-01-01
The paper presents a determination of the maximum electron density in a plasma focus, produced with the NESSI experimental setup, by the method of laser beam deflection. For each discharge a time-resolved measurement was performed at four different places. Neutron efficiency as well as the time of the initial X-ray emission was registrated. The principle and the economic aspects of the beam deflection method are presented in detail. The experimental findings and the resulting knowledge of the neutron efficiency are discussed. (GG) [de
Electron Density Calibration for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera-Martinez, F.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Celis-Lopez, M. A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, A.
2006-01-01
Computed tomography (CT) images are used as basic input data for most modern radiosurgery treatment planning systems (TPS). CT data not only provide anatomic information to delineate target volumes, but also allow the introduction of corrections for tissue inhomogeneities into dose calculations during the treatment planning procedure. These corrections involve the determination of a relationship between tissue electron density (ρe) and their corresponding Hounsfield Units (HU). In this work, an elemental analysis of different commercial tissue equivalent materials using Scanning Electron Microscopy was carried out to characterize their chemical composition. The tissue equivalent materials were chosen to ensure a large range of ρe to be included in the CT scanner calibration. A phantom was designed and constructed with these materials to simulate the size of a human head
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohno, M.
1983-01-01
We report fully consistent calculations of the longitudinal and transverse response functions of the inclusive quasi-elastic electron scattering on 12 C in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The distorted wave for the outgoing nucleon is constructed from the same non-local Hartree-Fock field as in the ground-state description. Thus the orthogonality and Pauli principle requirements are naturally satisfied. The theoretical prediction, based on the standard density-dependent effective interaction (GO force), shows a good correspondence to the experimental data. Since the calculated response functions automatically satisfy the relevant sum rule, this work illuminates the well-known puzzle concerning the longitudinal part, which remains to be solved. We study the energy-weighted sum rules and discuss effects beyond the mean-field approximation. Meson-exchange-current contributions to the transverse response function are also estimated and found to be small due to cancellations among them. (orig.)
Reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density by geostatistical inversion
Minkwitz, David; van den Boogaart, Karl Gerald; Hoque, Mainul; Gerzen, Tatjana
2015-04-01
The ionosphere is the upper part of the atmosphere where sufficient free electrons exist to affect the propagation of radio waves. Typically, the ionosphere extends from about 50 - 1000 km and its morphology is mainly driven by solar radiation, particle precipitation and charge exchange. Due to the strong ionospheric impact on many applications dealing with trans-ionospheric signals such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning, navigation and remote sensing, the demand for a highly accurate reconstruction of the electron density is ever increasing. Within the Helmholtz Alliance project "Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics" (EDA) the utilization of the upcoming radar mission TanDEM-L and its related products are prepared. The TanDEM-L mission will operate in L-band with a wavelength of approximately 24 cm and aims at an improved understanding of environmental processes and ecosystem change, e.g. earthquakes, volcanos, glaciers, soil moisture and carbon cycle. Since its lower frequency compared to the X-band (3 cm) and C-band (5 cm) radar missions, the influence of the ionosphere will increase and might lead to a significant degradation of the radar image quality if no correction is applied. Consequently, our interest is the reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density in order to mitigate the ionospheric delay. Following the ionosphere's behaviour we establish a non-stationary and anisotropic spatial covariance model of the electron density separated into a vertical and horizontal component. In order to estimate the model's parameters we chose a maximum likelihood approach. This approach incorporates GNSS total electron content measurements, representing integral measurements of the electron density between satellite to receiver ray paths, and the NeQuick model as a non-stationary trend. Based on a multivariate normal distribution the spatial covariance model parameters are optimized and afterwards the 3D electron density can be
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. K. Hargreaves
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km.
The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. K. Hargreaves
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km. The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.
Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mics, Zoltán; D'Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.
2013-01-01
—In a series of systematic optical pump - terahertz probe experiments we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in a large range of carrier densities. The electron scattering time decreases by as much as a factor of 4, from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density...
The relationship between ionospheric temperature, electron density and solar activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, J.N.; Williams, P.J.S.
1980-01-01
In studying the F-region of the ionosphere several authors have concluded that the difference between the electron temperature Tsub(e) and the ion temperature Tsub(i) is related to the electron density N. It was later noted that solar activity (S) was involved and an empirical relationship of the following form was established: Tsub(e)-Tsub(i) = A-BN+CS. The present paper extends this work using day-time data over a four year period. The results are given and discussed. A modified form of the empirical relation is proposed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woo, M.K.; Cunningham, J.R.
1990-01-01
In the convolution/superposition method of photon beam dose calculations, inhomogeneities are usually handled by using some form of scaling involving the relative electron densities of the inhomogeneities. In this paper the accuracy of density scaling as applied to primary electrons generated in photon interactions is examined. Monte Carlo calculations are compared with density scaling calculations for air and cork slab inhomogeneities. For individual primary photon kernels as well as for photon interactions restricted to a thin layer, the results can differ significantly, by up to 50%, between the two calculations. However, for realistic photon beams where interactions occur throughout the whole irradiated volume, the discrepancies are much less severe. The discrepancies for the kernel calculation are attributed to the scattering characteristics of the electrons and the consequent oversimplified modeling used in the density scaling method. A technique called the kernel integration technique is developed to analyze the general effects of air and cork inhomogeneities. It is shown that the discrepancies become significant only under rather extreme conditions, such as immediately beyond the surface after a large air gap. In electron beams all the primary electrons originate from the surface of the phantom and the errors caused by simple density scaling can be much more significant. Various aspects relating to the accuracy of density scaling for air and cork slab inhomogeneities are discussed
The relation between herbivore density and relative resource ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The relation between kudu density and the relative density of habitat patches in each landscape was significant, with exponential models producing more significant statistics than linear models. Regressions of resource density against animal density are useful to understand 'carrying capacity' for wild herbivores, and ...
Assessing the effect of electron density in photon dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seco, J.; Evans, P. M.
2006-01-01
Photon dose calculation algorithms (such as the pencil beam and collapsed cone, CC) model the attenuation of a primary photon beam in media other than water, by using pathlength scaling based on the relative mass density of the media to water. In this study, we assess if differences in the electron density between the water and media, with different atomic composition, can influence the accuracy of conventional photon dose calculations algorithms. A comparison is performed between an electron-density scaling method and the standard mass-density scaling method for (i) tissues present in the human body (such as bone, muscle, etc.), and for (ii) water-equivalent plastics, used in radiotherapy dosimetry and quality assurance. We demonstrate that the important material property that should be taken into account by photon dose algorithms is the electron density, and not the mass density. The mass-density scaling method is shown to overestimate, relative to electron-density predictions, the primary photon fluence for tissues in the human body and water-equivalent plastics, where 6%-7% and 10% differences were observed respectively for bone and air. However, in the case of patients, differences are expected to be smaller due to the large complexity of a treatment plan and of the patient anatomy and atomic composition and of the smaller thickness of bone/air that incident photon beams of a treatment plan may have to traverse. Differences have also been observed for conventional dose algorithms, such as CC, where an overestimate of the lung dose occurs, when irradiating lung tumors. The incorrect lung dose can be attributed to the incorrect modeling of the photon beam attenuation through the rib cage (thickness of 2-3 cm in bone upstream of the lung tumor) and through the lung and the oversimplified modeling of electron transport in convolution algorithms. In the present study, the overestimation of the primary photon fluence, using the mass-density scaling method, was shown
Equation satisfied by electron-electron mutual Coulomb repulsion energy density functional
Joubert, Daniel P.
2011-01-01
The electron-electron mutual Coulomb repulsion energy density functional satisfies an equation that links functionals and functional derivatives at N-electron and (N-1)-electron densities for densities determined from the same adiabatic scaled external potential for the N-electron system.
Interaction effects in liquids with low electron densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, W.W. Jr.
1987-01-01
The author discusses two complementary classes of systems in which strong electron-electron or electron-ion interactions appear at low electron densities. The first are the expanded liquid alkali metals (cesium) in which electron correlation effects have a profound effect on the magnetic properties on the metallic side of the metal-nonmetal transition. The second group are molten alkali halides containing low densities of localized electrons introduced, say, by dissolution of small amounts of excess metal. (Auth.)
Fingerprint-based structure retrieval using electron density.
Yin, Shuangye; Dokholyan, Nikolay V
2011-03-01
We present a computational approach that can quickly search a large protein structural database to identify structures that fit a given electron density, such as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We use geometric invariants (fingerprints) constructed using 3D Zernike moments to describe the electron density, and reduce the problem of fitting of the structure to the electron density to simple fingerprint comparison. Using this approach, we are able to screen the entire Protein Data Bank and identify structures that fit two experimental electron densities determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Zheng, Xiao; Yam, ChiYung; Wang, Fan; Chen, GuanHua
2011-08-28
We present the time-dependent holographic electron density theorem (TD-HEDT), which lays the foundation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for open electronic systems. For any finite electronic system, the TD-HEDT formally establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the electron density inside any finite subsystem and the time-dependent external potential. As a result, any electronic property of an open system in principle can be determined uniquely by the electron density function inside the open region. Implications of the TD-HEDT on the practicality of TDDFT are also discussed.
Electron density in non-ideal metal complexes. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varghese, J.N.; Maslen, E.N.
1985-01-01
The structure of copper sulphate pentahydrate was refined using an accurate set of X-ray data: Msub(r)=249.68, triclinic, Panti 1, a=6.1224(4), b=10.7223(4), c=5.9681(4) A, α=82.35(2), β=107.33(2), γ=102.60(4) 0 , V=364.02(3) A 3 , Z=2, Dsub(x)=2.278 Mg m -3 , Mo Kα, lambda=0.71069 A, μ=3.419 mm -1 , F(000)=254.0, T=298 K, R=0.039 for 7667 reflections. The structural parameters are compared with those obtained by neutron diffraction. The differences between X-ray and neutron positions are related to the hydrogen bonding in the structure. The dominant features in the residual density near the two crystallographically independent Cu atoms result from the redistribution of 3d electrons due to bonding. The density is anisotropic, as expected in view of the Jahn-Teller distortion in the structure. Marked differences in the d-electron distributions for the two Cu atoms correlate with small variations in molecular geometry. Second-nearest-neighbour effects, such as those arising from differently oriented ligating waters, are significant in this structure. Sharp features in the difference density close to the Cu nuclei are similar to those in other Cu 2+ complexes, indicating that the electron density in this region is more reliable than previously believed. (orig.)
Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Surface Wave Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasinski, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.; Mizeraczyk, J.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present results of the spectroscopic measurements of the electron density in a microwave surface wave sustained discharges in Ar and Ne at atmospheric pressure. The discharge in the form of a plasma column was generated inside a quartz tube cooled with a dielectric liquid. The microwave power delivered to the discharge via rectangular waveguide was applied in the range of 200-1500 W. In all investigations presented in this paper, the gas flow rate was relatively low (0.5 l/min), so the plasma column was generated in the form of a single filament, and the lengths of the upstream and downstream plasma columns were almost the same. The electron density in the plasma columns was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of H β spectral line, including plasma region inside the waveguide which was not investigated earlier
Interferometer for electron density measurement in exploding wire plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batra, Jigyasa; Jaiswar, Ashutosh; Kaushik, T.C.
2016-12-01
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) has been developed for measuring electron density profile in pulsed plasmas. MZI is to be used for characterizing exploding wire plasmas for correlating electron density dynamics with x-rays emission. Experiments have been carried out for probing electron density in pulsed plasmas produced in our laboratory like in spark gap and exploding wire plasmas. These are microsecond phenomenon. Changes in electron density have been registered in interferograms with the help of a streak camera for specific time window. Temporal electron density profiles have been calculated by analyzing temporal fringe shifts in interferograms. This report deals with details of MZI developed in our laboratory along with its theory. Basic introductory details have also been provided for exploding wire plasmas to be probed. Some demonstrative results of electron density measurements in pulsed plasmas of spark gap and single exploding wires have been described. (author)
Preionization electron density measurement by collecting electric charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giordano, G.; Letardi, T.
1988-01-01
A method using electron collection for preionization-electron number density measurements is presented. A cathode-potential drop model is used to describe the measurement principle. There is good agreement between the model and the experimental result
A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.
Beck, Thomas L
2015-12-21
The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.
The electronic density of states of disordered compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geertsma, W.; Dijkstra, J.
1984-11-01
Recently, the electronic properties of liquid alkali (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)-group IV (Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) alloys have been discussed by the present authors using a tight-binding model. Only anion orbitals (= group IV) are taken into account. Disorder is described by a pseudo lattice, which takes into account local coordination in one of the sublattices (cation or anion) only. In the first part of this paper it is shown that this approximation is consistent with the usual valence rules used by structural chemists for crystalline structures. In the second part of the paper the solutions for the density of states of the tight-binding Hamiltonian are studied for a number of pseudolattices. The infinite set of Green function equations is solved by using the effective transfer method, which replaces the famous Block condition. It is shown that such a model can explain the formation of bandgaps in disordered systems. By choosing the proper smallest cluster(s) of transfer loops to model the real structure by a pseudolattice, a density of states is obtained which represents properly that of the corresponding crystalline structure. Structures reminiscent to those caused by van Hove singularities already appear in the electronic density of states when relatively small cluster(s) of transfer loops are used. The approach outlined in this paper is capable of describing the electronic density of states due to various degrees of local order in a sublattice. Some of the peculiarities occurring in the solution of the density of states of certain pseudolattices, such as poles outside the band, are discussed in an appendix. (author)
Electronic DC transformer with high power density
Pavlovský, M.
2006-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components
Ferreira, Lizé-Mari; Eaby, Alan; Dillen, Jan
2017-12-15
The topology of the Coulomb potential density has been studied within the context of the theory of Atoms in Molecules and has been compared with the topologies of the electron density, the virial energy density and the Ehrenfest force density. The Coulomb potential density is found to be mainly structurally homeomorphic with the electron density. The Coulomb potential density reproduces the non-nuclear attractor which is observed experimentally in the molecular graph of the electron density of a Mg dimer, thus, for the first time ever providing an alternative and energetic foundation for the existence of this critical point. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Electron density measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitarai, O; Nakashima, H; Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1980-02-01
Electron density measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak are carried out by a 140 GHz microwave interferometer. To follow rapid density variations, a high-speed direct-reading type interferometer is constructed. The density of (1 - 20) x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ is measured.
Electron density measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitarai, Osamu; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Toi, Kazuo
1980-01-01
Electron density measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak are carried out by a 140 GHz microwave interferometer. To follow rapid density variations, a high-speed direct-reading type interferometer is constructed. The density of (1 - 20) x 10 13 cm -3 is measured. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumasa, O.; Itatani, R.
1978-01-01
The change of the electron beam distribution function due to the wave excited by the beam density modulation is observed, in relation to the suppression of electron waves in a beam-plasma system. (Auth.)
Dynamic analysis of electron density in the course of the internal motion of molecular system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tachibana, A.; Hori, K.; Asai, Y.; Yamabe, T.
1984-01-01
The general dynamic aspect of electron density of a molecular system is studied on the basis of the general equation of the electron orbital which is formulated for the dynamic study of electronic motion. The newly defined electron orbital incorporates the dynamics of molecular vibration into the electronic structures. In this scheme, the change of electron distribution caused by excitation of vibrational state is defined as the ''dynamic electron transfer.'' The dynamic electron density is found to have the remarkable ''additive'' property. The time-dependent aspect of the dynamic electron redistribution is also analyzed on the basis of the ''coherent state.'' The new method relates the classical vibrational amplitude to the quantum number of the vibrational state. As a preliminary application of the present treatment, the dynamic electron densities of H 2 , HD, HT, HF, and HCl molecules are calculated by use of ab initio molecular orbital method
DAMPING OF ELECTRON DENSITY STRUCTURES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERSTELLAR SCINTILLATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, K. W.; Terry, P. W.
2011-01-01
The forms of electron density structures in kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence are studied in connection with scintillation. The focus is on small scales L ∼ 10 8 -10 10 cm where the KAW regime is active in the interstellar medium, principally within turbulent H II regions. Scales at 10 times the ion gyroradius and smaller are inferred to dominate scintillation in the theory of Boldyrev et al. From numerical solutions of a decaying KAW turbulence model, structure morphology reveals two types of localized structures, filaments and sheets, and shows that they arise in different regimes of resistive and diffusive damping. Minimal resistive damping yields localized current filaments that form out of Gaussian-distributed initial conditions. When resistive damping is large relative to diffusive damping, sheet-like structures form. In the filamentary regime, each filament is associated with a non-localized magnetic and density structure, circularly symmetric in cross section. Density and magnetic fields have Gaussian statistics (as inferred from Gaussian-valued kurtosis) while density gradients are strongly non-Gaussian, more so than current. This enhancement of non-Gaussian statistics in a derivative field is expected since gradient operations enhance small-scale fluctuations. The enhancement of density gradient kurtosis over current kurtosis is not obvious, yet it suggests that modest density fluctuations may yield large scintillation events during pulsar signal propagation. In the sheet regime the same statistical observations hold, despite the absence of localized filamentary structures. Probability density functions are constructed from statistical ensembles in both regimes, showing clear formation of long, highly non-Gaussian tails.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas
2006-01-01
The combination of density-functional theory with other approaches to the many-electron problem through the separation of the electron-electron interaction into a short-range and a long-range contribution is a promising method, which is raising more and more interest in recent years. In this work some properties of the corresponding correlation energy functionals are derived by studying the electron-electron coalescence condition for a modified (long-range-only) interaction. A general relation for the on-top (zero electron-electron distance) pair density is derived, and its usefulness is discussed with some examples. For the special case of the uniform electron gas, a simple parametrization of the on-top pair density for a long-range only interaction is presented and supported by calculations within the ''extended Overhauser model.'' The results of this work can be used to build self-interaction corrected short-range correlation energy functionals
Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.
1975-01-01
The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.
Dimmable electronic ballasts by variable power density modulation technique
Borekci, Selim; Kesler, Selami
2014-11-01
Dimming can be accomplished commonly by switching frequency and pulse density modulation techniques and a variable inductor. In this study, a variable power density modulation (VPDM) control technique is proposed for dimming applications. A fluorescent lamp is operated in several states to meet the desired lamp power in a modulation period. The proposed technique has the same advantages of magnetic dimming topologies have. In addition, a unique and flexible control technique can be achieved. A prototype dimmable electronic ballast is built and experiments related to it have been conducted. As a result, a 36WT8 fluorescent lamp can be driven for a desired lamp power from several alternatives without modulating the switching frequency.
Simulation of the electron cloud density in BEPC II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yudong; Guo Zhiyuan; Wang Jiuqing
2004-01-01
Electron Cloud Instability (ECI) may take place in positron storage ring when the machine is operated with multi-bunch positron beam. According to the actual shape of the vacuum chamber in the BEPC II, a program has been developed. With the code, authors can calculate the electron density in the chamber with different length of antechamber and the different secondary electron yield respectively. By the simulation, the possibility to put clearing electrodes in the chamber to reduce the electron density in the central region of the chamber is investigated. The simulation provides meaningful and important results for the BEPC II project and electron cloud instability research
Effects of the light beam bending on the interferometric electron density measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Y.; Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Sugiura, M.
1980-01-01
In the measurements of plasma density profile with laser interferometers, the maximum relative errors due to the deflection of laser light caused by steep gradients of the electron density are analytically evaluated. As an example the errors in the measurements of density profile of a plasma focus by using a UV-N 2 laser are estimated. (author)
Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.; Shaw, R.R.; Poynter, R.L.
1981-01-01
This paper summarizes the electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Three basic techniques are discussed for determining the electron density: (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are critically reviewed. In all cases the electron densities are unaffected by spacecraft charging or sheath effects, which makes these measurements of particular importance for verifying in situ plasma and low-energy charged particle measurments. In the outer regions of the dayside magnetosphere, beyond about 40 R/sub J/, the electron densities range from about 3 x 10 -3 to 3 x 10 -2 cm -3 . On Voyager 2, several brief excursions apparently occurred into the low-density region north of the plasma sheet with densities less than 10 -3 cm -3 . Approaching the planet the electron density gradually increases, with the plasma frequency extending above the frequency range of the plasma wave instrument (56 kHz, or about 38 electrons cm -3 ) inside of about 8 R/sub J/. Within the high-density region of the Io plasma torus, whistlers provide measurements of the north-south scale height of the plasma torus, with scale heights ranging from about 0.9 to 2.5 R/sub J/
Accuracy of ab initio electron correlation and electron densities in vanadium dioxide
Kylänpää, Ilkka; Balachandran, Janakiraman; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Heinonen, Olle; Kent, Paul R. C.; Krogel, Jaron T.
2017-11-01
Diffusion quantum Monte Carlo results are used as a reference to analyze properties related to phase stability and magnetism in vanadium dioxide computed with various formulations of density functional theory. We introduce metrics related to energetics, electron densities and spin densities that give us insight on both local and global variations in the antiferromagnetic M1 and R phases. Importantly, these metrics can address contributions arising from the challenging description of the 3 d orbital physics in this material. We observe that the best description of energetics between the structural phases does not correspond to the best accuracy in the charge density, which is consistent with observations made recently by Medvedev et al. [Science 355, 371 (2017), 10.1126/science.aag0410] in the context of isolated atoms. However, we do find evidence that an accurate spin density connects to correct energetic ordering of different magnetic states in VO2, although local, semilocal, and meta-GGA functionals tend to erroneously favor demagnetization of the vanadium sites. The recently developed SCAN functional stands out as remaining nearly balanced in terms of magnetization across the M1-R transition and correctly predicting the ground state crystal structure. In addition to ranking current density functionals, our reference energies and densities serve as important benchmarks for future functional development. With our reference data, the accuracy of both the energy and the electron density can be monitored simultaneously, which is useful for functional development. So far, this kind of detailed high accuracy reference data for correlated materials has been absent from the literature.
Method for controlling low-energy high current density electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.N.; Oswald, R.B. Jr.
1977-01-01
A method and an apparatus for controlling the angle of incidence of low-energy, high current density electron beams are disclosed. The apparatus includes a current generating diode arrangement with a mesh anode for producing a drifting electron beam. An auxiliary grounded screen electrode is placed between the anode and a target for controlling the average angle of incidence of electrons in the drifting electron beam. According to the method of the present invention, movement of the auxiliary screen electrode relative to the target and the anode permits reliable and reproducible adjustment of the average angle of incidence of the electrons in low energy, high current density relativistic electron beams
Hβ Stark broadening in cold plasmas with low electron densities calibrated with Thomson scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palomares, J.M.; Hübner, S.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Vries, N. de; Veldhuizen, E.M. de; Sola, A.; Gamero, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der
2012-01-01
In the present work Stark broadening measurements have been carried out on low electron density (n e 19 m −3 ) and (relatively) low gas temperature (T g e . - Highlights: ► Stark broadening measurements at low density and temperature conditions ► Calibration with Thomson scattering ► Indications of the non-Lorentzian shape of the Stark broadening ► Impossibility of simultaneous diagnostic of gas temperature and electron density
Experimental core electron density of cubic boron nitride
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wahlberg, Nanna; Bindzus, Niels; Bjerg, Lasse
as well as experimental result. The redistribution of electron density will, if not accounted for, result in increased thermal parameters. It is estimated that 1.7-2 electrons is transferred from boron to nitrogen. [1]: N. Bindzus, T. Straasø, N. Wahlberg, J. Becker, L. Bjerg, N. Lock, A.-C. Dippel, and B......Experimental core electron density of cubic boron nitride Nanna Wahlberg*, Niels Bindzus*, Lasse Bjerg*, Jacob Becker*, and Bo B. Iversen* *Aarhus University, Department of Chemistry, CMC, Langelandsgade 140, 8000 Århus, Denmark The resent progress in powder diffraction provides data of quality...... obtained. The displacement parameters reported here are significantly lower than those previously reported, stressing the importance of an adequate description of the core density. The charge transfer from boron to nitrogen clearly affects the inner electron density, which is evident from theoretical...
Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and ... and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile ..... data should be subjected to maximum possible utility for the characterization of.
Tao, Jianmin; Ye, Lin-Hui; Duan, Yuhua
2017-12-01
The primary goal of Kohn-Sham density functional theory is to evaluate the exchange-correlation contribution to electronic properties. However, the accuracy of a density functional can be affected by the electron density. Here we apply the nonempirical Tao-Mo (TM) semilocal functional to study the influence of the electron density on the exchange and correlation energies of atoms and ions, and compare the results with the commonly used nonempirical semilocal functionals local spin-density approximation (LSDA), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS), and hybrid functional PBE0. We find that the spin-restricted Hartree-Fock density yields the exchange and correlation energies in good agreement with the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly for spherical atoms and ions. However, the errors of these semilocal and hybrid functionals become larger for self-consistent densities. We further find that the quality of the electron density have greater effect on the exchange-correlation energies of kinetic energy density-dependent meta-GGA functionals TPSS and TM than on those of the LSDA and GGA, and therefore, should have greater influence on the performance of meta-GGA functionals. Finally, we show that the influence of the density quality on PBE0 is slightly reduced, compared to that of PBE, due to the exact mixing.
Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.
1981-01-01
An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)
Wigner-like crystallization of Anderson-localized electron systems with low electron densities
Slutskin, A A; Pepper, M
2002-01-01
We consider an electron system under conditions of strong Anderson localization, taking into account interelectron long-range Coulomb repulsion. We establish that at sufficiently low electron densities and sufficiently low temperatures the Coulomb electron interaction brings about ordering of the Anderson-localized electrons into a structure that is close to an ideal (Wigner) crystal lattice, provided the dimension of the system is > 1. This Anderson-Wigner glass (AWG) is a new macroscopic electron state that, on the one hand, is beyond the conventional Fermi glass concept, and on the other hand, qualitatively differs from the known 'plain' Wigner glass (inherent in self-localized electron systems) in that the random slight electron displacements from the ideal crystal sites essentially depend on the electron density. With increasing electron density the AWG is found to turn into the plain Wigner glass or Fermi glass, depending on the width of the random spread of the electron levels. It is shown that the res...
Kumar, Krishan; Moudgil, R K
2012-10-17
We have studied symmetric electron-electron and electron-hole bilayers to explore the stable homogeneous spin phase and the feasibility of inhomogeneous charge-/spin-density ground states. The former is resolved by comparing the ground-state energies in states of different spin polarizations, while the latter is resolved by searching for a divergence in the wavevector-dependent static charge/spin susceptibility. For this endeavour, we have used the dielectric approach within the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi et al. We find that the inter-layer interactions tend to change an abrupt spin-polarization transition of an isolated layer into a nearly gradual one, even though the partially spin-polarized phases are not clearly stable within the accuracy of our calculation. The transition density is seen to decrease with a reduction in layer spacing, implying a suppression of spin polarization by inter-layer interactions. Indeed, the suppression shows up distinctly in the spin susceptibility computed from the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy. However, below a critical layer spacing, the unpolarized liquid becomes unstable against a charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state at a density preceding full spin polarization, with the transition density for the CDW state increasing on further reduction in the layer spacing. Due to attractive e-h correlations, the CDW state is found to be more pronounced in the e-h bilayer. On the other hand, the static spin susceptibility diverges only in the long-wavelength limit, which simply represents a transition to the homogeneous spin-polarized phase.
Plasma density profiles and finite bandwidth effects on electron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spielman, R.B.; Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.; Woo, W.
1980-01-01
Intense, p-polarized microwaves are incident on an inhomogeneous plasma in a cylindrical waveguide. Microwaves are mainly absorbed by resonant absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency, ω/sub pe/, equals the microwave frequency, ω/sub o/). The localized plasma waves strongly modify the plasma density. Step-plateau density profiles or a cavity are created depending on the plasma flow speed. Hot electron production is strongly affected by the microwave bandwidth. The hot electron temperature varies as T/sub H/ is proportional to (Δ ω/ω) -0 25 . As the hot electron temperature decreases with increasing driver bandwidth, the hot electron density increases. This increase is such that the heat flux into the overdense region (Q is proportional to eta/sub H/T/sub H/ 3 2 ) is nearly constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz Ruiz, J.; White, A. E. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mazzucato, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2015-12-15
Theory and experiments have shown that electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence on the electron gyro-scale, k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub e} ≲ 1, can be responsible for anomalous electron thermal transport in NSTX. Electron scale (high-k) turbulence is diagnosed in NSTX with a high-k microwave scattering system [D. R. Smith et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 123501 (2008)]. Here we report on stabilization effects of the electron density gradient on electron-scale density fluctuations in a set of neutral beam injection heated H-mode plasmas. We found that the absence of high-k density fluctuations from measurements is correlated with large equilibrium density gradient, which is shown to be consistent with linear stabilization of ETG modes due to the density gradient using the analytical ETG linear threshold in F. Jenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4096 (2001)] and linear gyrokinetic simulations with GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)]. We also found that the observed power of electron-scale turbulence (when it exists) is anti-correlated with the equilibrium density gradient, suggesting density gradient as a nonlinear stabilizing mechanism. Higher density gradients give rise to lower values of the plasma frame frequency, calculated based on the Doppler shift of the measured density fluctuations. Linear gyrokinetic simulations show that higher values of the electron density gradient reduce the value of the real frequency, in agreement with experimental observation. Nonlinear electron-scale gyrokinetic simulations show that high electron density gradient reduces electron heat flux and stiffness, and increases the ETG nonlinear threshold, consistent with experimental observations.
Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaub, S. C., E-mail: sschaub@mit.edu; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 167 Albany St., Bldg. NW16, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2016-08-15
Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.
Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaub, S. C.; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.
2016-01-01
Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2006-08-01
A differential equation for the Dirac density matrix γ(r, r'), given ground-state electron- and kinetic energy-densities, has been derived by March and Suhai for one- and two-level occupancy. For ten-electron spin-compensated spherical systems, it is shown here that γ ≡ γ[ρ, t g ] where ρ and t g are electron- and kinetic energy-densities. The philosophy of March and Suhai is confirmed beyond two-level filling. An important byproduct of the present approach is an explicit expression for the one-body potential of DFT in terms of the p-shell electron density. (author)
Experimental electron density profiles of the mid-latitude lower ionosphere and winter anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapoport, Z.Ts.; Sinel'nikov, V.M.
1996-01-01
Summarized measurements of high-latitude electron density profiles of N e lower ionosphere, obtained at M100B meteorological rockets by precision method of coherent frequencies during 1979-1990 at the Volgograd test site (φ = 48 deg 41' N; λ = 44 deg 21 E), are presented. The profiles obtained represent average values of electron density at various altitudes of lower ionosphere (h = 70-100 km) during night and day time hours in winter and non winter periods. Increased electron density values during daytime hours in winter are related to winter anomaly phenomenon. 36 refs.; 1 fig
CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements
Brannon, P. J.; Gerber, R. A.; Gerardo, J. B.
1982-09-01
A 10.6-μm Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2×1015 cm-2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift.
CO2 laser interferometer for temporally and spatially resolved electron density measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brannon, P.J.; Gerber, R.A.; Gerardo, J.B.
1982-01-01
A 10.6-μm Mach--Zehnder interferometer has been constructed to make temporally and spatially resolved measurements of electron densities in plasmas. The device uses a pyroelectric vidicon camera and video memory to record and display the two-dimensional fringe pattern and a Pockels cell to limit the pulse width of the 10.6-μm radiation. A temporal resolution of 14 ns has been demonstrated. The relative sensitivity of the device for electron density measurements is 2 x 10 15 cm -2 (the line integral of the line-of-sight length and electron density), which corresponds to 0.1 fringe shift
Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE
Ulwick, J. C.
1989-01-01
Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.
Electron density profile measurements by microwave reflectometry on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clairet, F.; Paume, M.; Chareau, J.M.
1995-01-01
A proposal is presented developing reflectometry diagnostic for electron density profile measurements as routine diagnostic without manual intervention as achieved at JET. Since density fluctuations seriously perturb the reflected signal and the measurement of the group delay, a method is described to overcome the irrelevant results with the help of an adaptive filtering technique. Accurate profiles are estimated for about 70% of the shots. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs
Electron density in the emission-line region of Wolf-Rayet stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varshni, Y.P.
1978-01-01
The Inglis-Teller relation, generalized for a hydrogen-like or alkali-like ion with an arbitrary core charge, is used to estimate the electron density in the emission-like region of Wolf-Rayet stars. It is found that the electron density in the region which gives rise to He II emission lines is approximately = 4 x 10 14 cm -3 . (Auth.)
Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiechula, J., E-mail: wiechula@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J. [Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2016-07-15
We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.
Positivity of the spherically averaged atomic one-electron density
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas
2008-01-01
We investigate the positivity of the spherically averaged atomic one-electron density . For a which stems from a physical ground state we prove that for r ≥ 0. This article may be reproduced in its entirety for non-commercial purposes.......We investigate the positivity of the spherically averaged atomic one-electron density . For a which stems from a physical ground state we prove that for r ≥ 0. This article may be reproduced in its entirety for non-commercial purposes....
Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O.
1999-01-01
The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index. (Author)
X-ray electron charge density distribution in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietsch, U.
1986-01-01
During the last two years new highly accurate X-ray structure amplitudes for silicon have been published. Also the scattering phases of some 'forbidden' reflections have been determined using the X-ray three-beam case. This allows the construction of most precise valence and difference electron density plots and the comparison with those calculated on the basis of the Aldret-Hart X-ray pendelloesung data or theoretically. The density plots are discussed in details of both, the bond and the atomic site. The contributions of various Fourier components and the influence of different temperature factors on the difference density are studied. (author)
Electron scattering by nuclei and transition charge densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gul'karov, I.S.
1988-01-01
Transition charge densities for states of electric type, for nuclei with A≤40--50 as obtained from data on inelastic electron scattering, are studied. The formalism of electroexcitation of nuclei is considered, together with various models (macroscopic and microscopic) used to calculate form factors, transition charge densities, and the moments of these densities: B(Eλ) and R/sub λ/ . The macroscopic models are derived microscopically, and it is shown that the model-independent sum rules lead to the same transition densities as calculations based on various hydrodynamic models. The sum rules with and without allowance for the Skyrme exchange interaction are discussed. The results of the calculations are compared with the experimental form factors of electron scattering by nuclei from 12 C to 48 Ca with excitation in them of normal-parity states with I/sup π/ = 0 + , 1 - , 2 + , 3 - , 4 + , 5 - and T = 0. The model-independent transition charge densities for the weakly collectivized excitations differ strongly from the model-dependent densities. The influence of neutrons on the transition charge densities of the nuclear isotopes 16 /sup ,/ 18 O, 32 /sup ,/ 34 S, and 40 /sup ,/ 48 Ca is considered
Electron density measurements during ion beam transport on Gamble II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, B.V.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.
1999-01-01
High-sensitivity laser interferometry was used to measure the electron density created when an intense proton beam (100 kA, 1 MeV, 50 ns) from the Gamble II generator was transported through low-pressure gas as part of a project investigating Self-Pinched Transport (SPT) of intense ion beams. This measurement is non-perturbing and sufficiently quantitative to allow benchmarking of codes (particularly IPROP) used to model beam-gas interaction and ion-beam transport. Very high phase sensitivity is required for this measurement. For example, a 100-kA, 1-MeV, 10-cm-radius proton beam with uniform current density has a line-integrated proton density equal to n b L = 3 x 10 13 cm -2 . An equal electron line-density, n e L = n b L, (expected for transport in vacuum) will be detected as a phase shift of the 1.064 microm laser beam of only 0.05degree, or an optical path change of 1.4 x 10 -4 waves (about the size of a hydrogen atom). The time-history of the line-integrated electron density, measured across a diameter of the transport chamber at 43 cm from the input aperture, starts with the proton arrival time and decays differently depending on the gas pressure. The gas conditions included vacuum (10 -4 Torr air), 30 to 220 mTorr He, and 1 Torr air. The measured densities vary by three orders of magnitude, from 10 13 to 10 16 cm -2 for the range of gas pressures investigated. In vacuum, the measured electron densities indicate only co-moving electrons (n e L approximately n b L). In He, when the gas pressure is sufficient for ionization by beam particles and SPT is observed, n e L increases to about 10 n b L. At even higher pressures where electrons contribute to ionization, even higher electron densities are observed with an ionization fraction of about 2%. The diagnostic technique as used on the SPT experiment will be described and a summary of the results will be given. The measurements are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions from the IPROP code
Electron and current density measurements on tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lammeren, A.C.A.P. van.
1991-01-01
The first part of this thesis describes the Thomson-scattering diagnostic as it was present at the TORTUR tokamak. For the first time with this diagnostic a complete tangential scattering spectrum was recorded during one single laser pulse. From this scattering spectrum the local current density was derived. Small deviations from the expected gaussian scattering spectrum were observed indicating the non-Maxwellian character of the electron-velocity distribution. The second part of this thesis describes the multi-channel interferometer/ polarimeter diagnostic which was constructed, build and operated on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) tokamak. The diagnostic was operated routinely, yielding the development of the density profiles for every discharge. When ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating) is switched on the density profile broadens, the central density decreases and the total density increases, the opposite takes place when ECRH is switched off. The influence of MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) activity on the density was clearly observable. In the central region of the plasma it was measured that in hydrogen discharges the so-called sawtooth collapse is preceded by an m=1 instability which grows rapidly. An increase in radius of this m=1 mode of 1.5 cm just before the crash is observed. In hydrogen discharges the sawtooth induced density pulse shows an asymmetry for the high- and low-field side propagation. This asymmetry disappeared for helium discharges. From the location of the maximum density variations during an m=2 mode the position of the q=2 surface is derived. The density profiles are measured during the energy quench phase of a plasma disruption. A fast flattening and broadening of the density profile is observed. (author). 95 refs.; 66 figs.; 7 tabs
Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion line emissions in the time window of 300–2000 ns. An echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector is used to record the plasma emissions.
Spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in ionospheric D region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martynenko, S.I.
1989-01-01
Expression for spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in D-region with regard to the effect of ionization-recombination proceses and negative ions is obtained in terms of atmospheric turbulence model which obeys Kolmogorov-Obukhov 2/3 law
Effective atomic number, electron density and kerma of gamma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. An attempt has been made to estimate the effective atomic number, electron density (0.001 to 105 MeV) and kerma (0.001 to 20 MeV) of gamma radiation for a wide range of oxides of ... The lanthanide oxides ﬁnd remarkable applications in the ﬁeld of medicine, biology, nuclear engineering and space technology.
Ultra-stretchable Interconnects for high-density stretchable electronics
Shafqat, S.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Savov, A.; Joshi, S.; Dekker, R.; Geers, M.G.D.
2017-01-01
The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE) promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for
Electron density measurement in an evolving plasma. Experimental devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Consoli, Terenzio; Dagai, Michel
1960-01-01
The experimental devices described here allow the electron density measurements in the 10 16 e/m 3 to 10 20 e/m 3 interval. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 1223-1225, sitting of 15 February 1960 [fr
Density functional theory study of structure, electronic and magnetic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ABHIJIT DUTTA
2018-01-30
Jan 30, 2018 ... magnetic properties of non-metal (Group 13) doped stable. Rhn(n = 2−8) ... Deformed electron density was found to be higher in the case of Rh5B, Rh4Al, Rh7Al and ...... systems: Modeling of surface alloys and alloy surfaces.
Covariance and correlation estimation in electron-density maps.
Altomare, Angela; Cuocci, Corrado; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Moliterni, Anna; Rizzi, Rosanna
2012-03-01
Quite recently two papers have been published [Giacovazzo & Mazzone (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 210-218; Giacovazzo et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 368-382] which calculate the variance in any point of an electron-density map at any stage of the phasing process. The main aim of the papers was to associate a standard deviation to each pixel of the map, in order to obtain a better estimate of the map reliability. This paper deals with the covariance estimate between points of an electron-density map in any space group, centrosymmetric or non-centrosymmetric, no matter the correlation between the model and target structures. The aim is as follows: to verify if the electron density in one point of the map is amplified or depressed as an effect of the electron density in one or more other points of the map. High values of the covariances are usually connected with undesired features of the map. The phases are the primitive random variables of our probabilistic model; the covariance changes with the quality of the model and therefore with the quality of the phases. The conclusive formulas show that the covariance is also influenced by the Patterson map. Uncertainty on measurements may influence the covariance, particularly in the final stages of the structure refinement; a general formula is obtained taking into account both phase and measurement uncertainty, valid at any stage of the crystal structure solution.
Behavior of the bottomside electron density profile over Pruhonice
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mosert, M.; Burešová, Dalia; Ezquer, R.; Mansilla, G.
2004-01-01
Roč. 34, č. 9 (2004), s. 1982-1989 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : Electron density profiles * Variability Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2004
Comparative study of the electron density profiles in the compact torus plasma merging experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashiya, Hitoshi; Asaka, Takeo; Katsurai, Makoto
2003-01-01
Following two previous papers on the comparative studies of the electron density distributions for a single compact torus (CT) and a spherical tokamak (ST), and for the a single ST and a merged ST, a comparative study on the dynamics of the electron density profile and after the CT and ST plasma merging process was performed. The sharpness of the peak in the electron density profile around the mid-plane just after the merging of CT with a low safety factor (q value) such as RFP or spheromak is found to be related to the speed of the magnetic axis during the plasma merging process. It is also found that the electron density gradient near the plasma edge in a high q ST is larger than that of a low q CT. High q ST is found to be provided with the magnetic structure which is able to sustain a large thermal pressure by a strong j x B force. Despite these differences in the electron density profile between CT and ST during merging, the confinement characteristics evaluated from the number of electrons confined within the magnetic separatrix after the completion of the merging is almost similar between in the merging CT and in the merging ST. For all configurations, the electron density profiles after the completion of the merging are analogous to those of the corresponding single configuration produced without the merging process. (author)
Ligand Electron Density Shape Recognition Using 3D Zernike Descriptors
Gunasekaran, Prasad; Grandison, Scott; Cowtan, Kevin; Mak, Lora; Lawson, David M.; Morris, Richard J.
We present a novel approach to crystallographic ligand density interpretation based on Zernike shape descriptors. Electron density for a bound ligand is expanded in an orthogonal polynomial series (3D Zernike polynomials) and the coefficients from this expansion are employed to construct rotation-invariant descriptors. These descriptors can be compared highly efficiently against large databases of descriptors computed from other molecules. In this manuscript we describe this process and show initial results from an electron density interpretation study on a dataset containing over a hundred OMIT maps. We could identify the correct ligand as the first hit in about 30 % of the cases, within the top five in a further 30 % of the cases, and giving rise to an 80 % probability of getting the correct ligand within the top ten matches. In all but a few examples, the top hit was highly similar to the correct ligand in both shape and chemistry. Further extensions and intrinsic limitations of the method are discussed.
X-ray electron density distribution of GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietsch, U.
1986-01-01
Using ten X-ray structure amplitudes of strong reflections and nine weak reflections both, the valence electron and the difference electron density distribution of GaAs, are calculated. The experimental data are corrected for anomalous dispersion using a bond charge model. The calculated plots are compared with up to now published band structure-based and semiempirically calculated density plots. Taking into account the experimental data of germanium, measured on the same absolute scale, the difference density between GaAs and Ge is calculated. This exhibits the charge transfer between both the f.c.c.-sublattices as well as both, the shift and the decrease of the bond charge, quite closely connected to the theoretical results published by Baur et al. (author)
Density-density functionals and effective potentials in many-body electronic structure calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reboredo, Fernando A.; Kent, Paul R.
2008-01-01
We demonstrate the existence of different density-density functionals designed to retain selected properties of the many-body ground state in a non-interacting solution starting from the standard density functional theory ground state. We focus on diffusion quantum Monte Carlo applications that require trial wave functions with optimal Fermion nodes. The theory is extensible and can be used to understand current practices in several electronic structure methods within a generalized density functional framework. The theory justifies and stimulates the search of optimal empirical density functionals and effective potentials for accurate calculations of the properties of real materials, but also cautions on the limits of their applicability. The concepts are tested and validated with a near-analytic model.
Analysis of Total Electron Content and Electron Density Profile during Different Geomagnetic Storms
Chapagain, N. P.; Rana, B.; Adhikari, B.
2017-12-01
Total Electron content (TEC) and electron density are the key parameters in the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio communication system. Detail study of the TEC and electron density variations has been carried out during geomagnetic storms, with longitude and latitude, for four different locations: (13˚N -17˚N, 88˚E -98˚E), (30˚N-50˚N, 120˚W -95˚W), (29˚S-26˚S, 167˚W-163˚W,) and (60˚S-45˚S, 120˚W-105˚W) using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations. In order to find the geomagnetic activity, the solar wind parameters such as north-south component of inter planetary magnetic field (Bz), plasma drift velocity (Vsw), flow pressure (nPa), AE, Dst and Kp indices were obtained from Operating Mission as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) web system. The data for geomagnetic indices have been correlated with the TEC and electron density for four different events of geomagnetic storms on 6 April 2008, 27 March 2008, 4 September 2008, and 11 October 2008. The result illustrates that the observed TEC and electron density profile significantly vary with longitudes and latitudes. This study illustrates that the values of TEC and the vertical electron density profile are influenced by the solar wind parameters associated with solar activities. The peak values of electron density and TEC increase as the geomagnetic storms become stronger. Similarly, the electron density profile varies with altitudes, which peaks around the altitude range of about 250- 350 km, depending on the strength of geomagnetic storms. The results clearly show that the peak electron density shifted to higher altitude (from about 250 km to 350 km) as the geomagnetic disturbances becomes stronger.
Collimated fast electron beam generation in critical density plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwawaki, T., E-mail: iwawaki-t@eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Habara, H.; Morita, K.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Baton, S.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility (XFEL) GmbH (Germany); Rousseaux, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Filippi, F. [La SAPIENZA, University of Rome, Dip. SBAI, 00161 Rome (Italy); Nazarov, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2014-11-15
Significantly collimated fast electron beam with a divergence angle 10° (FWHM) is observed when an ultra-intense laser pulse (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 300 fs) irradiates a uniform critical density plasma. The uniform plasma is created through the ionization of an ultra-low density (5 mg/c.c.) plastic foam by X-ray burst from the interaction of intense laser (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 600 ps) with a thin Cu foil. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation well reproduces the collimated electron beam with a strong magnetic field in the region of the laser pulse propagation. To understand the physical mechanism of the collimation, we calculate energetic electron motion in the magnetic field obtained from the 2D PIC simulation. As the results, the strong magnetic field (300 MG) collimates electrons with energy over a few MeV. This collimation mechanism may attract attention in many applications such as electron acceleration, electron microscope and fast ignition of laser fusion.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Electron and Magnetization Densities in Molecules and Crystals
1980-01-01
The interest of describing the ground state properties of a system in terms of one electron density (or its two spin components) is obvious, in particular due to the simple physical significance of this function. Recent experimental progress in diffraction made the measurement of charge and magnetization densities in crystalline solids possible, with an accuracy at least as good as theoretical accuracy. Theoretical developments of the many-body problem have proved the extreme importance of the one electron density function and presently, accurate methods of band structure determination become available. Parallel to the diffraction techniques, other domains of research (inelastic scattering, resonance, molecular spectroscopy) deal with quantities directly related to the one particle density. But the two types of studies do not interfere enough and one should obviously gain more information by interpreting all experiments that are related to the density together. It became necessary to have an International Sch...
C library for topological study of the electronic charge density.
Vega, David; Aray, Yosslen; Rodríguez, Jesús
2012-12-05
The topological study of the electronic charge density is useful to obtain information about the kinds of bonds (ionic or covalent) and the atom charges on a molecule or crystal. For this study, it is necessary to calculate, at every space point, the electronic density and its electronic density derivatives values up to second order. In this work, a grid-based method for these calculations is described. The library, implemented for three dimensions, is based on a multidimensional Lagrange interpolation in a regular grid; by differentiating the resulting polynomial, the gradient vector, the Hessian matrix and the Laplacian formulas were obtained for every space point. More complex functions such as the Newton-Raphson method (to find the critical points, where the gradient is null) and the Cash-Karp Runge-Kutta method (used to make the gradient paths) were programmed. As in some crystals, the unit cell has angles different from 90°, the described library includes linear transformations to correct the gradient and Hessian when the grid is distorted (inclined). Functions were also developed to handle grid containing files (grd from DMol® program, CUBE from Gaussian® program and CHGCAR from VASP® program). Each one of these files contains the data for a molecular or crystal electronic property (such as charge density, spin density, electrostatic potential, and others) in a three-dimensional (3D) grid. The library can be adapted to make the topological study in any regular 3D grid by modifying the code of these functions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Electron density interferometry measurement in laser-matter interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popovics-Chenais, C.
1981-05-01
This work is concerned with the laser-interferometry measurement of the electronic density in the corona and the conduction zone external part. Particularly, it is aimed at showing up density gradients and at their space-time localization. The first chapter recalls the density profile influence on the absorption principal mechanisms and the laser energy transport. In chapter two, the numerical and analytical hydrodynamic models describing the density profile are analysed. The influence on the density profile of the ponderomotive force associated to high oscillating electric fields is studied, together with the limited thermal conduction and suprathermal electron population. The mechanism action, in our measurement conditions, is numerically simulated. Calculations are made with experimental parameters. The measurement interaction conditions, together with the diagnostic method by high resolution laser interferometry are detailed. The results are analysed with the help of numerical simulation which is the experiment modeling. An overview of the mechanisms shown up by interferometric measurements and their correlation with other diagnostics is the conclusion of this work [fr
Density effects on electronic configurations in dense plasmas
Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe
2018-02-01
We present a quantum mechanical model to describe the density effects on electronic configurations inside a plasma environment. Two different approaches are given by starting from a quantum average-atom model. Illustrations are shown for an aluminum plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium at solid density and at a temperature of 100 eV and in the thermodynamic conditions of a recent experiment designed to characterize the effects of the ionization potential depression treatment. Our approach compares well with experiment and is consistent in that case with the approach of Stewart and Pyatt to describe the ionization potential depression rather than with the method of Ecker and Kröll.
Wigner-like crystallization of Anderson-localized electron systems with low electron densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slutskin, A.A.; Kovtun, H.A.; Pepper, M.
2002-01-01
We consider an electron system under conditions of strong Anderson localization, taking into account interelectron long-range Coulomb repulsion. We establish that at sufficiently low electron densities and sufficiently low temperatures the Coulomb electron interaction brings about ordering of the Anderson-localized electrons into a structure that is close to an ideal (Wigner) crystal lattice, provided the dimension of the system is > 1. This Anderson-Wigner glass (AWG) is a new macroscopic electron state that, on the one hand, is beyond the conventional Fermi glass concept, and on the other hand, qualitatively differs from the known 'plain' Wigner glass (inherent in self-localized electron systems) in that the random slight electron displacements from the ideal crystal sites essentially depend on the electron density. With increasing electron density the AWG is found to turn into the plain Wigner glass or Fermi glass, depending on the width of the random spread of the electron levels. It is shown that the residual disorder of the AWG is characterized by a multi-valley ground-state degeneracy akin to that in a spin glass. Some general features of the AWG are discussed, and a new conduction mechanism of a creep type is predicted
Potential and electron density calculated for freely expanding plasma by an electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, C. Y.; Tsai, Y. H.; Ma, C.; Wen, M. Y.
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the radial distributions of potential and electron density in free expansion plasma induced by an electron beam irradiating on the plate. The region of plasma production is assumed to be cylindrical, and the plasma expansion is assumed to be from a cylindrical source. Therefore, the one-dimensional model in cylindrical coordinates is employed in order to analyze the radial distributions of the potential and electron density. The Runge-Kutta method and the perturbation method are utilized in order to obtain the numerical and approximate solutions, respectively. The results reveal that the decrease in the initial ion energy makes most of the ions gather near the plasma production region and reduces the distribution of the average positive potential, electron, and ion density along the radial direction. The oscillation of steady-state plasma along the radial direction is also presented in this paper. The ions induce a larger amplitude of oscillation along the radial direction than do electrons because the electrons oscillate around slowly moving ions due to a far smaller electron mass than ion mass. The radial distributions of the positive potential and electron density predicted from this study are compared with the available experimental data.
Measurement of electron density profiles by soft X-ray tomography on the RTP tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, D.F. da; Donne, A.J.H.; Lyadina, E.S.; Rutteman, R.H.; Tanzi, C.P. [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands)
1993-12-31
Tomographic diagnosis of the soft x-ray emissivity profile is a powerful method for studying several plasma parameters. The x-ray emissivity is a complicated function of plasma quantities like the electron density and temperature, and the impurity content in the plasma. These quantities can be studied separately provided that information is available on the remaining parameters. Soft x-ray emissivity profiles have already been used successfully in other machines to determine local values of impurity densities and the effective charge Z{sub eff}. In the RTP tokamak the electron density profile has been inferred from a modelling of the x-ray emissivity in situations where information is available on the electron temperature profile, the value of Z{sub eff}, and the relative proportion of the impurities. The method can be useful for the study of hollow density profiles that cannot be properly reconstructed by Abel inversion of interferometer or reflectometer data. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs.
Measurement of electron density profiles by soft X-ray tomography on the RTP tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz, D.F. da; Donne, A.J.H.; Lyadina, E.S.; Rutteman, R.H.; Tanzi, C.P.
1993-01-01
Tomographic diagnosis of the soft x-ray emissivity profile is a powerful method for studying several plasma parameters. The x-ray emissivity is a complicated function of plasma quantities like the electron density and temperature, and the impurity content in the plasma. These quantities can be studied separately provided that information is available on the remaining parameters. Soft x-ray emissivity profiles have already been used successfully in other machines to determine local values of impurity densities and the effective charge Z eff . In the RTP tokamak the electron density profile has been inferred from a modelling of the x-ray emissivity in situations where information is available on the electron temperature profile, the value of Z eff , and the relative proportion of the impurities. The method can be useful for the study of hollow density profiles that cannot be properly reconstructed by Abel inversion of interferometer or reflectometer data. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs
Pseudoclassical approach to electron and ion density correlations in simple liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vericat, F.; Tosi, M.P.; Pastore, G.
1986-04-01
Electron-electron and electron-ion structural correlations in simple liquid metals are treated by using effective pair potentials to incorporate quantal effects into a pseudoclassical description of the electron fluid. An effective pair potential between simultaneous electron density fluctuations is first constructed from known properties of the degenerate jellium model, which are the plasmon sum rule, the Kimball-Niklasson relation and Yasuhara's values of the electron pair distribution function at contact. An analytic expression is thereby obtained in the Debye-Hueckel approximation for the electronic structure factor in jellium over a range of density appropriate to metals, with results which compare favourably with those of fully quantal evaluations. A simple pseudoclassical model is then set up for a liquid metal: this involves a model of charged hard spheres for the ion-ion potential and an empty core model for the electron-ion potential, the Coulombic tails being scaled as required by the relation between the long-wavelength partial structure factors and the isothermal compressibility of the metal. The model is solved analytically by a pseudoclassical linear response treatment of the electron-ion coupling and numerical results are reported for partial structure factors in liquid sodium and liquid beryllium. Contact is made for the latter system with data on the electron-electron structure factor in the crystal from inelastic X-ray scattering experiments of Eisenberger, Marra and Brown. (author)
New Data on the Topside Electron Density Distribution
Huang, Xue-Qin; Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter; Benson, Robert F.
2001-01-01
The existing uncertainties about the electron density profiles in the topside ionosphere, i.e., in the height region from hmF2 to approx. 2000 km, require the search for new data sources. The ISIS and Alouette topside sounder satellites from the sixties to the eighties recorded millions of ionograms and most were not analyzed in terms of electron density profiles. In recent years an effort started to digitize the analog recordings to prepare the ionograms for computerized analysis. As of November 2001 about 350,000 ionograms have been digitized from the original 7-track analog tapes. These data are available in binary and CDF format from the anonymous ftp site of the National Space Science Data Center. A search site and browse capabilities on CDAWeb assist the scientific usage of these data. All information and access links can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/isis/isis-status.html. This paper describes the ISIS data restoration effort and shows how the digital ionograms are automatically processed into electron density profiles from satellite orbit altitude (1400 km for ISIS-2) down to the F peak. Because of the large volume of data an automated processing algorithm is imperative. The automatic topside ionogram scaler with true height algorithm TOPIST software developed for this task is successfully scaling approx.70 % of the ionograms. An 'editing process' is available to manually scale the more difficult ionograms. The automated processing of the digitized ISIS ionograms is now underway, producing a much-needed database of topside electron density profiles for ionospheric modeling covering more than one solar cycle. The ISIS data restoration efforts are supported through NASA's Applied Systems and Information Research Program.
Effective atomic number and electron density of marble concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akkurt, I.; El-Khayatt, A.M.
2013-01-01
The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and effective electron density (N e ) of different type concrete have been measured and the results were compared with the calculation obtained using the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) obtained via XCOM in the photon energy range of 1 keV-100 GeV. Six different concrete in where marble has been used in the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 %, has been used in the study. (author)
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect for linear electron density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehmann, H.; Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva
2001-01-01
When the electron density is a linear function of distance, it is known that the MSW equations for two neutrino species can be solved in terms of known functions. It is shown here that more generally, for any number of neutrino species, these MSW equations can be solved exactly in terms of single integrals. While these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of known functions, some of their simple properties are obtained. Application to the solar neutrino problem is briefly discussed. (orig.)
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect for Linear Electron Density
Lehmann, H; Wu Tai Tsun; Lehmann, Harry; Osland, Per; Wu, Tai Tsun
2001-01-01
When the electron density is a linear function of distance, it is known that the MSW equations for two neutrino species can be solved in terms of known functions. It is shown here that more generally, for any number of neutrino species, these MSW equations can be solved exactly in terms of single integrals. While these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of known functions, some of their simple properties are obtained. Application to the solar neutrino problem is briefly discussed.
Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect for Linear Electron Density
Lehmann, H; Osland, P; Wu Tai Tsun
2000-01-01
When the electron density is a linear function of distance, it is known that the MSW equations for two neutrino species can be solved in terms of known functions. It is shown here that more generally, for any number of neutrino species, these MSW equations can be solved exactly in terms of single integrals. While these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of known functions, some of their simple properties are obtained. Application to the solar neutrino problem is briefly discussed.
Stopping power of degenerate electron liquid at metallic densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Shigenori; Ichimaru, Setsuo
1985-01-01
We calculate the stopping power of the degenerate electron liquid at metallic densities in the dielectric formalism. The strong Coulomb-coupling effects beyond the random-phase approximation are taken into account through the static and dynamic local-field corrections. It is shown that those strong-coupling and dynamic effects act to enhance the stopping power substantially in the low-velocity regime, leading to an improved agreement with experimental data. (author)
Molecular surface mesh generation by filtering electron density map.
Giard, Joachim; Macq, Benoît
2010-01-01
Bioinformatics applied to macromolecules are now widely spread and in continuous expansion. In this context, representing external molecular surface such as the Van der Waals Surface or the Solvent Excluded Surface can be useful for several applications. We propose a fast and parameterizable algorithm giving good visual quality meshes representing molecular surfaces. It is obtained by isosurfacing a filtered electron density map. The density map is the result of the maximum of Gaussian functions placed around atom centers. This map is filtered by an ideal low-pass filter applied on the Fourier Transform of the density map. Applying the marching cubes algorithm on the inverse transform provides a mesh representation of the molecular surface.
Molecular Surface Mesh Generation by Filtering Electron Density Map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joachim Giard
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Bioinformatics applied to macromolecules are now widely spread and in continuous expansion. In this context, representing external molecular surface such as the Van der Waals Surface or the Solvent Excluded Surface can be useful for several applications. We propose a fast and parameterizable algorithm giving good visual quality meshes representing molecular surfaces. It is obtained by isosurfacing a filtered electron density map. The density map is the result of the maximum of Gaussian functions placed around atom centers. This map is filtered by an ideal low-pass filter applied on the Fourier Transform of the density map. Applying the marching cubes algorithm on the inverse transform provides a mesh representation of the molecular surface.
Ligand identification using electron-density map correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Cohn, Judith D.
2007-01-01
An automated ligand-fitting procedure is applied to (F o − F c )exp(iϕ c ) difference density for 200 commonly found ligands from macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank to identify ligands from density maps. A procedure for the identification of ligands bound in crystal structures of macromolecules is described. Two characteristics of the density corresponding to a ligand are used in the identification procedure. One is the correlation of the ligand density with each of a set of test ligands after optimization of the fit of that ligand to the density. The other is the correlation of a fingerprint of the density with the fingerprint of model density for each possible ligand. The fingerprints consist of an ordered list of correlations of each the test ligands with the density. The two characteristics are scored using a Z-score approach in which the correlations are normalized to the mean and standard deviation of correlations found for a variety of mismatched ligand-density pairs, so that the Z scores are related to the probability of observing a particular value of the correlation by chance. The procedure was tested with a set of 200 of the most commonly found ligands in the Protein Data Bank, collectively representing 57% of all ligands in the Protein Data Bank. Using a combination of these two characteristics of ligand density, ranked lists of ligand identifications were made for representative (F o − F c )exp(iϕ c ) difference density from entries in the Protein Data Bank. In 48% of the 200 cases, the correct ligand was at the top of the ranked list of ligands. This approach may be useful in identification of unknown ligands in new macromolecular structures as well as in the identification of which ligands in a mixture have bound to a macromolecule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levy, Mel, E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Anderson, James S. M.; Zadeh, Farnaz Heidar; Ayers, Paul W., E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
2014-05-14
Properties of exact density functionals provide useful constraints for the development of new approximate functionals. This paper focuses on convex sums of ground-level densities. It is observed that the electronic kinetic energy of a convex sum of degenerate ground-level densities is equal to the convex sum of the kinetic energies of the individual degenerate densities. (The same type of relationship holds also for the electron-electron repulsion energy.) This extends a known property of the Levy-Valone Ensemble Constrained-Search and the Lieb Legendre-Transform refomulations of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional to the individual components of the functional. Moreover, we observe that the kinetic and electron-repulsion results also apply to densities with fractional electron number (even if there are no degeneracies), and we close with an analogous point-wise property involving the external potential. Examples where different degenerate states have different kinetic energy and electron-nuclear attraction energy are given; consequently, individual components of the ground state electronic energy can change abruptly when the molecular geometry changes. These discontinuities are predicted to be ubiquitous at conical intersections, complicating the development of universally applicable density-functional approximations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doyle, John Gerard; Perez-Suarez, David; Singh, Avninda; Chapman, Steven; Bryans, Paul; Summers, Hugh; Savin, Daniel Wolf
2010-01-01
Comparison of appropriate theoretically derived line ratios with observational data can yield estimates of a plasma's physical parameters, such as electron density or temperature. The usual practice in the calculation of the line ratio is the assumption of excitation by electrons/protons followed by radiative decay. Furthermore, it is normal to use the so-called coronal approximation, i.e. one only considers ionization and recombination to and from the ground-state. A more accurate treatment is to include ionization/recombination to and from metastable levels. Here, we apply this to two lines from adjacent ionization stages, Mg IX 368 A and Mg X 625 A, which has been shown to be a very useful temperature diagnostic. At densities typical of coronal hole conditions, the difference between the electron temperature derived assuming the zero density limit compared with the electron density dependent ionization/recombination is small. This, however, is not the case for flares where the electron density is orders of magnitude larger. The derived temperature for the coronal hole at solar maximum is around 1.04 MK compared to just below 0.82 MK at solar minimum.
Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2015-10-12
We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.
Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth
2015-01-01
We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10 7 cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10 11 cm −2 . An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs
Ernst, D.
2015-11-01
We present new experiments and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations showing that density gradient driven TEM (DGTEM) turbulence dominates the inner core of H-Mode plasmas during strong electron heating. Thus α-heating may degrade inner core confinement in H-Mode plasmas with moderate density peaking. These DIII-D low torque quiescent H-mode experiments were designed to study DGTEM turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations using GYRO (and GENE) closely match not only particle, energy, and momentum fluxes, but also density fluctuation spectra, with and without ECH. Adding 3.4 MW ECH doubles Te /Ti from 0.5 to 1.0, which halves the linear TEM critical density gradient, locally flattening the density profile. Density fluctuations from Doppler backscattering (DBS) intensify near ρ = 0.3 during ECH, displaying a band of coherent fluctuations with adjacent toroidal mode numbers. GYRO closely reproduces the DBS spectrum and its change in shape and intensity with ECH, identifying these as coherent TEMs. Prior to ECH, parallel flow shear lowers the effective nonlinear DGTEM critical density gradient 50%, but is negligible during ECH, when transport displays extreme stiffness in the density gradient. GS2 predictions show the DGTEM can be suppressed, to avoid degradation with electron heating, by broadening the current density profile to attain q0 >qmin > 1 . A related experiment in the same regime varied the electron temperature gradient in the outer half-radius (ρ ~ 0 . 65) using ECH, revealing spatially coherent 2D mode structures in the Te fluctuations measured by ECE imaging. Fourier analysis with modulated ECH finds a threshold in Te profile stiffness. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-08ER54966 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
Current density monitor for intense relativistic electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiorito, R.B.; Raleigh, M.; Seltzer, S.M.
1986-01-01
We describe a new type of electric probe which is capable of measuring the time-resolved current density profile of a stable, reproducible, high-energy (>4-MeV) high-current (>1-kA) electron beam. The sensing element of this probe is an open-ended but capped-off 50-Ω coaxial line constructed of graphite. The graphite sensor is 4.3 mm in diameter, 6 cm long, and is range thin to the primary beam electrons. The probe produces a signal proportional to the intercepted beam current. When the sensor is scanned radially through the beam during repeated pulses, a curve of signal versus depth of insertion is produced from which the radial current density profile can be determined. Measurements are presented of the profile of the electron beam from the Experimental Test Accelerator (4.5 MeV, 10 kA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Good agreement is shown between measurements made with this probe and the beam radius as predicted by transport codes. The advantage of the electric probe lies in its ruggedness, simplicity, inherent fast rise time, and low cost. In contrast to other systems it requires no radiation shielding, water cooling, or auxiliary support equipment to operate in an intense beam environment
The density-salinity relation of standard seawater
Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning
2018-01-01
The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.
Automated Processing of ISIS Topside Ionograms into Electron Density Profiles
Reinisch, bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter; Hills, H. Kent
2004-01-01
Modeling of the topside ionosphere has for the most part relied on just a few years of data from topside sounder satellites. The widely used Bent et al. (1972) model, for example, is based on only 50,000 Alouette 1 profiles. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza, 1990, 2001) uses an analytical description of the graphs and tables provided by Bent et al. (1972). The Alouette 1, 2 and ISIS 1, 2 topside sounder satellites of the sixties and seventies were ahead of their times in terms of the sheer volume of data obtained and in terms of the computer and software requirements for data analysis. As a result, only a small percentage of the collected topside ionograms was converted into electron density profiles. Recently, a NASA-funded data restoration project has undertaken and is continuing the process of digitizing the Alouette/ISIS ionograms from the analog 7-track tapes. Our project involves the automated processing of these digital ionograms into electron density profiles. The project accomplished a set of important goals that will have a major impact on understanding and modeling of the topside ionosphere: (1) The TOPside Ionogram Scaling and True height inversion (TOPIST) software was developed for the automated scaling and inversion of topside ionograms. (2) The TOPIST software was applied to the over 300,000 ISIS-2 topside ionograms that had been digitized in the fkamework of a separate AISRP project (PI: R.F. Benson). (3) The new TOPIST-produced database of global electron density profiles for the topside ionosphere were made publicly available through NASA s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) ftp archive at . (4) Earlier Alouette 1,2 and ISIS 1, 2 data sets of electron density profiles from manual scaling of selected sets of ionograms were converted fiom a highly-compressed binary format into a user-friendly ASCII format and made publicly available through nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The new database for the topside ionosphere established
Density functional application to strongly correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eschrig, H.; Koepernik, K.; Chaplygin, I.
2003-01-01
The local spin density approximation plus onsite Coulomb repulsion approach (LSDA+U) to density functional theory is carefully reanalyzed. Its possible link to single-particle Green's function theory is occasionally discussed. A simple and elegant derivation of the important sum rules for the on-site interaction matrix elements linking them to the values of U and J is presented. All necessary expressions for an implementation of LSDA+U into a non-orthogonal basis solver for the Kohn-Sham equations are given, and implementation into the full-potential local-orbital solver (Phys. Rev. B 59 (1999) 1743) is made. Results of application to several planar cuprate structures are reported in detail and conclusions on the interpretation of the physics of the electronic structure of the cuprates are drawn
Annihilation Radiation Gauge for Relative Density and Multiphase Fluid Monitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vidal A.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The knowledge of the multi-phase flow parameters are important for the petroleum industry, specifically during the transport in pipelines and network related to exploitation’s wells. Crude oil flow is studied by Monte Carlo simulation and experimentally to determine transient liquid phase in a laboratory system. Relative density and fluid phase time variation is monitored employing a fast nuclear data acquisition setup that includes two large volume BaF2 scintillator detectors coupled to an electronic chain and data display in a LabView® environment. Fluid parameters are determined by the difference in count rate of coincidence pulses. The operational characteristics of the equipment indicate that 2 % deviation in the CCR corresponds to a variation, on average, of 20 % in the fraction of liquid of the multiphase fluid.
ICRF power limitation relation to density limit in ASDEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryter, F.
1992-01-01
Launching high ICRF power into ASDEX plasmas required good antenna-plasma coupling. This could be achieved by sufficient electron density in front of the antennas i.e. small antenna-plasma distance (1-2 cm) and moderate to high line-averaged electron density compared to the density window in ASDEX. These are conditions eventually close to the density limit. ICRF heated discharges terminated by plasma disruptions caused by the RF pulse limited the maximum RF power which can be injected into the plasma. The disruptions occurring in these cases have clear phenomenological similarities with those observed in density limit discharges. We show in this paper that the ICRF-power limitation by plasma disruptions in ASDEX was due to reaching the density limit. (orig.)
ICRF power limitation relation to density limit in ASDEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryter, F.
1992-01-01
Launching high ICRF power into ASDEX plasmas required good antenna-plasma coupling. This could be achieved by sufficient electron density in front of the antennas i.e. small antenna-plasma distance (1-2 cm) and moderate to high line-averaged electron density compared to the density window in ASDEX. These are conditions eventually close to the density limit. ICRF heated discharges terminated by plasma disruptions caused by the RF pulse limited the maximum RF power which can be injected into the plasma. The disruptions occurring in these cases have clear phenomenological similarities with those observed in density limit discharges. We show in this paper that the ICRF-power limitation by plasma disruptions in ASDEX was due to reaching the density limit. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Proposed non-interferometric FIR electron density measuring scheme for Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dodel, G; Kunz, W [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung
1979-08-01
Extension of FIR polarimetry to electron density measurements in Tokamaks is suggested as a possible alternative for devices in which FIR interferometry is not applicable or difficult to handle due to reduced accessibility or strong mechanical vibrations. The method is numerically simulated. The relative experimental simplicity compared with interferometry has to be paid for with symmetry assumptions which enter into the evaluation process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Zhongcai; Shi Jiaming; Xu Bo
2005-01-01
The plasma diagnostic method using the transmission attenuation of microwaves at double frequencies (PDMUTAMDF) indicates that the frequency and the electron-neutral collision frequency of the plasma can be deduced by utilizing the transmission attenuation of microwaves at two neighboring frequencies in a non-magnetized plasma. Then the electron density can be obtained from the plasma frequency. The PDMUTAMDF is a simple method to diagnose the plasma indirectly. In this paper, the interaction of electromagnetic waves and the plasma is analyzed. Then, based on the attenuation and the phase shift of a microwave in the plasma, the principle of the PDMUTAMDF is presented. With the diagnostic method, the spatially mean electron density and electron collision frequency of the plasma can be obtained. This method is suitable for the elementary diagnosis of the atmospheric-pressure plasma
Pre-storm electron density enhancements at middle latitudes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Burešová, Dalia; Laštovička, Jan
2008-01-01
Roč. 70, č. 15 (2008), s. 1848-1855 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091; GA MŠk 1P05OC030; GA AV ČR 1QS300120506; GA ČR GA205/08/1356 Grant - others:European Union(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * Electron density * Pre-stormenhancement Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008
Regions of low electron density in the Earth plasmasphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigor'eva, V.P.; Pisareva, V.V.
1987-01-01
Regions with low electron density N e were detected in night, morning and evening hours according to observations of natural noise, made on board ''Prognos-5'' satellite from January till June, 1977 in the plasmasphere for the southern Earth semisphere. The largest regions with low N e values were located in the region of the Brazil magnetic anomaly in the range of geographic latitudes ∼ ± 30 deg from the equator and longitudes from 100 up to 240 deg E, as well as in the latitudes near-by the geomagnetic equator and in the regions with slight shift from it to the winter hemisphere
Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Energy Density Photon and Electron Beams
Bingham, Robert
2005-01-01
The development of intense laser and particle beams has opened up new opportunities to study high energy density astrophysical processes in the Laboratory. With even higher laser intensities possible in the near future vacuum polarization processes such as photon - photon scattering with or without large magnetic fields may also be experimentally observed. In this talk I will review the status of laboratory experiments using intense beans to investigate extreme astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae explosions, gamma x-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic accelerators etc. Just as intense photon or electron beams can excite relativistic electron plasma waves or wakefields used in plasma acceleration, intense neutrino beams from type II supernovae can also excite wakefields or plasma waves. Other instabilities driven by intense beams relevant to perhaps x-ray bursts is the Weibel instability. Simulation results of extreme processes will also be presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Zhenbao; Yang, Bing; Lin, Yangming; Su, Dangsheng, E-mail: dssu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016 (China)
2015-12-07
The electron momentum distribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) was investigated by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is known as electron Compton scattering from solid (ECOSS). Compton profile of diamond film obtained by ECOSS was found in good agreement with prior photon experimental measurement and theoretical calculation that for bulk diamond. Compared to the diamond film, the valence Compton profile of DND was found to be narrower, which indicates a more delocalization of the ground-state charge density for the latter. Combining with other TEM characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, ECOSS was shown to be a great potential technique to study ground-state electronic properties of nanomaterials.
Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind
Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kruparova, O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.
2018-04-01
Type III bursts are generated by fast electron beams originated from magnetic reconnection sites of solar flares. As propagation of radio waves in the interplanetary medium is strongly affected by random electron density fluctuations, type III bursts provide us with a unique diagnostic tool for solar wind remote plasma measurements. Here, we performed a statistical survey of 152 simple and isolated type III bursts observed by the twin-spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission. We investigated their time–frequency profiles in order to retrieve decay times as a function of frequency. Next, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the role of scattering due to random electron density fluctuations on time–frequency profiles of radio emissions generated in the interplanetary medium. For simplification, we assumed the presence of isotropic electron density fluctuations described by a power law with the Kolmogorov spectral index. Decay times obtained from observations and simulations were compared. We found that the characteristic exponential decay profile of type III bursts can be explained by the scattering of the fundamental component between the source and the observer despite restrictive assumptions included in the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Our results suggest that relative electron density fluctuations /{n}{{e}} in the solar wind are 0.06–0.07 over wide range of heliospheric distances.
Business Relations in Electronic Commerce
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjarup, Søren; Henten, Anders
The analysis addresses the issues of how businesses interact in the light of continuous maturation of business-to-business e-commerce. Development of cheaper and more standardised information and communication technologies enhances the depth and width of electronic networks, which may lead...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Laakso
2002-11-01
Full Text Available Using spacecraft potential measurements of the Polar electric field experiment, we investigate electron density variations of key plasma regions within the magnetosphere, including the polar cap, cusp, trough, plasmapause, and auroral zone. The statistical results were presented in the first part of this study, and the present paper reports detailed structures revealed by individual satellite passes. The high-altitude (> 3 RE polar cap is generally one of the most tenuous regions in the magnetosphere, but surprisingly, the polar cap boundary does not appear as a steep density decline. At low altitudes (1 RE in summer, the polar densities are very high, several 100 cm-3 , and interestingly, the density peaks at the central polar cap. On the noonside of the polar cap, the cusp appears as a dense, 1–3° wide region. A typical cusp density above 4 RE distance is between several 10 cm-3 and a few 100 cm-3 . On some occasions the cusp is crossed multiple times in a single pass, simultaneously with the occurrence of IMF excursions, as the cusp can instantly shift its position under varying solar wind conditions, similar to the magnetopause. On the nightside, the auroral zone is not always detected as a simple density cavity. Cavities are observed but their locations, strengths, and sizes vary. Also, the electric field perturbations do not necessarily overlap with the cavities: there are cavities with no field disturbances, as well as electric field disturbances observed with no clear cavitation. In the inner magnetosphere, the density distributions clearly show that the plasmapause and trough densities are well correlated with geomagnetic activity. Data from individual orbits near noon and midnight demonstrate that at the beginning of geomagnetic disturbances, the retreat speed of the plasmapause can be one L-shell per hour, while during quiet intervals the plasmapause can expand anti-earthward at the same speed. For the trough region, it is found
Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaginelli S
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, m/r, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates. The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes.
Electron density fluctuation measurements in the TORTUR tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remkes, G.J.J.
1990-01-01
This thesis deals with measurements of electron-density fluctuations in the TORTUR tokamak. These measurements are carried out by making use of collective scattering of electromagnetic beams. The choice of the wavelength of the probing beam used in collective scattering experiments has important consequences. in this thesis it is argued that the best choice for a wavelength lies in the region 0.1 - 1 mm. Because sources in this region were not disposable a 2 mm collective scattering apparatus has been used as a fair compromise. The scattering theory, somewhat adapted to the specific TORTUR situation, is discussed in Ch. 2. Large scattering angles are admitted in scattering experiments with 2 mm probing beams. This had consequences for the spatial response functions. Special attention has been paid to the wave number resolution. Expressions for the minimum source power have been determined for two detection techniques. The design and implementation of the scattering apparatus has been described in Ch. 3. The available location of the scattering volume and values of the scattering angle have been determined. The effect of beam deflection due to refraction effects is evaluated. The electronic system is introduced. Ch. 4 presents the results of measurements of density fluctuations in the TORTUR tokamak in the frequency range 1 kHz to 100 MHz end the wave number region 400 - 4000 m -1 in different regions of the plasma. Correlation between density and magnetic fluctuations has been found in a number of cases. During the current decay at the termination of several plasma discharges minor disruptions occurred. The fluctuations during these disruptions have been monitored. Measurements have been performed in hydrogen as well as deuterium. A possible dependence of the wave number on the ion gyroradius has been investigated. The isotropy of the fluctuations in the poloidal plane was investigated. A theoretical discussion of the measured results is given in ch. 5. ( H.W.). 63
Dynamics of the spatial electron density distribution of EUV-induced plasmas
van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; Banine, V. Y.
2015-11-01
We studied the temporal evolution of the electron density distribution in a low pressure pulsed plasma induced by high energy extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS). In principle, MCRS only provides space averaged information about the electron density. However, we demonstrate here the possibility to obtain spatial information by combining multiple resonant modes. It is shown that EUV-induced plasmas, albeit being a rather exotic plasma, can be explained by known plasma physical laws and processes. Two stages of plasma behaviour are observed: first the electron density distribution contracts, after which it expands. It is shown that the contraction is due to cooling of the electrons. The moment when the density distribution starts to expand is related to the inertia of the ions. After tens of microseconds, the electrons reached the wall of the cavity. The speed of this expansion is dependent on the gas pressure and can be divided into two regimes. It is shown that the acoustic dominated regime the expansion speed is independent of the gas pressure and that in the diffusion dominated regime the expansion depends reciprocal on the gas pressure.
Detection of an electron beam in a high density plasma via an electrostatic probe
Majeski, Stephen; Yoo, Jongsoo; Zweben, Stewart; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao
2017-10-01
The perturbation in floating potential by an electron beam is detected by a 1D floating potential probe array to evaluate the use of an electron beam for magnetic field line mapping in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) plasma. The MRX plasma is relatively high density (1013 cm-3) and low temperature (5 eV). Beam electrons are emitted from a tungsten filament and are accelerated by a 200 V potential across the sheath. They stream along the magnetic field lines towards the probe array. The spatial electron beam density profile is assumed to be a Gaussian along the radial axis of MRX and the effective beam width is determined from the radial profile of the floating potential. The magnitude of the perturbation is in agreement with theoretical predictions and the location of the perturbation is also in agreement with field line mapping. In addition, no significant broadening of the electron beam is observed after propagation for tens of centimeters through the high density plasma. These results demonstrate that this method of field line mapping is, in principle, feasible in high density plasmas. This work is supported by the DOE Contract No. DE-AC0209CH11466.
Dynamics of the spatial electron density distribution of EUV-induced plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Horst, R M; Beckers, J; Banine, V Y; Osorio, E A
2015-01-01
We studied the temporal evolution of the electron density distribution in a low pressure pulsed plasma induced by high energy extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS). In principle, MCRS only provides space averaged information about the electron density. However, we demonstrate here the possibility to obtain spatial information by combining multiple resonant modes. It is shown that EUV-induced plasmas, albeit being a rather exotic plasma, can be explained by known plasma physical laws and processes. Two stages of plasma behaviour are observed: first the electron density distribution contracts, after which it expands. It is shown that the contraction is due to cooling of the electrons. The moment when the density distribution starts to expand is related to the inertia of the ions. After tens of microseconds, the electrons reached the wall of the cavity. The speed of this expansion is dependent on the gas pressure and can be divided into two regimes. It is shown that the acoustic dominated regime the expansion speed is independent of the gas pressure and that in the diffusion dominated regime the expansion depends reciprocal on the gas pressure. (fast track communication)
Two-component scattering model and the electron density spectrum
Zhou, A. Z.; Tan, J. Y.; Esamdin, A.; Wu, X. J.
2010-02-01
In this paper, we discuss a rigorous treatment of the refractive scintillation caused by a two-component interstellar scattering medium and a Kolmogorov form of density spectrum. It is assumed that the interstellar scattering medium is composed of a thin-screen interstellar medium (ISM) and an extended interstellar medium. We consider the case that the scattering of the thin screen concentrates in a thin layer represented by a δ function distribution and that the scattering density of the extended irregular medium satisfies the Gaussian distribution. We investigate and develop equations for the flux density structure function corresponding to this two-component ISM geometry in the scattering density distribution and compare our result with the observations. We conclude that the refractive scintillation caused by this two-component ISM scattering gives a more satisfactory explanation for the observed flux density variation than does the single extended medium model. The level of refractive scintillation is strongly sensitive to the distribution of scattering material along the line of sight (LOS). The theoretical modulation indices are comparatively less sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but they critically depend on the distance from the observer to the thin screen. The logarithmic slope of the structure function is sensitive to the scattering strength of the thin-screen medium, but is relatively insensitive to the thin-screen location. Therefore, the proposed model can be applied to interpret the structure functions of flux density observed in pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57. The result suggests that the medium consists of a discontinuous distribution of plasma turbulence embedded in the interstellar medium. Thus our work provides some insight into the distribution of the scattering along the LOS to the pulsar PSR B2111 + 46 and PSR B0136 + 57.
One-electron densities of freely rotating Wigner molecules
Cioslowski, Jerzy
2017-12-01
A formalism enabling computation of the one-particle density of a freely rotating assembly of identical particles that vibrate about their equilibrium positions with amplitudes much smaller than their average distances is presented. It produces densities as finite sums of products of angular and radial functions, the length of the expansion being determined by the interplay between the point-group and permutational symmetries of the system in question. Obtaining from a convolution of the rotational and bosonic components of the parent wavefunction, the angular functions are state-dependent. On the other hand, the radial functions are Gaussians with maxima located at the equilibrium lengths of the position vectors of individual particles and exponents depending on the scalar products of these vectors and the eigenvectors of the corresponding Hessian as well as the respective eigenvalues. Although the new formalism is particularly useful for studies of the Wigner molecules formed by electrons subject to weak confining potentials, it is readily adaptable to species (such as ´balliums’ and Coulomb crystals) composed of identical particles with arbitrary spin statistics and permutational symmetry. Several examples of applications of the present approach to the harmonium atoms within the strong-correlation regime are given.
Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salman Shafqat
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molchanov, V.N.; Kazanskij, L.P.; Torchenkova, E.A.; Spitsyn, V.I.
1978-01-01
X-ray electron spectra of some iso- and heteropolymolybdates relating to different structure types are investigated to study electron structure of complex polyoxyion-heteropolyanions. Binding energies of Modsub(5/2) and 01s-electrons in iso- and heteropolycompounds line are measured and their interdependence is detected. The effective charge of oxygen and molybdenum atoms in heteropolymolybdates increases with decreasing a number of external sphere cations per an oxygen atom and a number of Mo=0 multiple bonds
Electron density enhancement in a quasi isochronous storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pellegrini, C.; Robin, D.
1991-01-01
The six dimensional phase-space density of an electron beam in a storage ring is determined by the emission of synchrotron radiation, and by the transverse and longitudinal focusing forces determining the particle trajectories. In the simplest case of uncoupled horizontal, vertical and longitudinal motion, the phase space volume occupied by the beam can be characterized by the product of its three projections on the single degree of freedom planes, the horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal emittances. To minimize the beam phase space volume the authors can minimize the transverse and longitudinal emittances. In the case of transverse emittances this problem is very important for synchrotron radiation sources, and has been studied by several authors. A method to minimize the longitudinal emittance, and produce electron bunches with a short pulse length, small energy spread and large peak current has been proposed and discussed recently by C. Pellegrini and D. Robin. This method uses a ring in which the revolution period is weakly dependent on the particle energy, Quasi Isochronous Ring (QIR), in other words a ring with a momentum compaction nearly zero. In this paper they will extend the previous analysis of the conditions for stable single particle motion in such a ring, and give simple criteria for the estimate of the energy spread and phase acceptance of a QIR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonnad, Kiran G., E-mail: kgs52@cornell.edu [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Hammond, Kenneth C. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schwartz, Robert M. [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Veitzer, Seth A. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)
2014-08-01
The use of transverse electric (TE) waves has proved to be a powerful, noninvasive method for estimating the densities of electron clouds formed in particle accelerators. Results from the plasma simulation program VSim have served as a useful guide for experimental studies related to this method, which have been performed at various accelerator facilities. This paper provides results of the simulation and modeling work done in conjunction with experimental efforts carried out at the Cornell electron storage ring “Test Accelerator” (CESRTA). This paper begins with a discussion of the phase shift induced by electron clouds in the transmission of RF waves, followed by the effect of reflections along the beam pipe, simulation of the resonant standing wave frequency shifts and finally the effects of external magnetic fields, namely dipoles and wigglers. A derivation of the dispersion relationship of wave propagation for arbitrary geometries in field free regions with a cold, uniform cloud density is also provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Man-Hong
2016-01-01
By performing the electronic structure computation of a Si atom, we compare two iteration algorithms of Broyden electron density mixing in the literature. One was proposed by Johnson and implemented in the well-known VASP code. The other was given by Eyert. We solve the Kohn-Sham equation by using a conventional outward/inward integration of the differential equation and then connect two parts of solutions at the classical turning points, which is different from the method of the matrix eigenvalue solution as used in the VASP code. Compared to Johnson’s algorithm, the one proposed by Eyert needs fewer total iteration numbers. (paper)
A new interferometry-based electron density fluctuation diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)
Kasten, C. P.; Irby, J. H.; Murray, R.; White, A. E.; Pace, D. C.
2012-10-01
The two-color interferometry diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has been upgraded to measure fluctuations in the electron density and density gradient for turbulence and transport studies. Diagnostic features and capabilities are described. In differential mode, fast phase demodulation electronics detect the relative phase change between ten adjacent, radially-separated (ΔR = 1.2 cm, adjustable), vertical-viewing chords, which allows for measurement of the line-integrated electron density gradient. The system can be configured to detect the absolute phase shift of each chord by comparison to a local oscillator, measuring the line-integrated density. Each chord is sensitive to density fluctuations with kR < 20.3 cm-1 and is digitized at up to 10 MS/s, resolving aspects of ion temperature gradient-driven modes and other long-wavelength turbulence. Data from C-Mod discharges is presented, including observations of the quasi-coherent mode in enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas and the weakly coherent mode in I-mode.
Measurements of the Electron Cloud Density in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Sonnad, Kiran; Caspers, Fritz; Kroyer, Tom; Krasnykh, Anatoly; Pivi, Mauro
2008-06-01
Clouds of low energy electronsin the vacuum beam pipes of accelerators of positively charged particle beams present a serious limitation for operation of these machines at high currents. Because of the size of these accelerators, it is difficult to probe the low energyelectron clouds over substantial lengths of the beam pipe. We have developed a novel technique to directly measure the electron cloud density via the phase shift induced in a TE wave that is independently excited and transmitted over a section of the accelerator. We infer the absolute phase shift with relatively high accuracy from the phase modulation of the transmission due to the modulation of the electron cloud density from a gap in the positively charged beam. We have used this technique for the first time to measure the average electron cloud density over a 50 m straight section in the positron ring of the PEP-II collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We have also measured the variation of the density by using low field solenoid magnets to control the electrons.
STRAIGHTENING THE DENSITY-DISPLACEMENT RELATION WITH A LOGARITHMIC TRANSFORM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Szalay, Alexander S.
2012-01-01
We investigate the use of a logarithmic density variable in estimating the Lagrangian displacement field motivated by the success of a logarithmic transformation in restoring information to the matter power spectrum. The logarithmic relation is an extension of the linear relation, motivated by the continuity equation, in which the density field is assumed to be proportional to the divergence of the displacement field; we compare the linear and logarithmic relations by measuring both of these fields directly in a cosmological N-body simulation. The relative success of the logarithmic and linear relations depends on the scale at which the density field is smoothed. Thus we explore several ways of measuring the density field, including Cloud-In-Cell smoothing, adaptive smoothing, and the (scale-independent) Delaunay tessellation, and we use both a Fourier-space and a geometrical tessellation approach to measuring the divergence. We find that the relation between the divergence of the displacement field and the density is significantly tighter and straighter with a logarithmic density variable, especially at low redshifts and for very small (∼2 h –1 Mpc) smoothing scales. We find that the grid-based methods are more reliable than the tessellation-based method of calculating both the density and the divergence fields, though in both cases the logarithmic relation works better in the appropriate regime, which corresponds to nonlinear scales for the grid-based methods and low densities for the tessellation-based method.
Plasma density measurements on COMPASS-C tokamak from electron cyclotron emission cutoffs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chenna Reddy, D.; Edlington, T.
1996-01-01
Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is a standard diagnostic in present day tokamak devices for temperature measurement. When the plasma density is high enough the emission at some frequencies is cut off. Of these cutoff frequencies, the first frequency to cut off depends on the shape of the density profile. If the density profile can be described by a few parameters, in some circumstances, this first cutoff frequency can be used to obtain two of these parameters. If more than two parameters are needed to describe the density profile, then additional independent measurements are required to find all the parameters. We describe a technique by which it is possible to obtain an analytical relation between the radius at which the first cutoff occurs and the profile parameters. Assuming that the shape of the profile does not change as the average density rises after the first cutoff, one can use the cutoffs at other frequencies to obtain the average density at the time of these cutoffs. The plasma densities obtained with this technique using the data from a 14 channel ECE diagnostic on COMPASS-C tokamak are in good agreement with those measured by a standard 2 mm interferometer. The density measurement using the ECE cutoffs is an independent measurement and requires only a frequency calibration of the ECE diagnostic. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Bayesian modeling of JET Li-BES for edge electron density profiles using Gaussian processes
Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, Jakob; Brix, Mathias; Ghim, Young-Chul; JET Contributors Collaboration
2015-11-01
A Bayesian model for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system has been developed to infer edge electron density profiles. The 26 spatial channels measure emission profiles with ~15 ms temporal resolution and ~1 cm spatial resolution. The lithium I (2p-2s) line radiation in an emission spectrum is calculated using a multi-state model, which expresses collisions between the neutral lithium beam atoms and the plasma particles as a set of differential equations. The emission spectrum is described in the model including photon and electronic noise, spectral line shapes, interference filter curves, and relative calibrations. This spectral modeling gets rid of the need of separate background measurements for calculating the intensity of the line radiation. Gaussian processes are applied to model both emission spectrum and edge electron density profile, and the electron temperature to calculate all the rate coefficients is obtained from the JET high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) system. The posterior distributions of the edge electron density profile are explored via the numerical technique and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplings. See the Appendix of F. Romanelli et al., Proceedings of the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2014, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almbladh, C.-O.; Ekenberg, U.; Pedroza, A.C.
1983-01-01
The authors compare the electron densities and Hartree potentials in the local density and the Hartree-Fock approximations to the corresponding quantities obtained from more accurate correlated wavefunctions. The comparison is made for a number of two-electron atoms, Li, and for Be. The Hartree-Fock approximation is more accurate than the local density approximation within the 1s shell and for the spin polarization in Li, while the local density approximation is slightly better than the Hartree-Fock approximation for charge densities in the 2s shell. The inaccuracy of the Hartree-Fock and local density approximations to the Hartree potential is substantially smaller than the inaccuracy of the local density approximation to the ground-state exchange-correlation potential. (Auth.)
Molecular Electron Density Theory: A Modern View of Reactivity in Organic Chemistry
Luis R. Domingo
2016-01-01
A new theory for the study of the reactivity in Organic Chemistry, named Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT), is proposed herein. MEDT is based on the idea that while the electron density distribution at the ground state is responsible for physical and chemical molecular properties, as proposed by the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the capability for changes in electron density is responsible for molecular reactivity. Within MEDT, the reactivity in Organic Chemistry is studied through ...
Electron momentum density measurements by means of positron annihilation and Compton spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerber, W.; Dlubek, G.; Marx, U.; Bruemmer, O.; Prautzsch, J.
1982-01-01
The electron momentum density is measured applying positron annihilation and Compton spectroscopy in order to get information about electron wave functions. Compton spectroscopic measurements of Pd-Ag and Cu-Zn alloy systems are carried out taking into account crystal structure, mixability, and order state. Three-dimensional momentum densities of silicon are determined in order to get better information about its electronic structure. The momentum density and the spin density of ferromagnetic nickel are investigated using angular correlation curves
Vertical and longitudinal electron density structures of equatorial E- and F-regions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Brahmanandam
2011-01-01
Full Text Available From global soundings of ionospheric electron density made with FORMOSAT 3/COSMIC satellites for September 2006–August 2009, day-night variations in vertical and longitudinal structures of the electron densities in equatorial E- and F-regions for different seasons are investigated for the first time. The results reveal that the wavenumber-3 and wavenumber-4 patterns dominated the nighttime (22:00–04:00 LT F-region longitudinal structures in solstice and in equinox seasons, respectively. In daytime (08:00–18:00 LT F-region, the wavenumber-4 patterns governed the longitudinal structures in the September equinox and December solstice, and wavenumber-3 in March equinox and June solstice respectively. A comparison of the daytime and nighttime longitudinal electron density structures indicates that they are approximately 180° out of phase with each other. It is believed that this out of phase relation is very likely the result of the opposite phase relation between daytime and nighttime nonmigrating diurnal tidal winds that modulate background E-region dynamo electric field at different places, leading to the day-night change in the locations of the equatorial plasma fountains that are responsible for the formation of the F-region longitudinal structures. Further, a good consistency between the locations of the density structures in the same seasons of the different years for both daytime and nighttime epochs has been noticed indicating that the source mechanism for these structures could be the same.
2016-11-01
Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas by Anthony R Valenzuela Approved for public release; distribution is...AND SUBTITLE Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer is a novel method to diagnose ultrashort pulse laser–produced plasmas
Hollow density profile on electron cyclotron resonance heating JFT-2M plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kawashima, Hisato; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawakami, Tomohide; Shiina, Tomio; Ishige, Youichi
1998-01-01
The first hollow electron density profile in the central region on the JAERI Fusion Torus-2M (JFT-2M) is measured during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) with a TV Thomson scattering system (TVTS). The peripheral region is not hollow but is accumulated due to pump-out from the central region. The hollowness increases with time but is saturated at ∼40 ms and maintains a constant hollow ratio. The hollowness is strongly related to the steep temperature gradient of the heated zone. (author)
Direct measurement of electron density in microdischarge at atmospheric pressure by Stark broadening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Lifang; Ran Junxia; Mao Zhiguo
2005-01-01
We present a method and results for measurement of electron density in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge. The electron density of microdischarge in atmospheric pressure argon is measured by using the spectral line profile method. The asymmetrical deconvolution is used to obtain Stark broadening. The results show that the electron density in single filamentary microdischarge at atmospheric pressure argon is 3.05x10 15 cm -3 if the electron temperature is 10,000 K. The result is in good agreement with the simulation. The electron density in dielectric barrier discharge increases with the increase of applied voltage
Ion transition heights from topside electron density profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Titheridge, J.E.
1976-01-01
Theoretical electron density profiles are calculated for the topside ionosphere to determine the major factors controlling the profile shape. Only the mean temperature, the vertical temperature gradient and the O + /H + ion transition height are important. Vertical proton fluxes alter the ion transition height but have no other effect on the profile shape. Diffusive equilibrium profiles including only these three effects fit observed profiles, at all latitudes, to within experimental accuracy. Values of plasma temperature, temperature gradient and ion transition height hsub(T) were determined by fitting theoretical models to 60,000 experimental profiles obtained from Alouette 1 ionograms, at latitudes of 75 0 S to 85 0 N near solar minimum. Inside the plasmasphere hsub(T) varies from about 500 km on winter nights to 850 km on summer days. Diurnal variations are caused primarily by the production and loss of O + in the ionosphere. The approximately constant winter night value of hsub(T) is close to the level for chemical equilibrium. In summer hsub(T) is always above the equilibrium level, giving a continual production of protons which travel along lines of force to aid in maintaining the conjugate winter night ionosphere. Outside the plasmasphere hsub(T) is 300 to 600 km above the equilibrium level at all times. This implies a continual near-limiting upwards flux of protons which persists down to latitudes of about 60 0 at night and 50 0 during the day. (author)
Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A
2010-02-12
Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gibson Lucinda
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.
Bučinský, Lukáš; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Grabowsky, Simon
2016-08-25
This study investigates the possibility of detecting relativistic effects and electron correlation in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments using the examples of diphenyl mercury (HgPh2) and triphenyl bismuth (BiPh3). In detail, the importance of electron correlation (ECORR), relativistic effects (REL) [distinguishing between total, scalar and spin-orbit (SO) coupling relativistic effects] and picture change error (PCE) on the theoretical electron density, its topology and its Laplacian using infinite order two component (IOTC) wave functions is discussed. This is to develop an understanding of the order of magnitude and shape of these different effects as they manifest in the electron density. Subsequently, the same effects are considered for the theoretical structure factors. It becomes clear that SO and PCE are negligible, but ECORR and scalar REL are important in low- and medium-order reflections on absolute and relative scales-not in the high-order region. As a further step, Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) and subsequent X-ray constrained wavefunction (XCW) fitting have been performed for the compound HgPh2 with various relativistic and nonrelativistic wave functions against the experimental structure factors. IOTC calculations of theoretical structure factors and relativistic HAR as well as relativistic XCW fitting are presented for the first time, accounting for both scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haldoupis, C.; Nielsen, E.; Schlegel, K.
1990-01-01
By using a data set that includes simultaneous STARE and EISCAT measurements made at a common magnetic flux tube E region in the ionosphere, we investigate the dependence of relative scattering cross section of 1-meter auroral irregularities on the destabilizing E x B electron drift, or alternatively the electric field, and the E region ambient electron density. The analysis showed that both, the E field and mean electron density are the decisive factors in determining the strength of radar auroral echoes at magnetic aspect angles near perpendicularity. We have found that at instability threshold, i.e., when the E field strength is in the 15 to 20 mV/m range, the backscatter power level is affected strongly by the mean electron density. Above threshold, the wave saturation amplitudes are determined mainly by the combined action of electron drift velocity magnitude, V d , and mean electron density, N e , in a way that the scattering cross section, or the electron density fluctuation level, increases with electric field magnitude but at a rate which is larger when the ambient electron density is lower. The analysis enabled us to infer an empirical functional relationship which is capable of predicting reasonably well the intensity of STARE echoes from EISCAT E field and electron density data. In this functional relationship, the received power at threshold depends on N e 2 whereas, from threshold to perhaps more than 50 mV/m, the power increases nonlinearly with drift velocity as V d n where the exponent n is approximately proportional to N e -1/2 . The results support the Farley-Bunemann instability as the primary instability mechanism, but the existing nonlinear treatment of the theory, which includes wave-induced cross field diffusion, cannot account for the observed role of electron density in the saturation of irregularity amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rösner, Harald, E-mail: rosner@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Peterlechner, Martin [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Kübel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmidt, Vitalij [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Wilde, Gerhard [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)
2014-07-01
Density changes between sheared zones and their surrounding amorphous matrix as a result of plastic deformation in a cold-rolled metallic glass (melt-spun Al{sub 88}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}) were determined using high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector intensities supplemented by electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and nano-beam diffraction analyses. Sheared zones or shear bands were observed as regions of bright or dark contrast arising from a higher or lower density relative to the matrix. Moreover, abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa were found within individual shear bands. We associate the decrease in density mainly with an enhanced free volume in the shear bands and the increase in density with concomitant changes of the mass. This interpretation is further supported by changes in the zero loss and Plasmon signal originating from such sites. The limits of this new approach are discussed. - Highlights: • We describe a novel approach for measuring densities in shear bands of metallic glasses. • The linear relation of the dark-field intensity I/I{sub 0} and the mass thickness ρt was used. • Individual shear bands showed abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa. • Density changes ranging from about −10% to +6% were found for such shear bands. • Mixtures of amorphous/medium range ordered domains were found within the shear bands.
Two color interferometric electron density measurement in an axially blown arc
Stoller, Patrick; Carstensen, Jan; Galletti, Bernardo; Doiron, Charles; Sokolov, Alexey; Salzmann, René; Simon, Sandor; Jabs, Philipp
2016-09-01
High voltage circuit breakers protect the power grid by interrupting the current in case of a short circuit. To do so an arc is ignited between two contacts as they separate; transonic gas flow is used to cool and ultimately extinguish the arc at a current-zero crossing of the alternating current. A detailed understanding of the arc interruption process is needed to improve circuit breaker design. The conductivity of the partially ionized gas remaining after the current-zero crossing, a key parameter in determining whether the arc will be interrupted or not, is a function of the electron density. The electron density, in turn, is a function of the detailed dynamics of the arc cooling process, which does not necessarily occur under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. In this work, we measure the spatially resolved line-integrated index of refraction in a near-current-zero arc stabilized in an axial flow of synthetic air with two nanosecond pulsed lasers at wavelengths of 532 nm and 671 nm. Generating a stable, cylindrically symmetric arc enables us to determine the three-dimensional index of refraction distribution using Abel inversion. Due to the wavelength dependence of the component of the index of refraction related to the free electrons, the information at two different wavelengths can be used to determine the electron density. This information allows us to determine how important it is to take into account non-equilibrium effects for accurate modeling of the physics of decaying arcs.
Thermal electron mobilities in low density gaseous mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dmitriev, O.W.; Tchorzewska, W.; Szamrej, I.; Forys, M.
1992-01-01
A new method of obtaining thermal electron mobilities from experimental dependencies observed in the electron swarm is described; the method is suitable for both electron accepting and non-accepting systems. The electron mobilities for CO 2 , CH 4 C 2 H 6 as well as for N 2 , Ar, Xe, Kr and their mixtures with carbon dioxide are obtained. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Berendzen, Joel
1999-01-01
The correlation of local r.m.s. density is shown to be a good measure of the presence of distinct solvent and macromolecule regions in macromolecular electron-density maps. It has recently been shown that the standard deviation of local r.m.s. electron density is a good indicator of the presence of distinct regions of solvent and protein in macromolecular electron-density maps [Terwilliger & Berendzen (1999 ▶). Acta Cryst. D55, 501–505]. Here, it is demonstrated that a complementary measure, the correlation of local r.m.s. density in adjacent regions on the unit cell, is also a good measure of the presence of distinct solvent and protein regions. The correlation of local r.m.s. density is essentially a measure of how contiguous the solvent (and protein) regions are in the electron-density map. This statistic can be calculated in real space or in reciprocal space and has potential uses in evaluation of heavy-atom solutions in the MIR and MAD methods as well as for evaluation of trial phase sets in ab initio phasing procedures
An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics
Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.
2016-02-01
X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm-3 in a low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.
The calculation of electron density of the non-ideal argon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Ming; Cheng Xinlu; Yang Xiangdong
2004-01-01
By the screened hydrogenic model, the paper calculates the electron densities of shock-generated argon plasma with temperature T∼2.0 eV and density of plasma ρ∼0.01 g/cm 3 -0.49 g/cm 3 , and studies the influence on electron density caused by interparticle interaction at the different temperature and density of plasma. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yong; Zou Wen-Kang; Song Sheng-Yi
2011-01-01
In modern pulsed power systems, magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) are used to couple power between the driver and the load. The circuit parameters of MITLs are well understood by employing the concept of flow impedance derived from Maxwell's equations and pressure balance across the flow. However, the electron density in an MITL is always taken as constant in the application of flow impedance. Thus effects of electron flow current density (product of electron density and drift velocity) in an MITL are neglected. We calculate the flow impedances of an MITL and compare them under three classical MITL theories, in which the electron density profile and electron flow current density are different from each other. It is found that the assumption of constant electron density profile in the calculation of the flow impedance is not always valid. The electron density profile and the electron flow current density have significant effects on flow impedance of the MITL. The details of the electron flow current density and its effects on the operation impedance of the MITL should be addressed more explicitly by experiments and theories in the future. (nuclear physics)
Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.
2016-01-01
The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime
Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tierno, S. P., E-mail: sp.tierno@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L. [Department of Applied Physics, E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2016-01-15
The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.
Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas
Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.
2016-01-01
The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.
Aray, Yosslen; Paredes, Ricardo; Álvarez, Luis Javier; Martiz, Alejandro
2017-06-14
The electron density localization in insulator and semiconductor elemental cubic materials with diamond structure, carbon, silicon, germanium, and tin, and good metallic conductors with face centered cubic structure such as α-Co, Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au, was studied using a localized electrons detector defined in the local moment representation. Our results clearly show an opposite pattern of the electron density localization for the cubic ceramic and transition metal materials. It was found that, for the elemental ceramic materials, the zone of low electron localization is very small and is mainly localized on the atomic basin edges. On the contrary, for the transition metals, there are low-valued localized electrons detector isocontours defining a zone of highly delocalized electrons that extends throughout the material. We have found that the best conductors are those in which the electron density at this low-value zone is the lowest.
Effects of density imbalance on the BCS-BEC crossover in semiconductor electron-hole bilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. C.; Neilson, D.
2007-01-01
We study the occurrence of excitonic superfluidity in electron-hole bilayers at zero temperature. We not only identify the crossover in the phase diagram from the BCS limit of overlapping pairs to the BEC limit of nonoverlapping tightly bound pairs but also, by varying the electron and hole densities independently, we can analyze a number of phases that occur mainly in the crossover region. With different electron and hole effective masses, the phase diagram is asymmetric with respect to excess electron or hole densities. We propose, as the criterion for the onset of superfluidity, the jump of the electron and hole chemical potentials when their densities cross
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, B; Jacobs, J; Missous, M
2003-01-01
This paper is concerned with the scanning tunnelling microscope tunnelling conditions needed to produce constant current images dominated either by surface topology or by electronic effects. A model experimental structure was produced by cleaving a GaAs multiδ-doped layer in UHV and so projecting a spatially varying electron gas density onto the (110) surface. This cross sectional electron density varies on a nanometre scale in the [100] growth direction. The electronic structure and tunnelling properties of this system were modelled, and the tunnelling conditions favouring sensitivity to the surface electron gas density determined
Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs in strongly diffusive regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mics, Zoltán; D’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.
2013-01-01
In a series of systematic optical pump–terahertz probe experiments, we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in the regime of strong carrier diffusion. The terahertz frequency-resolved transient sheet conductivity spectra are perfectly described by the Drude...... model, directly yielding the electron scattering rates. A diffusion model is applied to determine the spatial extent of the photoexcited electron-hole gas at each moment after photoexcitation, yielding the time-dependent electron density, and hence the density-dependent electron scattering time. We find...
Cellular imaging electron tomography and related techniques
2018-01-01
This book highlights important techniques for cellular imaging and covers the basics and applications of electron tomography and related techniques. In addition, it considers practical aspects and broadens the technological focus by incorporating techniques that are only now becoming accessible (e.g. block face imaging). The first part of the book describes the electron microscopy 3D technique available to scientists around the world, allowing them to characterize organelles, cells and tissues. The major emphasis is on new technologies like scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, though the book also reviews some of the more proven technologies like electron tomography. In turn, the second part is dedicated to the reconstruction of data sets, signal improvement and interpretation.
The large density electron beam-plasma Buneman instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantei, T.D.; Doveil, F.; Gresillon, D.
1976-01-01
The threshold conditions and growth rate of the Buneman (electron beam-stationary ion) instability are calculated with kinetic theory, including a stationary electronic population. A criteria on the wave energy sign is used to separate the Buneman hydrodynamic instability from the ion-acoustic kinetic instability. The stationary electron population raises the instability threshold and, for large beam velocities yields a maximum growth rate oblique to the beam. (author)
Uniform electron gases. III. Low-density gases on three-dimensional spheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agboola, Davids; Knol, Anneke L.; Gill, Peter M. W., E-mail: peter.gill@anu.edu.au; Loos, Pierre-François, E-mail: pf.loos@anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia)
2015-08-28
By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e., the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. The HF calculations employ spherical Gaussian functions (SGFs) which are the curved-space analogs of Cartesian Gaussian functions. At low densities, the electrons become relatively localized into Wigner crystals, and the natural SGF centers are found by solving the Thomson problem (i.e., the minimum-energy arrangement of n point charges) on the 3-sphere for various values of n. We have found 11 special values of n whose Thomson sites are equivalent. Three of these are the vertices of four-dimensional Platonic solids — the hyper-tetrahedron (n = 5), the hyper-octahedron (n = 8), and the 24-cell (n = 24) — and a fourth is a highly symmetric structure (n = 13) which has not previously been reported. By calculating the harmonic frequencies of the electrons around their equilibrium positions, we also find the first-order vibrational corrections to the Thomson energy.
Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haberberger, D.; Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H.
2014-01-01
A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10 21 cm −3 with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres
Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haberberger, D., E-mail: dhab@lle.rochester.edu; Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States)
2014-05-15
A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres.
Annual Screening Mammogram and its Relation to Breast Density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabek EAS
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Current national screening programs totally depend on mammographic evaluation. After increased incidence of breast cancer in women under the age of 35, mammography sensitivity in now a question. Several factors added to decrease sensitivity of mammography, such as increased density in older age groups and increased aggressiveness of tumour biology. All these factors will change the reliability of the screening program. The study is a retrospective study conducted at Ain Shams University. Method: 138 patients diagnosed with cancer breast underwent both mammography and sonography to determine percentage of patient with more than one focus, age and density distribution breast cancer in the affected patient and accuracy of both mammography and US. Results: By studying this population, we found that around 61,44% have areas of density ranging from dense breast, heterogenous density or scattered density. These areas of density render the mammography a less sensitive tool as its sensitivity fall to 34.09%, while that of US was 77.27%. Conclusion: As breast cancer is prevalent in younger population, also with increased density in older population who are relatively insensitive to mammography, we recommended the use of Automated Breast Ultrasound (ABUS in the national screening program.
Local relative density modulates failure and strength in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.
Pathak, Siddhartha; Mohan, Nisha; Decolvenaere, Elizabeth; Needleman, Alan; Bedewy, Mostafa; Hart, A John; Greer, Julia R
2013-10-22
Micromechanical experiments, image analysis, and theoretical modeling revealed that local failure events and compressive stresses of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were uniquely linked to relative density gradients. Edge detection analysis of systematically obtained scanning electron micrographs was used to quantify a microstructural figure-of-merit related to relative local density along VACNT heights. Sequential bottom-to-top buckling and hardening in stress-strain response were observed in samples with smaller relative density at the bottom. When density gradient was insubstantial or reversed, bottom regions always buckled last, and a flat stress plateau was obtained. These findings were consistent with predictions of a 2D material model based on a viscoplastic solid with plastic non-normality and a hardening-softening-hardening plastic flow relation. The hardening slope in compression generated by the model was directly related to the stiffness gradient along the sample height, and hence to the local relative density. These results demonstrate that a microstructural figure-of-merit, the effective relative density, can be used to quantify and predict the mechanical response.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turaev, N.Yu.; Turaev, E.Yu.; Khuzhakulov, E.S.; Seregin, P.P.
2006-01-01
Results of electron density change calculations for sites of the one-dimensional Kronig-Penny lattice at the superconducting phase transition have been presented. The transition from normal state to super conducting one is accompanied by the rise of the electron density at the unit cell centre. It is agreement with Moessbauer spectroscopy data. (author)
High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Senturk, Osman Selcuk
. For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...
Electron attachment to indole and related molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Modelli, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.modelli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universitá di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), Universitá di Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Jones, Derek, E-mail: d.jones@isof.cnr.it [ISOF, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività, C.N.R., via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A., E-mail: sapsh@anrb.ru [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, 450075 Ufa (Russian Federation)
2013-11-14
Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]{sup −}) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.
Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, F. Ramskov
1986-01-01
Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...... of the electron cyclotron frequency. These are injected obliquely from the outside of the tokamak near an optimal angle to the magnetic field lines. This method involves two mode conversions. The ordinary waves are converted into extraordinary waves near the plasma cut-off layer. The extraordinary waves...... are subsequently converted into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer, and the Bernstein waves are completely absorbed close to the plasma centre. Results are presented from ray-tracinq calculations in full three-dimensional geometry using the dispersion function for a hot non...
Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points
Bučinský , Luká š; Kucková , Lenka; Malček, Michal; Koží šek, Jozef; Biskupič, Stanislav; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Arion, Vladimir B.
2014-01-01
The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points
Bučinský, Lukáš
2014-06-01
The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The relation between the (N) and (N-1) electrons atomic ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briet, P.
1984-05-01
The relation between the ground state of an N and (N-1) electrons atomic system are studied. We show that in some directions of the configuration space, the ratio of the N electrons atomic ground state to the one particle density is asymptotically equivalent to the (N-1) electrons atomic ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, R.; Fleischmann, H.H.
1989-01-01
The production of intermediate energy secondary electrons in plasmas through collisions with fast charged particles is investigated. The density and the distribution of the secondary electrons are obtained by calculating the generation, slow down and diffusion rates, using basic Rutherford collision cross sections. It is shown that the total density of secondaries is much smaller than the fast particle density and that the energy distribution has roughly a 1/√E dependence. The higher generation secondary populations are also obtained. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Qingchang
1991-01-01
On the basis of the fluid theory of the axisymmetrical self-sustaining magnetically confined electron clouds an approximate analytical method is developed. By means of this method the relations between the parameters of this type of electron cloud and external conditions are studied. The parameters include electron density, electron temperature, drift angular frequency of electrons, radius of the electron cloud and electric potential at the centre of the electron cloud. They depend on the voltage, magnetic induction, pressure, electromagnetic field distribution in the confinement device and parameters of electron-atom collisions
Real-time evaluation of electron and current density profile parameters on TEXTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruessau, W.D.; Soltwisch, H.
1985-08-01
The shapes of electron and current density profiles are monitored in real-time mode in order to get rapid qualitative information on the development of a TEXTOR tokamak plasma. The profiles are described by form parameters which relate to the signals of a 9-channel FIR-polari/interferometer in simple mathematical formulae. These profile parameters are obtained by real-time conversion of measured quantities for display on a storage oscilloscope or on a chart recorder. The application of the parameters is demonstrated in some examples. (orig.)
Density functional study of : Electronic and optical properties
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K C Bhamu
3Department of Physics, Swami Keshvanand Insitute of Technology, Management and Gramothan, ... Published online 20 June 2017. Abstract. This paper focusses on the electronic and optical properties of scandium-based silver delafossite.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahu, G K; Baruah, S; Thakur, K B
2012-01-01
Electron beam is preferably used for large scale evaporation of refractory materials. Material evaporation from a long and narrow source providing a well collimated wedge shaped atomic beam has applications in isotopic purification of metals relevant to nuclear industry. The electron beam from an electron gun with strip type filament provides a linear heating source. However, the high power density of the electron beam can lead to turbulence of the melt pool and undesirable splashing of molten metal. For obtaining quiet surface evaporation, the linear electron beam is generally scanned along its length. To further reduce the power density to maintain quiet evaporation the width of the vapour source can be controlled by rotating the electron gun on its plane, thereby scanning an inclined beam over the molten pool. The rotation of gun has further advantages. When multiple strip type electron guns are used for scaling up evaporation length, a dark zone appears between two beams due to physical separation of adjacent guns. This dark zone can be reduced by rotating the gun and thereby bringing two adjacent beams closer. The paper presented here provides the simulation results of the electron beam trajectory and incident power density originating from two strip electron guns by using in-house developed code. The effect of electron gun rotation on the electron beam trajectory and power density is studied. The simulation result is experimentally verified with the image of molten pool and heat affected zone taken after experiment. This technique can be gainfully utilized in controlling the time averaged power density of the electron beam and obtaining quiet evaporation from the metal molten pool.
Spinning solutions in general relativity with infinite central density
Flammer, P. D.
2018-05-01
This paper presents general relativistic numerical simulations of uniformly rotating polytropes. Equations are developed using MSQI coordinates, but taking a logarithm of the radial coordinate. The result is relatively simple elliptical differential equations. Due to the logarithmic scale, we can resolve solutions with near-singular mass distributions near their center, while the solution domain extends many orders of magnitude larger than the radius of the distribution (to connect with flat space-time). Rotating solutions are found with very high central energy densities for a range of adiabatic exponents. Analytically, assuming the pressure is proportional to the energy density (which is true for polytropes in the limit of large energy density), we determine the small radius behavior of the metric potentials and energy density. This small radius behavior agrees well with the small radius behavior of large central density numerical results, lending confidence to our numerical approach. We compare results with rotating solutions available in the literature, which show good agreement. We study the stability of spherical solutions: instability sets in at the first maximum in mass versus central energy density; this is also consistent with results in the literature, and further lends confidence to the numerical approach.
A new electron density model of the plasmasphere for operational applications and services
Jakowski, Norbert; Hoque, Mohammed Mainul
2018-03-01
The Earth's plasmasphere contributes essentially to total electron content (TEC) measurements from ground or satellite platforms. Furthermore, as an integral part of space weather, associated plasmaspheric phenomena must be addressed in conjunction with ionosphere weather monitoring by operational space weather services. For supporting space weather services and mitigation of propagation errors in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications we have developed the empirical Neustrelitz plasmasphere model (NPSM). The model consists of an upper L shell dependent part and a lower altitude dependent part, both described by specific exponential decays. Here the McIllwain parameter L defines the geomagnetic field lines in a centered dipole model for the geomagnetic field. The coefficients of the developed approaches are successfully fitted to numerous electron density data derived from dual frequency GPS measurements on-board the CHAMP satellite mission from 2000 to 2005. The data are utilized for fitting up to the L shell L = 3 because a previous validation has shown a good agreement with IMAGE/RPI measurements up to this value. Using the solar radio flux index F10.7 as the only external parameter, the operation of the model is robust, with 40 coefficients fast and sufficiently accurate to be used as a background model for estimating TEC or electron density profiles in near real time GNSS applications and services. In addition to this, the model approach is sensitive to ionospheric coupling resulting in anomalies such as the Nighttime Winter Anomaly and the related Mid-Summer Nighttime Anomaly and even shows a slight plasmasphere compression of the dayside plasmasphere due to solar wind pressure. Modelled electron density and TEC values agree with estimates reported in the literature in similar cases.
The relation between food price, energy density and diet quality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margareta Bolarić
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Low energy density diet, high in fruits and vegetables, is related to lower obesity risk and to better health status, but is more expensive. High energy density diet, high in added sugar and fats, is more affordable, but is related to higher obesity and chronic diseases risk. The aim of this study was to report prices according to energy density (low vs. high of food items and to show how food affordability could affect food choice and consumers’ health. Data was collected for 137 raw and processed foods from three purchase sites in Zagreb (one representative for supermarket, one smaller shop and green market. Results showed that low energy density food is more expensive than high energy density food (for example, the price of 1000 kcal from green zucchini (15 kcal/100 g is 124.20 kn while the price of 1000 kcal from sour cream (138 kcal/100 g is 13.99 kn. Food energy price was significantly different (p<0.05 between food groups with highest price for vegetable products (159.04 ± 36.18 kn/1000 kcal and raw vegetables (97.90 ± 50.13 kn/1000 kcal and lowest for fats (8.49 ± 1.22 kn/1000 kcal and cereals and products (5.66 ± 0.76 kn/1000 kcal. Negative correlation (Spearman r=-0.72, p<0.0001 was observed for energy density (kcal/100 g and price of 1000 kcal. Therefore, it is advisable to develop strategies in order to reduce price of low energy density food and encourage its intake since it would improve diet quality, which could lead to better costumers’ health.
Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annika Smedman
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.
Joint density of states of wide-band-gap materials by electron energy loss spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, X.D.; Peng, J.L.; Bursill, L.A.
1998-01-01
Kramers-Kronig analysis for parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) data is developed as a software package. When used with a JEOL 4000EX high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) operating at 100 keV this allows us to obtain the dielectric function of relatively wide band gap materials with an energy resolution of approx 1.4 eV. The imaginary part of the dielectric function allows the magnitude of the band gap to be determined as well as the joint-density-of-states function. Routines for obtaining three variations of the joint-density of states function, which may be used to predict the optical and dielectric response for angle-resolved or angle-integration scattering geometries are also described. Applications are presented for diamond, aluminum nitride (AlN), quartz (SiO 2 ) and sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ). The results are compared with values of the band gap and density of states results for these materials obtained with other techniques. (authors)
Shi, Minjie; Yang, Cheng; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Lian
2017-05-24
Wire-shaped supercapacitors (SCs) based on shape memory materials are of considerable interest for next-generation portable and wearable electronics. However, the bottleneck in this field is how to develop the devices with excellent electrochemical performance while well-maintaining recoverability and flexibility. Herein, a unique asymmetric electrode concept is put forward to fabricate smart wire-shaped SCs with ultrahigh energy density, which is realized by using porous carbon dodecahedra coated on NiTi alloy wire and flexible graphene fiber as yarn electrodes. Notably, the wire-shaped SCs not only exhibit high flexibility that can be readily woven into real clothing but also represent the available recoverable ability. When irreversible plastic deformations happen, the deformed shape of the devices can automatically resume the initial predesigned shape in a warm environment (about 35 °C). More importantly, the wire-shaped SCs act as efficient energy storage devices, which display high volumetric energy density (8.9 mWh/cm 3 ), volumetric power density (1080 mW/cm 3 ), strong durability in multiple mechanical states, and steady electrochemical behavior after repeated shape recovery processes. Considering their relative facile fabrication technology and excellent electrochemical performance, this asymmetric electrode strategy produced smart wire-shaped supercapacitors desirable for multifunctional portable and wearable electronics.
Hou, Ling; Li, Wei-Dong; Wang, Fangwei; Eriksson, Olle; Wang, Bao-Tian
2017-12-01
We present a systematic investigation of the structural, magnetic, electronic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of CmO2 with the local density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+U approaches. The strong Coulomb repulsion and the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects on the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps are carefully studied, and compared with other A O2 (A =U , Np, Pu, and Am). The ferromagnetic configuration with half-metallic character is predicted to be energetically stable while a charge-transfer semiconductor is predicted for the antiferromagnetic configuration. The elastic constants and phonon spectra show that the fluorite structure is mechanically and dynamically stable. Based on the first-principles phonon density of states, the lattice vibrational energy is calculated using the quasiharmonic approximation. Then, the Gibbs free energy, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, and entropy are obtained and compared with experimental data. The mode Grüneisen parameters are presented to analyze the anharmonic properties. The Slack relation is applied to obtain the lattice thermal conductivity in temperature range of 300-1600 K. The phonon group velocities are also calculated to investigate the heat transfer. For all these properties, if available, we compare the results of CmO2 with other A O2 .
Kiewisch, K.; Jacob, C.R.; Visscher, L.
2013-01-01
The ability to calculate accurate electron densities of full proteins or of selected sites in proteins is a prerequisite for a fully quantum-mechanical calculation of protein-protein and protein-ligand interaction energies. Quantum-chemical subsystem methods capable of treating proteins and other
Basic concepts of Density Functional Theory: Electronic structure calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, B. Indrajit
2016-01-01
We are looking for a material which possesses the required properties as demanded for technological applications. For this we have to repeat the preparation of the appropriate materials and its characterizations. So, before proceeding to experiments, one can study on computer generated structure and predict the properties of the desired material. To do this, a concept of Density Functional Theory comes out. (paper)
A method to measure the suprathermal density distribution by electron cyclotron emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutter, M.
1986-05-01
Electron cyclotron emission spectra of suprathermal electrons in a thermal main plasma are calculated. It is shown that for direction of observation oblique to the magnetic field, which decays in direction to the receiver, one may obtain information on the spatial density distribution of the suprathermal electrons from those spectra. (orig.)
Electronic zero-point oscillations in the strong-interaction limit of density functional theory
Gori Giorgi, P.; Vignale, G.; Seidl, M.
2009-01-01
The exchange-correlation energy in Kohn-Sham density functional theory can be expressed exactly in terms of the change in the expectation of the electron-electron repulsion operator when, in the many-electron Hamiltonian, this same operator is multiplied by a real parameter λ varying between 0
Response of the ionospheric electron density to different types of seismic events
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. He
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The electron density data recorded by the Langmuir Probe Instrument (ISL, Instrument Sonde de Langmuir onboard the DEMETER satellite have been collected for nearly 4 yr (during 2006–2009 to perform a statistical analysis. During this time, more than 7000 earthquakes with a magnitude larger than or equal to 5.0 occurred all over the world. For the statistical studies, all these events have been divided into various categories on the basis of the seismic information, including Southern or Northern Hemisphere earthquakes, inland or sea earthquakes, earthquakes at different magnitude levels, earthquakes at different depth levels, isolated events and all events. To distinguish the pre-earthquake anomalies from the possible ionospheric anomalies related to the geomagnetic activity, the data were filtered with the K_{p} index. The statistical results obviously show that the electron density increases close to the epicentres both in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, but the position of the anomaly is slightly shifted to the north in the Northern Hemisphere and to the south in the Southern Hemisphere. The electron density related to both inland and sea earthquakes presents an anomaly approximately close to the epicentres, but the anomaly for sea earthquakes is more significant than for inland earthquakes. The intensity of the anomalies is enhanced when the magnitude increases and is reduced when the depth increases. A similar anomaly can also be seen in the statistical results concerning the isolated earthquakes. All these statistical results can help to better understand the preparation process of the earthquakes and their influence up to the ionospheric levels.
McNeil, Brian W J; Robb, Gordon
2005-01-01
We present a possible method of inducing a periodic density modulation in a particle beam with little increase in the energy dispersion of the particles. The flow of particles in phase space does not obey Liouville's Theorem. The method relies upon the Kuramoto-like model of collective synchronism found in free electron generators of radiation, such as Cyclotron Resonance Masers and the Free Electron Laser. For the case of an FEL interaction, electrons initially begin to bunch and emit radiation energy with a correlated energy dispersion which is periodic with the FEL ponderomotive potential. The relative phase between potential and particles is then changed by approximately 180 degrees. The particles continue to bunch, however, there is now a correlated re-absorption of energy from the field. We show that, by repeating this relative phase change many times, a significant density modulation of the particles may be achieved with only relatively small energy dispersion. A similar method of repeated relative ele...
Dispersal patterns of red foxes relative to population density
Allen, Stephen H.; Sargeant, Alan B.
1993-01-01
Factors affecting red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dispersal patterns are poorly understood but warranted investigation because of the role of dispersal in rebuilding depleted populations and transmission of diseases. We examined dispersal patterns of red foxes in North Dakota based on recoveries of 363 of 854 foxes tagged as pups and relative to fox density. Foxes were recovered up to 8.6 years after tagging; 79% were trapped or shot. Straight-line distances between tagging and recovery locations ranged from 0 to 302 km. Mean recovery distances increased with age and were greater for males than females, but longest individual recovery distances were by females. Dispersal distances were not related to population density for males (P = 0.36) or females (P = 0.96). The proportion of males recovered that dispersed was inversely related to population density (r = -0.94; n = 5; P = 0.02), but not the proportion of females (r = -0.49; n = 5; P = 0.40). Dispersal directions were not uniform for either males (P = 0.003) or females (P = 0.006); littermates tended to disperse in similar directions (P = 0.09). A 4-lane interstate highway altered dispersal directions (P = 0.001). Dispersal is a strong innate behavior of red foxes (especially males) that results in many individuals of both sexes traveling far from natal areas. Because dispersal distance was unaffected by fox density, populations can be rebuilt and diseases transmitted long distances regardless of fox abundance.
Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Horst, R M; Beckers, J; Nijdam, S; Kroesen, G M W
2014-01-01
We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 10 16 m −3 . This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 10 16 m −3 . After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds. (fast track communication)
Molecular Electron Density Theory: A Modern View of Reactivity in Organic Chemistry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis R. Domingo
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A new theory for the study of the reactivity in Organic Chemistry, named Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT, is proposed herein. MEDT is based on the idea that while the electron density distribution at the ground state is responsible for physical and chemical molecular properties, as proposed by the Density Functional Theory (DFT, the capability for changes in electron density is responsible for molecular reactivity. Within MEDT, the reactivity in Organic Chemistry is studied through a rigorous quantum chemical analysis of the changes of the electron density as well as the energies associated with these changes along the reaction path in order to understand experimental outcomes. Studies performed using MEDT allow establishing a modern rationalisation and to gain insight into molecular mechanisms and reactivity in Organic Chemistry.
Molecular Electron Density Theory: A Modern View of Reactivity in Organic Chemistry.
Domingo, Luis R
2016-09-30
A new theory for the study of the reactivity in Organic Chemistry, named Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT), is proposed herein. MEDT is based on the idea that while the electron density distribution at the ground state is responsible for physical and chemical molecular properties, as proposed by the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the capability for changes in electron density is responsible for molecular reactivity. Within MEDT, the reactivity in Organic Chemistry is studied through a rigorous quantum chemical analysis of the changes of the electron density as well as the energies associated with these changes along the reaction path in order to understand experimental outcomes. Studies performed using MEDT allow establishing a modern rationalisation and to gain insight into molecular mechanisms and reactivity in Organic Chemistry.
The study of dynamics of electrons in the presence of large current densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, G.
2007-11-01
The runaway electron effect is considered in different fields: nuclear fusion, or the heating of the solar corona. In this thesis, we are interested in runaway electrons in the ionosphere. We consider the issue of electrons moving through an ionospheric gas of positive ions and neutrals under the influence of a parallel electric field. We develop a kinetic model of collisions including electrons/electrons, electrons/ions and electrons/neutrals collisions. We use a Fokker-Planck approach to describe binary collisions between charged particles with a long-range interaction. A computational example is given illustrating the approach to equilibrium and the impact of the different terms. Then, a static electric field is applied in a new sample run. In this run, the electrons move in the z direction, parallel to the electric field. The first results show that all the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian. Furthermore, runaway electrons can carry a significant part of the total current density up to 20% of the total current density. Nevertheless, we note that the divergence free of the current density is not conserved. We introduce major changes in order to take into account the variation of the different moments of the ion distribution functions. We observe that the electron distribution functions are still non-Maxwellian. Runaway electrons are created and carry the current density. The core distribution stay at rest. As these electrons undergo less collisions, they increase the plasma conductivity. We make a parametric study. We fit the electron distribution function by two Maxwellian. We show that the time to reach the maximal current density is a key point. Thus, when we increase this time, we modify the temperatures. The current density plays a primary role. When the current density increases, all the moments of the distributions increase: electron density and mean velocity of the suprathermal distribution and the electron temperature of the core and
Ambiguities and symmetry relations associated with fermionic tensor densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallabona, G.; Battistel, O. A.
2004-01-01
We consider the consistent evaluation of perturbative (divergent) Green functions associated with fermionic tensor densities and the derivation of symmetry relations for them. We show that, in spite of current algebra methods being not applicable, it is possible to derive symmetry properties analogous to the Ward identities of vector and axial-vector densities. The proposed method, which is applicable to any previously chosen order of perturbative calculation, gives the same results as those of current algebra when such a tool is applicable. By using a very general calculational strategy, concerning the manipulations and calculations involving divergent Feynman integrals, we evaluate the purely fermionic two-point functions containing tensor vertices and derive their symmetry properties. The present investigation is the first step in the study and characterization of possible anomalies involving fermionic tensor densities, particularly in purely fermionic three-point functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrzynski, Ludwik
2000-01-01
The Bayesian analysis of the spherical part of the electron momentum density was carried out with the goal of finding the best estimation of the spherically averaged renormalization parameter, z , quantifying the discontinuity in the electron momentum density distribution in Li metal. Three models parametrizing the electron momentum density were considered and nuisance parameters integrated out. The analysis show that the most likely value of z following from the data of Sakurai et al is in the range of 0.45-0.50, while 0.55 is obtained for the data of Schuelke et al . In the maximum entropy reconstruction of the spherical part of the electron momentum density three different algorithms were used. It is shown that all of them produce essentially the same results. The paper shows that the accurate Compton scattering experiments are capable of bringing information on this very important Fermiological aspect of the electron gas in a metal. (author)
Relating saturation capacity to charge density in strong cation exchangers.
Steinebach, Fabian; Coquebert de Neuville, Bertrand; Morbidelli, Massimo
2017-07-21
In this work the relation between physical and chemical resin characteristics and the total amount of adsorbed protein (saturation capacity) for ion-exchange resins is discussed. Eleven different packing materials with a sulfo-functionalization and one multimodal resin were analyzed in terms of their porosity, pore size distribution, ligand density and binding capacity. By specifying the ligand density and binding capacity by the total and accessible surface area, two different groups of resins were identified: Below a ligand density of approx. 2.5μmol/m 2 area the ligand density controls the saturation capacity, while above this limit the accessible surface area becomes the limiting factor. This results in a maximum protein uptake of around 2.5mg/m 2 of accessible surface area. The obtained results allow estimating the saturation capacity from independent resin characteristics like the saturation capacity mainly depends on "library data" such as the accessible and total surface area and the charge density. Hence these results give an insight into the fundamentals of protein adsorption and help to find suitable resins, thus limiting the experimental effort in early process development stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Tadahiko; Fujita, Masaharu; Awaka, Jun.
1978-01-01
The experiments to investigate the influence of troposphere on millimeter and sub-millimeter wave propagation were carried out, using the engineering test satellite -- 2 (ETS-2) which became the Japanese first stationary satellite and carries the transmitter emitting beacon waves of 1.7, 11.5 and 34.5 GHz coherent each other. By these experiments, it was found that the waves of 1.7 and 11.5 GHz were affected by the ionosphere. The measurement of total electron content using GHz band waves was the first trial in the world, and is capable of grasping its change with higher accuracy than conventional methods. Scintillation of 1.7 GHz is mainly the phenomenon during night, and it was revealed that it has a peak at 22.30 local time and occurred through the radiowave scattering owing to the irregularities of the ionosphere. It is also suggested that some plasma instability is generated in the place where electron density gradient in the ionosphere is large, and the irregularities of fine scale are produced, assuming from GHz band scintillations at the time of magnetic storm. The relations among wave number spectrum, scintillation frequency spectrum and S4 index (statistical quantity to give estimate for scintillation amplitude) can be derived by the weak scattering theory (Simple scattering theory). As seen above, the diagnosis of plasma disturbances in the ionosphere is feasible by the simultaneous observations of total electron content and scintillation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palomares, J.M., E-mail: j.m.palomares-linares@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Huebner, S.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Vries, N. de; Veldhuizen, E.M. de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sola, A.; Gamero, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2012-07-15
In the present work Stark broadening measurements have been carried out on low electron density (n{sub e} < 5{center_dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) and (relatively) low gas temperature (T{sub g} < 1100 K) argon-hydrogen plasma, under low-intermediate pressure conditions (3 mbar-40 mbar). A line fitting procedure is used to separate the effects of the different broadening mechanisms (e.g. Doppler and instrumental broadening) from the Stark broadening. A Stark broadening theory is extrapolated to lower electron density values, below its theoretical validity regime. Thomson scattering measurements are used to calibrate and validate the procedure. The results show an agreement within 20%, what validates the use of this Stark broadening method under such low density conditions. It is also found that Stark broadened profiles cannot be assumed to be purely Lorentzian. Such an assumption would lead to an underestimation of the electron density. This implies that independent information on the gas temperature is needed to find the correct values of n{sub e}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stark broadening measurements at low density and temperature conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration with Thomson scattering Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indications of the non-Lorentzian shape of the Stark broadening Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impossibility of simultaneous diagnostic of gas temperature and electron density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Deming; Zhang Hongyin; Liu Zetian; Ding Xuantong; Li Qirui; Wen Yangxi
1989-11-01
A multichannel microwave interferometer which is composed of different microwave interferometers (one 2 mm band, one 4 mm band and two 8 mm band) has been used to measure the plasma electron density on HL-1 tokamak device. The electron density approaching to 5 x 10 13 cm -3 is measured by a 2 mm band microwave interferometer. In the determinable range, the electron density profile in the cross-section on HL-1 device has been measured by this interferometer. A microcomputer data processing system is also developed
Electric field and electron density thresholds for coherent auroral echo onset
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustov, A.V.; Uspensky, M.V.; Sofko, G.J.; Koehler, J.A.; Jones, G.O.L.; Williams, P.J.S.
1993-01-01
The authors study the threshold dependence of electron density and electric field for the observation of coherent auroral echo onset. They make use of Polar Geophysical Institute 83 MHz auroral radar and the EISCAT facility in Scandanavia, to simultaneously get plasma parameter information and coherent scatter observations. They observe an electron density threshold of roughly 2.5x10 11 m -3 for electric fields of 15 - 20 mV/m (near the Farley-Buneman instability threshold). For electric fields of 5 - 10 mV/m echos are not observed for even twice the previous electron density. Echo strength is observed to have other parametric dependences
Electron density profiles in the background of LF absorption during Forbush-decrease and PSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satori, G.
1989-01-01
Based on the simulation of different Forbush decrease and particle precipitation effects in the D region, electron density profiles in the mid-latitudes the ionospheric absorption of low frequency (LF) radio waves was determined. The absorption variations at different frequenceis are strongly affected by the shape of the electron density profile. A structure appears which sometimes resembles the letter S (in a sloping form). Both the height (around 70 to 72 km) and the depth of the local minimum in the electron density contribute to the computed absorption changes of various degree at different frequencies. In this way several observed special absorption events can be interpreted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brekke, A.; Holt, O.; Friedrich, M.; Hansen, T.; Stauning, P.; Thrane, E.V.
1985-01-01
D-region electron density profiles and time variations were obtained during the Energy Budget Campaign 1980 by a partial reflection radar at Ramfjordmoen, Tromso, located between the rocket ranges at Andoya and Kiruna. The observations were made under various geophysical conditions which are illustrated by riometer observations. The partial reflection measurements indicate that the rockets were launched into a relatively stable D-region on two occasions, while it was somewhat more disturbed on the third. A comparison between the electron density profiles derived by the partial reflection technique and rocket borne probes and Faraday rotation experiments does indicate fair agreement during the quiet conditions, but relatively large discrepancies during disturbed conditions. Simultaneously derived electron density profiles, by use of the Faraday technique, and ion density profiles, by gridded electrostatic spheres mounted on the rocket payload, have made it possible to estimate the negative ion to electron density ratio lambda versus height. These values of lambda are within the range of model calculations. (author)
Bond charge approximation for valence electron density in elemental semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bashenov, V.K.; Gorbachov, V.E.; Marvakov, D.I.
1985-07-01
The spatial valence electron distribution in silicon and diamond is calculated in adiabatic bond charge approximation at zero temperature when bond charges have the Gaussian shape and their tensor character is taken into account. An agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. For this purpose Xia's ionic pseudopotentials and Schulze-Unger's dielectric function are used. By two additional parameters Asub(B) and Zsub(B)sup(') we describe the spatial extent of the bond charge and local-field corrections, respectively. The parameter Zsub(B)sup(') accounts for the ratio between the Coulomb and exchange correlation interactions of the valence electrons and its silicon and diamond values have different signs. (author)
Computed tomography as a source of electron density information for radiation treatment planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skrzynski, Witold; Slusarczyk-Kacprzyk, Wioletta; Bulski, Wojciech; Zielinska-Dabrowska, Sylwia; Wachowicz, Marta; Kukolowicz, Pawel F.
2010-01-01
Purpose: to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) systems of various designs as a source of electron density (ρ el ) data for treatment planning of radiation therapy. Material and methods: dependence of CT numbers on relative electron density of tissue-equivalent materials (HU-ρ el relationship) was measured for several general-purpose CT systems (single-slice, multislice, wide-bore multislice), for radiotherapy simulators with a single-slice CT and kV CBCT (cone-beam CT) options, as well as for linear accelerators with kV and MV CBCT systems. Electron density phantoms of four sizes were used. Measurement data were compared with the standard HU-ρ el relationships predefined in two commercial treatment-planning systems (TPS). Results: the HU-ρ el relationships obtained with all of the general-purpose CT scanners operating at voltages close to 120 kV were very similar to each other and close to those predefined in TPS. Some dependency of HU values on tube voltage was observed for bone-equivalent materials. For a given tube voltage, differences in results obtained for different phantoms were larger than those obtained for different CT scanners. For radiotherapy simulators and for kV CBCT systems, the information on ρ el was much less precise because of poor uniformity of images. For MV CBCT, the results were significantly different than for kV systems due to the differing energy spectrum of the beam. Conclusion: the HU-ρ el relationships predefined in TPS can be used for general-purpose CT systems operating at voltages close to 120 kV. For nontypical imaging systems (e.g., CBCT), the relationship can be significantly different and, therefore, it should always be measured and carefully analyzed before using CT data for treatment planning. (orig.)
Symmetry properties of the electron density and following from it limits on the KS-DFT applications
Kaplan, Ilya G.
2018-03-01
At present, the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach elaborated by Kohn with co-authors more than 50 years ago became the most widely used method for study molecules and solids. Using modern computation facilities, it can be applied to systems with million atoms. In the atmosphere of such great popularity, it is particularly important to know the limits of the applicability of DFT methods. In this report, I will discuss two cases when the conventional DFT approaches, using only electron density ρ and its gradients, cannot be applied (I will not consider the Ψ-versions of DFT). The first case is quite evident. In the degenerated states, the electron density may not be defined, since electronic and nuclear motions cannot be separated, the vibronic interaction mixed them. The second case is related to the spin of the state. As it was rigorously proved by group theoretical methods at the theorem level, the electron density does not depend on the total spin S of the arbitrary N-electron state. It means that the Kohn-Sham equations have the same form for states with different S. The critical survey of elaborated DFT procedures, taking into account spin, shows that they modified only exchange functionals, the correlation functionals do not correspond to the spin of the state. The point is that the conception of spin cannot be defined in the framework of the electron density formalism, which corresponds to the one-particle reduced density matrix. This is the main reason of the problems arising in the study by DFT of magnetic properties of the transition metals. The possible way of resolving these problems can be found in the two-particle reduced density matrix formulation of DFT.
Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P.; Yang, Zenghui; Peng, Haowei
2016-05-01
The uniform electron gas and the hydrogen atom play fundamental roles in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. The former has an infinite number of electrons uniformly distributed over the neutralizing positively charged background, and the latter only one electron bound to the proton. The uniform electron gas was used to derive the local spin density approximation to the exchange-correlation functional that undergirds the development of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. We show here that the ground-state exchange-correlation energies of the hydrogen atom and many other 1- and 2-electron systems are modeled surprisingly well by a different local spin density approximation (LSDA0). LSDA0 is constructed to satisfy exact constraints but agrees surprisingly well with the exact results for a uniform two-electron density in a finite, curved three-dimensional space. We also apply LSDA0 to excited or noded 1-electron densities, where it works less well. Furthermore, we show that the localization of the exact exchange hole for a 1- or 2-electron ground state can be measured by the ratio of the exact exchange energy to its optimal lower bound.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Zenghui; Peng, Haowei [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Perdew, John P. [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)
2016-05-21
The uniform electron gas and the hydrogen atom play fundamental roles in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. The former has an infinite number of electrons uniformly distributed over the neutralizing positively charged background, and the latter only one electron bound to the proton. The uniform electron gas was used to derive the local spin density approximation to the exchange-correlation functional that undergirds the development of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. We show here that the ground-state exchange-correlation energies of the hydrogen atom and many other 1- and 2-electron systems are modeled surprisingly well by a different local spin density approximation (LSDA0). LSDA0 is constructed to satisfy exact constraints but agrees surprisingly well with the exact results for a uniform two-electron density in a finite, curved three-dimensional space. We also apply LSDA0 to excited or noded 1-electron densities, where it works less well. Furthermore, we show that the localization of the exact exchange hole for a 1- or 2-electron ground state can be measured by the ratio of the exact exchange energy to its optimal lower bound.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Zenghui; Peng, Haowei; Perdew, John P.
2016-01-01
The uniform electron gas and the hydrogen atom play fundamental roles in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. The former has an infinite number of electrons uniformly distributed over the neutralizing positively charged background, and the latter only one electron bound to the proton. The uniform electron gas was used to derive the local spin density approximation to the exchange-correlation functional that undergirds the development of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. We show here that the ground-state exchange-correlation energies of the hydrogen atom and many other 1- and 2-electron systems are modeled surprisingly well by a different local spin density approximation (LSDA0). LSDA0 is constructed to satisfy exact constraints but agrees surprisingly well with the exact results for a uniform two-electron density in a finite, curved three-dimensional space. We also apply LSDA0 to excited or noded 1-electron densities, where it works less well. Furthermore, we show that the localization of the exact exchange hole for a 1- or 2-electron ground state can be measured by the ratio of the exact exchange energy to its optimal lower bound.
Ekerfelt, Henrik; Hansson, Martin; Gallardo González, Isabel; Davoine, Xavier; Lundh, Olle
2017-09-25
One challenge in the development of laser wakefield accelerators is to demonstrate sufficient control and reproducibility of the parameters of the generated bunches of accelerated electrons. Here we report on a numerical study, where we demonstrate that trapping using density down-ramps allows for tuning of several electron bunch parameters by varying the properties of the density down-ramp. We show that the electron bunch length is determined by the difference in density before and after the ramp. Furthermore, the transverse emittance of the bunch is controlled by the steepness of the ramp. Finally, the amount of trapped charge depends both on the density difference and on the steepness of the ramp. We emphasize that both parameters of the density ramp are feasible to vary experimentally. We therefore conclude that this tunable electron accelerator makes it suitable for a wide range of applications, from those requiring short pulse length and low emittance, such as the free-electron lasers, to those requiring high-charge, large-emittance bunches to maximize betatron X-ray generation.
Electron-positron momentum density in TTF-TCNQ
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ishibashi, S.; Manuel, A.A.; Hoffmann, L.
1997-01-01
We present measurements of the positron two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) in TTF-TCNQ. We report also theoretical simulations of the 2D-ACAR in which the electron wave functions were expressed as TTF or TCNQ molecular orbitals obtained from self-consistent qu...... from a study of the Kohn anomaly. We investigate also the shape and position of the Fermi surface and conclude that a simple planar Fermi surface is consistent with our measurements....
Electron density distribution in ferromagnetic nickel: A γ -ray diffraction study
Jauch, W.; Reehuis, M.
2008-12-01
High-accuracy single-crystal structure factors, complete up to sinθ/λ=1.9Å-1 , have been measured from ferromagnetic nickel at 295 K using 316.5-keV gamma radiation. The experimental uncertainty of the structure factors is of the order of 10 millielectrons per atom for all data. A detailed description of the electron density distribution is presented in terms of a multipolar atomic deformation model. Achievement of a reliable Debye-Waller factor is of vital importance in this context. The charge asphericity is due to an excess eg orbital occupancy of 43.4(2)%. The 3d shell in the metal is contracted by 2.07(5)% relative to the free atom. The results are discussed and compared with earlier experimental and theoretical works. In contrast to bcc Cr and Fe, solid-state effects are less pronounced in fcc Ni. Clear disentanglement between the 3d and 4s valence electrons could be accomplished for the first time. The general expectation that the number of 3d electrons in the metal should be increased as compared to the atom was confirmed in the case of iron by combining spin and charge-density data. In the case of nickel, it is rejected as revealed by the γ -ray data alone. Only with the d8 configuration, consistency is achieved between observed and refined mosaic widths of the sample crystal. A 3d8 configuration implies that the majority-spin d band cannot be full. Strong support is lent to a localized atomic character of the valence electrons.
Veltchev, Todor; Donkov, Sava; Stanchev, Orlin
2017-07-01
We present a method to derive the density scaling relation ∝ L^{-α} in regions of star formation or in their turbulent vicinities from straightforward binning of the column-density distribution (N-pdf). The outcome of the method is studied for three types of N-pdf: power law (7/5≤α≤5/3), lognormal (0.7≲α≲1.4) and combination of lognormals. In the last case, the method of Stanchev et al. (2015) was also applied for comparison and a very weak (or close to zero) correlation was found. We conclude that the considered `binning approach' reflects rather the local morphology of the N-pdf with no reference to the physical conditions in a considered region. The rough consistency of the derived slopes with the widely adopted Larson's (1981) value α˜1.1 is suggested to support claims that the density-size relation in molecular clouds is indeed an artifact of the observed N-pdf.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Njau, E.C.
1990-12-01
We develop generalized mathematical expressions for time and space variations of peak electron densities of the ionospheric D, E, F1 and F2 layers as well as corresponding variations in the altitudes of the electron density peaks in each of these layers. On the basis of the Chapman characteristics of the E and F1 layers and other techniques, a generalized expression is developed for the electron density height profile of each of the four ionospheric layers. Consequently a generalized mathematical expression is developed for the entire electron density height profile of the whole ionosphere as a function of time, latitude and longitude. The latter mathematical expression may be used to compute or predict ionospheric parameters associated with ratio and satellite communications. Finally we show that some well documented equations on ionospheric parameters are simplified (or approximated) versions of some of our mathematical expressions. (author). 29 refs
High current density M-type cathodes for vacuum electron devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ji; Yu Zhiqiang; Shao Wensheng; Zhang Ke; Gao Yujuan; Yuan Haiqing; Wang Hui; Huang Kaizhi; Chen Qilue; Yan Suqiu; Cai Shaolun
2005-01-01
We investigated high current density emission capabilities of M-type cathodes used for vacuum electron devices (VEDs). The experimental results of emission and lifetime evaluating in both close-spaced diode structure and electron gun testing vehicles are given. Emission current densities measured in the diode structure at 1020 deg. C Br in the CW mode were above 10 A/cm 2 ; while in electron gun testing vehicles, emission current densities were above 8 A/cm 2 in CW mode and above 32 A/cm 2 in pulsed mode, respectively. The current density above 94 A/cm 2 has been acquired in no. 0306 electron gun vehicle while the practical temperature is 1060 deg. C Br . For a comparison some of the data from I-scandate cathodes are presented. Finally, several application examples in practical travelling wave tubes (TWTs) and multi beam klystrons (MBKs) are also reported
Inada, Yuki; Kamiya, Tomoki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Hidaka, Kunihiko
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional electron density imaging over free burning SF6 arcs and SF6 gas-blast arcs was conducted at current zero using highly sensitive Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensors in order to experimentally characterise electron density distributions for the success and failure of arc interruption in the thermal reignition phase. The experimental results under an interruption probability of 50% showed that free burning SF6 arcs with axially asymmetric electron density profiles were interrupted with a success rate of 88%. On the other hand, the current interruption of SF6 gas-blast arcs was reproducibly achieved under locally reduced electron densities and the interruption success rate was 100%.
Mechanism of electron density reduction in the region of stable subauroral red arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlov, A.V.
1993-01-01
For geomagnetic storm on 18.12.71 are fulfilled calculations of electron density N e and temperature Te and intensity of the atmosphere luminescence at 630 nm in the region of the subauroral red are and outside its
Electron density diagnostics in the 10-100 A interval for a solar flare
Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.; Mason, H. E.
1986-01-01
Electron density measurements from spectral-line diagnostics are reported for a solar flare on July 13, 1982, 1627 UT. The spectrogram, covering the 10-95 A interval, contained usable lines of helium-like ions C V, N VI, O VII, and Ne IX which are formed over the temperature interval 0.7-3.5 x 10 to the 6th K. In addition, spectral-line ratios of Si IX, Fe XIV, and Ca XV were compared with new theoretical estimates of their electron density sensitivity to obtain additional electron density diagnostics. An electron density of 3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm was obtained. The comparison of these results from helium-like and other ions gives confidence in the utility of these tools for solar coronal analysis and will lead to a fuller understanding of the phenomena observed in this flare.
Multicomponent Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Proton and Electron Excitation Energies.
Yang, Yang; Culpitt, Tanner; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2018-04-05
The quantum mechanical treatment of both electrons and protons in the calculation of excited state properties is critical for describing nonadiabatic processes such as photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. Multicomponent density functional theory enables the consistent quantum mechanical treatment of more than one type of particle and has been implemented previously for studying ground state molecular properties within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework, where all electrons and specified protons are treated quantum mechanically. To enable the study of excited state molecular properties, herein the linear response multicomponent time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived and implemented within the NEO framework. Initial applications to FHF - and HCN illustrate that NEO-TDDFT provides accurate proton and electron excitation energies within a single calculation. As its computational cost is similar to that of conventional electronic TDDFT, the NEO-TDDFT approach is promising for diverse applications, particularly nonadiabatic proton transfer reactions, which may exhibit mixed electron-proton vibronic excitations.
Electron heating caused by parametrically driven turbulence near the critical density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Estabrook, K.G.
1986-01-01
Microwave-driven experiments and particle simulation calculations are presented that model s-polarized laser light incident on a pellet. In the microwave experiments, the incident microwaves are observed to decay into ion and electron waves near the critical density if the microwave power is above a well-defined threshold. Significant absorption, thermal electron heating, and hot electron generation are observed for microwave powers above a few times threshold. Strong absorption, strong profile modification, strongly heated hot electrons with a Maxwellian distribution, a hot-electron temperature that increases slowly with power, and a hot-electron density that is almost constant, are all observed in both the microwave experiments and simulation calculations for high powers. In addition, the thermal electrons are strongly heated for high powers in the microwave experiments
Surface-plasmon dispersion relation for the inhomogeneous charge-density medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harsh, O.K.; Agarwal, B.K.
1989-01-01
The surface-plasmon dispersion relation is derived for the plane-bounded electron gas when there is an inhomogeneous charge-density distribution in the plasma. The hydrodynamical model is used. Both cphi and dcphi/dx are taken to be continuous at the surface of the slab, where cphi is the scalar potential. The dispersion relation is compared with the theoretical works of Stern and Ferrell and of Harsh and Agarwal. It is also compared with the observations of Kunz. A dispersion relation for the volume-plasmon oscillations is derived which resembles the well-known relation of Bohm and Pines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lediankine, A.
1996-01-01
The profiles of temperature and electronic density at the plasma edge are important to study the wall-plasma interaction and the radiative layers in the Tokamak plasmas. The laser ablation technique of the lithium allows to measure the profile of electronic density. To measure the profile of temperature, it has been used for the first time, the injection of a fluorine neutral atoms beam. The experiments, the results are described in this work. (N.C.)
Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Raizada
Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms^{-1}. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.
Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics
Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Raizada
2000-02-01
Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms-1. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics
Acceleration of high charge density electron beams in the SLAC linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheppard, J.C.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Lueth, V.G.; Millich, A.; Ross, M.C.; Seeman, J.T.; Stiening, R.F.
1984-01-01
The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) will require both electron and positron beams of very high charge density and low emittance to be accelerated to about 50 GeV in the SLAC 3-km linac. The linac is in the process of being improved to meet this requirement. The program to accelerate an electron beam of high charge density through the first third of the SLC linac is described and the experimental results are discussed. 7 references, 5 figures
Fast-electron self-collimation in a plasma density gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, X. H.; Borghesi, M.; Robinson, A. P. L.
2012-01-01
A theoretical and numerical study of fast electron transport in solid and compressed fast ignition relevant targets is presented. The principal aim of the study is to assess how localized increases in the target density (e.g., by engineering of the density profile) can enhance magnetic field generation and thus pinching of the fast electron beam through reducing the rate of temperature rise. The extent to which this might benefit fast ignition is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wallis, David, E-mail: davidwa@earth.ox.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Hansen, Lars N. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Ben Britton, T. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Angus J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)
2016-09-15
Dislocations in geological minerals are fundamental to the creep processes that control large-scale geodynamic phenomena. However, techniques to quantify their densities, distributions, and types over critical subgrain to polycrystal length scales are limited. The recent advent of high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on diffraction pattern cross-correlation, offers a powerful new approach that has been utilised to analyse dislocation densities in the materials sciences. In particular, HR-EBSD yields significantly better angular resolution (<0.01°) than conventional EBSD (~0.5°), allowing very low dislocation densities to be analysed. We develop the application of HR-EBSD to olivine, the dominant mineral in Earth's upper mantle by testing (1) different inversion methods for estimating geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) densities, (2) the sensitivity of the method under a range of data acquisition settings, and (3) the ability of the technique to resolve a variety of olivine dislocation structures. The relatively low crystal symmetry (orthorhombic) and few slip systems in olivine result in well constrained GND density estimates. The GND density noise floor is inversely proportional to map step size, such that datasets can be optimised for analysing either short wavelength, high density structures (e.g. subgrain boundaries) or long wavelength, low amplitude orientation gradients. Comparison to conventional images of decorated dislocations demonstrates that HR-EBSD can characterise the dislocation distribution and reveal additional structure not captured by the decoration technique. HR-EBSD therefore provides a highly effective method for analysing dislocations in olivine and determining their role in accommodating macroscopic deformation. - Highlights: • Lattice orientation gradients in olivine were measured using HR-EBSD. • The limited number of olivine slip systems enable simple least squares inversion for GND
Nishimoto, Yoshio
2015-09-07
We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Awad, Wael [Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Svensson Birkedal, Gabriel [Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M. [Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lund University, Box 188, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mani, Katrin [Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Logan, Derek T., E-mail: derek.logan@biochemistry.lu.se [Lund University, Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)
2013-12-01
The anisotropy of crystals of glypican-1 was significantly reduced by controlled dehydration using the HC1 device, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure. The use of controlled dehydration for improvement of protein crystal diffraction quality is increasing in popularity, although there are still relatively few documented examples of success. A study has been carried out to establish whether controlled dehydration could be used to improve the anisotropy of crystals of the core protein of the human proteoglycan glypican-1. Crystals were subjected to controlled dehydration using the HC1 device. The optimal protocol for dehydration was developed by careful investigation of the following parameters: dehydration rate, final relative humidity and total incubation time T{sub inc}. Of these, the most important was shown to be T{sub inc}. After dehydration using the optimal protocol the crystals showed significantly reduced anisotropy and improved electron density, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure.
A new Langmuir probe concept for rapid sampling of space plasma electron density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobsen, K S; Pedersen, A; Moen, J I; Bekkeng, T A
2010-01-01
In this paper we describe a new Langmuir probe concept that was invented for the in situ investigation of HF radar backscatter irregularities, with the capability to measure absolute electron density at a resolution sufficient to resolve the finest conceivable structure in an ionospheric plasma. The instrument consists of two or more fixed-bias cylindrical Langmuir probes whose radius is small compared to the Debye length. With this configuration, it is possible to acquire absolute electron density measurements independent of electron temperature and rocket/satellite potential. The system was flown on the ICI-2 sounding rocket to investigate the plasma irregularities which cause HF backscatter. It had a sampling rate of more than 5 kHz and successfully measured structures down to the scale of one electron gyro radius. The system can easily be adapted for any ionospheric rocket or satellite, and provides high-quality measurements of electron density at any desired resolution
Electron cloud density measurements in accelerator beam-pipe using resonant microwave excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sikora, John P., E-mail: jps13@cornell.edu [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Carlson, Benjamin T. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Duggins, Danielle O. [Gordon College, Wenham, MA 01984 (United States); Hammond, Kenneth C. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); De Santis, Stefano [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tencate, Alister J. [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States)
2014-08-01
An accelerator beam can generate low energy electrons in the beam-pipe, generally called electron cloud, that can produce instabilities in a positively charged beam. One method of measuring the electron cloud density is by coupling microwaves into and out of the beam-pipe and observing the response of the microwaves to the presence of the electron cloud. In the original technique, microwaves are transmitted through a section of beam-pipe and a change in EC density produces a change in the phase of the transmitted signal. This paper describes a variation on this technique in which the beam-pipe is resonantly excited with microwaves and the electron cloud density calculated from the change that it produces in the resonant frequency of the beam-pipe. The resonant technique has the advantage that measurements can be localized to sections of beam-pipe that are a meter or less in length with a greatly improved signal to noise ratio.
Nonlocal exchange and kinetic-energy density functionals for electronic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glossman, M.D.; Rubio, A.; Balbas, L.C.; Alonso, J.A.
1992-01-01
The nonlocal weighted density approximation (WDA) to the exchange and kinetic-energy functionals of many electron systems proposed several years ago by Alonso and Girifalco is used to compute, within the framework of density functional theory, the ground-state electronic density and total energy of noble gas atoms and of neutral jellium-like sodium clusters containing up to 500 atoms. These results are compared with analogous calculations using the well known Thomas-Fermi-Weizsacker-Dirac (TFWD) approximations for the kinetic (TFW) and exchange (D) energy density functionals. An outstanding improvement of the total and exchange energies, of the density at the nucleus and of the expectation values is obtained for atoms within the WDA scheme. For sodium clusters the authors notice a sizeable contribution of the nonlocal effects to the total energy and to the density profiles. In the limit of very large clusters these effects should affect the surface energy of the bulk metal
Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2014-01-01
Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.
Electronic properties of B and Al doped graphane: A hybrid density functional study
Mapasha, R. E.; Igumbor, E.; Andriambelaza, N. F.; Chetty, N.
2018-04-01
Using a hybrid density functional theory approach parametrized by Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof (HSE06 hybrid functional), we study the energetics, structural and electronic properties of a graphane monolayer substitutionally doped with the B (BCH) and Al (AlCH) atoms. The BCH defect can be integrated within a graphane monolayer at a relative low formation energy, without major structural distortions and symmetry breaking. The AlCH defect relaxes outward of the monolayer and breaks the symmetry. The density of states plots indicate that BCH doped graphane monolayer is a wide band gap semiconductor, whereas the AlCH defect introduces the spin dependent mid gap states at the vicinity of the Fermi level, revealing a metallic character with the pronounced magnetic features. We further examine the response of the Al dependent spin states on the multiple charge states doping. We find that the defect formation energy, structural and electronic properties can be altered via charge state modulation. The +1 charge doping opens an energy band gap of 1.75 eV. This value corresponds to the wavelength in the visible spectrum, suggesting an ideal material for solar cell absorbers. Our study fine tunes the graphane band gap through the foreign atom doping as well as via defect charge state modulation.
Electron cloud density analysis using microwave cavity resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Y-M; Thangaraj, J C; Tan, C-Y; Zwaska, R
2013-01-01
We report on a method to detect an electron cloud in proton accelerators through the measurement of the phase shift of microwaves undergoing controlled reflections with an accelerator vacuum vessel. Previous phase shift measurement suffered from interference signals due to uncontrolled reflections from beamline components, leading to an unlocalized region of measurement and indeterminate normalization. The method in this paper introduces controlled reflectors about the area of interest to localize the measurement and allow normalization. This paper describes analyses of the method via theoretical calculations, electromagnetic modeling, and experimental measurements with a bench-top prototype. Dielectric thickness, location and spatial profile were varied and the effect on phase shift is described. The effect of end cap aperture length on phase shift measurement is also reported. A factor of ten enhancement in phase shift is observed at certain frequencies.
Proton and neutron densities from elastic electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frois, B.
1979-01-01
Elastic electron scattering has now determined extremely fine details of the shape of the nuclear groound state. The combination of (e,e) and muonic X-rays data are giving informations that are among the most precise on nuclear structure. This enables to see all the limitations of existing theories. However, we begin to have a very coherent description of nuclei with the self consistent field theories to a few percent. A very significant progress has been achieved with the calculations of RPA correlations in the round state in a self consistent way. Only recent experiments (on medium and heavy nuclei) of some significance for the understanding of the structure of the nucleus are reviewed
Project on comparison of structural parameters and electron density maps of oxalic acid dihydrate
Coppens, Philip; Dam, J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.
1984-01-01
Results obtained from four X-ray and five neutron data sets collected under a project sponsored by the Commission on Charge, Spin and Momentum Densities are analyzed by comparison of thermal parameters, positional parameters and X - N electron density maps. Three sets of theoretical calculations are
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegård, Erik D.; Knecht, Stefan; Kielberg, Jesper Skau
2015-01-01
We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electroncorrelation...... effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems....
Role of substituents on the reactivity and electron density profile of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 5. Role of substituents on the reactivity and electron density profile of diimine ligands: A density functional theory based study. Bhakti S Kulkarni Deepti Mishra Sourav Pal. Volume 125 Issue 5 September 2013 pp 1247-1258 ...
Intense electron-beam propagation in low-density gases using PHERMEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moir, D.C.; Newberger, B.S.; Thode, L.E.
1980-01-01
Preliminary propagation experiments have been performed using the LASL-PHERMEX 21-MeV electron beam with current densities of 40 kA/cm 2 . Gas densities are varied from 10-m torr to 580 torr. Results indicate the presence of microinstabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Y.; Kaye, S.M.; Mazzucato, E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R.E.; Domier, C.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.C.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Smith, D.R.; Yuh, H.
2011-01-01
In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k (perpendicular) ρ s ∼< 10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.
Putz, Mihai V
2009-11-10
The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr's quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions - all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai V. Putz
2009-11-01
Full Text Available The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving many-electronic systems.
The electron-propagator approach to conceptual density-functional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
information about chemical reactivity and, most especially, charge transfer. This paper ... compute quantities related to reaction mechanisms. (e.g., barrier ..... actions in the Klopman classification.32 The first of these two ..... mans's picture.
Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.
2002-01-01
This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the
Seino, Junji; Kageyama, Ryo; Fujinami, Mikito; Ikabata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Hiromi
2018-06-01
A semi-local kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) was constructed based on machine learning (ML). The present scheme adopts electron densities and their gradients up to third-order as the explanatory variables for ML and the Kohn-Sham (KS) kinetic energy density as the response variable in atoms and molecules. Numerical assessments of the present scheme were performed in atomic and molecular systems, including first- and second-period elements. The results of 37 conventional KEDFs with explicit formulae were also compared with those of the ML KEDF with an implicit formula. The inclusion of the higher order gradients reduces the deviation of the total kinetic energies from the KS calculations in a stepwise manner. Furthermore, our scheme with the third-order gradient resulted in the closest kinetic energies to the KS calculations out of the presented functionals.
Angioni, C.; Peeters, A. G.; Garbet, X.; Manini, A.; Ryter, F.; ASDEX Upgrade Team
2004-08-01
Theory of ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron modes (TEMs) is applied to the study of particle transport in experimental conditions with central electron heating. It is shown that in the unstable domain of TEMs, the electron thermodiffusive flux is directed outwards. By means of such a flux, a mechanism is identified likely to account for density flattening with central electron heating. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental observations in ASDEX Upgrade. A parameter domain (including L- and H-mode plasmas) is identified, in which flattening with central electron heating is observed in the experiments. In general, this domain turns out to be the same domain in which the dominant plasma instability is a TEM. On the contrary, the dominant instability is an ITG in plasmas whose density profile is not affected significantly by central electron heating. The flattening predicted by quasi-linear theory for low density L-mode plasmas is too small compared to the experimental observations. At very high density, even when the dominant instability is an ITG, electron heating can provide density flattening, via the coupling with the ion heat channel. In these conditions the anomalous diffusivity increases in response to the increased ion heat flux, while the large collisionality makes the anomalous pinch small and the Ware pinch important.
Population densities and rate coefficients for electron impact excitation in singly ionized oxygen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awakowicz, P.; Behringer, K.
1995-01-01
In non-LTE arc plasmas, O II excited state number densities were measured relative to the O II ground and metastable states. The results were compared with collisional-radiative code calculations on the basis of the JET ADAS programs. Stationary He plasmas with small oxygen admixtures, generated in a 5 mm diameter cascade arc chamber (pressures 13-70 hPa, arc current 150 A), were investigated spectroscopically in the visible and the VUV spectral range. The continuum of a 2 mm diameter pure He arc (atmospheric pressure, current 100 A) served for calibration of the VUV system response. Plasma diagnostics on the basis of Hβ Stark broadening yielded electron densities between 2.4 x 10 14 and 2.0 x 10 15 cm -3 for the low-pressure O II mixture plasmas. The agreement of measured and calculated excited state populations is generally very satisfactory, thus confirming the rate coefficients in the code. This is of particular interest in this intermediate region between corona balance and LTE, where many atomic data are required in the simulation. Clear indications were found for the diffusion of metastables lowering their number densities significantly below their statistical values. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hopkins, Mark A.; King, Lyon B.
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations and experimental measurements were combined to determine the ability of a plasma impedance probe (PIP) to measure plasma density and electron collision frequency in a plasma containing spatial gradients as well as time-varying oscillations in the plasma density. A PIP is sensitive to collision frequency through the width of the parallel resonance in the Re[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic, while also being sensitive to electron density through the zero-crossing of the Im[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic at parallel resonance. Simulations of the probe characteristic in a linear plasma gradient indicated that the broadening of Re[Z] due to the spatial gradient obscured the broadening due to electron collision frequency, preventing a quantitative measurement of the absolute collision frequency for gradients considered in this study. Simulation results also showed that the PIP is sensitive to relative changes in electron collision frequency in a spatial density gradient, but a second broadening effect due to time-varying oscillations made collision frequency measurements impossible. The time-varying oscillations had the effect of causing multiple zero-crossings in Im[Z] at parallel resonance. Results of experiments and simulations indicated that the lowest-frequency zero-crossing represented the lowest plasma density in the oscillations and the highest-frequency zero-crossing represented the highest plasma density in the oscillations, thus the PIP probe was found to be an effective tool to measure both the average plasma density as well as the maximum and minimum densities due to temporal oscillations
Schmitz, O.; Beigman, I. L.; Vainshtein, L. A.; Schweer, B.; Kantor, M.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Xu, Y.; Krychowiak, M.; Lehnen, M.; Samm, U.; Unterberg, B.
2008-01-01
Beam emission spectroscopy on thermal helium is used at the TEXTOR tokamak as a reliable method to obtain radial profiles of electron temperature T-e(r, t) and electron density ne(r, t). In this paper the experimental realization of this method at TEXTOR and the status of the atomic physics employed
Influence of carrier density on the electronic cooling channels of bilayer graphene
Limmer, T.; Houtepen, A.J.; Niggebaum, A.; Tautz, R.; Da Como, E.
2011-01-01
We study the electronic cooling dynamics in a single flake of bilayer graphene by femtosecond transient absorption probing the photon-energy range 0.25–1.3 eV. From the transients, we extract the carrier cooling curves for different initial temperatures and densities of the photoexcited electrons
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zelinka, Jiří; Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš
2015-01-01
Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 246-251 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : electron optical system * calculations of current density Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015
On extending Kohn-Sham density functionals to systems with fractional number of electrons.
Li, Chen; Lu, Jianfeng; Yang, Weitao
2017-06-07
We analyze four ways of formulating the Kohn-Sham (KS) density functionals with a fractional number of electrons, through extending the constrained search space from the Kohn-Sham and the generalized Kohn-Sham (GKS) non-interacting v-representable density domain for integer systems to four different sets of densities for fractional systems. In particular, these density sets are (I) ensemble interacting N-representable densities, (II) ensemble non-interacting N-representable densities, (III) non-interacting densities by the Janak construction, and (IV) non-interacting densities whose composing orbitals satisfy the Aufbau occupation principle. By proving the equivalence of the underlying first order reduced density matrices associated with these densities, we show that sets (I), (II), and (III) are equivalent, and all reduce to the Janak construction. Moreover, for functionals with the ensemble v-representable assumption at the minimizer, (III) reduces to (IV) and thus justifies the previous use of the Aufbau protocol within the (G)KS framework in the study of the ground state of fractional electron systems, as defined in the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature. By further analyzing the Aufbau solution for different density functional approximations (DFAs) in the (G)KS scheme, we rigorously prove that there can be one and only one fractional occupation for the Hartree Fock functional, while there can be multiple fractional occupations for general DFAs in the presence of degeneracy. This has been confirmed by numerical calculations using the local density approximation as a representative of general DFAs. This work thus clarifies important issues on density functional theory calculations for fractional electron systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Ming W.; Stewart, Scott G.; Sobolev, Alexandre N.; Dittrich, Birger; Schirmeister, Tanja; Luger, Peter; Hesse, Malte; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Spackman, Peter R.; Spackman, Mark A.; Grabowsky, Simon (Heinrich-Heine); (Freie); (UC); (Bremen); (JG-UM); (UWA)
2017-01-24
The trans-epoxysuccinyl amide group as a biologically active moiety in cysteine protease inhibitors such as loxistatin acid E64c has been used as a benchmark system for theoretical studies of environmental effects on the electron density of small active ingredients in relation to their biological activity. Here, the synthesis and the electronic properties of the smallest possible active site model compound are reported to close the gap between the unknown experimental electron density of trans-epoxysuccinyl amides and the well-known function of related drugs. Intramolecular substituent effects are separated from intermolecular crystal packing effects on the electron density, which allows us to predict the conditions under which an experimental electron density investigation on trans-epoxysuccinyl amides will be possible. In this context, the special importance of the carboxylic acid function in the model compound for both crystal packing and biological activity is revealed through the novel tool of model energy analysis.
Effective atomic number, electron density and kerma of gamma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
rare element optical glass with oxides of tungsten, tantalum and thorium. ... Similarly, gadolinium and lutetium exhibit only +3 oxidation state because .... (σa) and effective molecular cross-section (σm) are related by the following equation: σa =.
Influence of carrier density on the electronic cooling channels of bilayer graphene
Limmer, T.; Houtepen, A. J.; Niggebaum, A.; Tautz, R.; Da Como, E.
2011-09-01
We study the electronic cooling dynamics in a single flake of bilayer graphene by femtosecond transient absorption probing the photon-energy range 0.25-1.3 eV. From the transients, we extract the carrier cooling curves for different initial temperatures and densities of the photoexcited electrons and holes. Two regimes of carrier cooling, dominated by optical and acoustic phonons emission, are clearly identified. For increasing carrier density, the crossover between the two regimes occurs at larger carrier temperatures, since cooling via optical phonons experiences a bottleneck. Acoustic phonons, which are less sensitive to saturation, show an increasing contribution at high density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hara, Wendy; Le, Quynh-Thu; Wang, Lei; Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang
2014-01-01
MRI significantly improves the accuracy and reliability of target delineation in radiation therapy for certain tumors due to its superior soft tissue contrast compared to CT. A treatment planning process with MRI as the sole imaging modality will eliminate systematic CT/MRI co-registration errors, reduce cost and radiation exposure, and simplify clinical workflow. However, MRI lacks the key electron density information necessary for accurate dose calculation and generating reference images for patient setup. The purpose of this work is to develop a unifying method to derive electron density from standard T1-weighted MRI. We propose to combine both intensity and geometry information into a unifying probabilistic Bayesian framework for electron density mapping. For each voxel, we compute two conditional probability density functions (PDFs) of electron density given its: (1) T1-weighted MRI intensity, and (2) geometry in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration between the MRI of the atlas and test patient. The two conditional PDFs containing intensity and geometry information are combined into a unifying posterior PDF, whose mean value corresponds to the optimal electron density value under the mean-square error criterion. We evaluated the algorithm’s accuracy of electron density mapping and its ability to detect bone in the head for eight patients, using an additional patient as the atlas or template. Mean absolute HU error between the estimated and true CT, as well as receiver operating characteristics for bone detection (HU > 200) were calculated. The performance was compared with a global intensity approach based on T1 and no density correction (set whole head to water). The proposed technique significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute HU error of 126, compared with 139 for deformable registration (p = 2 × 10 −4 ), 283 for the intensity approach (p = 2 × 10 −6 ) and 282
Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru
1981-01-01
A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)
Electron momentum density and Compton profile by a semi-empirical approach
Aguiar, Julio C.; Mitnik, Darío; Di Rocco, Héctor O.
2015-08-01
Here we propose a semi-empirical approach to describe with good accuracy the electron momentum densities and Compton profiles for a wide range of pure crystalline metals. In the present approach, we use an experimental Compton profile to fit an analytical expression for the momentum densities of the valence electrons. This expression is similar to a Fermi-Dirac distribution function with two parameters, one of which coincides with the ground state kinetic energy of the free-electron gas and the other resembles the electron-electron interaction energy. In the proposed scheme conduction electrons are neither completely free nor completely bound to the atomic nucleus. This procedure allows us to include correlation effects. We tested the approach for all metals with Z=3-50 and showed the results for three representative elements: Li, Be and Al from high-resolution experiments.
Origin of the 20-electron structure of Mg3 MnH7 : Density functional calculations
Gupta, M.; Singh, D. J.; Gupta, R.
2005-03-01
The electronic structure and stability of the 20-electron complex hydride, Mg3MnH7 is studied using density functional calculations. The heat of formation is larger in magnitude than that of MgH2 . The deviation from the 18-electron rule is explained by the predominantly ionic character of the band structure and a large crystal-field splitting of the Mn d bands. In particular, each H provides one deep band accomodating two electrons, while the Mn t2g bands hold an additional six electrons per formula unit.
TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guidoni, S. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/CUA, Code 674, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Yoshimura, K. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Plowman, J. E., E-mail: silvina.e.guidoni@nasa.gov [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)
2015-02-10
Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.
Chemical bonding in view of electron charge density and kinetic energy density descriptors.
Jacobsen, Heiko
2009-05-01
Stalke's dilemma, stating that different chemical interpretations are obtained when one and the same density is interpreted either by means of natural bond orbital (NBO) and subsequent natural resonance theory (NRT) application or by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), is reinvestigated. It is shown that within the framework of QTAIM, the question as to whether for a given molecule two atoms are bonded or not is only meaningful in the context of a well-defined reference geometry. The localized-orbital-locator (LOL) is applied to map out patterns in covalent bonding interaction, and produces results that are consistent for a variety of reference geometries. Furthermore, LOL interpretations are in accord with NBO/NRT, and assist in an interpretation in terms of covalent bonding. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laranjeira Ronaldo
2002-01-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.
Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.
2002-01-01
the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...... wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monier-Vinard Eric
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The recent Printed Wiring Board embedding technology is an attractive packaging alternative that allows a very high degree of miniaturization by stacking multiple layers of embedded chips. This disruptive technology will further increase the thermal management challenges by concentrating heat dissipation at the heart of the organic substrate structure. In order to allow the electronic designer to early analyze the limits of the power dissipation, depending on the embedded chip location inside the board, as well as the thermal interactions with other buried chips or surface mounted electronic components, an analytical thermal modelling approach was established. The presented work describes the comparison of the analytical model results with the numerical models of various embedded chips configurations. The thermal behaviour predictions of the analytical model, found to be within ±10% of relative error, demonstrate its relevance for modelling high density electronic board. Besides the approach promotes a practical solution to study the potential gain to conduct a part of heat flow from the components towards a set of localized cooled board pads.
Energy-momentum density of graphite by electron-momentum spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vos, M.; Fang, Z.; Canney, S.; Kheifets, A.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.
1996-11-01
The energy-resolved electron momentum density of graphite has been measured along a series of well-defined directions using electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). This is the first measurement of this kind performed on a single-crystal target with a thoroughly controlled orientation which clearly demonstrates the different nature of the σ and π bands in graphite. Good agreement between the calculated density and the measured one is found, further establishing that fact that EMS yields more direct and complete information on the valence electronic structure that any other method. 12 refs., 2 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1981-04-01
The temporal evolution of the electron temperature and density are measured in a turbulent heating experiment in TRIAM-1. Skin-like profiles of the electron temperature and density are clearly observed. The anomality in the electrical resistivity of the plasma in this skin-layer is estimated, and the plasma heating in this skin-layer is regarded as being due to anomalous joule heating arising from this anomalous resistivity. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal velocity in the layer is also calculated, and it is shown that the conditions needed to make the current-driven ion-acoustic instability triggerable are satisfied.
The implementation of real-time plasma electron density calculations on EAST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Z.C., E-mail: zzc@ipp.ac.cn; Xiao, B.J.; Wang, F.; Liu, H.Q.; Yuan, Q.P.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Y.
2016-11-15
Highlights: • The real-time density calculation system (DCS) has been applied to the EAST 3-wave polarimeter-interferometer (POINT) system. • The new system based on Flex RIO acquires data at high speed and processes them in a short time. • Roll-over module is developed for density calculation. - Abstract: The plasma electron density is one of the most fundamental parameters in tokamak experiment. It is widely used in the plasma control system (PCS) real-time control, as well as plasma physics analysis. The 3-wave polarimeter-interferometer (POINT) system had been used to measure the plasma electron density on the EAST since last campaign. This paper will give the way to realize the real-time measurement of plasma electron density. All intermediate frequency (IF) signals after POINT system, in the 0.5–3 MHz range, stream to the real-time density calculation system (DCS) to extract the phase shift information. All the prototype hardware is based on NI Flex RIO device which contains a high speed Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The original signals are sampled at 10 M Samples/s, and the data after roll-over module are transmitted to PCS by reflective memory (RFM). With this method, real-time plasma electron density data with high accuracy and low noise had been obtained in the latest EAST tokamak experiment.
A theoretical-electron-density databank using a model of real and virtual spherical atoms.
Nassour, Ayoub; Domagala, Slawomir; Guillot, Benoit; Leduc, Theo; Lecomte, Claude; Jelsch, Christian
2017-08-01
A database describing the electron density of common chemical groups using combinations of real and virtual spherical atoms is proposed, as an alternative to the multipolar atom modelling of the molecular charge density. Theoretical structure factors were computed from periodic density functional theory calculations on 38 crystal structures of small molecules and the charge density was subsequently refined using a density model based on real spherical atoms and additional dummy charges on the covalent bonds and on electron lone-pair sites. The electron-density parameters of real and dummy atoms present in a similar chemical environment were averaged on all the molecules studied to build a database of transferable spherical atoms. Compared with the now-popular databases of transferable multipolar parameters, the spherical charge modelling needs fewer parameters to describe the molecular electron density and can be more easily incorporated in molecular modelling software for the computation of electrostatic properties. The construction method of the database is described. In order to analyse to what extent this modelling method can be used to derive meaningful molecular properties, it has been applied to the urea molecule and to biotin/streptavidin, a protein/ligand complex.
Calculation of flux density distribution on irradiation field of electron accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Ryuichi
1977-03-01
The simple equation of flux density distribution in the irradiation field of an ordinary electron accelerator is a function of the physical parameters concerning electron irradiation. Calculation is based on the mean square scattering angle derived from a simple multiple scattering theory, with the correction factors of air scattering, beam scanning and number transmission coefficient. The flux density distribution was measured by charge absorption in a graphite target set in the air. For the calculated mean square scattering angles of 0.089-0.29, the values of calculation agree with those by experiment within about 10% except at large scattering angles. The method is applicable to dose evaluation of ordinary electron accelerators and design of various irradiators for radiation chemical reaction. Applicability of the simple multiple scattering theory in calculation of the scattered flux density and periodical variation of the flux density of scanning beam are also described. (auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.
2012-01-01
) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface....... Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...
Probing the Milky Way electron density using multi-messenger astronomy
Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane
2015-04-01
Multi-messenger observations of ultra-compact binaries in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation supply highly complementary information, providing new ways of characterizing the internal dynamics of these systems, as well as new probes of the galaxy itself. Electron density models, used in pulsar distance measurements via the electron dispersion measure, are currently not well constrained. Simultaneous radio and gravitational wave observations of pulsars in binaries provide a method of measuring the average electron density along the line of sight to the pulsar, thus giving a new method for constraining current electron density models. We present this method and assess its viability with simulations of the compact binary component of the Milky Way using the public domain binary evolution code, BSE. This work is supported by NASA Award NNX13AM10G.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.
1990-01-01
The observable spatial electron density and temperature distributions for series of simple bow shock models, which are of special interest in the study of Herbig-Haro (H-H) objects are computed. The spatial electron density and temperature distributions are derived from forbidden line ratios. It should be possible to use these results to recognize whether an observed electron density or temperature distribution can be attributed to a bow shock, as is the case in some Herbig-Haro objects. As an example, the empirical and predicted distributions for H-H 1 are compared. The predicted electron temperature distributions give the correct temperature range and they show very good diagnostic possibilities if the forbidden O III (4959 + 5007)/4363 wavelength ratio is used. 44 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yan; Hao, Huilian; Wang, Linlin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Different morphologies of ERGO on the surface of GCE were prepared via different methods. • The defect densities of ERGO were controlled by tuning the mass or concentration of GO. • A higher defect density of ERGO accelerates electron transfer rate. • ERGO with more exposed edge planes shows significantly higher electron transfer kinetics. • Both edge planes and defect density contribute to electron transfer of ERGO. - Abstract: Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) is widely used to construct electrochemical sensors. Understanding the electron transfer behavior of ERGO is essential for its electrode material applications. In this paper, different morphologies of ERGO were prepared via two different methods. Compared to ERGO/GCEs prepared by electrochemical reduction of pre-deposited GO, more exposed edge planes of ERGO are observed on the surface of ERGO-GCE that was constructed by electrophoretic deposition of GO. The defect densities of ERGO were controlled by tuning the mass or concentration of GO. The electron transfer kinetics (k"0) of GCE with different ERGOs was comparatively investigated. Owing to increased surface areas and decreased defect density, the k"0 values of ERGO/GCE initially increase and then decrease with incrementing of GO mass. When the morphology and surface real areas of ERGO-GCE are the same, an increased defect density induces an accelerated electron transfer rate. k"0 valuesof ERGO-GCEs are about 1 order of magnitude higher than those of ERGO/GCEs due to the difference in the amount of edge planes. This work demonstrates that both defect densities and edge planes of ERGO play crucial roles in electron transfer kinetics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yan, E-mail: yanzhang@sues.edu.cn [School of Material Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Hao, Huilian, E-mail: huilian.hao@sues.edu.cn [School of Material Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Linlin, E-mail: wlinlin@mail.ustc.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China)
2016-12-30
Highlights: • Different morphologies of ERGO on the surface of GCE were prepared via different methods. • The defect densities of ERGO were controlled by tuning the mass or concentration of GO. • A higher defect density of ERGO accelerates electron transfer rate. • ERGO with more exposed edge planes shows significantly higher electron transfer kinetics. • Both edge planes and defect density contribute to electron transfer of ERGO. - Abstract: Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) is widely used to construct electrochemical sensors. Understanding the electron transfer behavior of ERGO is essential for its electrode material applications. In this paper, different morphologies of ERGO were prepared via two different methods. Compared to ERGO/GCEs prepared by electrochemical reduction of pre-deposited GO, more exposed edge planes of ERGO are observed on the surface of ERGO-GCE that was constructed by electrophoretic deposition of GO. The defect densities of ERGO were controlled by tuning the mass or concentration of GO. The electron transfer kinetics (k{sup 0}) of GCE with different ERGOs was comparatively investigated. Owing to increased surface areas and decreased defect density, the k{sup 0} values of ERGO/GCE initially increase and then decrease with incrementing of GO mass. When the morphology and surface real areas of ERGO-GCE are the same, an increased defect density induces an accelerated electron transfer rate. k{sup 0} valuesof ERGO-GCEs are about 1 order of magnitude higher than those of ERGO/GCEs due to the difference in the amount of edge planes. This work demonstrates that both defect densities and edge planes of ERGO play crucial roles in electron transfer kinetics.
Using bremsstrahlung for electron density estimation and correction in EAST tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yingjie, E-mail: bestfaye@gmail.com; Wu, Zhenwei; Gao, Wei; Jie, Yinxian; Zhang, Jizong; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Junyu
2013-11-15
Highlights: • The visible bremsstrahlung diagnostic provides a simple and effective tool for electron density estimation in steady state discharges. • This method can make up some disadvantages of present FIR and TS diagnostics in EAST tokamak. • Line averaged electron density has been deduced from central VB signal. The results can also be used for FIR n{sub e} correction. • Typical n{sub e} profiles have been obtained with T{sub e} and reconstructed bremsstrahlung profiles. -- Abstract: In EAST electron density (n{sub e}) is measured by the multi-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) interferometer and Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate n{sub e} profile for that there are many problems existing in current electron density diagnostics. Since the visible bremsstrahlung (VB) emission coefficient has a strong dependence on electron density, the visible bremsstrahlung measurement system developed to determine the ion effective charge (Z{sub eff}) may also be used for n{sub e} estimation via inverse operations. With assumption that Z{sub eff} has a flat profile and does not change significantly in steady state discharges, line averaged electron density (n{sup ¯}{sub e}) has been deduced from VB signals in L-mode and H-mode discharges in EAST. The results are in good coincidence with n{sup ¯}{sub e} from FIR, which proves that VB measurement is an effective tool for n{sub e} estimation. VB diagnostic is also applied to n{sup ¯}{sub e} correction when FIR n{sup ¯}{sub e} is wrong for the laser phase shift reversal together with noise causes errors when electron density changed rapidly in the H-mode discharges. Typical n{sub e} profiles in L-mode and H-mode phase are also deduced with reconstructed bremsstrahlung profiles.
Using Fe XXII to Determine the Electron Density of Stellar Coronae
Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Clementson, J.; Gu, M. F.
2010-03-01
Lines from Fe XXII, both in the EUV and X-ray region, are known to be sensitive to the electron density and have in recent years been used as diagnostics of stellar coronae, such as AB Dor and Ex Hya. We have recently obtained spectral data from laboratory sources in which the electron density is known either from non-spectroscopic means or from K-shell density diagnostics. The densities of the laboratory sources range from 5x1011 cm-3 to 5x1014 cm-3. The measurements have been used to test the spectral models underlying the Fe XXII density diagnostic line ratios. This work was supported by the NASA APRA program and the DOE General Plasma Science program.
Bayesian electron density inference from JET lithium beam emission spectra using Gaussian processes
Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, J.; Brix, M.; Ghim, Y.-C.; Contributors, JET
2017-03-01
A Bayesian model to infer edge electron density profiles is developed for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system, measuring Li I (2p-2s) line radiation using 26 channels with ∼1 cm spatial resolution and 10∼ 20 ms temporal resolution. The density profile is modelled using a Gaussian process prior, and the uncertainty of the density profile is calculated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. From the spectra measured by the transmission grating spectrometer, the Li I line intensities are extracted, and modelled as a function of the plasma density by a multi-state model which describes the relevant processes between neutral lithium beam atoms and plasma particles. The spectral model fully takes into account interference filter and instrument effects, that are separately estimated, again using Gaussian processes. The line intensities are inferred based on a spectral model consistent with the measured spectra within their uncertainties, which includes photon statistics and electronic noise. Our newly developed method to infer JET edge electron density profiles has the following advantages in comparison to the conventional method: (i) providing full posterior distributions of edge density profiles, including their associated uncertainties, (ii) the available radial range for density profiles is increased to the full observation range (∼26 cm), (iii) an assumption of monotonic electron density profile is not necessary, (iv) the absolute calibration factor of the diagnostic system is automatically estimated overcoming the limitation of the conventional technique and allowing us to infer the electron density profiles for all pulses without preprocessing the data or an additional boundary condition, and (v) since the full spectrum is modelled, the procedure of modulating the beam to measure the background signal is only necessary for the case of overlapping of the Li I line with impurity lines.
Electron mobility in supercritical pentanes as a function of density and temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kengo; Nakagawa, Kazumichi; Nishikawa, Masaru
1988-01-01
The excess electron mobility in supercritical n-, iso- and neopentane was measured isothermally as a function of density. The density-normalized mobility μN in all three isomers goes through a minimum at a density below the respective critical densities, and the mobility is quite temperature-dependent in this region, then goes through a minimum. The μN behavior around the minimum in n-pentane is well accounted for by the Cohen-Lekner model with the structure factor S(K) estimated from the speed of sound, while that in iso- and neopentane is not. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertelli, N.; Balakin, A.A.; Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi......A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cayton, Thomas E.
2005-01-01
The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, μ, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of μ and K, and for 3.5 R E E , the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R E for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits μ-dependent local minima around L = 5 R E . Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K c . Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons
Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Lancashire, R. B.; Manista, E. J.
1976-01-01
Measurements have been conducted of the effect of the convection of ions and electrons on the discharge characteristics in a large scale laser. The results are presented for one particular distribution of ballast resistance. Values of electric field, current density, input power density, ratio of electric field to neutral gas density (E/N), and electron number density were calculated on the basis of measurements of the discharge properties. In a number of graphs, the E/N ratio, current density, power density, and electron density are plotted as a function of row number (downstream position) with total discharge current and gas velocity as parameters. From the dependence of the current distribution on the total current, it appears that the electron production in the first two rows significantly affects the current flowing in the succeeding rows.
Sonwalkar, V. S.; Butler, J.; Reddy, A.
2017-12-01
We present a new method to remotely measure magnetospheric electron density and ion composition using lightning generated nonducted whistlers observed on a satellite. Electron and ion densities play important roles in magnetospheric processes such as wave-particle interactions in the equatorial region and ion-neutral dynamics in the ionosphere, and are important for calculating space weather effects such as particle precipitation, GPS scintillations, and satellite drag. The nonducted whistler resulting from a single lightning appears on a spectrogram as a series of magnetospherically reflected traces with characteristic dispersion (time delay versus frequency) and upper and lower cut off frequencies. Ray tracing simulations show that these observed characteristics depend on the magnetospheric electron density and ion composition. The cut off frequencies depend on both electron density and ion composition. The dispersion depends strongly on electron density, but weakly on ion composition. Using an iterative process to fit the measured dispersion and cutoff frequencies to those obtained from ray tracing simulations, it is possible to construct the electron and ion density profiles of the magnetosphere. We demonstrate our method by applying it to nonducted whistlers observed on OGO 1 and Van Allen probe satellites. In one instance (08 Nov 1965), whistler traces observed on OGO 1 (L = 2.4, λm = -6°) displayed a few seconds of dispersion and cutoff frequencies in the 1-10 kHz range. Ray tracing analysis showed that a diffusive equilibrium density model with the following parameters can reproduce the observed characteristics of the whistler traces: 1900 el/cc at L=2.4 and the equator, 358,000 el/cc at F2 peak (hmF2 = 220 km), the relative ion concentrations αH+ = 0.2, αHe+ = 0.2, and αO+ = 0.6 at 1000 km, and temperature 1600 K. The method developed here can be applied to whistlers observed on the past, current, and future magnetospheric satellite missions carrying
Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong
2012-01-01
We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osmani, O; Duvenbeck, A; Akcoeltekin, E; Meyer, R; Schleberger, M [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Lebius, H [CIMAP, blvd Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen (France)], E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de
2008-08-06
In recent experiments the irradiation of insulators of perovskite type with swift (E{approx}100 MeV) heavy ions under glancing incidence has been shown to provide a unique means to generate periodically arranged nanodots at the surface. The physical origin of these patterns has been suggested as stemming from a highly anisotropic electron density distribution within the bulk. In order to show the relevance of the electron density distribution of the target we present a model calculation for the system Xe{sup 23+} {yields} SrTiO{sub 3} that is known to produce the aforementioned surface modifications. On the basis of the Lindhard model of electronic stopping, we employ highly-resolved ab initio electron density data to describe the conversion of kinetic energy into excitation energy along the ion track. The primary particle dynamics are obtained via integration of the Newtonian equations of motion that are governed by a space- and time-dependent frictional force originating from Lindhard stopping. The analysis of the local electronic stopping power along the ion track reveals a pronounced periodic structure. The periodicity length varies strongly with the particular choice of the polar angle of incidence and is directly correlated to the experimentally observed formation of periodic nanodots at insulator surfaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palomares, J.M.; Iordanova, E.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, L.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der
2010-01-01
The axial profiles of the electron density n e and electron temperature T e of argon surfatron plasmas in the pressure range of 6-20 mbar and microwave power between 32 and 82 W have been determined using Thomson Scattering of laser irradiation at 532 nm. For the electron density and temperature we found values in the ranges 5 x 10 18 e 19 m -3 and 1.1 e e and T e down to 8% and 3%, respectively. It is found that n e decreases in the direction of the wave propagation with a slope that is nearly constant. The slope depends on the pressure but not on the power. Just as predicted by theories we see that increasing the power leads to longer plasma columns. However, the plasmas are shorter than what is predicted by theories based on the assumption that for the plasma-wave interaction electron-atom collisions are of minor importance (the so-called collisionless regime). The plasma vanishes long before the critical value of the electron density is reached. In contrast to what is predicted by the positive column model it is found that T e does not stay constant along the column, but monotonically increases with the distance from the microwave launcher. Increases of more than 50% over 30 cm were found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shrimpton, P.C.
1981-01-01
Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)
Inada, Yuki; Ono, Ryo; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko; Maeyama, Mitsuaki
2016-09-01
The electron density of streamer discharges propagating in atmospheric-pressure air is crucially important for systematic understanding of the production mechanisms of reactive species utilized in wide ranging applications such as medical treatment, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, ozone production and environmental pollutant processing. However, electron density measurement during the propagation of the atmospheric-pressure streamers is extremely difficult by using the conventional localized type measurement systems due to the streamer initiation jitters and the irreproducibility in the discharge paths. In order to overcome the difficulties, single-shot two-dimensional electron density measurement was conducted by using a Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensor. The Shack-Hartmann sensor with a temporal resolution of 2 ns was applied to pulsed positive streamer discharges generated in an air gap between pin-to-plate electrodes. The electron density a few ns after the streamer initiation was 7*1021m-3 and uniformly distributed along the streamer channel. The electron density and its distribution profile were compared with a previous study simulating similar streamers, demonstrating good agreement. This work was supported in part by JKA and its promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE. The authors like to thank Mr. Kazuaki Ogura and Mr. Kaiho Aono of The University of Tokyo for their support during this work.
The electron localization as the information content of the conditional pair density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urbina, Andres S.; Torres, F. Javier [Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Grupo de Química Computacional y Teórica (QCT-USFQ), Departamento de Química e Ingeniería Química, Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Instituto de Simulación Computacional (ISC-USFQ), Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Rincon, Luis, E-mail: lrincon@usfq.edu.ec, E-mail: lrincon@ula.ve [Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Grupo de Química Computacional y Teórica (QCT-USFQ), Departamento de Química e Ingeniería Química, Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Instituto de Simulación Computacional (ISC-USFQ), Diego de Robles y Via Interoceanica, Quito 17-1200-841 (Ecuador); Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), La Hechicera, Mérida-5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2016-06-28
In the present work, the information gained by an electron for “knowing” about the position of another electron with the same spin is calculated using the Kullback-Leibler divergence (D{sub KL}) between the same-spin conditional pair probability density and the marginal probability. D{sub KL} is proposed as an electron localization measurement, based on the observation that regions of the space with high information gain can be associated with strong correlated localized electrons. Taking into consideration the scaling of D{sub KL} with the number of σ-spin electrons of a system (N{sup σ}), the quantity χ = (N{sup σ} − 1) D{sub KL}f{sub cut} is introduced as a general descriptor that allows the quantification of the electron localization in the space. f{sub cut} is defined such that it goes smoothly to zero for negligible densities. χ is computed for a selection of atomic and molecular systems in order to test its capability to determine the region in space where electrons are localized. As a general conclusion, χ is able to explain the electron structure of molecules on the basis of chemical grounds with a high degree of success and to produce a clear differentiation of the localization of electrons that can be traced to the fluctuation in the average number of electrons in these regions.
Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A.; Seideman, Tamar
2017-11-01
Can an electronic device be constructed using only a single molecule? Since this question was first asked by Aviram and Ratner in the 1970s [Chem. Phys. Lett. 29, 277 (1974)], the field of molecular electronics has exploded with significant experimental advancements in the understanding of the charge transport properties of single molecule devices. Efforts to explain the results of these experiments and identify promising new candidate molecules for molecular devices have led to the development of numerous new theoretical methods including the current standard theoretical approach for studying single molecule charge transport, i.e., the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF). By pairing this formalism with density functional theory (DFT), a wide variety of transport problems in molecular junctions have been successfully treated. For some systems though, the conductance and current-voltage curves predicted by common DFT functionals can be several orders of magnitude above experimental results. In addition, since density functional theory relies on approximations to the exact exchange-correlation functional, the predicted transport properties can show significant variation depending on the functional chosen. As a first step to addressing this issue, the authors have replaced density functional theory in the NEGF formalism with a 2-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) method, creating a new approach known as the NEGF-RDM method. 2-RDM methods provide a more accurate description of electron correlation compared to density functional theory, and they have lower computational scaling compared to wavefunction based methods of similar accuracy. Additionally, 2-RDM methods are capable of capturing static electron correlation which is untreatable by existing NEGF-DFT methods. When studying dithiol alkane chains and dithiol benzene in model junctions, the authors found that the NEGF-RDM predicts conductances and currents that are 1-2 orders of magnitude below
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbee, T W; Bello, A F; Klepeis, J E; Van Buuren, T
1999-01-01
Nanometer period metallic multilayers are ideal structures to investigate electronic phenomena at interfaces between metal films since interfacial atoms comprise a large atomic fraction of the samples. The Cu/Cr binary pair is especially suited to study the interfaces in metals since these elements are mutually insoluble, thus eliminating mixing effects and compound formation and the lattice mismatch is very small. This allows the fabrication of high structural quality Cu/Cr multilayers that have a structure which can be approximated in calculations based on idealized atomic arrangements. The electronic structure of the Cu and the Cr layers in several samples of thin Cu/Cr multilayers were studied using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Total electron yield was measured and used to study the white lines at the Cu L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges. The white lines at the Cu absorption edges are strongly related to the unoccupied d-orbitals and are used to calculate the amount of charge transfer between the Cr and Cu atoms in interfaces. Analysis of the Cu white lines show a charge transfer of 0.026 electrons/interfacial Cu atom to the interfacial Cr atoms. In the Cu XAS spectra we also observe a van Hove singularity between the L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges as expected from the structural analysis. The absorption spectra are compared to partial density of states obtained from a full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculation. The calculations support the presence of charge transfer and indicate that it is localized to the first two interfacial layers in both Cu and Cr
Variational and robust density fitting of four-center two-electron integrals in local metrics
Reine, Simen; Tellgren, Erik; Krapp, Andreas; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Helgaker, Trygve; Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Salek, Paweł
2008-09-01
Density fitting is an important method for speeding up quantum-chemical calculations. Linear-scaling developments in Hartree-Fock and density-functional theories have highlighted the need for linear-scaling density-fitting schemes. In this paper, we present a robust variational density-fitting scheme that allows for solving the fitting equations in local metrics instead of the traditional Coulomb metric, as required for linear scaling. Results of fitting four-center two-electron integrals in the overlap and the attenuated Gaussian damped Coulomb metric are presented, and we conclude that density fitting can be performed in local metrics at little loss of chemical accuracy. We further propose to use this theory in linear-scaling density-fitting developments.
Compression of a mixed antiproton and electron non-neutral plasma to high densities
Aghion, Stefano; Amsler, Claude; Bonomi, Germano; Brusa, Roberto S.; Caccia, Massimo; Caravita, Ruggero; Castelli, Fabrizio; Cerchiari, Giovanni; Comparat, Daniel; Consolati, Giovanni; Demetrio, Andrea; Di Noto, Lea; Doser, Michael; Evans, Craig; Fanì, Mattia; Ferragut, Rafael; Fesel, Julian; Fontana, Andrea; Gerber, Sebastian; Giammarchi, Marco; Gligorova, Angela; Guatieri, Francesco; Haider, Stefan; Hinterberger, Alexander; Holmestad, Helga; Kellerbauer, Alban; Khalidova, Olga; Krasnický, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Vittorio; Lansonneur, Pierre; Lebrun, Patrice; Malbrunot, Chloé; Mariazzi, Sebastiano; Marton, Johann; Matveev, Victor; Mazzotta, Zeudi; Müller, Simon R.; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Nedelec, Patrick; Oberthaler, Markus; Pacifico, Nicola; Pagano, Davide; Penasa, Luca; Petracek, Vojtech; Prelz, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Rienaecker, Benjamin; Robert, Jacques; Røhne, Ole M.; Rotondi, Alberto; Sandaker, Heidi; Santoro, Romualdo; Smestad, Lillian; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Testera, Gemma; Tietje, Ingmari C.; Widmann, Eberhard; Yzombard, Pauline; Zimmer, Christian; Zmeskal, Johann; Zurlo, Nicola; Antonello, Massimiliano
2018-04-01
We describe a multi-step "rotating wall" compression of a mixed cold antiproton-electron non-neutral plasma in a 4.46 T Penning-Malmberg trap developed in the context of the AEḡIS experiment at CERN. Such traps are routinely used for the preparation of cold antiprotons suitable for antihydrogen production. A tenfold antiproton radius compression has been achieved, with a minimum antiproton radius of only 0.17 mm. We describe the experimental conditions necessary to perform such a compression: minimizing the tails of the electron density distribution is paramount to ensure that the antiproton density distribution follows that of the electrons. Such electron density tails are remnants of rotating wall compression and in many cases can remain unnoticed. We observe that the compression dynamics for a pure electron plasma behaves the same way as that of a mixed antiproton and electron plasma. Thanks to this optimized compression method and the high single shot antiproton catching efficiency, we observe for the first time cold and dense non-neutral antiproton plasmas with particle densities n ≥ 1013 m-3, which pave the way for an efficient pulsed antihydrogen production in AEḡIS.
Electron density and temperature in NIO1 RF source operated in oxygen and argon
Barbisan, M.; Zaniol, B.; Cavenago, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Zanini, M.
2017-08-01
The NIO1 experiment, built and operated at Consorzio RFX, hosts an RF negative ion source, from which it is possible to produce a beam of maximum 130 mA in H- ions, accelerated up to 60 kV. For the preliminary tests of the extraction system the source has been operated in oxygen, whose high electronegativity allows to reach useful levels of extracted beam current. The efficiency of negative ions extraction is strongly influenced by the electron density and temperature close to the Plasma Grid, i.e. the grid of the acceleration system which faces the source. To support the tests, these parameters have been measured by means of the Optical Emission Spectroscopy diagnostic. This technique has involved the use of an oxygen-argon mixture to produce the plasma in the source. The intensities of specific Ar I and Ar II lines have been measured along lines of sight close to the Plasma Grid, and have been interpreted with the ADAS package to get the desired information. This work will describe the diagnostic hardware, the analysis method and the measured values of electron density and temperature, as function of the main source parameters (RF power, pressure, bias voltage and magnetic filter field). The main results show that not only electron density but also electron temperature increase with RF power; both decrease with increasing magnetic filter field. Variations of source pressure and plasma grid bias voltage appear to affect only electron temperature and electron density, respectively.
Electronic Structures of Strained InAs x P1-x by Density Functional Theory.
Lee, Seung Mi; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Young Heon
2018-09-01
We investigated the effects of strain on the electronic structures of InAsxP1-x using quantum mechanical density functional theory calculations. The electronic band gap and electron effective mass decreased with the increase of the uniaxial tensile strain along the [0001] direction of wurtzite InAs0.75P0.25. Therefore, faster electron movements are expected. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements of InAs0.75P0.25 nanowire.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koops, Hans W.P.
2013-01-01
Focused electron beam induced deposition is a novel bottom up nano-structurization technology. An electron beam of high power density is used to generate nano- structures with dimensions > 20 nm, but being composed from amorphous or nanogranular materials with crystals of 2 to 5 nm diameter embedded in a Fullerene matrix. Those compounds are generated in general by secondary or low energy electrons in layers of inorganic, organic, organometallic compounds absorbed to the sample. Those are converted into nanogranular materials by the electron beam following chemical and physical laws, as given by 'Mother Nature'. Metals and amorphous mixtures of chemical compounds from metals are normal resistors, which can carry a current density J 2 . Nanogranular composites like Au/C or Pt/C with metal nanocrystals embedded in a Fullerene matrix have hopping conduction with 0-dimensional Eigen-value characteristics and show 'anomalous electron transport' and can carry 'Giant Current Densities' with values from > 1 MA/cm 2 to 0.1 GA/cm 2 without destruction of the materials. However the area connecting the nanogranular material with a metal with a 3-dimensional electron gas needs to be designed, that the flowing current is reduced to the current density values which the 3-D metal can support without segregation. The basis for a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon can be geometry quantization for Coulomb blockade, of electron surface orbitals around the nanocrystals, hopping conduction, and the limitation of the density of states for phonons in geometry confined non percolated granular materials with strong difference in mass and orientation. Several applications in electronics, signal generators, light sources, detectors, and solar energy harvesting are suggested. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlov, R.L.; Pavlov, L.I.; Raychev, P.P.; Garistov, V.P.; Dimitrova-Ivanovich, M.
2002-01-01
The matrix elements and expectation values of the hyperfine interaction operators are presented in a form suitable for numerical implementation in density matrix methods. The electron-nuclear spin-spin (dipolar and contact) interactions are considered, as well as the interaction between nuclear spin and electron-orbital motions. These interactions from the effective Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian determine the hyperfine structure in ESR spectra and contribute to chemical shifts in NMR. Applying the Wigner-Eckart theorem in the irreducible tensor-operator technique and the spin-space separation scheme, the matrix elements and expectation values of these relativistic corrections are expressed in analytical form. The final results are presented as products, or sums of products, of factors determined by the spin and (or) angular momentum symmetry and a spatial part determined by the action of the symmetrized tensor-operators on the normalized matrix or function of the spin or charge distribution.
Measuring the Density of a Molecular Cluster Injector via Visible Emission from an Electron Beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. M.; Stotler, D. P.
2010-06-28
A method to measure the density distribution of a dense hydrogen gas jet is pre- sented. A Mach 5.5 nozzle is cooled to 80K to form a flow capable of molecular cluster formation. A 250V, 10mA electron beam collides with the jet and produces Hα emission that is viewed by a fast camera. The high density of the jet, several 10^{16}cm^{-3}, results in substantial electron depletion, which attenuates the H_{α} emission. The attenuated emission measurement, combined with a simplified electron-molecule collision model, allows us to determine the molecular density profile via a simple iterative calculation.
Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.
2014-01-01
Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ∼10 17 cm −3 to (2–5) × 10 14 cm −3 . The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ∼5 × 10 13 cm −3 versus 2.9 × 10 16 cm −3 in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration
Aishima, Jun; Russel, Daniel S; Guibas, Leonidas J; Adams, Paul D; Brunger, Axel T
2005-10-01
Automatic fitting methods that build molecules into electron-density maps usually fail below 3.5 A resolution. As a first step towards addressing this problem, an algorithm has been developed using an approximation of the medial axis to simplify an electron-density isosurface. This approximation captures the central axis of the isosurface with a graph which is then matched against a graph of the molecular model. One of the first applications of the medial axis to X-ray crystallography is presented here. When applied to ligand fitting, the method performs at least as well as methods based on selecting peaks in electron-density maps. Generalization of the method to recognition of common features across multiple contour levels could lead to powerful automatic fitting methods that perform well even at low resolution.
Reassessment of the electron density in Cu2O using γ-ray diffraction.
Jauch, Wolfgang; Reehuis, Manfred
2014-12-01
The electron-density distribution in Cu2O has been critically reexamined to test controversial conclusions from earlier experimental and theoretical studies. The electron density is derived via multipole refinement of high-quality single-crystal diffraction data, collected at room temperature with 316.5 keV gamma radiation. Four γ-lines in the energy range 200-600 keV have been used to extrapolate extinction-free low-order structure factors. The remaining extinction corrections refine to a crystal mosaicity identical to the observed one. There is no support for anharmonic contributions to the thermal parameters. Important features of the derived electron density are (i) a partially filled d_{z^2} orbital, (ii) an incomplete ionization of Cu and O, and (iii) no interstitial Cu-Cu charge pileup, thereby refuting the covalent bonding hypothesis.
Time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems interacting with cavity photons.
Tokatly, I V
2013-06-07
Time-dependent (current) density functional theory for many-electron systems strongly coupled to quantized electromagnetic modes of a microcavity is proposed. It is shown that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic (current) density and the expectation values of photonic coordinates. The Kohn-Sham system is constructed, which allows us to calculate the above basic variables by solving self-consistent equations for noninteracting particles. We suggest possible approximations for the exchange-correlation potentials and discuss implications of this approach for the theory of open quantum systems. In particular we show that it naturally leads to time-dependent density functional theory for systems coupled to the Caldeira-Leggett bath.
Assembling phosphorene flexagons for 2D electron-density-guided nanopatterning and nanofabrication.
Kang, Kisung; Jang, Woosun; Soon, Aloysius
2017-07-27
To build upon the rich structural diversity in the ever-increasing polymorphic phases of two-dimensional phosphorene, we propose different assembly methods (namely, the "bottom-up" and "top-down" approaches) that involve four commonly reported parent phases (i.e. the α-, β-, γ-, and δ-phosphorene) in combination with the lately reported remarkably low-energy one-dimensional defects in α-phosphorene. In doing so, we generate various periodically repeated phosphorene patterns in these so-called phosphorene flexagons and present their local electron density (via simulated scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images). These interesting electron density patterns seen in the flexagons (mimicking symmetry patterns that one may typically see in a kaleidoscope) may assist as potential 2D templates where electron-density-guided nanopatterning and nanofabrication in complex organized nanoarchitectures are important.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B. [Particle Beam Physics Laboratory, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bruhwiler, David L. [RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies LLC (United States); Smith, Jonathan [Tech-X UK Ltd, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G. [Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Hidding, Bernhard [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)
2016-09-01
We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical “plasma torch” distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Hongyan; Zhu Shunguan; Zhang Lin; Wan Xiaoxia; Li Yan; Shen Ruiqi
2010-01-01
Emission spectra of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma in a visible range was studied in air. The electron density was measured in a conventional way from the broadening of the A1 I 394.4 nm Stark width. Based on the Saha equation, a system for recording the intensity of Si I 390.5 nm and Si II 413.1 nm was designed. With this technique, the SCB plasma electron density was measured well and accurately. Moreover, the electron density distribution Vs time was acquired from one SCB discharge. The individual result from the broadening of the Al I 394.4 nm Stark width and Saha equation was all in the range of 10 15 cm -3 to 10 16 cm -3 . Finally the presumption of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition was validated.
Electron density and effective atomic number (Zeff) determination through x-ray Moiré deflectometry
Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael
2014-10-01
Talbot-Lau based Moiré deflectometry is a powerful density diagnostic capable of delivering refraction information and attenuation from a single image, through the accurate detection of X-ray phase-shift and intensity. The technique is able to accurately measure both the real part of the index of refraction δ (directly related to electron density) and the attenuation coefficient μ of an object placed in the x-ray beam. Since the atomic number Z (or Zeff for a composite sample) is proportional to these quantities, an elemental map of the effective atomic number can be obtained with the ratio of the phase and the absorption image. The determination of Zeff from refraction and attenuation measurements with Moiré deflectometry could be of high interest in various fields of HED research such as shocked materials and ICF experiments as Zeff is linked, by definition, to the x-ray absorption properties of a specific material. This work is supported by U.S. DoE/NNSA Grant No. 435 DENA0001835.
54 relative density and distribution of tantalus monkey
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tersor
RANGES OF SAMBISA GAME RESERVE. M. Modu*, A. A. ... density and he found a negative relationship with minimum density. .... analysis. A comprehensive computer software .... a large effect on the abundance and ranging ecology of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Y. U.; Chung, J.
2010-01-01
A 280 GHz single-channel horizontal millimeter-wave interferometer system has been installed for plasma electron density measurements on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. This system has a triangular beam path that does not pass through the plasma axis due to geometrical constraints in the superconducting tokamak. The term line density on KSTAR has a different meaning from the line density of other tokamaks. To estimate the peak density and the mean density from the measured line density, information on the position of the plasma is needed. The information has been calculated from tangentially viewed visible images using the toroidal symmetry of the plasma. Interface definition language routines have been developed for this purpose. The calculated plasma position data correspond well to calculation results from magnetic analysis. With the position data and an estimated plasma profile, the peak density and the mean density have been obtained from the line density. From these results, changes of plasma density themselves can be separated from effects of the plasma movements, so they can give valuable information on the plasma status.
Investigation of bulk electron densities for dose calculations on cone-beam CT images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, J.; Parker, J.; Gupta, S.; Hatton, J.; Tang, C.; Capp, A.; Denham, J.W.; Wright, P.
2010-01-01
Full text: If cone-beam CT images are to be used for dose calculations, then the images must be able to provide accurate electron density information. Twelve patients underwent twice weekly cone-beam CT scans in addition to the planning CT scan. A standardised 5-field treatment plan was applied to 169 of the CBCT images. Doses were calculated using the original electron density values in the CBCT and with bulk electron densities applied. Bone was assigned a density of 288 HU, and all other tissue was assigned to be water equivalent (0 HU). The doses were compared to the dose calculated on the original planning CT image. Using the original HU values in the cone-beam images, the average dose del i vered by the plans from all 12 patients was I. I % lower than the intended 200 cOy delivered on the original CT plans (standard devia tion 0.7%, maximum difference -2.93%). When bulk electron densities were applied to the cone-beam images, the average dose was 0.3% lower than the original CT plans (standard deviation 0.8%, maximum difference -2.22%). Compared to using the original HU values, applying bulk electron densities to the CBCT images improved the dose calculations by almost I %. Some variation due to natural changes in anatomy should be expected. The application of bulk elec tron densities to cone beam CT images has the potential to improve the accuracy of dose calculations due to inaccurate H U values. Acknowledgements This work was partially funded by Cancer Council NSW Grant Number RG 07-06.
Excess electron mobility in ethane. Density, temperature, and electric field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doeldissen, W.; Schmidt, W.F.; Bakale, G.
1980-01-01
The excess electron mobility in liquid ethane was measured under orthobaric conditions as a function of temperature and electric field strength up to the critical temperature at 305.33 K. The low field mobility was found to rise strongly with temperature and exhibits a maximum value of 44 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 2 0 below the critical temperature. At temperatures above 260 K the electron drift velocity shows a sublinear field dependence at high values of the electric field strength. These observations lead to the supposition that in liquid ethane a transition from transport via localized states to transport in extended states occurs. Measurements were also performed in fluid ethane at densities from 2.4 to 12.45 mol L -1 and temperatures from 290 to 340 K. On isochores in the vicinity of the critical density, an increase of the low field mobility with temperature was observed. This effect was found to disappear both at low (rho = 2.4 mol L -1 ) and high densities (rho greater than or equal to 9.2 mol L -1 ). In this density range, a sublinear field dependence of the drift velocities at high field strengths was noted. The critical velocity associated with the appearance of hot electrons was observed to decrease with higher densities indicating a smaller fractional energy transfer in electron molecule collisions. A compilation of electron mobilities in gaseous and liquid ethane shows that, up to densitiesof rho = 9.5 mol L -1 , μ proportional to n -1 is fulfilled if temperature effects are ignored. At intermediate densities, 9 mol L -1 -1 , a density dependence of μ proportional to rho -5 is found followed by a stronger mobility decrease toward the triple point. Positive ion mobilities measured under orthobaric conditions followed Walden's rule
Method of measuring the current density distribution and emittance of pulsed electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schilling, H.B.
1979-07-01
This method of current density measurement employs an array of many Faraday cups, each cup being terminated by an integrating capacitor. The voltages of the capacitors are subsequently displayed on a scope, thus giving the complete current density distribution with one shot. In the case of emittance measurements, a moveable small-diameter aperture is inserted at some distance in front of the cup array. Typical results with a two-cathode, two-energy electron source are presented. (orig.)
Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)
2012-10-15
The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.
Behaviour of the electron density near an impurity with exchange and correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adawi, I.; Godwin, V.E.
1982-09-01
The behaviour of the electron density n(r) and potential energy V(r) near an impurity of charge Z is studied in the linear response theory of metals with exchange and correlation. The leading two terms in nsub(odd)(r) and the first three terms in Vsub(odd)(r) are the same as in the Lindhard theory, but corrections appear in the higher terms of the odd powers expansions of these functions. In all quantum linear response theories, the derivative n'(0)=-2Zn 0 /a 0 where n 0 is the free electron gas density and a 0 is the Bohr radius. (author)
Applications of electron density studies in molecular and solid state science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Overgaard, Jacob
2015-01-01
of electron density studies in connection with the UN declared International Year of Crystallography in 2014. In addition, a number of reviews on the method have very recently appeared showing that the time is ripe to look back on the achievements of the last 10 years and also to look ahead to see where...... to the technical developments driven not least by the efforts from large commercial manufacturers such as Bruker AXS and Agilent Technologies. It is also not unwarranted to claim that the electron density community is a driving force in this technological improvement as it is essential to push these instruments...
Critical density for Landau damping in a two-electron-component plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rupp, Constantin F.; López, Rodrigo A.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile)
2015-10-15
The asymptotic evolution of an initial perturbation in a collisionless two-electron-component plasma with different temperatures is studied numerically. The transition between linear and nonlinear damping regimes is determined by slowly varying the density of the secondary electron-component using high-resolution Vlasov-Poisson simulations. It is shown that, for fixed amplitude perturbations, this transition behaves as a critical phenomenon with time scales and field amplitudes exhibiting power-law dependencies on the threshold density, similar to the critical amplitude behavior in a single-component plasma.
Simultaneous measurement of line electron density and Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.
1981-01-01
A new diagnostic system utilizing a submillimetre-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer has been used to simultaneously measure the time evolution of the line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The measurements, performed along four chords of the plasma column, have been correlated with poloidal field changes associated with a ramp in the Ohmic-heating current and by neutral-beam injection. These are the first simultaneous measurements of line electron density and Faraday rotation to be made along a chord of submillimetre laser beam in a tokamak plasma. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higel, B.
1978-01-01
The plasma resonance phenomena observed at fsub(pe), nfsub(ce), and fsub(qn) by the GEOS-1 S-301 relaxation sounder are identified through a pattern recognition software process implemented in a mini-computer which receives on-line the compressed data. First, this processing system distributes in real time fsub(pe) and fsub(ce) measurements to the ground media. Second, it drives and controls automatically the S-301 on-board experiment by sending appropriate telecommands: the tracking of resonances is performed by shortening the frequency sweeps to a narrow range centered on the resonance location. Examples of such tracking sequences are presented, exhibiting sampling rates of the electron density measurements from once every 22s (slowest rate) to once every 86 ms (highest rate available). The results give evidence of the existence of very small scale structures in the magnetospheric density, having characteristic sizes of the order of a few 10 2 m or/and a few 10 -1 s. The relative amplitude of these density fluctuations is typically 1%. Because of satellite spinning, fixed frequency sounding sequences allow to measure in a few seconds the directivity features of the plasma resonance signals. Examples of directional patterns in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field are presented: the electrostatic nature of the waves received at fsub(pe), nfsub(ce), and fsub(qn) being consistent with these patterns, the corresponding k vector orientations become available. The Bernstein modes properties are used to interpret the nfsub(ce) and fsub(qn) results. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amovilli, C; March, N H
2012-01-01
Utilizing the earlier work of Holas et al (2003 Phys. Lett. A 310 451) and the more recent contribution of Akbari et al (2009 Phys. Rev. A 80 032509), we construct an integral equation for the relative motion (RM) contribution t RM (r) to the correlated kinetic energy density for modelling two-electron atoms with harmonic confinement but arbitrary interparticle interaction. It is stressed that t RM = t RM [f(G)], where f(G) is the atomic scattering factor: the Fourier transform of the density ρ(r). As a simple illustrative example of this functional relation for the correlated kinetic energy density, the harmonic Moshinsky case is investigated, the scattering factor then having a Gaussian form. (paper)
Study on intense relativistic electron beam propagation in a low density collisionless plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.; Khodataev, K.V.
1982-01-01
The results of investigations into the increase in effectivity of transport of an intensive relativistic electron beam (IREB) in a collisionless plasma of low density are presented. The electron beam with the current of 1.5 kA, energy of 300 keV, radius of 1.5 cm is in ected into a plasma channel 180 cm long which is a metallic cylinder covered with a biniplast layer from inside 0.5 cm thickness on which there is a metallic net from the vacuum side. Plasma production is carried out during the supply of voltage pulse to the net. A condition of the optimum IREB distribution is found. It is sohwn that self-focusing IREB transport in plasma of low density can be effective if equilibrium conditions are carried out in plasma with the concentration of electrons less (or equal) to the concentration of electrons in a beam
Equatorial bottom and topside electron density profiles and comparison with IRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinisch, B.W.; Huang, X.; Conway, J.; Komjathy, A.
2001-01-01
A new technique of estimating the ionospheric topside profile from the information contained in the groundbased ionograms is described. The electron density profile above the F2 layer peak is approximated by an α-Chapman function with a constant scale height that is derived from the bottomside profile shape near the F2 peak. The scale height is obtained from the bottomside profile by representing the latter in terms of α-Chapman functions with scale heights H(h) that vary as a function of height. The scale height at the layer peak is then used for the topside profile. The bottomside and topside electron contents is obtained by integrating the electron density from h=0 to hmF2 and from hmF2 to ∞. The ionogram derived electron content values for Jicamarca in 1998 are compared with the respective IRI values. (author)
Diffuse Surface Scattering in the Plasmonic Resonances of Ultralow Electron Density Nanospheres.
Monreal, R Carmina; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Apell, S Peter
2015-05-21
Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) have recently been identified in extremely diluted electron systems obtained by doping semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we investigate the role that different surface effects, namely, electronic spill-out and diffuse surface scattering, play in the optical properties of these ultralow electron density nanosystems. Diffuse scattering originates from imperfections or roughness at a microscopic scale on the surface. Using an electromagnetic theory that describes this mechanism in conjunction with a dielectric function including the quantum size effect, we find that the LSPRs show an oscillatory behavior in both position and width for large particles and a strong blue shift in energy and an increased width for smaller radii, consistent with recent experimental results for photodoped ZnO nanocrystals. We thus show that the commonly ignored process of diffuse surface scattering is a more important mechanism affecting the plasmonic properties of ultralow electron density nanoparticles than the spill-out effect.
Monte Carlo modeling of electron density in hypersonic rarefied gas flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Jin; Zhang, Yuhuai; Jiang, Jianzheng [State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-12-09
The electron density distribution around a vehicle employed in the RAM-C II flight test is calculated with the DSMC method. To resolve the mole fraction of electrons which is several orders lower than those of the primary species in the free stream, an algorithm named as trace species separation (TSS) is utilized. The TSS algorithm solves the primary and trace species separately, which is similar to the DSMC overlay techniques; however it generates new simulated molecules of trace species, such as ions and electrons in each cell, basing on the ionization and recombination rates directly, which differs from the DSMC overlay techniques based on probabilistic models. The electron density distributions computed by TSS agree well with the flight data measured in the RAM-C II test along a decent trajectory at three altitudes 81km, 76km, and 71km.
Numerical method for the dispersion relation of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma with an electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devia, A.; Orrego, C.E.; Buitrago, G.
1990-01-01
A numerical method that is based in kinetic theory (Vlasov-Poison equations) was developed in order to calculate the dispersion relation for the interaction between a hot cylindrical and electron beam in any temperature and density. The plasma-beam system is located in a strong magnetic field. Many examples showing the effect of the temperatures and densities on the dispersion relation are given. (Author)
Electrons of high perpendicular energy in the low-density regime of Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bornatici, M.; Engelmann, F.
1978-01-01
Effects due to instabilities excited in the low-density regime of tokamaks by runaway electrons via the cyclotron resonance ω+Ω=kV along with the formation of a positive slope in the runaway distribution are considered. Conditions for the production of electrons of high perpendicular energy and their trapping in toroidal field ripples, leading to liner damage, are discussed and found to be rather stringent. Fairly good agreement with the experiments is found
Cooling of high-density and power electronics by means of heat pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubbeling, L.
1980-06-01
This report describes how heat pipes can be used for cooling modern electronic equipment, with numerous advantages over air-cooled systems. A brief review of heat-pipe properties is given, with a detailed description of a functioning prototype. This is a single-width CAMAC unit containing high-density electronic circuits cooled by three heat pipes, and allowing a dissipation of over 120 W instead of the normal maximum of 20 W. (orig.)
Electron temperature and density relaxations during internal disruptions in TFR Tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enriques, L.; Sand, F.
1977-01-01
Several diagnostics (soft X-ray, Thompson scattering, high frequency waves, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy) have been used on TFR Tokamak plasmas in order to show that the soft X-ray relaxations are mainly due to electron temperature relaxations, with only small variations of the electron density. Values of ΔTsub(eo)/Tsub(eo) up to 17% and of Δnsub(eo)/nsub(eo) of a few % or less have been measured. (author)
Electron temperature and density relaxations during internal disruptions in TFR Tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-07-01
Several diagnostics (soft X-ray, Thomson scattering, high frequency waves, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy) have been used on TFR Tokamak plasmas in order to show that the soft X-ray relaxations are mainly due to electron temperature relaxations, with only small variations of the electron density. Values of ΔTsub(e0)/Tsub(e0) up to 17% and of Δnsub(e0)/nsub(e0) of a few % or less have been measured
Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region
A. V. Pavlov
1996-01-01
This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm), with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient i...
Electron temperature and density profiles measurement in the TJ-1 tokamak by Thomson scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.
1986-01-01
Electron temperature and density profiles of ohmically heated hydrogen plasmas in the TJ-1 tokamak have been measured by Thomson scattering. The temperature profile peaks sharply in the central region while the density profile is very flat. Temperature values between 100 and 390 eV have been measured for densities in the range of 5.10 12 to 2.6.10 13 cm -3 . Parameters characterizing TJ-1 plasma, such as confinement times Z eff , have been deduced from experimental data. Energy confinement times are compared with experimental scaling laws. (author)
Electron number density profiles derived from radio occultation on the CASSIOPE spacecraft
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shume, E. B.; Vergados, P.; Komjathy, A.
2017-01-01
This paper presents electron number density profiles derived from high resolution Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) observations performed using the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) payload on the high inclination CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE...... good agreement with density profiles estimated from ionosonde data, measured over nearby stations to the latitude and longitude of the RO tangent points, (2) in good agreement with density profiles inferred from GPS RO measured by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere...
2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.
Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J
2014-11-01
A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gavnholt, Jeppe; Rubio, Angel; Olsen, Thomas
2009-01-01
Using time-evolution time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the adiabatic local-density approximation, we study the interactions between single electrons and molecular resonances at surfaces. Our system is a nitrogen molecule adsorbed on a ruthenium surface. The surface is modele...... resonance and the lowering of the resonance energy due to an image charge effect. Finally we apply the TDDFT procedure to only consider the decay of molecular excitations and find that it agrees quite well with the width of the projected density of Kohn-Sham states....
Study on electron density and average degree of ionization for the non-ideal argon plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing Ming; Huang Hua; Zhou Yisu; Wang Caixia
2008-01-01
Electron density and average degree of ionization of the non-ideal argon plasmas under different plasma temperature and density are calculated by using SHM model. It comes to a conclusion that the average degree of ionization is less than 0.5 for the non-ideal argon plasmas at temperature T=2.0eV and plasma density ρ=(0.01-0.5)g·cm -3 , and the average degree of ionization is reduced with the increase of plasma density ρ. This indicates that the non-ideal argon plasma has a very low degree of ionization so that most argon has not been ionized. In addition, the discussion on the ionization decrease with the increase of plasma density ρ is given. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertelli, N; Balakin, A A; Westerhof, E; Garcia, O E; Nielsen, A H; Naulin, V
2010-01-01
A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi-optical calculations are shown by using edge density fluctuations as calculated by two-dimensional interchange turbulence simulations and validated with the experimental data [O. E. Garcia et al, Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) 667].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.
1982-01-01
Direct PPP-type calculations of self-consistent (SC) density matrices for excited states are described and the corresponding 'thawn' molecular orbitals (MO) are discussed. Special attention is addressed to particular solutions arising in conjugated systems of a certain symmetry, and to their chemical implications. The U(2) and U(3) algebras are applied respectively to the 4-electron and 6-electron cases: a natural separation of excited states in different cases follows. A simple approach to the convergence problem for excited states is given. The complementarity relations, an alternative formulation of the pairing theorem valid for heteromolecules and non-alternant systems, allow some fruitful experimental applications. Together with the extended pairing relations shown here, they may help to rationalize general trends. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burry, R.W.
1982-01-01
The distribution of electron microscopic autoradiographic grains over neurons in cerebellar cultures incubated with [ 3 H]gamma-aminobutyric acid ([ 3 H]GABA) was examined. With the unit density method of grain analysis, the number of grains over each structure was tested against the total grain density for the entire section. If an individual structure has a grain density higher than the expected grain density, it is considered one of the group of heavily labeled structures. The expected grain density for each structure is calculated based on the area for that structure, the total grain density and the Poisson distribution. A different expected grain density can be calculated for any P value required. The method provides an adequate population of structures for morphological analysis but excludes weakly labeled structures and thus may underestimate the number of labeled structures. The unit density method of grain analysis showed, as expected, a group of cell bodies and synapses that was labeled heavily. Cultures incubated with other [ 3 H]amino acids did not have any heavily labeled synaptic elements. In addition, serial section analysis of sections showed that synapses heavily labeled with [ 3 H]GABA are seen in adjacent sections. The advantage of the unit density method of grain analysis is that it can be used to separate two groups of metabolically different neurons even when no morphological differences are present. (Auth.)
A real-time extension of density matrix embedding theory for non-equilibrium electron dynamics
Kretchmer, Joshua S.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2018-02-01
We introduce real-time density matrix embedding theory (DMET), a dynamical quantum embedding theory for computing non-equilibrium electron dynamics in strongly correlated systems. As in the previously developed static DMET, real-time DMET partitions the system into an impurity corresponding to the region of interest coupled to the surrounding environment, which is efficiently represented by a quantum bath of the same size as the impurity. In this work, we focus on a simplified single-impurity time-dependent formulation as a first step toward a multi-impurity theory. The equations of motion of the coupled impurity and bath embedding problem are derived using the time-dependent variational principle. The accuracy of real-time DMET is compared to that of time-dependent complete active space self-consistent field (TD-CASSCF) theory and time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory for a variety of quantum quenches in the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM), in which the Hamiltonian is suddenly changed (quenched) to induce a non-equilibrium state. Real-time DMET shows a marked improvement over the mean-field TDHF, converging to the exact answer even in the non-trivial Kondo regime of the SIAM. However, as expected from analogous behavior in static DMET, the constrained structure of the real-time DMET wavefunction leads to a slower convergence with respect to active space size, in the single-impurity formulation, relative to TD-CASSCF. Our initial results suggest that real-time DMET provides a promising framework to simulate non-equilibrium electron dynamics in which strong electron correlation plays an important role, and lays the groundwork for future multi-impurity formulations.
Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Pavlov
1996-02-01
Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth\\'s ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N2 and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O+(4S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s–1 in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields. Within this model framework the effect of the
Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Pavlov
Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N_{2} and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O^{+}(^{4}S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s^{–1} in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamberti, Francesco; Ferraro, Davide; Giomo, Monica; Elvassore, Nicola
2013-01-01
Electrochemical sensors are growing in number and importance. Surface modifications could enhance charge transfer properties occurring at the interfaces and carbon nanoassemblies is one of the most used strategy to improve sensitivity to measurements. However, well defined protocols of surface modification are needed in order to fabricate electrochemically effective nanostructured sensors. Therefore, we aim at investigating the electrochemical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests as a function of height and nanotube surface density. Height of the forests is accurately controlled tuning the oxidation temperatures in the range of 293–313 K of SWCNTs. The surface density of carbon nanotubes was adjusted developing cysteamine/2-mercaptoethanol (CYS/ME) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold surfaces at different ratios (1:0, 1:3, 1:10, 1:100, 0:1). Apparent electron transfer rate was analyzed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and experimental data show that transfer rate constant, k app , increases from 1 × 10 −4 cm/s to 6 × 10 −4 cm/s rising oxidation temperatures (i.e. lowering forest height); therefore forests with reduced height show higher electron transfer rate without significant difference in electrodic reversibility. On the other hand, tuning SWCNT surface density, forests obtained with no ME show optimal Δ peak value of 0.087 ± 0.015 V and highest k app value of 9.15 × 10 −3 cm/s. Surprisingly, electrochemical surface area analysis shows that samples with lower amount of cysteamine have an active surface area three times bigger than samples with 1:3 CYS/ME ratio. Low electrochemical efficiency associated with high active surface may be related to unwanted SWCNT bundles adsorbed on the surface for 1:10 and 1:100 CYS/ME ratio samples as confirmed by AFM morphological characterization. Further investigation shows that a transition from a semi-infinite planar diffusion mechanism to a radial diffusion one takes
Electronic properties of T graphene-like C-BN sheets: A density functional theory study
Majidi, R.
2015-11-01
We have used density functional theory to study the electronic properties of T graphene-like C, C-BN and BN sheets. The planar T graphene with metallic property has been considered. The results show that the presence of BN has a considerable effect on the electronic properties of T graphene. The T graphene-like C-BN and BN sheets show semiconducting properties. The energy band gap is increased by enhancing the number of BN units. The possibility of opening and controlling band gap opens the door for T graphene in switchable electronic devices.
Electronic Transport Behaviors due to Charge Density Waves in Ni-Nb-Zr-H Glassy Alloys
Fukuhara, Mikio; Umemori, Yoshimasa
2013-11-01
The amorphous Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloy containing subnanometer-sized icosahedral Zr5 Nb5Ni3 clusters exhibited four types of electronic phenomena: a metal/insulator transition, an electric current-induced voltage oscillation (Coulomb oscillation), giant capacitor behavior and an electron avalanche with superior resistivity. These findings could be excluded by charge density waves that the low-dimensional component of clusters, in which the atoms are lined up in chains along the [130] direction, plays important roles in various electron transport phenomena.
Electron acceleration by a radially polarized laser pulse during ionization of low density gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kunwar Pal Singh
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The acceleration of electrons by a radially polarized intense laser pulse has been studied. The axial electric field of the laser is responsible for electron acceleration. The axial electric field increases with decreasing laser spot size; however, the laser pulse gets defocused sooner for smaller values and the electrons do not experience high electric field for long, reducing the energy they can reach. The electron remains confined in the electric field of the laser for longer and the electron energy peaks for the normalized laser spot size nearly equal to the normalized laser intensity parameter. Electron energy peaks for initial laser phase ϕ_{0}=π due to accelerating laser phase and decreases with transverse initial position of the electrons. The energy and angle of the emittance spectrum of the electrons generated during ionization of krypton and argon at low densities have been obtained and a right choice of laser parameters has been suggested to obtain high energy quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams. It has been found that argon is more suitable than krypton to obtain high energy electron beams due to higher ionization potential of inner shells for the former.
Mezey, Paul G.
2017-11-01
Two strongly related theorems on non-degenerate ground state electron densities serve as the basis of "Molecular Informatics". The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is a statement on global molecular information, ensuring that the complete electron density contains the complete molecular information. However, the Holographic Electron Density Theorem states more: the local information present in each and every positive volume density fragment is already complete: the information in the fragment is equivalent to the complete molecular information. In other words, the complete molecular information provided by the Hohenberg-Kohn Theorem is already provided, in full, by any positive volume, otherwise arbitrarily small electron density fragment. In this contribution some of the consequences of the Holographic Electron Density Theorem are discussed within the framework of the "Nuclear Charge Space" and the Universal Molecule Model. In the Nuclear Charge Space" the nuclear charges are regarded as continuous variables, and in the more general Universal Molecule Model some other quantized parameteres are also allowed to become "de-quantized and then re-quantized, leading to interrelations among real molecules through abstract molecules. Here the specific role of the Holographic Electron Density Theorem is discussed within the above context.
Measuring Density Profiles of Electrons and Heavy Particles in a Stable Axially Blown Arc
Carstensen, J.; Stoller, P.; Galletti, B.; Doiron, C. B.; Sokolov, A.
2017-08-01
Two-color spatial carrier wave interferometry employing pulsed 532- and 671-nm lasers is used to measure the electron-density and heavy-particle-density profiles in the stagnation point of a stable, axially blown arc in argon for currents of 50 to 200 A and stagnation point pressures of 0.2 to 16 bar. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the free-electron contribution to the refractive index depends strongly on the wavelength, while that of the heavy particles does not. The high spatial resolution achieved allows the hot core of the arc to be readily distinguished from the surrounding boundary layer. A custom-built test device is used to ensure flow conditions that lead to a stable, axisymmetric arc; this permits the reconstruction of the density and temperature profiles using a single projection (interferometric image) of the refractive-index distribution through the arc (at two wavelengths). The arc radius determined from the heavy-particle density decreases with increasing stagnation pressure and increases with the current. These measurements are in good agreement with a simple axially blown arc model taking into account Ohmic heating, radiation losses, and enthalpy flow for core temperatures of approximately 16 500 K. The measured electron density at the center of the arc agrees well with a prediction based on local thermodynamic equilibrium.
Farzanehpour, Mehdi; Tokatly, Ilya; Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group; ETSF Scientific Development Centre Team
2015-03-01
We present a rigorous formulation of the time-dependent density functional theory for interacting lattice electrons strongly coupled to cavity photons. We start with an example of one particle on a Hubbard dimer coupled to a single photonic mode, which is equivalent to the single mode spin-boson model or the quantum Rabi model. For this system we prove that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic density and the expectation value of the photonic coordinate, provided the initial state and the density satisfy a set of well defined conditions. Then we generalize the formalism to many interacting electrons on a lattice coupled to multiple photonic modes and prove the general mapping theorem. We also show that for a system evolving from the ground state of a lattice Hamiltonian any density with a continuous second time derivative is locally v-representable. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant No. FIS2013-46159-C3-1-P), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (Grant No. IT578-13), COST Actions CM1204 (XLIC) and MP1306 (EUSpec).
Microwave reflectrometry for electron density measurements in the TJ-1 tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anabitarte, E.; Bustamante, E.G.; Calderon, M.A.G.; Vegas, A.
1986-01-01
A study about microwave reflectometry to measure the outside profile of the electron plasma density on tokamak TJ-1 is presented. It is also presented the condition of applicability of this method after the characteristic parameters of the plasma and its resolution. The simulation of the plasma in laboratory by means of a metallic mirror causes the whole characterization of the reflectometer. (author)
Efficient k⋅p method for the calculation of total energy and electronic density of states
Iannuzzi, Marcella; Parrinello, Michele
2001-01-01
An efficient method for calculating the electronic structure in large systems with a fully converged BZ sampling is presented. The method is based on a k.p-like approximation developed in the framework of the density functional perturbation theory. The reliability and efficiency of the method are demostrated in test calculations on Ar and Si supercells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif
2008-01-01
The effective atomic number, Z(eff), the effective electron density, N-el, and kerma have been calculated for some fatty acids and carbohydrates for photon interaction in the extended energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using an accurate database of photon-interaction cross sections and the WinXCo...
2010-07-01
http://www.iono.noa.gr/ElectronDensity/EDProfile.php The web service has been developed with the following open source tools: a) PHP , for the... MySQL for the database, which was based on the enhancement of the DIAS database. Below we present some screen shots to demonstrate the functionality
Electron density in reasonably real metallic surfaces, including interchange and correlation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moraga, L.A.; Martinez, G.
1981-01-01
By means of a new method, the electron density in a jellium surface is calculated taking in account interchange and correlation effects; reproducing, in this way, the Lang and Kohn results. The new method is self-consistent but not iterative and hence is possible extend it to the solution of the same problem in more reasonably real metallic surfaces. (L.C.) [pt
Construction of New Electronic Density Functionals with Error Estimation Through Fitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petzold, V.; Bligaard, T.; Jacobsen, K. W.
2012-01-01
We investigate the possibilities and limitations for the development of new electronic density functionals through large-scale fitting to databases of binding energies obtained experimentally or through high-quality calculations. We show that databases with up to a few hundred entries allow for u...
Blanch, E.; Altadill, D.
2009-04-01
Geomagnetic storms disturb the quiet behaviour of the ionosphere, its electron density and the electron density peak height, hmF2. Many works have been done to predict the variations of the electron density but few efforts have been dedicated to predict the variations the hmF2 under disturbed helio-geomagnetic conditions. We present the results of the analyses of the F2 layer peak height disturbances occurred during intense geomagnetic storms for one solar cycle. The results systematically show a significant peak height increase about 2 hours after the beginning of the main phase of the geomagnetic storm, independently of both the local time position of the station at the onset of the storm and the intensity of the storm. An additional uplift is observed in the post sunset sector. The duration of the uplift and the height increase are dependent of the intensity of the geomagnetic storm, the season and the local time position of the station at the onset of the storm. An empirical model has been developed to predict the electron density peak height disturbances in response to solar wind conditions and local time which can be used for nowcasting and forecasting the hmF2 disturbances for the middle latitude ionosphere. This being an important output for EURIPOS project operational purposes.
Electron density and temperature determination in a Tokamak plasma using light scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Navarro Gomez, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.
1976-01-01
A theoretical foundation review for light scattering by plasmas is presented. Furthemore, a review of the experimental methods for electron density and temperature measurements, with spatial and time resolution, is included in a Tokamak plasma using spectral analysis of the scattered radiation. (author) [es
Electron density and temperature determination in a Tokamak plasma using light scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Navarro Gomerz, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.
1976-01-01
A theoretical foundation review for light scattering by plasmas is presented. Furthermore, we have included a review of the experimental methods for electron density and temperature measurements, with spatial and time resolution, in a Tokamak plasma using spectral analysis of the scattered radiation. (Author) 13 refs
Yamanaka, Takamitsu; Nakamoto, Yuki; Ahart, Muhtar; Mao, Ho-kwang
2018-04-01
Electron density distributions of PbTi O3 , BaTi O3 , and SrTi O3 were determined by synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction up to 55 GPa at 300 K and ab initio quantum chemical molecular orbital (MO) calculations, together with a combination of maximum entropy method calculations. The intensity profiles of Bragg peaks reveal split atoms in both ferroelectric PbTi O3 and BaTi O3 , reflecting the two possible positions occupied by the Ti atom. The experimentally obtained atomic structure factor was used for the determination of the deformation in electron density and the d-p-π hybridization between dx z (and dy z) of Ti and px (and py) of O in the Ti-O bond. Ab initio MO calculations proved the change of the molecular orbital coupling and of Mulliken charges with a structure transformation. The Mulliken charge of Ti in the Ti O6 octahedron increased in the ionicity with increasing pressure in the cubic phase. The bonding nature is changed with a decrease in the hybridization of the Ti-O bond and the localization of the electron density with increasing pressure. The hybridization decreases with pressure and disappears in the cubic paraelectric phase, which has a much more localized electron density distribution.
Electron density distribution and bonding in ZnSe and PbSe using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
structural refinement using JANA 2000, and then the re- fined structure factors have been utilized for MEM re- finements to elucidate the ... the appropriate methods in which the concept of entropy is introduced to handle the uncertainty properly. The principle of MEM is to obtain an electron density distri- bution, which is ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palomares, J.M., E-mail: f02palij@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Iordanova, E.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, L. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gamero, A.; Sola, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der, E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.n [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)
2010-03-15
The axial profiles of the electron density n{sub e} and electron temperature T{sub e} of argon surfatron plasmas in the pressure range of 6-20 mbar and microwave power between 32 and 82 W have been determined using Thomson Scattering of laser irradiation at 532 nm. For the electron density and temperature we found values in the ranges 5 x 10{sup 18} < n{sub e} < 8 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} and 1.1 < T{sub e} < 2.0 eV. Due to several improvements of the setup we could reduce the errors of n{sub e} and T{sub e} down to 8% and 3%, respectively. It is found that n{sub e} decreases in the direction of the wave propagation with a slope that is nearly constant. The slope depends on the pressure but not on the power. Just as predicted by theories we see that increasing the power leads to longer plasma columns. However, the plasmas are shorter than what is predicted by theories based on the assumption that for the plasma-wave interaction electron-atom collisions are of minor importance (the so-called collisionless regime). The plasma vanishes long before the critical value of the electron density is reached. In contrast to what is predicted by the positive column model it is found that T{sub e} does not stay constant along the column, but monotonically increases with the distance from the microwave launcher. Increases of more than 50% over 30 cm were found.
Relative density: the key to stocking assessment in regional analysisa forest survey viewpoint.
Colin D. MacLean
1979-01-01
Relative density is a measure of tree crowding compared to a reference level such as normal density. This stand attribute, when compared to management standards, indicates adequacy of stocking. The Pacific Coast Forest Survey Unit assesses the relative density of each stand sampled by summing the individual density contributions of each tree tallied, thus quantifying...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.
2012-01-01
Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.
SOLAR NEUTRINO PHYSICS OSCILLATIONS: SENSITIVITY TO THE ELECTRONIC DENSITY IN THE SUN'S CORE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopes, Ilidio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: sylvaine.turck-chieze@cea.fr [CEA/IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CE Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)
2013-03-01
Solar neutrinos coming from different nuclear reactions are now detected with high statistics. Consequently, an accurate spectroscopic analysis of the neutrino fluxes arriving on Earth's detectors becomes available, in the context of neutrino oscillations. In this work, we explore the possibility of using this information to infer the radial profile of the electronic density in the solar core. So, we discuss the constraints on the Sun's density and chemical composition that can be determined from solar neutrino observations. This approach constitutes an independent and alternative diagnostic to the helioseismic investigations already done. The direct inversion method, which we propose to obtain the radial solar electronic density profile, is almost independent of the solar model.
International Workshop on Electronic Density Functional Theory : Recent Progress and New Directions
Vignale, Giovanni; Das, Mukunda
1998-01-01
This book is an outcome of the International Workshop on Electronic Density Functional Theory, held at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia, in July 1996. Density functional theory, standing as it does at the boundary between the disciplines of physics, chemistry, and materials science, is a great mixer. Invited experts from North America, Europe, and Australia mingled with students from several disciplines, rapidly taking up the informal style for which Australia is famous. A list of participants is given at the end of the book. Density functional theory (DFT) is a subtle approach to the very difficult problem of predicting the behavior of many interacting particles. A major application is the study of many-electron systems. This was the workshop theme, embracing inter alia computational chemistry and condensed matter physics. DFT circumvents the more conceptually straightforward (but more computationally intensive) approach in which one solves the many-body Schrodinger equation. It relies instead on r...
Solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynov, J.-P.
1980-08-01
Investigations of two different types of nonlinear, solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide are presented. One of the wavetypes is a localized, compressional pulse identified as a Trivelpiece-Gould soliton. The modification of this soliton by the resonant electrons is studied theoretically, by direct numerical solution of the model equation, experimentally, and by numerical simulation of the experiment. The other wave is a localized, rarefactive pulse called an electron hole. It is a positive pulse consisting of a large number of trapped electrons and is a purely kinetic phenomenon. A simple waterbag model for the electron hole is derived and compared with the results from the experiment and the numerical simulation. Finally, interactions between the solitary waves are investigated. (Auth.)
Zhu, Tianyu; de Silva, Piotr; Van Voorhis, Troy
2018-01-09
Chemical bonding plays a central role in the description and understanding of chemistry. Many methods have been proposed to extract information about bonding from quantum chemical calculations, the majority of them resorting to molecular orbitals as basic descriptors. Here, we present a method called self-attractive Hartree (SAH) decomposition to unravel pairs of electrons directly from the electron density, which unlike molecular orbitals is a well-defined observable that can be accessed experimentally. The key idea is to partition the density into a sum of one-electron fragments that simultaneously maximize the self-repulsion and maintain regular shapes. This leads to a set of rather unusual equations in which every electron experiences self-attractive Hartree potential in addition to an external potential common for all the electrons. The resulting symmetry breaking and localization are surprisingly consistent with chemical intuition. SAH decomposition is also shown to be effective in visualization of single/multiple bonds, lone pairs, and unusual bonds due to the smooth nature of fragment densities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it can be used to identify specific chemical bonds in molecular complexes and provides a simple and accurate electrostatic model of hydrogen bonding.
Electron mobility in supercritical ethane as a function of density and temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishikawa, M.; Holroyd, R.A.; Sowada, U.
1980-01-01
The electron mobility is reported for ethane as a function of density at various temperatures above T/sub c/. The high pressure cell used permits measurements to 200 atm. Our analysis shows that theory is consistent with the ethane mobility results at low and intermediate densities. At densities less than 1 x 10 21 molecules/cm 3 electrons are scattered by isolated ethane molecules and the Lorentz equation is valid. At intermediate densities, μ/sub e/ correlates with the square of the velocity of sound, indicating that in dense fluids the adiabatic compressibility must be included. The data are consistent with a modified Cohen--Lekner equation, and the minimum in μ/sub e/N observed at densities just below d/sub c/ is qualitatively accounted for by changes in the adiabatic compressibility. Thus the concept of quasilocalization, suggested by others to qualitatively explain such minima, is unnecessary here. At higher densities an additional, unspecified, scattering mechanism becomes important
Büyükyıldız, M.
2017-09-01
The radiological properties of some vitamins such as Retinol, Beta-carotene, Riboflavin, Niacin, Niacinamide, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal, Biotin, Folic acid, Ascorbic acid, Cholecalciferol, Alpha-tocopherol, Gamma-tocopherol, Phylloquinone have been investigated with respect to total electron interaction and some heavy charged particle interaction as means of effective atomic numbers (Z_{eff}) and electron densities (N_{eff}) for the first time. Calculations were performed for total electron interaction and heavy ions such as H, He and C ion interactions in the energy region 10keV-10MeV by using a logarithmic interpolation method. Variations in Z_{eff}'s and N_{eff}'s of given vitamins have been studied according to the energy of electron or heavy charged particles, and significant variations have been observed for all types of interaction in the given energy region. The maximum values of Z_{eff} have been found in the different energy regions for different interactions remarkably and variations in N_{eff} seem approximately to be the same with variation in Z_{eff} for the given vitamins as expected. Z_{eff} values of some vitamins were plotted together and compared with each other for electron, H, He and C interactions and the ratios of Z_{eff}/ have been changed in the range of 0.25-0.36, 0.20-0.36, 0.22-0.35 and 0.20-0.35 for electron, H, He and C interactions, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knudsen, W.C.
1992-01-01
The effect of finite grid radius and thickness on the electron current measured by planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) is analyzed numerically. Depending on the plasma environment, the current is significantly reduced below that which is calculated using a theoretical equation derived for an idealized RPA having grids with infinite radius and vanishingly small thickness. A correction factor to the idealized theoretical equation is derived for the Pioneer Venus (PV) orbiter RPA (ORPA) for electron gases consisting of one or more components obeying Maxwell statistics. The error in density and temperature of Maxwellian electron distributions previously derived from ORPA data using the theoretical expression for the idealized ORPA is evaluated by comparing the densities and temperatures derived from a sample of PV ORPA data using the theoretical expression with and without the correction factor
Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray free electron lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holl, A; Bornath, T; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Laarmann, T; Meiwes-Broer, K H; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Toleikis, S; Truong, N X; Tschentscher, T; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U
2006-11-21
We propose a collective Thomson scattering experiment at the VUV free electron laser facility at DESY (FLASH) which aims to diagnose warm dense matter at near-solid density. The plasma region of interest marks the transition from an ideal plasma to a correlated and degenerate many-particle system and is of current interest, e.g. in ICF experiments or laboratory astrophysics. Plasma diagnostic of such plasmas is a longstanding issue. The collective electron plasma mode (plasmon) is revealed in a pump-probe scattering experiment using the high-brilliant radiation to probe the plasma. The distinctive scattering features allow to infer basic plasma properties. For plasmas in thermal equilibrium the electron density and temperature is determined from scattering off the plasmon mode.
Reduction of electron density in a plasma by injection of liquids
Sodha, M. S.; Evans, J. S.
1974-01-01
In this paper, the authors have investigated the physics of various processes relevant to the reduction of electron density in a plasma by addition of water droplets; two processes have in particular been analyzed in some detail, viz, the electron attachment to charged dielectric droplets and the emission of negative ions by vaporization from these droplets. The results of these analyses have been applied to a study of the kinetics of reduction of electron density and charging of droplets in an initially overionized plasma, after addition of water droplets. A number of simplifying assumptions including uniform size and charge on droplets and negligible change in the radius of the droplet due to evaporation have been made.
X-ray electron density investigation of chemical bonding in van der Waals materials
Kasai, Hidetaka; Tolborg, Kasper; Sist, Mattia; Zhang, Jiawei; Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Filsø, Mette Ø.; Cenedese, Simone; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Overgaard, Jacob; Nishibori, Eiji; Iversen, Bo B.
2018-03-01
Van der Waals (vdW) solids have attracted great attention ever since the discovery of graphene, with the essential feature being the weak chemical bonding across the vdW gap. The nature of these weak interactions is decisive for many extraordinary properties, but it is a strong challenge for current theory to accurately model long-range electron correlations. Here we use synchrotron X-ray diffraction data to precisely determine the electron density in the archetypal vdW solid, TiS2, and compare the results with density functional theory calculations. Quantitative agreement is observed for the chemical bonding description in the covalent TiS2 slabs, but significant differences are identified for the interactions across the gap, with experiment revealing more electron deformation than theory. The present data provide an experimental benchmark for testing theoretical models of weak chemical bonding.
Kais, A.; Lo, J.; Thérèse, L.; Guillot, Ph.
2018-01-01
To control the temperature during a plasma treatment, an understanding of the link between the plasma parameters and the fundamental process responsible for the heating is required. In this work, the power supplied by the plasma onto the surface of a glass substrate is measured using the calorimetric method. It has been shown that the powers deposited by ions and electrons, and their recombination at the surface are the main contributions to the heating power. Each contribution is estimated according to the theory commonly used in the literature. Using the corona balance, the Modified Boltzmann Plot (MBP) is employed to determine the electron temperature. A correlation between the power deposited by the plasma and the results of the MBP has been established. This correlation has been used to estimate the electron number density independent of the Langmuir probe in considered conditions.
THE ELECTRON DENSITY IN EXPLOSIVE TRANSITION REGION EVENTS OBSERVED BY IRIS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)
2016-11-20
We discuss the intensity ratio of the O iv line at 1401.16 Å to the Si iv line at 1402.77 Å in Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) spectra. This intensity ratio is important if it can be used to measure high electron densities that cannot be measured using line intensity ratios of two different O iv lines from the multiplet within the IRIS wavelength range. Our discussion is in terms of considerably earlier observations made from the Skylab manned space station and other spectrometers on orbiting spacecraft. The earlier data on the O iv and Si iv ratio and other intersystem line ratios not available to IRIS are complementary to IRIS data. In this paper, we adopt a simple interpretation based on electron density. We adopt a set of assumptions and calculate the electron density as a function of velocity in the Si iv line profiles of two explosive events. At zero velocity the densities are about 2–3 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, and near 200 km s{sup -1} outflow speed the densities are about 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}. The densities increase with outflow speed up to about 150 km s{sup -1} after which they level off. Because of the difference in the temperature of formation of the two lines and other possible effects such as non-ionization equilibrium, these density measurements do not have the precision that would be available if there were some additional lines near the formation temperature of O iv.
Yost, Dillon C.; Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke
2017-09-01
In ion irradiation processes, electronic stopping power describes the energy transfer rate from the irradiating ion to the target material's electrons. Due to the scarcity and significant uncertainties in experimental electronic stopping power data for materials beyond simple solids, there has been growing interest in the use of first-principles theory for calculating electronic stopping power. In recent years, advances in high-performance computing have opened the door to fully first-principles nonequilibrium simulations based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT). While it has been demonstrated that the RT-TDDFT approach is capable of predicting electronic stopping power for a wide range of condensed matter systems, there has yet to be an exhaustive examination of the physical and numerical approximations involved and their effects on the calculated stopping power. We discuss the results of such a study for crystalline silicon with protons as irradiating ions. We examine the influences of key approximations in RT-TDDFT nonequilibrium simulations on the calculated electronic stopping power, including approximations related to basis sets, finite size effects, exchange-correlation approximation, pseudopotentials, and more. Finally, we propose a simple and efficient correction scheme to account for the contribution from core-electron excitations to the stopping power, as it was found to be significant for large proton velocities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoschus, H.; Schmitz, O.; Frerichs, H.; Reiser, D.; Unterberg, B.; Lehnen, M.; Reiter, D.; Samm, U.; Jakubowski, M.W.
2012-01-01
Rotating resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields impose a characteristic modulation to the edge electron density n e (r, t) and temperature T e (r, t) fields, which depends on the relative rotation f rel between external RMP field and plasma fluid. The n e (r, t) and T e (r, t) fields measured in the edge (r/a = 0.9–1.05) of TEXTOR L-mode plasmas are in close correlation with the local magnetic vacuum topology for low relative rotation f rel = −0.2 kHz. In comparison with the 3D neutral and plasma transport code EMC3-Eirene, this provides substantial experimental evidence that for low relative rotation level and high resonant field amplitudes (normalized radial field strength B r 4/1 /B t =2×10 -3 ), a stochastic edge with a remnant island chain dominated by diffusive transport exists. Radially outside a helical scrape-off layer, the so-called laminar zone embedded into a stochastic domain is found to exist. In contrast for high relative rotation of f rel = 1.8 kHz, the measured modulation of n e is shifted by π/2 toroidally with respect to the modelled vacuum topology. A pronounced flattening in T e (r) and a reduction in n e (r) is measured at the resonant flux surface and represents a clear signature for a magnetic island, which is phase shifted with respect to the vacuum island position. A correlated shift of the laminar zone radially outwards at the very plasma edge is observed suggesting that the actual near-field structure at the perturbation source is determined by the plasma response as well. (paper)
Electronic structure of magnesium diboride and related compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paduani, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040-900, SC (Brazil)
2003-11-01
The electronic structure of AlB{sub 2}-type diborides and related compounds has been investigated in first-principles calculations with the molecular cluster discrete variational method. For MgB{sub 2} was studied the effect of the lattice relaxation on the total density of states at the Fermi energy (N({epsilon}{sub F})). The results indicated that a contraction of about 2% in the lattice spacings a and c can lead to a slight increase of N({epsilon}{sub F}) for boron. In the MB{sub 2} diborides, M=Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta, the largest contributions to N({epsilon}{sub F}) is observed for Cr, Mo and Nb. TiB{sub 2} possess the highest chemical stability in the series. The electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma} also is calculated for the diborides. The method is employed to obtain the partial B2p contribution to the total DOS at the Fermi level with the introduction of a monolayer of solute atoms as a substitution for Mg atoms of Na, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta in layered superstructures.. /M/B{sub 2}/Mg/B{sub 2}/.. A stronger covalent bonding between boron atoms is identified in these cases. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Electronic structure of magnesium diboride and related compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paduani, C.
2003-01-01
The electronic structure of AlB 2 -type diborides and related compounds has been investigated in first-principles calculations with the molecular cluster discrete variational method. For MgB 2 was studied the effect of the lattice relaxation on the total density of states at the Fermi energy (N(ε F )). The results indicated that a contraction of about 2% in the lattice spacings a and c can lead to a slight increase of N(ε F ) for boron. In the MB 2 diborides, M=Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta, the largest contributions to N(ε F ) is observed for Cr, Mo and Nb. TiB 2 possess the highest chemical stability in the series. The electronic specific heat coefficient γ also is calculated for the diborides. The method is employed to obtain the partial B2p contribution to the total DOS at the Fermi level with the introduction of a monolayer of solute atoms as a substitution for Mg atoms of Na, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and Ta in layered superstructures.. /M/B 2 /Mg/B 2 /.. A stronger covalent bonding between boron atoms is identified in these cases. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Real-time electron density measurements from Cotton-Mouton effect in JET machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brombin, M.; Boboc, A.; Zabeo, L.; Murari, A.
2008-01-01
Real-time density profile measurements are essential for advanced fusion tokamak operation and interferometry is a proven method for this task. Nevertheless, as a consequence of edge localized modes, pellet injections, fast density increases, or disruptions, the interferometer is subject to fringe jumps, which produce loss of the signal preventing reliable use of the measured density in a real-time feedback controller. An alternative method to measure the density is polarimetry based on the Cotton-Mouton effect, which is proportional to the line-integrated electron density. A new analysis approach has been implemented and tested to verify the reliability of the Cotton-Mouton measurements for a wide range of plasma parameters and to compare the density evaluated from polarimetry with that from interferometry. The density measurements based on polarimetry are going to be integrated in the real-time control system of JET since the difference with the interferometry is within one fringe for more than 90% of the cases.
Stability of Sarma phases in density imbalanced electron-hole bilayer systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subasi, A. L.; Tanatar, B.; Pieri, P.; Senatore, G.
2010-01-01
We study excitonic condensation in an electron-hole bilayer system with unequal layer densities at zero temperature. Using mean-field theory we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap equations numerically and investigate the effects of intralayer interactions. The electron-hole system evolves from BCS in the weak coupling limit to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in the strong coupling limit. We analyze the stability of the Sarma phase with k,-k pairing by calculating the superfluid mass density and also by checking the compressibility matrix. We find that with bare Coulomb interactions the superfluid density is always positive in the Sarma phase, due to a peculiar momentum structure of the gap function originating from the singular behavior of the Coulomb potential at zero momentum and the presence of a sharp Fermi surface. Introducing a simple model for screening, we find that the superfluid density becomes negative in some regions of the phase diagram, corresponding to an instability toward a Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov-type superfluid phase. Thus, intralayer interaction and screening together can lead to a rich phase diagram in the BCS-BEC crossover regime in electron-hole bilayer systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.
1997-02-01
In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs
Yoshimura, Shinji; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi
2017-10-01
Medical applications of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasmas have recently been attracting a great deal of attention, where many types of plasma sources have been developed to meet the purposes. For example, plasma-activated medium (PAM), which is now being studied for cancer treatment, has been produced by irradiating non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with ultrahigh electron density to a culture medium. Meanwhile, in order to measure electron density in magnetic confinement plasmas, a CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been developed and installed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. The dispersion interferometer has advantages that the measurement is insensitive to mechanical vibrations and changes in neutral gas density. Taking advantage of these properties, we applied the dispersion interferometer to electron density diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasmas produced by the NU-Global HUMAP-WSAP-50 device, which is used for producing PAM. This study was supported by the Grant of Joint Research by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS).
Fagre, M.; Elias, A. G.; Chum, J.; Cabrera, M. A.
2017-12-01
In the present work, ray tracing of high frequency (HF) signals in ionospheric disturbed conditions is analyzed, particularly in the presence of electron density perturbations generated by gravity waves (GWs). The three-dimensional numerical ray tracing code by Jones and Stephenson, based on Hamilton's equations, which is commonly used to study radio propagation through the ionosphere, is used. An electron density perturbation model is implemented to this code based upon the consideration of atmospheric GWs generated at a height of 150 km in the thermosphere and propagating up into the ionosphere. The motion of the neutral gas at these altitudes induces disturbances in the background plasma which affects HF signals propagation. To obtain a realistic model of GWs in order to analyze the propagation and dispersion characteristics, a GW ray tracing method with kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity was applied. The IRI-2012, HWM14 and NRLMSISE-00 models were incorporated to assess electron density, wind velocities, neutral temperature and total mass density needed for the ray tracing codes. Preliminary results of gravity wave effects on ground range and reflection height are presented for low-mid latitude ionosphere.
Density-functional theory based on the electron distribution on the energy coordinate
Takahashi, Hideaki
2018-03-01
We developed an electronic density functional theory utilizing a novel electron distribution n(ɛ) as a basic variable to compute ground state energy of a system. n(ɛ) is obtained by projecting the electron density n({\\boldsymbol{r}}) defined on the space coordinate {\\boldsymbol{r}} onto the energy coordinate ɛ specified with the external potential {\\upsilon }ext}({\\boldsymbol{r}}) of interest. It was demonstrated that the Kohn-Sham equation can also be formulated with the exchange-correlation functional E xc[n(ɛ)] that employs the density n(ɛ) as an argument. It turned out an exchange functional proposed in our preliminary development suffices to describe properly the potential energies of several types of chemical bonds with comparable accuracies to the corresponding functional based on local density approximation. As a remarkable feature of the distribution n(ɛ) it inherently involves the spatially non-local information of the exchange hole at the bond dissociation limit in contrast to conventional approximate functionals. By taking advantage of this property we also developed a prototype of the static correlation functional E sc including no empirical parameters, which showed marked improvements in describing the dissociations of covalent bonds in {{{H}}}2,{{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4 and {CH}}4 molecules.
Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.
1997-01-01
In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finzel, Kati, E-mail: kati.finzel@liu.se [Linköpings University, IFM Department of Physics, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)
2016-01-21
The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.
Variations of the ionospheric electron density during the Bhuj seismic event
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Trigunait
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations by natural geophysical activity, such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, have been studied since the great Alaskan earthquake in 1964. Measurements made from the ground show a variation of the critical frequency of the ionosphere layers before and after the shock. In this paper, we present an experimental investigation of the electron density variations around the time of the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India. Several experiments have been used to survey the ionosphere. Measurements of fluctuations in the integrated electron density or TEC (Total Electron Content between three satellites (TOPEX-POSEIDON, SPOT2, SPOT4 and the ground have been done using the DORIS beacons. TEC has been also evaluated from a ground-based station using GPS satellites, and finally, ionospheric data from a classical ionospheric sounder located close to the earthquake epicenter are utilized. Anomalous electron density variations are detected both in day and night times before the quake. The generation mechanism of these perturbations is explained by a modification of the electric field in the global electric circuit induced during the earthquake preparation. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances – Radio Science (ionospheric physics – History of geophysics (seismology
Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lu, X. X.; Kenmochi, N.; Ida, K.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Kado, S.; Kokubu, D.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Otani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.
2018-01-01
We report properties of a coherent density oscillation observed in the core region and its response to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in Heliotron J plasma. The measurement was performed using a multi-channel beam emission spectroscopy system. The density oscillation is observed in a radial region between the core and the half radius. The poloidal mode number is found to be 1 (or 2). By modulating the ECH power with 100 Hz, repetition of formation and deformation of a strong electron temperature gradient, which is likely ascribed to be an electron internal transport barrier, is realized. Amplitude and rotation frequency of the coherent density oscillation sitting at the strong electron temperature gradient location are modulated by the ECH, while the poloidal mode structure remains almost unchanged. The change in the rotation velocity in the laboratory frame is derived. Assuming that the change of the rotation velocity is given by the background E × B velocity, a possible time evolution of the radial electric field was deduced.
Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics
Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao
2014-05-01
Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm-2 and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm-2, respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics.
Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics
Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao
2014-01-01
Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm−2 and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm−2, respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics. PMID:24786366
Rapid model building of beta-sheets in electron-density maps.
Terwilliger, Thomas C
2010-03-01
A method for rapidly building beta-sheets into electron-density maps is presented. beta-Strands are identified as tubes of high density adjacent to and nearly parallel to other tubes of density. The alignment and direction of each strand are identified from the pattern of high density corresponding to carbonyl and C(beta) atoms along the strand averaged over all repeats present in the strand. The beta-strands obtained are then assembled into a single atomic model of the beta-sheet regions. The method was tested on a set of 42 experimental electron-density maps at resolutions ranging from 1.5 to 3.8 A. The beta-sheet regions were nearly completely built in all but two cases, the exceptions being one structure at 2.5 A resolution in which a third of the residues in beta-sheets were built and a structure at 3.8 A in which under 10% were built. The overall average r.m.s.d. of main-chain atoms in the residues built using this method compared with refined models of the structures was 1.5 A.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, J. III; Sharp, G.; Gahl, J.M. Kuznetsov, V.; Rockett, P.; Hunter, J.
1995-01-01
Tokamak disruption simulation experiments are being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) using the PLADIS I plasma gun system. PLADIS I is a high power, high energy coaxial plasma gun configured to produce an intense plasma beam. First wall candidate materials are placed in the beam path to determine their response under disruption relevant energy densities. An optically thick vapor shield plasma has been observed to form above the target surface in PLADIS I. Various diagnostics have been used to determine the characteristics of the incident plasma and the vapor shielding plasma. The cross sectional area of the incident plasma beam is a critical characteristic, as it is used in the calculation of the incident plasma energy density. Recently, a HeNe interferometer in the Mach-Zehnder configuration has been constructed and used to probe the electron density of the incident plasma beam and vapor shield plasma. The object beam of the interferometer is scanned across the plasma beam on successive shots, yielding line integrals of beam density on different chords through the plasma. Data from the interferometer is used to determine the electron density profile of the incident plasma beam as a function of beam radius. This data is then used to calculate the effective beam area. Estimates. of beam area, obtained from other diagnostics such as damage targets, calorimeter arrays and off-axis measurements of surface pressure, will be compared with data from the interferometer to obtain a better estimate of the beam cross sectional area
Du, Huarong; Jhang, Hogun; Hahm, T. S.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.
2017-12-01
We perform a numerical study of linear stability of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the trapped electron mode (TEM) in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles. A local gyrokinetic integral equation is applied for this study. From comprehensive parametric scans, we obtain stability diagrams for ITG modes and TEMs in terms of density and temperature gradient scale lengths. The results show that, for the inverted density profile, there exists a normalized threshold temperature gradient above which the ITG mode and the TEM are either separately or simultaneously unstable. The instability threshold of the TEM for the inverted density profile is substantially different from that for normal and flat density profiles. In addition, deviations are found on the ITG threshold from an early analytic theory in sheared slab geometry with the adiabatic electron response [T. S. Hahm and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids B 1, 1185 (1989)]. A possible implication of this work on particle transport in pellet fueled tokamak plasmas is discussed.
Critic: a new program for the topological analysis of solid-state electron densities
Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Blanco, M. A.; Pendás, A. Martín; Luaña, Víctor
2009-01-01
In this paper we introduce CRITIC, a new program for the topological analysis of the electron densities of crystalline solids. Two different versions of the code are provided, one adapted to the LAPW (Linear Augmented Plane Wave) density calculated by the WIEN2K package and the other to the ab initio Perturbed Ion ( aiPI) density calculated with the PI7 code. Using the converged ground state densities, CRITIC can locate their critical points, determine atomic basins and integrate properties within them, and generate several graphical representations which include topological atomic basins and primary bundles, contour maps of ρ and ∇ρ, vector maps of ∇ρ, chemical graphs, etc. Program summaryProgram title: CRITIC Catalogue identifier: AECB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 206 843 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 648 065 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 and 90 Computer: Any computer capable of compiling Fortran Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux Classification: 7.3 Nature of problem: Topological analysis of the electron density in periodic solids. Solution method: The automatic localization of the electron density critical points is based on a recursive partitioning of the Wigner-Seitz cell into tetrahedra followed by a Newton search from significant points on each tetrahedra. Plotting of and integration on the atomic basins is currently based on a new implementation of Keith's promega algorithm. Running time: Variable, depending on the task. From seconds to a few minutes for the localization of critical points. Hours to days for the determination of the atomic basins shape and properties. Times correspond to a typical 2007 PC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.; Khodataev, K.V.
1982-01-01
The results of the experimental studies of the intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) propagation with ν/γ approximately 0.1, and γ approximately 1.6 (γ is an electron beam relativistic factor) in a collisionless plasma of small density over the 180 cm length are presented. Plasma is generated with the incomplete discharge over dielectric surface at the residual gas pressure of P approximately 10 -5 Torr. It is shown that the transportation efficiency may be essentially high, if the electron concentration in plasma satisfies the equilibrium conditions and if it is less or equal to the electron concentration in a beam. At concentration less than optimum one, the transportation efficiency decreases due to violations of equilibrium conditions. At high concentration the transportation efficiency also decreased due to the scattering and breaking on excited small-scale and plasma oscillations. The IREB propagation occurs without essential time delay under optimum conditions
Dispersion relations of density fluctuations observed by heavy ion beam probe in the TEXT tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, D.W.
1990-09-01
Wave numbers as functions of frequency for density fluctuations in the core of the TEXT tokamak are measured in Heavy Ion Beam Probe experiments by analyzing the relative phases of signals originating from nearby points in the plasma. The adjacent points are typically 2 cm apart, with their relative orientation (δr, δθ) depending on position (r,θ). for angular frequencies ω ≤ 10 6 /s the signals are quite coherent, leading to reasonably well-defined ''dispersion relations.'' These do not correspond to known modes of the drift wave type, i.e., ballooning or slab-like electron drift waves or ion temperature gradient modes. The effect of finite sample volume size does not significantly alter this conclusion. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marklund, G.; Block, L.; Lindqvist, P.-A.
1979-12-01
On Jan. 27, 1979, three rocket payloads were launched from Kiruna, Sweden, into different phases of two successive auroral substorms. Among other experiments, the payloads carried the RIT double probe electric field experiments, providing electric field, electron density and temperature data, which are presented here. These are discussed in association with observations of particles, ionospheric drifts (STARE) and electric fields in the equatorial plane (GEOS). The motions of the auroral forms, as obtained from auroral pictures are compared with the E x B/B 2 drifts and the currents calculated from the rocket electric field and density measurements with the equivalent current system deduced from ground based magnetometer data (SMA). (Auth.)
2nd derivatives of the electronic energy in density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dam, H. van
2001-08-01
This document details the equations needed to implement the calculation of vibrational frequencies within the density functional formalism of electronic structure theory. This functionality has been incorporated into the CCP1 DFT module and the required changes to the application programmers interface are outlined. Throughout it is assumed that an implementation of Hartree-Fock vibrational frequencies is available that can be modified to incorporate the density functional formalism. Employing GAMESS-UK as an example the required changes to the Hartree-Fock code are outlined. (author)
Line Shape Modeling for the Diagnostic of the Electron Density in a Corona Discharge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joël Rosato
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis of spectra observed in a corona discharge designed for the study of dielectrics in electrical engineering. The medium is a gas of helium and the discharge was performed at the vicinity of a tip electrode under high voltage. The shape of helium lines is dominated by the Stark broadening due to the plasma microfield. Using a computer simulation method, we examine the sensitivity of the He 492 nm line shape to the electron density. Our results indicate the possibility of a density diagnostic based on passive spectroscopy. The influence of collisional broadening due to interactions between the emitters and neutrals is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cassio Neri
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We study the problem of finding probability densities that match given European call option prices. To allow prior information about such a density to be taken into account, we generalise the algorithm presented in Neri and Schneider (Appl. Math. Finance 2013 to find the maximum entropy density of an asset price to the relative entropy case. This is applied to study the impact of the choice of prior density in two market scenarios. In the first scenario, call option prices are prescribed at only a small number of strikes, and we see that the choice of prior, or indeed its omission, yields notably different densities. The second scenario is given by CBOE option price data for S&P500 index options at a large number of strikes. Prior information is now considered to be given by calibrated Heston, Schöbel–Zhu or Variance Gamma models. We find that the resulting digital option prices are essentially the same as those given by the (non-relative Buchen–Kelly density itself. In other words, in a sufficiently liquid market, the influence of the prior density seems to vanish almost completely. Finally, we study variance swaps and derive a simple formula relating the fair variance swap rate to entropy. Then we show, again, that the prior loses its influence on the fair variance swap rate as the number of strikes increases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T.E. Cayton
2005-08-12
The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas E. Cayton
2005-08-01
The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.
Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiele, Mark
2009-01-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)
Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiele, Mark
2009-07-28
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)
Experimental study on the production of high density electron bunches from a GaAs photocathode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calabrese, R.; Masoli, F.; Gong, J.M.; Guidi, V.; Tecchio, L.
1991-01-01
In order to obtain a high charge, low emittance electron source, useful for FEL electron injector and for e + e - collider experiments, we performed a test experiment on a gallium arsenide photocathode, activated by negative electron affinity technique and illuminated with a 10 ns long laser pulse of 532 nm wavelength. We measured a maximum charge delivered, at relatively low potentials, of about 18 nC/bunch. The mean lifetime is greater than 60 h. (orig.)
Fast electron current density profile and diffusion studies during LHCD in PBX-M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, S.E.; Kesner, J.; Luckhardt, S.; Paoletti, F.
1993-08-01
Successful current profile control experiments using lower hybrid current drive (LCHD) clearly require knowledge of (1) the location of the driven fast electrons and (2) the ability to maintain that location from spreading due to radial diffusion. These issues can be addressed by examining the data from the hard x-ray camera on PBX-M, a unique diagnostic producing two-dimensional, time resolved tangential images of fast electron bremsstrahlung. Using modeling, these line-of-sight images are inverted to extract a radial fast electron current density profile. We note that ''hollow'' profiles have been observed, indicative of off-axis current drive. These profiles can then be used to calculate an upper bound for an effective fast electron diffusion constant: assuming an extremely radially narrow lower hybrid absorption profile and a transport model based on Rax and Moreau, a model fast electron current density profile is calculated and compared to the experimentally derived profile. The model diffusion constant is adjusted until a good match is found. Applied to steady-state quiescent modes on PBX-M, we obtain an upper limit for an effective diffusion constant of about D*=1.1 m 2 /sec
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tait, E W; Payne, M C; Ratcliff, L E; Haynes, P D; Hine, N D M
2016-01-01
Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable. (paper)
Zhou, Bin; Hu, Zhubin; Jiang, Yanrong; He, Xiao; Sun, Zhenrong; Sun, Haitao
2018-05-01
The intrinsic parameters of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) such as ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) are closely related to their unique properties and associated applications. In this work, we demonstrated the success of optimal tuning method based on range-separated (RS) density functionals for both accurate and efficient prediction of vertical IPs and electron affinities (EAs) of a series of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes C20n H20 (n = 2–6) compared to the high-level IP/EA equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method with single and double substitutions (IP/EA-EOM-CCSD). Notably, the resulting frontier orbital energies (–ε HOMO and –ε LUMO) from the tuning method exhibit an excellent approximation to the corresponding IPs and EAs, that significantly outperform other conventional density functionals. In addition, it is suggested that the RS density functionals that possess both a fixed amount of exact exchange in the short-range and a correct long-range asymptotic behavior are suitable for calculating electronic structures of finite-sized CNTs. Next the performance of density functionals for description of various molecular properties such as chemical potential, hardness and electrophilicity are assessed as a function of tube length. Thanks to the efficiency and accuracy of this tuning method, the related behaviors of much longer armchair single-walled CNTs until C200H20 were studied. Lastly, the present work is proved to provide an efficient theoretical tool for future materials design and reliable characterization of other interesting properties of CNT-based systems.
The effect of energetic electron precipitation on the nitric oxide density in the lower thermosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saetre, Camilla
2006-12-01
The objective of this thesis has been the study of the chemical effects of the electron precipitation in the upper atmosphere, and mainly the increase of thermospheric nitric oxide (NO). NO plays an important role in the temperature balance for the mesosphere and thermosphere.In this project auroral electron precipitation data, derived from the Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE) and the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) on board the Polar satellite, have been used together with NO density measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE)
Positron study of electron momentum density and Fermi surface in titanium and zirconium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Ryoichi; Osawa, Makoto; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Matsumoto, Makoto; Shiotani, Nobuhiro.
1989-01-01
The three dimensional electron-positron momentum densities have been obtained on Ti and Zr from measurements of two dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation followed by an image reconstruction technique based on direct Fourier transformation. Augmented-plane wave band structure calculations have been carried out and the results are compared with the experiments. Agreement between the experiment and the theory leads to a conclusion that both Ti and Zr have electron surface sheets which are centered at H and hole surface sheets which are running along the Γ-A axis. (author)
Electronic structure of the Fe2 molecule in the local-spin-density approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, S.; Kestner, N.R.
1988-01-01
Ab initio self-consistent all-electron spin-polarized calculations have been performed for the ground-state properties of the Fe 2 molecule using the local-spin-density approximation. A Gaussian orbital basis is employed and all the two-electron integrals are evaluated analytically. The matrix elements of the exchange-correlation potential are computed numerically. The total energy, the binding energy, the equilibrium distance, vibrational frequency, and the ground-state configurations are reported and compared with other calculations and experimental results
Dittmann, Niklas; Splettstoesser, Janine; Helbig, Nicole
2018-04-01
We simulate the dynamics of a single-electron source, modeled as a quantum dot with on-site Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to an adjacent lead in time-dependent density-functional theory. Based on this system, we develop a time-nonlocal exchange-correlation potential by exploiting analogies with quantum-transport theory. The time nonlocality manifests itself in a dynamical potential step. We explicitly link the time evolution of the dynamical step to physical relaxation timescales of the electron dynamics. Finally, we discuss prospects for simulations of larger mesoscopic systems.
Charge density of 58Ni, by scattering of electrons at high moment transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turck, Sylvaine
1976-01-01
Due to the unique electromagnetic interaction involved, electron elastic scattering allows a nuclear structure to be tested through nucleus magnetisation and charge distribution. In a first part, this research thesis reports experiments performed on the Saclay Linear Accelerator (ALS) with the 58 Ni nucleus, a well closed magic nucleus which allows a qualitative comparison between experiments and Hartree-Fock calculations to be performed. The author presents the experimental set-up, describes data acquisition, data reduction and corrections. The second part proposes a theoretical introduction to electron scattering, discusses the analysis without model, and theoretical predictions of charge density
Radicella, S. M.; Zhang, M. L.
1995-01-01
Tests of the analytical model of the electron density profile originally proposed by G, Di Giovanni and S.M. Radicella (DGR model) have shown the need to introduce improvements in order to obtain a model able to reproduce the ionosphere in a larger spectrum of geophysical and time conditions. The present paper reviews the steps toward such progress and presents the final formulation of the model. It gives also a brief re- view of tests of the improved model done by different authors.
Efficient mixing scheme for self-consistent all-electron charge density
Shishidou, Tatsuya; Weinert, Michael
2015-03-01
In standard ab initio density-functional theory calculations, the charge density ρ is gradually updated using the ``input'' and ``output'' densities of the current and previous iteration steps. To accelerate the convergence, Pulay mixing has been widely used with great success. It expresses an ``optimal'' input density ρopt and its ``residual'' Ropt by a linear combination of the densities of the iteration sequences. In large-scale metallic systems, however, the long range nature of Coulomb interaction often causes the ``charge sloshing'' phenomenon and significantly impacts the convergence. Two treatments, represented in reciprocal space, are known to suppress the sloshing: (i) the inverse Kerker metric for Pulay optimization and (ii) Kerker-type preconditioning in mixing Ropt. In all-electron methods, where the charge density does not have a converging Fourier representation, treatments equivalent or similar to (i) and (ii) have not been described so far. In this work, we show that, by going through the calculation of Hartree potential, one can accomplish the procedures (i) and (ii) without entering the reciprocal space. Test calculations are done with a FLAPW method.
A Si IV/O IV Electron Density Diagnostic for the Analysis of IRIS Solar Spectra
Young, P. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Milligan, R. O.; Peter, H.
2018-04-01
Solar spectra of ultraviolet bursts and flare ribbons from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have suggested high electron densities of > {10}12 cm‑3 at transition region temperatures of 0.1 MK, based on large intensity ratios of Si IV λ1402.77 to O IV λ1401.16. In this work, a rare observation of the weak O IV λ1343.51 line is reported from an X-class flare that peaked at 21:41 UT on 2014 October 24. This line is used to develop a theoretical prediction of the Si IV λ1402.77 to O IV λ1401.16 ratio as a function of density that is recommended to be used in the high-density regime. The method makes use of new pressure-dependent ionization fractions that take account of the suppression of dielectronic recombination at high densities. It is applied to two sequences of flare kernel observations from the October 24 flare. The first shows densities that vary between 3× {10}12 and 3× {10}13 cm‑3 over a seven-minute period, while the second location shows stable density values of around 2× {10}12 cm‑3 over a three-minute period.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, M.L.; Suri, B.M.; Gupta, G.P.
2015-01-01
The HCD (Hollow Cathode Discharge) lamps have been used as a source of free atoms of any metal, controllable by direct current in the lamp. The plasma parameters including neutral species temperature, atomic excitation temperature and electron number density in a see-through type, homemade uranium hollow cathode discharge lamp with neon as a buffer gas have been investigated using optical emission spectroscopic techniques. The neutral species temperature has been measured using the Doppler broadening of a neon atomic spectral line. The atomic excitation temperature has been measured using the Boltzmann plot method utilizing uranium atomic spectral lines. The electron number density has been determined from the Saha-Boltzmann equation utilizing uranium atomic and ionic spectral lines. To the best of our knowledge, all these three plasma parameters are simultaneously measured for the first time in a uranium hollow cathode discharge lamp
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2016-01-15
A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.
Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER
Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Strintzi, Dafni; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas
2009-11-01
The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holzhauer, E.; Dodel, G.
1990-01-01
In magnetically confined plasmas density fluctuations of apparently turbulent nature with broad spectra in wave number and frequency space are observed which are thought to be the cause for anomalous energy and particle transport across the confining magnetic field. Collective laser light scattering has been used to study the nature of these fluctuations. Specific problems of scattering from fusion plasmas are addressed and illustrated with experimental results from the 119 μm far infrared laser scattering experiment operated on the ASDEX tokamak. Using the system in the heterodyne mode the direction of propagation with respect to the laboratory frame can be determined. Spatial resolution has bean improved by making use of the change in pitch of the total magnetic field across the minor plasma radius. Special emphasis is placed on the ohmic phase where a number of parameter variations including electron density, electron temperature, toroidal magnetic field, and filling gas were performed
Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in a gas blanket experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuthy, A.
1979-02-01
Radial profiles of electron density, temperature and H sub(β) intensity are presented for the rotating plasma device F-1. The hydrogen filling pressure, the average magnetic field strength at the midplane, and the power input to the discharge have been varied in the ranges 10-100 mTorr, 0.25-0.5 Tesla, and 0.1 to 1.5 MW, respectively. These experiments have been performed with the main purpose of studying the gas blanket (cold-mantle) state of the plasma. It is shown, that a simple spectroscopic method can be used to derive the radial distribution of the electron temperature in such plasmas. The observed peak temperatures and densities are in agreement with earlier theoretical estimates. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angyan, Janos G.; Gerber, Iann C.; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien
2005-01-01
Long-range exchange and correlation effects, responsible for the failure of currently used approximate density functionals in describing van der Waals forces, are taken into account explicitly after a separation of the electron-electron interaction in the Hamiltonian into short- and long-range components. We propose a 'range-separated hybrid' functional based on a local density approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy, combined with a long-range exact exchange energy. Long-range correlation effects are added by a second-order perturbational treatment. The resulting scheme is general and is particularly well adapted to describe van der Waals complexes, such as rare gas dimers
Pikus, F. G.; Efros, A. L.
1993-06-01
A two-dimensional electron liquid (TDEL), subjected to a smooth random potential, is studied in the regime of the fractional quantum Hall effect. An analytical theory of the nonlinear screening is presented for the case when the fractional gap is much less than the magnitude of the unscreened random potential. In this ``narrow-gap approximation'' (NGA), we calculate the electron density distribution function, the fraction of the TDEL which is in the incompressible state, and the thermodynamic density of states. The magnetocapacitance is calculated to compare with the recent experiments. The NGA is found to be not accurate enough to describe the data. The results for larger fractional gaps are obtained by computer modeling. To fit the recent experimental data we have also taken into account the anyon-anyon interaction in the vicinity of a fractional singularity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kyrie, N. P., E-mail: kyrie@fpl.gpi.ru; Markov, V. S., E-mail: natalya.kyrie@yandex.ru; Frank, A. G.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
The distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the width (the major transverse dimension) of the current sheet have been studied for the first time. The current sheets were formed in discharges in argon and helium in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations. It is found that the temperature of argon ions in both 2D and 3D magnetic configurations is almost uniform over the sheet width and that argon ions are accelerated by the Ampère force. In contrast, the distributions of the electron density and the temperature of helium ions are found to be substantially nonuniform. As a result, in the 2D magnetic configuration, the ion pressure gradient across the sheet width makes a significant contribution (comparable with the Ampère force) to the acceleration of helium ions, whereas in the 3D magnetic configuration, the Ampère force is counterbalanced by the pressure gradient.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corsini, Niccolò R. C., E-mail: niccolo.corsini@imperial.ac.uk; Greco, Andrea; Haynes, Peter D. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hine, Nicholas D. M. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Molteni, Carla [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2013-08-28
We present an implementation in a linear-scaling density-functional theory code of an electronic enthalpy method, which has been found to be natural and efficient for the ab initio calculation of finite systems under hydrostatic pressure. Based on a definition of the system volume as that enclosed within an electronic density isosurface [M. Cococcioni, F. Mauri, G. Ceder, and N. Marzari, Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 145501 (2005)], it supports both geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce an approach for calibrating the parameters defining the volume in the context of geometry optimizations and discuss their significance. Results in good agreement with simulations using explicit solvents are obtained, validating our approach. Size-dependent pressure-induced structural transformations and variations in the energy gap of hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals are investigated, including one comparable in size to recent experiments. A detailed analysis of the polyamorphic transformations reveals three types of amorphous structures and their persistence on depressurization is assessed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyrie, N. P.; Markov, V. S.; Frank, A. G.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.
2016-01-01
The distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the width (the major transverse dimension) of the current sheet have been studied for the first time. The current sheets were formed in discharges in argon and helium in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations. It is found that the temperature of argon ions in both 2D and 3D magnetic configurations is almost uniform over the sheet width and that argon ions are accelerated by the Ampère force. In contrast, the distributions of the electron density and the temperature of helium ions are found to be substantially nonuniform. As a result, in the 2D magnetic configuration, the ion pressure gradient across the sheet width makes a significant contribution (comparable with the Ampère force) to the acceleration of helium ions, whereas in the 3D magnetic configuration, the Ampère force is counterbalanced by the pressure gradient.
Bougher, S. W.; Engel, S.; Hinson, D. P.; Murphy, J. R.
2003-01-01
The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) experiment employs an ultrastable oscillator aboard the spacecraft. The signal from the oscillator to Earth is refracted by the Martian ionosphere, allowing retrieval of electron density profiles versus radius and geopotential. The present analysis is carried out on five sets of occultation measurements: (1) four obtained near northern summer solstice (Ls = 74-116, near aphelion) at high northern latitudes (64.7-77.6N), and (2) one set of profiles approaching equinox conditions (Ls = 135- 146) at high southern latitudes (64.7-69.1S). Electron density profiles (95 to 200 km) are examined over a narrow range of solar zenith angles (76.5-86.9 degrees) for local true solar times of (1) 3-4 hours and (2) 12.1 hours. Variations spanning 1-Martian year are specifically examined in the Northern hemisphere.
Comparison of the observed results of the electron density profiles with the IRI90
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Manlian; Radicella, S.M.; Dai Kailiang
1996-01-01
The daily and composite profiles and the thickness parameter of the electron density profiles are compared with the results of IRI90 for the stations of Ramey (15.8 deg. N, 292.9 deg. E), Wuchang (30.6 deg. N, 114.3 deg. E), Chongqing (29.5 deg. N, 106.4 deg. E) and Wrumchi (43.8 deg. N, 87.6 deg. E). It is found that the electron density profiles produced by IRI90, both with the old Standard B0 and the new Gulyaeva-B0 thickness parameter, are too thick below F2-peak compared with the observed results. It is also shown that the IRI90 results show a very poor agreement with the observed results for the intermediate (F1) layer of the ionosphere. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs,
Measurements of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere of Jupiter by Pioneer 10
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woo, R.; Yang, F.
1976-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate that when the frequency spectrum of the log amplitude fluctuations is used, the radio occultation experiment is a powerful tool for detecting, identifying, and studying ionospheric irregularities. Analysis of the Pioneer 10 radio occultation measurements reveals that the Jovian ionosphere possesses electron density irregularities which are very similar to those found in the earth's ionosphere. This is the first time such irregularities have been found in a planetary ionosphere other than that of earth. The Pioneer 10 results indicate that the spatial wave number spectrum of the electron density irregularities is close to the Kolmogorov spectrum and that the outer scale size is greater than the Fresnel size (6.15 km). This type of spectrum suggests that the irregularities are probably produced by the turbulent dissipation of irregularities larger than the outer scale size
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-15
Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.
Temporal Behavior of the Ionospheric Electron Density at Low Latitudes: First Glimpse
Gjerloev, J. W.; Humberset, B. K.; Gonzalez, S. A.; Garnett Marques Brum, C.
2013-12-01
In this paper we address the spatiotemporal characteristics of the electron density at 150 km altitude in the low latitude ionosphere above the Arecibo Observatory. We utilize a new pointing mode that allows us to probe the same volume in the ionosphere for a continuous period of approximately 25 min. or more. The ISR profiles have 150 m range resolution and samples have a 10-second time resolution; we probed 60 individual regions uniformly spaced in local times and covering the full 24 hours. For each time series we determine the total derivative of the electron density using a narrow Hanning bandpass filter that allow us to determine the variability at different frequencies. This is done for each of the 60 local time regions. We further compare to widely used static statistical models and test their underlying assumption: Dynamics can be ignored.
Keyvani, Zahra Alimohammadi; Shahbazian, Shant; Zahedi, Mansour
2016-10-18
The equivalence of the molecular graphs emerging from the comparative analysis of the optimized and the promolecule electron densities in two hundred and twenty five unsubstituted hydrocarbons was recently demonstrated [Keyvani et al. Chem. Eur. J. 2016, 22, 5003]. Thus, the molecular graph of an optimized molecular electron density is not shaped by the formation of the C-H and C-C bonds. In the present study, to trace the fingerprint of the C-H and C-C bonds in the electron densities of the same set of hydrocarbons, the amount of electron density and its Laplacian at the (3, -1) critical points associated with these bonds are derived from both optimized and promolecule densities, and compared in a newly proposed comparative analysis. The analysis not only conforms to the qualitative picture of the electron density build up between two atoms upon formation of a bond in between, but also quantifies the resulting accumulation of the electron density at the (3, -1) critical points. The comparative analysis also reveals a unified mode of density accumulation in the case of 2318 studied C-H bonds, but various modes of density accumulation are observed in the case of 1509 studied C-C bonds and they are classified into four groups. The four emerging groups do not always conform to the traditional classification based on the bond orders. Furthermore, four C-C bonds described as exotic bonds in previous studies, for example the inverted C-C bond in 1,1,1-propellane, are naturally distinguished from the analysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Density induced crossover of electron mobilities in fluid C3 hydrocarbons; liquid phase behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gee, N.; Freeman, G.R.
1980-01-01
At n = 2 x 10 20 mol/cm 3 in the saturated vapors, the density normalized mobility (μn) of electrons equalled 2.4 x 10 23 mol/cmVs in cyclopropane, 1.5 x 10 23 in propane and 5.4 x 10 22 in propene. In cyclopropane and propene μn decreased due to quasilocalization at n > 4 x 10 20 mol/cm 3 . In propane quasilocalization occurred at n > 8 x 10 20 mol/cm 3 . The more extensive quasilocalization in cyclopropane caused mobilities to be lower than those in propane at the same density when the densities were greater than 1.3 x 10 21 mol/cm 3 . In propylene, μn remained below those in the other compounds at all gas densities. In the liquid phase the mobilities were affected more by the changes of temperature than by those of density. The mobilities at a given temperature decreased in the order propane > propene > cyclopropane. It is curious that the electron traps are deeper in cyclopropane than in propene. The energies of both thermal and optical excitation of solvated electrons may be expressed by equations of the form E 0 = E(0) - aT over considerable ranges of temperature T. The thermal value of a/E(0) is 1.7 x 10 -3 K -1 in many hydrocarbons, estimated from the mobilities. The equivalent ratio of the optical parameters also equals 1.7 x 10 -3 K -1 in ethers and in ammonia. (author)
Effects of bunch density gradient in high-gain free-electron lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.
1999-01-01
The authors investigate effects of the bunch density gradient in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), including the role of coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) in the evolution of the free-electron laser (FEL) process. In the exponential gain regime, the authors solve the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations and extend the linear theory to a bunched beam with energy spread. A time-dependent, nonlinear simulation algorithm is used to study the CSE effect and the nonlinear evolution of the radiation pulse
Reconstruction of the electron momentum density distribution by the maximum entropy method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrzynski, L.
1996-01-01
The application of the Maximum Entropy Algorithm to the analysis of the Compton profiles is discussed. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out. However, there are a number of technical problems which have to be overcome in order to produce trustworthy results. In particular one needs the experimental Compton profiles measured for many directions, and to have efficient computational resources. The use of various cross-checks is recommended. (orig.)
Study of the electron density variability at fixed heights over San Juan and Tucuman
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezquer, R.G.; Mosert, M.; Radicella, S.M.; Jadur, C.A.
2002-01-01
The electron density (N) variability at fixed heights in the bottomside N profile over two Argentinean stations is presented. In this first study different solar conditions and some seasons are considered. The NHPC and CARP programs were used. The results show that, in general, for nighttime conditions the variability increases above 250 km. By noon the variability decreases with increasing the solar activity. At fixed heights, in general, the variability is larger by night than by day above 220 km. (author)
Derivation of electron density and temperature from (S II) and (O II) line intensity ratios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canto, J; Meaburn, J; Theokas, A C [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy; Elliott, K H [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)
1980-12-01
Line intensity ratios for (S II) and (O II) due to collisional de-excitation are briefly discussed. Comparison is made between various reaction rate parameters presented by separate investigators. Included are observations of ratios obtained from the Orion nebula which experimentally confirm the reaction rates of Pradhan as best representing the observed distribution of these ratios. (O II) and (S II) contour plots are also presented, which allow effective electron temperatures and densities to be estimated from pairs of line ratios.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulka, B.R.
1982-04-01
A tight-binding one-dimensional distorted system with impurities is considered and the electron density of states is calculated in the coherent potential approximation. It is shown that two types of impurities, an impurity built in a chain and a domain wall (a soliton), play the essential role and a drastic reduction of the energy gap is observed for a few per cent of impurities. The experimental situation in polyacetylene is also discussed. (author)
Ashihara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Miyake, T.; Okada, T.; Nagano, I.; Abe, T.; Ono, T.
2007-12-01
The radio wave propagation characteristic in the lower ionosphere is important because of its effect on commercial radio communication, navigation, and broadcast services. The electron density is of primary interest in this region because the high ion-neutral collision frequencies result in radio wave absorption. In order to investigate the ionization structure in the ionospheric D and E region by using the propagation characteristics of MF-band and LF-band radio waves, S-310-37 and S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments have been carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC). S-310-37 sounding rocket was launched at 11:20 LT on January 16, 2007. The apex of rocket trajectory was about 138 km. Then S-520-23 sounding rocket was launched at 19:20 LT on September 2, 2007. The apex was about 279 km. As a common measurement, these sounding rockets measure the fields intensities and the waveform of radio waves from NHK Kumamoto broadcasting station (873kHz, 500kW) and JJY signals from Haganeyama LF radio station (60kHz, 50kW). The approximate electron density profile can be determined from the comparison between these experimental results and propagation characteristics calculated by the full wave method. We will get the most probable electron density profile in the ionosphere. In presentation, we will show the propagation characteristic of LF/MF radio waves measured by two sounding rocket experiments. Then we will discuss the analysis method and the estimated electron density profile in the ionosphere.
Measured and predicted electron density at 600 km over Tucuman and Huancayo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezquer, R.G.; Cabrera, M.A.; Araoz, L.; Mosert, M.; Radicella, S.M.
2002-01-01
The electron density at 600 Km of altitude (N 600 ) predicted by IRI are compared with the measurements for a given particular time and place (not average) obtained with the Japanese Hinotori satellite. The results showed that the best agreement among predictions and measurements were obtained near the magnetic equator. Disagreements about 50% were observed near the southern peak of the equatorial anomaly (EA), when the model uses the CCIR and URSI options to obtain the peak characteristics. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas
2008-01-01
We review recent results by the authors on the regularity of molecular eigenfunctions ψ and their corresponding one-electron densities ρ, as well as of the spherically averaged one-electron atomic density ρ. Furthermore, we prove an exponentially decreasing lower bound for ρ in the case when...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, S.; Narihara, K.; Tomita, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Tsuzuki, T.; Mohri, A.
1988-01-01
A multichannel HCN laser interferometer system has been developed to investigate the plasma electron confinement properties in SPAC VII device. Maximum entropy method is applied to reconstruct the electron density profile from measured line integrated data. Particle diffusion coefficient in the peripheral region of the REB ring core spherator was obtained from the evolution of the density profile. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montbriand, L.E.; Belrose, J.S.
1976-01-01
The occurrence of enhanced ionization after geomagnetic storms, commonly referred to as storm aftereffect, is investigated on the hypothesis that the enhancement is due to a 'drizzle' of energetic electrons from the radiation belts. The study utilized electron density-height profiles obtained from the partial reflection experiment at Ottawa and available information on the height profile of the steady state loss coefficient for energetic electron events in combination with the ion pair production treatments of Ress (1963) and Berger et al. (1974) to deduce two-component differential energy spectra of the electron drizzle. The period studied, December 13--20, 1970, was unique for examining poststorm effects in that the geomagnetic storm on December 14--15 was intense and brief, and it was preceded and followed by periods of geomagnetic calm. The results indicate that the drizzle deduced was minimal before the storm and on the storm day and maximized 2--3 days after the peak of the storm at a time when geomagnetic activity had returned to calm. The results also suggest that the spectrum was hardest shortly after the drizzle maximized. No satisfactory source for the enhanced ionization during the poststorm other than particle drizzle could be found that would produce both the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the effect observed, a conclusion which establishes the validity of the hypothesis made
An expression relating breaking stress and density of trabecular bone
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rajapakse, C.S.; Thomsen, J.S.; Ortiz, J.S.E.
2004-01-01
Bone mineral density (BMD) is the principal diagnostic tool used in clinical settings to diagnose and monitor osteoporosis. Experimental studies on ex vivo bone samples from multiple skeletal locations have been used to propose that their breaking stress bears a power-law relationship to volumetric...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2009-08-01
In this Journal, March and Suhai have earlier set up a first-order Dirac idempotent density matrix theory for one- and two-level occupancy in which the only input required is the nonrelativistic ground-state electron density. Here, an analytic generalization is provided for the case of spherical electron densities for arbitrary level occupancy. Be-like atomic ions are referred to as an example, but 'almost spherical' molecules like SiH 4 and GeH 4 also become accessible. (author)
Electron density profile determination by means of laser blow-off injected neutral beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocsis, G.; Bakos, J.S.; Ignacz, P.N.; Kardon, B.; Koltai, L.; Veres, G.
1992-01-01
This paper is devoted to the experimental and theoretical studies of the determination of the electron density profiles by means of laser blow-off neutrals. For the determination of the density profile the time and spatial distributions of the spectral line radiation intensity of the injected neutrals are used. The method is compared to other previously proposed methods and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed. The result of the comparison is that our method gives the most reliable result with the highest temporal resolution for the density profile of the edge plasma. The only disadvantage is the need of careful calibration of the sensitivity of the spatial channels. The advantage is the ability of the method as a standard diagnostic. (orig.)
Progress in Electron Beam Mastering of 100 Gbit/inch2 Density Disc
Takeda, Minoru; Furuki, Motohiro; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Aki, Yuichi; Kawase, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Miyokawa, Toshiaki; Mutou, Masao; Handa, Nobuo
2004-07-01
We developed an electron beam recorder (EBR) capable of recording master discs under atmospheric conditions using a novel differential pumping head. Using the EBR and optimized fabrication process for Si-etched discs with reactive ion etching (RIE), a bottom signal jitter of 9.6% was obtained from a 36 Gbit/inch2 density disc, readout using a near-field optical pickup with an effective numerical aperture (NA) of 1.85 and a wavelength of 405 nm. We also obtained the eye patterns from a 70 Gbit/inch2 density disc readout using an optical pickup with a 2.05 NA and the same wavelength, and showed almost the same modulation ratio as the simulation value. Moreover, the capability of producing pit patterns corresponding to a 104 Gbit/inch2 density is demonstrated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Overy, Catherine; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Booth, George H.; Cleland, Deidre; Alavi, Ali
2014-01-01
Properties that are necessarily formulated within pure (symmetric) expectation values are difficult to calculate for projector quantum Monte Carlo approaches, but are critical in order to compute many of the important observable properties of electronic systems. Here, we investigate an approach for the sampling of unbiased reduced density matrices within the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo dynamic, which requires only small computational overheads. This is achieved via an independent replica population of walkers in the dynamic, sampled alongside the original population. The resulting reduced density matrices are free from systematic error (beyond those present via constraints on the dynamic itself) and can be used to compute a variety of expectation values and properties, with rapid convergence to an exact limit. A quasi-variational energy estimate derived from these density matrices is proposed as an accurate alternative to the projected estimator for multiconfigurational wavefunctions, while its variational property could potentially lend itself to accurate extrapolation approaches in larger systems
Carrier density independent scattering rate in SrTiO3-based electron liquids.
Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y; Marshall, Patrick B; Kajdos, Adam P; Balents, Leon; Stemmer, Susanne
2016-02-10
We examine the carrier density dependence of the scattering rate in two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 in the regime where it scales with T(n) (T is the temperature and n ≤ 2) in the cases when it is varied by electrostatic control and chemical doping, respectively. It is shown that the scattering rate is independent of the carrier density. This is contrary to the expectations from Landau Fermi liquid theory, where the scattering rate scales inversely with the Fermi energy (EF). We discuss that the behavior is very similar to systems traditionally identified as non-Fermi liquids (n density-independent scattering rates have been observed. The results indicate that the applicability of Fermi liquid theory should be questioned for a much broader range of correlated materials and point to the need for a unified theory.
Electron density analysis of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid.
del Olmo, Lourdes; Morera-Boado, Cercis; López, Rafael; García de la Vega, José M
2014-06-01
An analysis of the electron density of different conformers of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl) ionic liquid by using DFT through the BVP86 density functional has been obtained within the framework of Bader's atom in molecules (AIM), localized orbital locator (LOL), natural bond orbital (NBO), and deformed atoms in molecules (DAM). We also present an analysis of the reduced density gradients that deliver the non-covalent interaction regions and allow to understand the nature of intermolecular interactions. The most polar conformer can be characterized as ionic by AIM, LOL, and DAM methods while the most stable and the least polar shows shared-type interactions. The NBO method allows to comprehend what causes the stabilization of the most stable conformer based on analysis of the second-order perturbative energy and the charge transferred among the natural orbitals involved in the interaction.
Electronic density measurement in the TB R-1 tokamak using Faraday rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizondo, Juan Iraburu
1996-01-01
In this work, the experimental results of electronic density measurements in the TBR-1 tokamak, obtained by Faraday rotation of a microwave beam, are presented, The beam (65 GHz, 500 MW) is generated by a Klystron and crosses the plasma in the horizontal plane. The density values obtained are in agreement with the measurements of a conventional microwave interferometer. As a result of numerical simulations and measurements, it can be concluded that it would be advisable the use of lower wavelengths, to minimize the beam refraction when it crosses the plasma. The results show the feasibility of the Faraday rotation method for density measurement, in the first experiment performed in a tokamak, for the geometry considered. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, R. H. H.; Norreys, P. A. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Perez, F.; Baton, S. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7605, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Santos, J. J.; Nicolai, Ph.; Hulin, S. [Univ. Bordeaux/CNRS/CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Ridgers, C. P. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Davies, J. R. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R.; Tzoufras, M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rose, S. J. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2012-05-15
A systematic experimental and computational investigation of the effects of three well characterized density scalelengths on fast electron energy transport in ultra-intense laser-solid interactions has been performed. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that, when the density scalelength is sufficiently large, the fast electron beam entering the solid-density plasma is best described by two distinct populations: those accelerated within the coronal plasma (the fast electron pre-beam) and those accelerated near or at the critical density surface (the fast electron main-beam). The former has considerably lower divergence and higher temperature than that of the main-beam with a half-angle of {approx}20 Degree-Sign . It contains up to 30% of the total fast electron energy absorbed into the target. The number, kinetic energy, and total energy of the fast electrons in the pre-beam are increased by an increase in density scalelength. With larger density scalelengths, the fast electrons heat a smaller cross sectional area of the target, causing the thinnest targets to reach significantly higher rear surface temperatures. Modelling indicates that the enhanced fast electron pre-beam associated with the large density scalelength interaction generates a magnetic field within the target of sufficient magnitude to partially collimate the subsequent, more divergent, fast electron main-beam.
Density-matrix formalism for the photoion-electron entanglement in atomic photoionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.
2006-01-01
The density-matrix theory, based on Dirac's relativistic equation, is applied for studying the entanglement between the photoelectron and residual ion in the course of the photoionization of atoms and ions. In particular, emphasis is placed on deriving the final-state density matrix of the overall system 'photoion+electron', including interelectronic effects and the higher multipoles of the radiation field. This final-state density matrix enables one immediately to analyze the change of entanglement as a function of the energy, angle and the polarization of the incoming light. Detailed computations have been carried out for the 5s photoionization of neutral strontium, leading to a photoion in a 5s 2 S J f =1/2 level. It is found that the photoion-electron entanglement decreases significantly near the ionization threshold and that, in general, it depends on both the photon energy and angle. The possibility to extract photoion-electron pairs with a well-defined degree of entanglement may have far-reaching consequences for quantum information and elsewhere
Retrieval of Electron Density Profile for KOMPSAT-5 GPS Radio Occultation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woo-Kyoung Lee
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The AOPOD (Atmosphere Occultation and Precision Orbit Determination system, the secondary payload of KOMPSAT (KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-5 scheduled to be launched in 2010, shall provide GPS radio occultation data. In this paper, we simulated the GPS radio occultation characteristic of KOMPSAT-5 and retrieved electron density profiles using KROPS (KASI Radio Occultation Processing Software. The electron density retrieved from CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload GPS radio occultation data on June 20, 2004 was compared with IRI (International Reference Ionosphere - 2001, PLP (Planar Langmuir Probe, and ionosonde measurements. When the result was compared with ionosonde measurements, the discrepancies were 5 km on the F_2 peak height (hmF_2 and 3×10^{10} el/m^3 on the electron density of the F_2 peak height (NmF_2. By comparing with the Langmuir Probe measurements of CHAMP satellite (PLP, both agrees with 1.6×10^{11} el/m^3 at the height of 365.6 km.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A. III; Arias, Tomas A.
2017-01-01
First-principles calculations combining density-functional theory and continuum solvation models enable realistic theoretical modeling and design of electrochemical systems. When a reaction proceeds in such systems, the number of electrons in the portion of the system treated quantum mechanically changes continuously, with a balancing charge appearing in the continuum electrolyte. A grand-canonical ensemble of electrons at a chemical potential set by the electrode potential is therefore the ideal description of such systems that directly mimics the experimental condition. We present two distinct algorithms: a self-consistent field method and a direct variational free energy minimization method using auxiliary Hamiltonians (GC-AuxH), to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of electronic density-functional theory directly in the grand canonical ensemble at fixed potential. Both methods substantially improve performance compared to a sequence of conventional fixed-number calculations targeting the desired potential, with the GC-AuxH method additionally exhibiting reliable and smooth exponential convergence of the grand free energy. Lastly, we apply grand-canonical density-functional theory to the under-potential deposition of copper on platinum from chloride-containing electrolytes and show that chloride desorption, not partial copper monolayer formation, is responsible for the second voltammetric peak.
Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A.; Arias, Tomas A.
2017-03-01
First-principles calculations combining density-functional theory and continuum solvation models enable realistic theoretical modeling and design of electrochemical systems. When a reaction proceeds in such systems, the number of electrons in the portion of the system treated quantum mechanically changes continuously, with a balancing charge appearing in the continuum electrolyte. A grand-canonical ensemble of electrons at a chemical potential set by the electrode potential is therefore the ideal description of such systems that directly mimics the experimental condition. We present two distinct algorithms: a self-consistent field method and a direct variational free energy minimization method using auxiliary Hamiltonians (GC-AuxH), to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of electronic density-functional theory directly in the grand canonical ensemble at fixed potential. Both methods substantially improve performance compared to a sequence of conventional fixed-number calculations targeting the desired potential, with the GC-AuxH method additionally exhibiting reliable and smooth exponential convergence of the grand free energy. Finally, we apply grand-canonical density-functional theory to the under-potential deposition of copper on platinum from chloride-containing electrolytes and show that chloride desorption, not partial copper monolayer formation, is responsible for the second voltammetric peak.
Polyquant CT: direct electron and mass density reconstruction from a single polyenergetic source
Mason, Jonathan H.; Perelli, Alessandro; Nailon, William H.; Davies, Mike E.
2017-11-01
Quantifying material mass and electron density from computed tomography (CT) reconstructions can be highly valuable in certain medical practices, such as radiation therapy planning. However, uniquely parameterising the x-ray attenuation in terms of mass or electron density is an ill-posed problem when a single polyenergetic source is used with a spectrally indiscriminate detector. Existing approaches to single source polyenergetic modelling often impose consistency with a physical model, such as water-bone or photoelectric-Compton decompositions, which will either require detailed prior segmentation or restrictive energy dependencies, and may require further calibration to the quantity of interest. In this work, we introduce a data centric approach to fitting the attenuation with piecewise-linear functions directly to mass or electron density, and present a segmentation-free statistical reconstruction algorithm for exploiting it, with the same order of complexity as other iterative methods. We show how this allows both higher accuracy in attenuation modelling, and demonstrate its superior quantitative imaging, with numerical chest and metal implant data, and validate it with real cone-beam CT measurements.
Sonwalkar, V. S.; Reddy, A.
2017-12-01
Variation in field-aligned electron and ion densities as a function of geomagnetic activity are important parameters in the physics of the thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. Using whistler mode sounding from IMAGE, we report variations in field-aligned electron density and O+/H+ transition height (HT) during two periods (16-23 Aug 2005; 24 Sep-06 Oct 2005) when geomagnetic conditions were quiet (maximum Kp in the past 24 hours, Kpmax,24 ≤ 2) to moderately active (2 quiet time, during moderate geomagnetic activity: (1) O+/H+ transition height was roughly same; (2) electron density variations below HT showed no trend; (3) electron density above HT increased ( 10-40 %). The measured electron density is in agreement with in situ measurements from CHAMP (350 km) and DMSP (850 km) and past space borne (e. g., ISIS) measurements but the F2 peak density is a factor of 2 lower relative to that measured by ground ionosondes and that predicted by IRI-2012 empirical model. The measured transition height is consistent with OGO 4, Explorer 31, and C/NOFS measurements but is lower than that from IRI-2012. The observed variations in electron density at F2 peak are consistent with past work and are attributed to solar, geomagnetic, and meteorological causes [e. g. Risibeth and Mendillo, 2001; Forbes et al., 2000]. To the best of our knowledge, variations in field-aligned electron density above transition height at mid-latitudes during quiet to moderately active periods have not been reported in the past. Further investigation using physics based models (e. g., SAMI3) is required to explain the observed variations.
Nonlinear electron-density distribution around point defects in simple metals. I. Formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, A.K.; Jena, P.; Singwi, K.S.
1978-01-01
Modification, which is exact in the limit of long wavelength, of the nonlinear theory of Sjoelander and Stott of electron distribution around point defects is given. This modification consists in writing a nonlinear integral equations for the Fourier transform γ 12 (q) of the induced charge density surrounding the point defect, which includes a term involving the density derivative of γ 12 (q). A generalization of the Pauli-Feynman coupling-constant-integration method, together with the Kohn-Sham formalism, is used to exactly determine the coefficient of this derivative term in the long-wavelength limit. The theory is then used to calculate electron-density profiles around a vacancy, an eight-atom void, and a point ion. The results are compared with those of (i) a linear theory, (ii) Sjoelander-Stott theory, and (iii) a fully self-consistent calculation based on the density-functional formalism of Kohn and Sham. It is found that in the case of a vacancy, the results of the present theory are in very good agreement with those based on Kohn-Sham formalism, whereas in the case of a singular attractive potential of a proton, the results are quite poor in the vicinity of the proton, but much better for larger distances. A critical discussion of the theory vis a vis the Kohn-Sham formalism is also given. Some applications of the theory are pointed out
Microwave measurements of the time evolution of electron density in the T-11M tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, V.G.; Petrov, A.A.; Malyshev, A.Yu.; Markov, V.K.; Babarykin, A.V.
2004-01-01
Unambiguous diagnostics intended for measuring the time behavior of the electron density and monitoring the line-averaged plasma density in the T-11M tokamak are described. The time behavior of the plasma density in the T-11M tokamak is measured by a multichannel phase-jump-free microwave polarization interferometer based on the Cotton-Mouton effect. After increasing the number of simultaneously operating interferometer channels and enhancing the sensitivity of measurements, it became possible to measure the time evolution of the plasma density profile in the T-11M tokamak. The first results from such measurements in various operating regimes of the T-11M tokamak are presented. The measurement and data processing techniques are described, the measurement errors are analyzed, and the results obtained are discussed. We propose using a pulsed time-of-flight refractometer to monitor the average plasma density in the T-11M tokamak. The refractometer emits nanosecond microwave probing pulses with a carrier frequency that is higher than the plasma frequency and, thus, operates in the transmission mode. A version of the instrument has been developed with a carrier frequency of 140 GHz, which allows one to measure the average density in regimes with a nominal T-11M plasma density of (3-5) x 10 13 cm -3 . Results are presented from the first measurements of the average density in the T-11M tokamak with the help of a pulsed time-of-flight refractometer by probing the plasma in the equatorial plane in a regime with the reflection of the probing radiation from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C.
2017-01-01
Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)
Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.
2014-01-01
We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S 0 state and the doubly-excited S 2 state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation
Electron densities and energies of a guided argon streamer in argon and air environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hübner, S; Hofmann, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J
2013-01-01
In this study we report the temporally and spatially resolved electron densities and mean energies of a guided argon streamer in ambient argon and air obtained by Thomson laser scattering. The plasma is driven by a positive monopolar 3.5 kV pulse, with a pulse width of 500 ns and a frequency of 5 kHz which is synchronized with the high repetition rate laser system. This configuration enables us to use the spatial and temporal stability of the guided streamer to accumulate a multitude of laser/plasma shots by a triple grating spectrometer equipped with an ICCD camera and to determine the electron parameters. We found a strong initial n e -overshoot with a maximum of 7 × 10 19 m −3 and a mean electron energy of 4.5 eV. This maximum is followed by a fast decay toward the streamer channel. Moreover, a 2D distribution of the electron density is obtained which exhibits a peculiar mushroom-like shape of the streamer head with a diameter significantly larger than that of the emission profile. A correlation of the width of the streamer head with the expected pre-ionization channel is found. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dale, Stephen G., E-mail: sdale@ucmerced.edu [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Johnson, Erin R., E-mail: erin.johnson@dal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, 6274 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)
2015-11-14
Exploration of the solvated electron phenomena using density-functional theory (DFT) generally results in prediction of a localised electron within an induced solvent cavity. However, it is well known that DFT favours highly delocalised charges, rendering the localisation of a solvated electron unexpected. We explore the origins of this counterintuitive behaviour using a model Kevan-structure system. When a polarisable-continuum solvent model is included, it forces electron localisation by introducing a strong energetic bias that favours integer charges. This results in the formation of a large energetic barrier for charge-hopping and can cause the self-consistent field to become trapped in local minima thus converging to stable solutions that are higher in energy than the ground electronic state. Finally, since the bias towards integer charges is caused by the polarisable continuum, these findings will also apply to other classical polarisation corrections, as in combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. The implications for systems beyond the solvated electron, including cationic DNA bases, are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svane, A.; Trygg, J.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.
1997-01-01
Electronic-structure calculations of elemental praseodymium are presented. Several approximations are used to describe the Pr f electrons. It is found that the low-pressure, trivalent phase is well described using either the self-interaction corrected (SIC) local-spin-density (LSD) approximation or the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) with spin and orbital polarization (OP). In the SIC-LSD approach the Pr f electrons are treated explicitly as localized with a localization energy given by the self-interaction of the f orbital. In the GGA+OP scheme the f-electron localization is described by the onset of spin and orbital polarization, the energetics of which is described by spin-moment formation energy and a term proportional to the total orbital moment, L z 2 . The high-pressure phase is well described with the f electrons treated as band electrons, in either the LSD or the GGA approximations, of which the latter describes more accurately the experimental equation of state. The calculated pressure of the transition from localized to delocalized behavior is 280 kbar in the SIC-LSD approximation and 156 kbar in the GGA+OP approach, both comparing favorably with the experimentally observed transition pressure of 210 kbar. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Electronic response and longitudinal phonons of a charge-density-wave distorted linear chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giuliani, G.
1978-01-01
The longitudinal-phonon spectrum of an incommensurate charge-density-wave distorted linear chain at T = 0 K are calculated. This is done by direct numerical evaluation of the full static-electronic-response matrix. The electronic band structure assumed for this purpose is that of a mean-field theory 1-D Peierls insulator. The present results show how, within this simplified, but self-consistent picture, the phase and amplitude modes connect to, and interact with, the ordinary longitudinal-phonon branch. Effects due to our inclusion of (0,2ksub(F)) scattering along with the usual (-2ksub(F), 2ksub(F)) are also pointed out. An alternative approximate expression for the 1-D electronic-response matrix is also given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.
1990-12-01
Ion temperature gradient turbulence based transport models have difficulties reconciling the recent DIII-D H-mode results where the density profile is flat, but χ e > χ i in the core region. In this work, a nonlinear theory is developed for recently discovered ion temperature gradient trapped electron modes propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction. This instability is predicted to be linearly unstable for L Ti /R approx-lt κ θ ρ s approx-lt (L Ti /R) 1/4 . They are also found to be strongly dispersive even at these long wavelengths, thereby suggesting the importance of the wave-particle-wave interactions in the nonlinear saturation phase. The fluctuation spectrum and anomalous fluxes are calculated. In accordance with the trends observed in DIII-D, the predicted electron thermal diffusivity can be larger than the ion thermal diffusivity. 17 refs., 3 figs
Oyama, Takuro; Ikabata, Yasuhiro; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi
2017-07-01
This Letter proposes a density functional treatment based on the two-component relativistic scheme at the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level. The exchange-correlation energy and potential are calculated using the electron density based on the picture-change corrected density operator transformed by the IODKH method. Numerical assessments indicated that the picture-change uncorrected density functional terms generate significant errors, on the order of hartree for heavy atoms. The present scheme was found to reproduce the energetics in the four-component treatment with high accuracy.
Plasma Density Tapering for Laser Wakefield Acceleration of Electrons and Protons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Kaganovich, D.; Sprangle, P.; Helle, M.; Hafizi, B.
2010-01-01
Extended acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator can be achieved by tailoring the phase velocity of the accelerating plasma wave, either through profiling of the density of the plasma or direct manipulation of the phase velocity. Laser wakefield acceleration has also reached a maturity that proton acceleration by wakefield could be entertained provided we begin with protons that are substantially relativistic, ∼1 GeV. Several plasma density tapering schemes are discussed. The first scheme is called ''bucket jumping'' where the plasma density is abruptly returned to the original density after a conventional tapering to move the accelerating particles to a neighboring wakefield period (bucket). The second scheme is designed to specifically accelerate low energy protons by generating a nonlinear wakefield in a plasma region with close to critical density. The third scheme creates a periodic variation in the phase velocity by beating two intense laser beams with laser frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Discussions and case examples with simulations are presented where substantial acceleration of electrons or protons could be obtained.